STPM/S(E)964

PEPERIKSAAN
SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION)








BIOLOGY
Syllabus and Specimen Papers













This syllabus applies for the 2012/2013 session and thereafter until further notice.


MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)

















































NATIONAL EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY
“Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further
developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and
integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are
intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically
balanced and harmonious, based on a belief in and devotion
to God. Such effort is designed to produce Malaysian
citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess
high moral standards, and who are responsible and capable
of achieving a high level of personal well-being as well as
being able to contribute to the betterment of the family, the
society and the nation at large.”


FOREWORD

This revised Biology syllabus is designed to replace the existing syllabus which has been in use since
the 2001 STPM examination. This new syllabus will be enforced in 2012 and the first examination
will also be held the same year. The revision of the syllabus takes into account the changes made by
the Malaysian Examinations Council (MEC) to the existing STPM examination. Through the new
system, the form six study will be divided into three terms, and candidates will sit for an examination
at the end of each term. The new syllabus fulfils the requirements of this new system. The main
objective of introducing the new examination system is to enhance the teaching and learning
orientation of form six so as to be in line with the orientation of teaching and learning in colleges and
universities.

The revision of the Biology syllabus incorporates current developments in biology studies to be more
relevant to the current global developments. Biology is a science that deals with the study of living
organisms. It is dynamic and affects every aspect of our daily lives, from food and health, to the
responsibilities towards our environment. The cumulative discoveries and developments in biology
have tremendously enhanced our understanding and perception towards both the unity and diversity of
life. With this understanding, we have become more aware of our interdependence with our rich
biodiversity and natural resources. The application of biology together with modern technologies
leads to the evolution of biotechnology. Furthermore, the assessment tools of this syllabus consist of
written papers and coursework. The written papers evaluate candidates’ knowledge and understanding
of the subject, while the coursework provides an opportunity for candidates to trigger their inquisitive
biological reasoning. This also enhances their understanding and application of biological sciences
and develops the candidates’ soft skills.

The syllabus contains topics, teaching periods, learning outcomes, examination format, grade
description and specimen papers.

The design of this syllabus was undertaken by a committee chaired by Professor Emeritus Dato’ Dr.
Latiff bin Mohamad from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Other committee members consist of
university lecturers, representatives from the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of
Education Malaysia, and experienced teachers who are teaching Biology. On behalf of MEC,
I would like to thank the committee for their commitment and invaluable contribution. It is hoped that
this syllabus will be a guide for teachers and candidates in the teaching and learning process.



Chief Executive
Malaysian Examinations Council




CONTENTS

Syllabus 964 Biology

Page

Aims 1

Objectives 1

Content

First Term: Biological Molecules and Metabolism 2 – 8

Second Term: Physiology 9 – 15

Third Term: Ecology and Genetics 16 – 21

Practical Syllabus (School-based Assessment of Practical) 22

Written Practical Test 23

Scheme of Assessment 24 – 25

Performance Descriptions 26

Reference Books 27

Specimen Paper 1 29 – 49

Specimen Paper 2 51 – 75

Specimen Paper 3 77 – 99

Specimen Experiment Paper 4 101 – 104

Specimen Paper 5 105 – 119






1
SYLLABUS
964 BIOLOGY


Aims

This syllabus is designed to enhance candidates’ knowledge and understanding of biology and
biological issues, to prepare and equip the candidates for their tertiary education, to pursue careers in
related fields and to promote continuous awareness of the importance of biology in life.


Objectives

This syllabus enables candidates to:
(a) understand the biological phenomena, principles and theories;
(b) evaluate biological information critically and deduce logical conclusion;
(c) plan and carry out experiments scientifically and make deductions;
(d) develop abilities and skills in handling materials and apparatus correctly and safely, and;
(e) cultivate proper attitudes and values on social, technological, and environmental issues in
biology.































2
FIRST TERM: BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES AND METABOLISM

Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

1 Biological Molecules 24

1.1 Water 2 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the chemical properties (solvent, bond
angles and hydrogen bond) of water and relate
its physiological roles in the organisms;
(b) describe the physical properties (polarity,
cohesiveness, density, surface tension, specific
heat capacity, and latent heat of vaporisation)
of water and relate its physiological roles in
organisms.

1.2 Carbohydrates 6 Candidates should be able to:

(a) classify carbohydrates into monosaccharide,
disaccharide and polysaccharide with respect
to their physical and chemical properties;
(b) classify monosaccharide according to the
number of carbon atoms and the functional
groups
(i) triose e.g. glyceraldehydes,
(ii) pentose e.g. ribose and deoxyribose,
(iii) hexose e.g. glucose and fructose,
(c) illustrate the molecular structure of a
monosaccharide and differentiate between the
reducing and non-reducing ends;
(d) describe the formation of glycosidic bond in
disaccharides (maltose and sucrose) and
polysaccharides (starch, glycogen and
cellulose);
(e) relate the structure of disaccharides and
polysaccharides to their functions in living
organisms.










3
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

1.3 Lipids 3 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the structures, properties and
distribution of triglycerides, phospholipids
(lecithin) and steroid (cholesterol);
(b) state the functions of triglycerides,
phospholipids (lecithin) and steroids
(cholesterol);
(c) differentiate between saturated and unsaturated
fatty acids.

1.4 Proteins

6 Candidates should be able to:

(a) classify amino acids into four main classes
based on their side chains: polar, non-polar,
acidic and basic;
(b) describe the structure of an amino acid and the
formation of peptide bonds in polypeptides;
(c) explain the properties of protein (amphoteric,
isoelectric point, buffer and colloid);
(d) differentiate the various levels of organisation
of protein structure (primary, secondary,
tertiary and quaternary) and relate the
functions of each structure to the organisation
of proteins;
(e) explain the denaturation and renaturation of
protein;
(f) classify proteins according to their structures,
compositions (simple and conjugated) and
functions.

1.5 Nucleic acids

3
Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the structures of nucleotides and the
formation of phosphodiester bonds in a
polynucleotide;
(b) distinguish between DNA and RNA and the
three types of RNAs (mRNA, tRNA and
rRNA);
(c) describe the structure of DNA based on
Watson and Crick model.





4
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

1.6 Analytical techniques

4 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the basic principles of paper
chromatography in pigment separation,
electrophoresis for protein and nucleic acid
separation.

2 Structure of Cells and
Organelles
16


2.1 Prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells

4 Candidates should be able to:

(a) state the cell theory;
(b) compare the structures of prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells;
(c) compare typical animal and plant cells as seen
under electron microscopes;
(d) describe the basic principles of light and
electron microscopy.

2.2 Cellular components 6 Candidates should be able to:

(a) identify the cellular components of typical
plant and animal cells;
(b) describe the structures of organelles and state
their functions;
(c) explain the basic principles of differential
centrifugation used to fractionate cellular
components (g and S values).

2.3 Specialised cells

6 Candidates should be able to:

(a) outline the structures, functions and
distributions of unspecialised cells found in
plants (meristematic cells);
(b) describe the structures, functions and
distributions of specialised plant cells found in
epidermal, ground and vascular tissue;
(c) describe the structures, functions and
distributions of specialised animal cells found
in connective, nervous, muscular and epithelial
tissues, including the formation of endocrine
and exocrine glands.




5
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

3 Membrane Structure and
Transport
8

3.1 Fluid mosaic model 3 Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe the structure of a membrane based on
Singer-Nicolson fluid mosaic model;
(b) explain the roles of each component of the
membrane.

3.2 Movement of
substance across
membrane
5 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the processes of passive and active
transports, endocytosis and exocytosis;
(b) explain the concepts of water potential, solute
potential and pressure potential;
(c) calculate the water potential of a plant cell in a
solution.

4 Enzymes 20

4.1 Catalysis and
activation energy
3 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain that enzyme is a globular protein
which catalyses a metabolic reaction;
(b) explain the mode of action of enzymes at
active site involving enzyme-substrate
complex and lowering of the activation energy
and enzyme specificity.

4.2 Mechanism of action
and kinetics
5 Candidates should be able to:

(a) illustrate enzyme specificity using induced fit
(Koshland) and lock and key (Fischer) models;
(b) explain the time course of an enzyme-
catalysed reaction by measuring the rate of
formation of product(s) or rate of
disappearance of substrate(s) as the rate of
reaction;
(c) deduce the Michaelis-Menten constant (K
m
)
from the Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-
Burk plots;
(d) explain the significance of K
m
and V
max
;
(e) explain the effects of temperature, pH, enzyme
concentration and substrate concentration on
the rate of an enzyme-catalysed reaction.


6
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

4.3 Cofactors

3 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the roles of cofactors (ion activators,
coenzymes and prosthetic groups) in an
enzymatic reaction;
(b) explain the importance of vitamins and
minerals as precursors of
coenzymes/cofactors.

4.4 Inhibitors 4 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the effects of competitive and non-
competitive inhibitions on the rate of enzyme
activity of reversible inhibition;
(b) relate the Lineweaver-Burk plot to the effect of
inhibition on K
m
and

V
max
values.

4.5 Classification of
enzymes

2 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe enzyme classification according to
International Union of Biochemistry (IUB)
e.g. oxidoreductase, transferase, hydrolase,
lyase, isomerase and ligase.

4.6 Enzyme technology 3 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the importance and the main
techniques of enzyme immobilisation namely
adsorption, entrapment and covalent coupling;
(b) explain the application of enzyme
immobilisation in the development of
biosensors.

5 Cellular Respiration 12

5.1 The need for energy in
living organism
1 Candidates should be able to:
(a) outline the importance of energy and
respiration in living organisms;
(b) describe the structure of the energy carriers
such as ATP, NADH and FADH
2
.

5.2 Aerobic respiration 8 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the various stages of aerobic
respiration and its location in the cells;
(b) describe glycolysis, and calculate the net
energy produced in glycolysis;

7
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

(c) describe the various steps involved in the
Krebs cycle (including the link reaction);
(d) explain the formation of NADH, FADH
2
, GTP
and ATP during the Krebs cycle;
(e) describe oxidative phosphorylation and
chemiosmosis in the electron transport system;
(f) explain the role of NADH, FADH
2
and ATP
synthase in the electron transport chain;
(g) calculate and explain the net energy produced
in aerobic respiration per molecule of glucose
in liver and muscle cells;
(h) describe the effects of cyanide and carbon
monoxide on respiration;
(i) explain how lipid and protein act as alternative
energy sources.

5.3 Anaerobic respiration 3 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the anaerobic respiration in yeast and
muscle cells;
(b) describe the applications of anaerobic
respiration in food industries (bread, tapai
and yogurt).

6 Photosynthesis 16

6.1 Autotroph 3 Candidates should be able to:
(a) classify autotroph into photoautotroph and
chemoautotroph;
(b) describe photosynthetic pigments;
(c) explain the absorption spectrum and action
spectrum of photosynthetic pigments.

6.2 Light-dependent
reactions
3 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain photoactivation of chlorophyll a
resulting in photolysis of water;
(b) explain the cyclic and non-cyclic
photophosphorylation including electron
transport system resulting in the production of
ATP and NADPH.




8
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

6.3 Light-independent
reactions
8 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe Calvin cycle;
(b) explain photorespiration;
(c) describe the anatomical structure of C
4
leaf
(Krantz anatomy) in comparison to C
3
leaf;
(d) explain carbon dioxide fixation in C
4
plants
and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM)
plants;
(e) differentiate the metabolism of C
3
, C
4
and
CAM plants.

6.4 Limiting factors

2 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain limiting factors of photosynthesis
(light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration
and temperature);
(b) relate the roles of C
3
, C
4
and CAM plants on
the increasing carbon dioxide emission and
global warming.


























9
SECONDTERM: PHYSIOLOGY

Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

7 Gas Exchange 12

7.1 Gaseous exchange in
humans
7 Candidates should be able to:

(a) outline the structure of human respiratory
system, including the microscopic structure of
the wall of an alveolus;
(b) describe the structure of haemoglobin;
(c) explain the transport of oxygen and carbon
dioxide in blood;
(d) explain the oxygen dissociation curves of
haemoglobin, myoglobin and foetal
haemoglobin;
(e) explain the Bohr effect and relate it to the
oxygen dissociation curve.

7.2 Breathing cycle 3 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the control of breathing mechanism,
including the role of chemoreceptor;
(b) define tidal volume, vital capacity, total lung
capacity, inspiratory reserve volume,
expiratory reserve volume and residual
volume.

7.3 Gaseous exchange in
plants
2 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the structure and functions of stomata;
(b) describe the mechanism of opening and
closing of stomata based on potassium ion
accumulation hypothesis.

8 Transport in Animals and
Plants
16

8.1 Transport system in
mammals
8 Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe the structure of a mammalian heart;
(b) define systole and diastole, and explain the
sequence of events in a cardiac cycle including
changes in pressure and volume in aorta, left
atrium and left ventricle;
(c) describe the initiation and regulation of heart
beat;


10
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

(d) explain hypertension, atherosclerosis,
arteriosclerosis and myocardial infarction, and
state their causes and preventions;
(e) describe the lymphatic system in relation to the
blood circulatory system;
(f) determine the direction of fluid movement at
the arterial and venous ends of the capillaries
by calculating the differences between
osmotic pressure/solute potential and
hydrostatic pressure.

8.2 Transport system in
vascular plants
8 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the uptake of water and mineral ions
from the soil by the root hairs involving water
potential;
(b) describe the apoplast, symplast and vacuolar
pathway of water movement through the root
tissues;
(c) describe the root pressure, cohesion-tension
theory and transpiration pull in relation to
water movement from the roots to leaves;
(d) explain translocation using the mass flow,
electro-osmosis, cytoplasmic streaming and
peristaltic waves hypotheses;
(e) explain the concept of source and sink, and
phloem loading and unloading in translocation
according to pressure flow hypothesis.

9 Control and Regulation 22

9.1 Nervous system 16 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the organisation of the nervous
system in humans;
(b) explain the formation of resting and action
potentials;
(c) describe the characteristics of nerve impulse;
(d) describe the structure of synapse, and explain
the role of neurotransmitters (acetylcholine
and norepinephrine);
(e) explain and compare the mechanisms of
impulse transmission along the axon and
across the synapse;


11
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

(f) describe the structure of neuromuscular
junction and sarcomere;
(g) explain the role of sarcoplasmic reticulum,
calcium ions, myofibril and T tubules in
muscle contraction;
(h) explain the mechanism of muscle contraction
according to the sliding filament hypothesis;
(i) compare the sympathetic and parasympathetic
nervous systems;
(j) explain the mechanisms of drug action on
nervous system and neuromuscular junction
(cocaine and curare).

9.2 Hormones

6 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the mechanisms of action of steroid
hormone and non-steroid hormones;
(b) explain the roles of plant hormones in growth
and development;
(c) explain the mechanism of phytochrome action
and their roles in photoperiodism and
flowering;
(d) outline the application of plant growth
regulators (synthetic auxin, synthetic
gibberellins, and synthetic ethylene) in
agriculture.

10 Reproduction,
Development and Growth
13

10.1 Sexual reproduction in
humans

6 Candidates should be able to:
(a) outline spermatogenesis and oogenesis;
(b) describe the passage and development of
sperms from the testis to the oviduct for
fertilisation;
(c) describe the process of fertilisation and
implantation;
(d) describe the roles of hormones in menstrual
cycle and pregnancy;
(e) describe briefly the stages in embryonic
development;




12
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

(f) explain the roles of placenta, chorion, amniotic
fluid and allantois in foetal development;
(g) explain the process of parturition.

10.2 Sexual reproduction in
flowering plants
2 Candidates should be able to:

(a) outline double fertilisation;
(b) describe the embryonic development in seed
and formation of fruit.

10.3 Seed germination

1 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the mobilisation of nutrients after
imbibition in seed germination;
(b) state the external factors affecting germination.

10.4 Growth curves and
patterns of growth
4 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the types of growth curves (absolute
growth curve, absolute growth rate curve and
relative growth rate curve);
(b) explain with examples the patterns of growth
(limited growth in humans, unlimited growth
in perennial plant, allometric growth in
humans, isometric growth in fish and
intermittent growth in insect);
(c) explain the processes of ecdysis and
metamorphosis in insects, and relate the role of
hormones (neurosecretory hormone, juvenile
hormone and ecdysone) in these processes.

11 Homeostasis 10

11.1 Importance of
homeostasis
2 Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain the importance of homeostasis;
(b) describe the homeostatic control system in
mammals;
(c) explain the physiological and behavioural
control in thermoregulation of endotherms.








13
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

11.2 Liver 4 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the structure of liver, and explain the
roles of its components;
(b) describe carbohydrate metabolism in the liver
(glycogenesis, glycogenolysis,
gluconeogenesis);
(c) describe protein metabolism (transamination,
deamination and urea formation) in the liver.

11.3 Osmoregulation in
mammals
3 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the process of ultrafiltration,
reabsorption and secretion in the formation of
urine;
(b) explain the role of ADH and aldosterone, and
the related hormones in regulating water,
sodium and potassium ions of urine;
(c) explain the regulation of pH of tissue fluid.

11.4 Osmoregulation in
plants
1 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the role of stomata in regulation of
water loss, and explain the importance of
transpiration;
(b) describe the various types of plant adaptations
to prevent water loss (halophytes and
xerophytes).

12 Immunity 10


12.1 Immune system 3 Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe human lymphatic system, and explain
its function in relation to immunity;
(b) describe antibody (structure and function),
antigen, epitope, and the development of B
and T cells;
(c) describe the roles of macrophages, B cells and
T cells.








14
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

12.2 Development of
immunity
3 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain cell-mediated and humoral immune
responses;
(b) outline the antigen-antibody reactions
(precipitation, agglutination, neutralisation,
complement fixation).

12.3 Concept of self and
non-self
3 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the concept of self and non-self and
relate this to tissue rejection in organ
transplant;
(b) explain the mechanism of immune suppression
(HIV infection).

12.4 Immune disorder 1 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe autoimmune disorder (Systemic Lupus
Erythematosus (SLE)).

13 Infectious Diseases 13

13.1 Infectious disease 1 Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain what is meant by an infection and an
infectious disease;
(b) outline the types of infectious agents.

13.2 Dengue 3 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the causes and symptoms of dengue;
(b) explain the transmission of dengue;
(c) discuss the roles of social, economical and
biological factors in the prevention of dengue.

13.3 Cholera 3 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the causes and symptoms of cholera;
(b) explain the transmission of cholera;
(c) discuss the roles of social, economical and
biological factors in the prevention of cholera.






15
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

13.4 Tuberculosis (TB) 3 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the causes and symptoms of
tuberculosis (TB);
(b) explain the transmission of TB;
(c) discuss the roles of social, economical and
biological factors in the prevention of TB.

13.5 Malaria 3 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the causes and symptoms of malaria;
(b) explain the transmission of malaria;
(c) discuss the roles of social, economical and
biological factors in the prevention of malaria.



































16
THIRD TERM: ECOLOGY AND GENETICS

Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

14 Taxonomy and
Biodiversity
14

14.1 Taxonomy 2 Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain the importance of taxonomy in
biological sciences;
(b) explain the concept of species, and relate how
a species is classified into higher categories in
a taxonomic hierarchy.

14.2 Diversity of organisms 6 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the morphological characteristics of
the following phyla in the respective
kingdoms: Protoctista (Chlorophyta and
Zoomastigina), Fungi (Zygomycota), Plantae
(Bryophyta, Filicinophyta, Coniferophyta and
Angiospermophyta) and Animalia (Porifera,
Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca,
Arthropoda and Chordata).

14.3 Biodiversity in
Malaysia
2 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the different levels and examples of
biodiversity in Malaysia, namely ecosystem or
community diversity, species or taxonomic
diversity and genetic diversity;
(b) explain the importance of biodiversity in
Malaysia.

14.4 Threats to biodiversity 2 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the natural and man-made factors that
threaten biodiversity in Malaysia;
(b) explain the steps and efforts taken by various
agencies and organisations to address the
threats.

14.5 Conservation of
biodiversity
2 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the various measures taken to
conserve the different levels of biodiversity
including in situ and ex situ conservation in
Malaysia.



17
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

15 Ecology 22

15.1 Levels of ecological
organisation

3 Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain the concept of hierarchy in an
ecosystem and the interaction between the
biotic and abiotic components.

15.2 Biogeochemical cycles

3 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the biogeochemical cycles (carbon,
phosphorus and sulphur), and explain their
importance.

15.3 Energy flow

3 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the energy flow and the efficiency of
energy transfer in terrestrial ecosystem
(tropical rain forest) and aquatic ecosystem
(lake).

15.4 Population ecology

6 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain population growth (S and J growth
curves), biotic potential, natality, mortality,
migration and survivorship;
(b) explain the characteristics of populations that
show Type I, Type II and Type III
survivorship curves, and K-strategies and
r-strategies.

15.5 Carrying capacity 3 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain what is meant by carrying capacity and
sustainable development;
(b) explain the factors limiting the population size
and distribution.

15.6 Quantitative ecology 4 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the use of quadrat and line transect
sampling methods and explain the advantages
and disadvantages of using these methods;
(b) calculate the various sampling parameters
(frequency, density, cover and their absolute
and relative estimations) and estimate the
population size of organisms;
(c) explain the pattern of distribution of organisms
in an ecosystem.

18
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

16 Selection and Speciation 10

16.1 Natural and artificial
selection selections
6 Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe continuous and discontinuous
variations in relation to selection and
speciation;
(b) explain the modes of natural selection
(stabilising, directional and disruptive) and
their consequences;
(c) describe with examples, sexual selection and
polymorphism;
(d) explain the importance of artificial selection
(gene bank, germplasm bank and sperm bank).

16.2 Speciation 4 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the processes of isolation, genetic drift,
hybridisation and adaptive radiation;
(b) explain the importance of speciation in relation
to evolution.

17 Inheritance and Genetic
Control
34

17.1 Types of genetic
crosses and breeding
system
5 Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain the Mendelian inheritance pertaining
to the phenotypic and genotypic ratios;
(b) describe the types of crosses (test cross,
backcross, reciprocal cross and selfing) and
explain their importance;
(c) describe pure breeding, outbreeding,
inbreeding, selective breeding, and explain
their importance.

17.2 Non-Mendelian
inheritance
7 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain
(i) incomplete dominance (flower colour in
snapdragon),
(ii) codominance (MN blood group in
humans),
(iii) multiple alleles (ABO blood group in
humans), and
calculate the genotypic and phenotypic ratios;

19
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

(b) explain lethal genes (sickle-cell in human/coat
colur in mice/chlorophyll production in
maize), polygenes (height in humans), linked
and sex-linked genes (Drosophila eye colour
and haemophilia in humans), and epistasis
(coat colour in dog and capsule shape in
shepherd’s purse plant);
(c) explain the pedigree analysis.

17.3 Genetic mapping

2 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain crossing over and distinguish between
parental and recombinant genotypes and
phenotypes;
(b) calculate the distance between two loci, and
determine the relative position of a gene on a
chromosome based on percentage of crossing-
over in Drosophila.

17.4 Population genetics

5 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the concept of gene pool, gene/allele
frequency and genotype frequency;
(b) explain Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
(p
2
+ 2pq +q
2
= 1 and p + q = 1), and calculate
the gene/allele and genotype frequencies;
(c) explain the conditions for Hardy-Weinberg
equilibrium to be valid;
(d) describe changes in genotype frequencies in
relation to evolution.

17.5 DNA replication 4 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the experiments to prove DNA is the
genetic material (Avery, MacLeod and
McCarty experiment and Hershey and Chase
experiment);
(b) explain the three models of DNA replication,
and interpret the experiment of Meselson and
Stahl to prove the semi-conservative model of
DNA replication;
(c) explain the mechanism of DNA replication,
and the role of the enzymes involved.




20
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

17.6 Gene expression 4 Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the experiment of Beadle and Tatum
which leads to the establishment of one-gene-
one-polypeptide hypothesis;
(b) interpret the genetic code table, and identify
the appropriate anti-codon;
(c) explain the characteristics of genetic code;
(d) describe transcription and translation.

17.7 Regulation of gene
expression
2 Candidates should be able to:

(a) define repressor, inducer, negative control in
lac operon and constitutive enzyme;
(b) describe the components of lac operon, and
explain its mechanism.

17.8 Mutation


5 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the different types of gene mutation
with examples of its consequences
(substitution – sickle-cell anaemia,
insertion/addition – frameshift mutation,
deletion – frameshift mutation and
thalassaemia major and inversion);
(b) differentiate missense, nonsense and silent/
neutral mutations;
(c) describe the four structural changes in
chromosomes (duplication, deletion, inversion
and translocation);
(d) describe the changes in chromosome number,
including the definition of non-disjunction;
(e) describe the consequences of non-disjunction
in relation to meiosis;
(f) explain and give examples of different types of
aneuploidy (monosomy and trisomy);
(g) explain and give examples of different types of
euploidy: diploid and polyploid, including
autopolyploidy and allopolyploidy.







21
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

18 Gene Technology 8

18.1 Recombinant DNA
technology
8 Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain recombinant DNA technology/genetic
engineering;
(b) differentiate between genomic and cDNA
cloning and genomic and cDNA libraries;
(c) describe the vectors used in cloning and their
properties;
(d) describe the restriction enzyme (EcoR1 and
SmaI), including its nomenclature, recognition
site (palindrome), importance and the types of
ends generated;
(e) explain reverse transcription, insertion,
ligation, transformation/transduction,
amplification and screening;
(f) describe the steps involved in genomic and
cDNA cloning, including the enzymes
involved, and explain human insulin
production in E. coli as an example.

19 Biotechnology 8

19.1 Roles of
biotechnology
1 Candidates should be able to:
(a) define biotechnology;
(b) outline the roles of biotechnology in our life.

19.2 Applications of
biotechnology
7 Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the application of biotechnology in
food and beverages production (fermentation
and vitamin-enriched eggs);
(b) describe the application of biotechnology in
agriculture (hybrid rice, herbicide resistant
plants and transgenic fish);
(c) describe the application of biotechnology in
medicine (human growth hormone, human
insulin and gene therapy) and forensic (DNA
finger printing);
(d) describe the application of biotechnology in
public health (genetic screening, diagnostic
kits and oil-decomposing bacteria).




22
The Practical Syllabus
School-based Assessment of Practical

School-based assessment of practical work will be carried out throughout the form six school terms
for candidates from government schools and private schools which are approved by the MEC to carry
out the school-based assessment of practical work.

MEC will determine 15 compulsory experiments to be carried out by the candidates and to be
assessed by the subject teachers in the respective terms. Details of the title, objective, learning
outcome, introduction, material, apparatus and procedure of each of the experiments will be specified
in the Teacher’s and Student’s Manual for Practical Biology which can be downloaded from MEC’s
Portal (http://www.mpm.edu.my) by the subject teacher during the first term of form six.

Candidates should be supplied with a work scheme before the day of the compulsory experiment
so as to enable them to plan their practical work. Each experiment is expected to last one school
double period. Assessment of the practical work is done by the subject teachers during the practical
sessions and also based on the practical reports. The assessment should comply with the assessment
guidelines prepared by MEC.

A repeating candidate may use the total mark obtained in the coursework for the subsequent
STPM examination. Requests to carry forward the moderated coursework mark should be made
during the registration of the examination.

During the practical session, candidates should be able to:
(a) make observations on living, preserved specimens and models, and record them accurately
in writing or by using clear drawings or diagrams,
(b) identify morphological features of specimens as a basis for their classification,
(c) carry out dissection, display and illustrate the result,
(d) stain and mount specimens for microscopic examination,
(e) identify and illustrate the specimens observed under light microscope,
(f) carry out biochemical, physiological and genetic experiments,
(g) carry out sampling for ecological studies,
(h) record the results systematically, interpret the data scientifically and make conclusion.
















23
Written Practical Test

The main objective of written practical test is to assess the candidates’ understanding of practical
procedures in the laboratory.

The following candidates are required to register for this paper:
(a) individual private candidates,
(b) candidates from private schools which have no permission to carry out the school-based
assessment of practical work,
(c) candidates who repeat upper six (in government or private schools),
(d) candidates who do not attend classes of lower six and upper six in two consecutive years
(in government or private schools),
(e) candidates who take Biology other than the package offered by schools.

Three structured questions related to practical work will be set. MEC will not be strictly bound by
the syllabus in setting questions. Where appropriate, candidates will be given sufficient information to
enable them to answer the questions. Only knowledge of theory within the syllabus and knowledge of
usual laboratory practical procedures will be expected.

Candidates should have sufficient knowledge on:
(a) structure of specimens and record them accurately in writing or illustration,
(b) morphological and anatomical features and relate to functions of specimens as a basis for
their classification,
(c) dissection of specimens and illustration of the result (rat),
(d) staining and mounting specimens for microscopic examination,
(e) identification and illustration of the specimens as observed under microscope,
(f) biochemical, physiological and genetic experiments,
(g) sampling for ecological studies,
(h) interpreting, evaluating, drawing conclusion from experimental data,
(i) using theories to explain the results of experiments and performing simple calculations
based on experiments.












24
Scheme of Assessment

Term of
Study
Paper Code
and Name
Theme/Title Type of Test
Mark
(Weighting)
Duration Administration
First
Term
964/1
Biology
Paper 1
Biological
Molecules
and
Metabolism
Written test

Section A
15 compulsory
multiple-choice
questions to be
answered.
Section B
2 compulsory short
structured questions to
be answered.
Section C
2 out of 3 essay
questions to be
answered.
All questions are
based on topics 1 to 6.
60
(26.67%)
15




15



30
1½ hours
Central
assessment
Second
Term
964/2
Biology
Paper 2
Physiology Written test

Section A
15 compulsory
multiple-choice
questions to be
answered.
Section B
2 compulsory short
structured questions to
be answered.
Section C
2 out of 3 essay
questions to be
answered.
All questions are
based on topics 7 to
13.
60
(26.67%)
15




15



30

1½ hours
Central
assessment


25

Term of
Study
Paper Code
and Name
Theme/Title Type of Test
Mark
(Weighting)
Duration Administration
Third
Term
964/3
Biology
Paper 3
Ecology and
Genetics
Written test

Section A
15 compulsory
multiple-choice
questions to be
answered.
Section B
2 compulsory short
structured questions to
be answered.
Section C
2 out of 3 essay
questions to be
answered.
All questions are
based on topics 14 to
19.
60
(26.67%)
15




15



30
1½ hours
Central
assessment
964/5
Biology
Paper 5
Biology
Practical

Written Practical
Test
3 structured questions
with diagram/graph/
table to be answered.
45
(20%)


1½ hours
Central
assessment
First,
Second
and
Third
Terms
964/4
Biology
Paper 4

Biology
Practical

School-based
Assessment of
Practical
15 compulsory
experiments to be
carried out.
225
to be
scaled to
45
(20%)

Throughout
the three
terms
School-based
assessment











26
Performance Descriptions

A Grade A candidate is likely able to:
(a) recall almost all the content of required areas of biological syllabus, and relate the content
with the question;
(b) decide on, organise and present information to explain the concept, theories and depth of
biological knowledge in an ordered and logical manner;
(c) plan and carry out investigations, solve problems based on a sound biological knowledge;
(d) interpret and analyse complex data presented, and relate the biological knowledge and
understanding of content by using correct formulae, terminologies, scientific units and
approach;
(e) integrate various concepts and findings accurately, and formulate logical conclusion;
(f) apply and justify knowledge and understanding successfully to unfamiliar contexts and
data.


A Grade C candidate is likely able to:
(a) recall some of the content of the required areas of biological syllabus, and relate the content
with the question moderately;
(b) decide on, organise and present information to describe the concept, theories and depth of
biological knowledge;
(c) plan and carry out investigations, solve problems based on a mediocre biological
knowledge;
(d) interpret and analyse simple and straight forward data presented, and relate the biological
knowledge and understanding of content by using some formulae, terminologies and
scientific units;
(e) integrate some concepts and findings, and formulate simple conclusion;
(f) apply knowledge with moderate understanding to unfamiliar contexts and data.





















27
Reference Books

Teachers and candidates may use books specially written for the STPM examination and other
reference books such as those listed below.

1. Alters, S. and Alters, B., 2006. Biology: Understanding Life. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons,
Inc.

2. Audesirk, T., Audesirk, G. and Byers, B.E., 2001. Biology: Life on Earth. 6th edition. New
Jersey: Prentice Hall.

3. Campbell, M.K., Farrell, S.O., 2006. Biochemistry. Belmont: Thomson Brooks/Cole.

4. Campbell, N.A. and Reece, N.A., 2005. Biology. 7th edition. San Francisco: Benjamin/
Cummings.

5. Clegg, C.J. and Mackean, D.G., 2000. Advanced Biology: Principles and Applications.
2nd edition. London: John Murray.

6. Kent, M., 2000. Advanced Biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

7. Klug, W.S., Cummings, M.R. and Spencer, C.A., 2005. Concepts of Genetics. 8th edition. New
Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

8. Klug, W.S. and Cummings, M.R., 2005. Essentials of Genetics. 5th edition. New Jersey:
Pearson Prentice Hall.

9. Mader, S., 2004. Biology. 8th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

10. Raven, P.H., et. al. 2005. Biology. 7th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

11. Russel, P.J., et. al. 2008. Biology: The Dynamics Science. 1st edition. Belmont: Thompson
Brooks/Cole.

12. Smith, R.L. and Smith, T.M., 2003. Elements of Ecology. 5th edition. San Francisco: Benjamin
Cummings.

13. Solomon, E.P., Berg, L.R. and Martin, D.W., 2005. Biology. 7th edition. Belmont: Thompson
Brooks/Cole.

14. Taylor, D.J., Green, N.P.O. and Stout, G.W., 2003. Biological Science 1: Organisms, Energy
and Environment. 3rd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

15. Taylor, D.J., Green, N.P.O. and Stout, G.W., 2003. Biological Science 2: Systems, Maintenance
and Change. 3rd editon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

16. Toole, G. and Toole, S., 1999. Understanding Biology for Advanced Level. 4th edition. United
Kingdom: Nelson Thornes.






28






Identity card number:………………………….. Centre number/index number:……………………….
(Nombor kad pengenalan) (Nombor pusat/angka giliran)
29

SPECI MEN PAPER
964/1 STPM
BIOLOGY (BIOLOGI)
PAPER 1 (KERTAS 1)
One and a half hours (Satu jam setengah)
MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)
SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE)






























This question paper consists of printed pages and blank page.
(Kertas soalan ini terdiri daripada halaman bercetak dan halaman kosong.)
© Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia
STPM 964/1
For examiner’s use
(Untuk kegunaan
pemeriksa)
Section B
(Bahagian B)
16
17
Section C
(Bahagian C)


Total
(Jumlah)

Instructions to candidates:
DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE
TOLD TO DO SO.
There are fifteen questions in Section A. For each question, four choices
of answers are given. Choose one correct answer and indicate it on the
Multiple-choice Answer Sheet provided. Read the instructions on the
Multiple-choice Answer Sheet very carefully. Answer all questions. Marks
will not be deducted for wrong answers.
Answer all questions in Section B. Write your answers in the spaces
provided.
Answer any two questions in Section C. All essential working should be
shown. For numerical answers, unit should be quoted wherever appropriate.
Begin each answer on a fresh sheet of paper and arrange your answers in
numerical order.
Tear off the front page of this question paper and your answer sheets of
Section B, and tie both of them together with your answer sheets of Section C.
Answers may be written in either English or Bahasa Malaysia.


P
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.





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)


Arahan kepada calon:
JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA ANDA DIBENARKAN BERBUAT
DEMIKIAN.
Ada lima belas soalan dalam Bahagian A. Bagi setiap soalan, empat pilihan jawapan diberikan.
Pilih satu jawapan yang betul dan tandakan jawapan itu pada Borang Jawapan Aneka Pilihan yang
dibekalkan. Baca arahan pada Borang Jawapan Aneka Pilihan itu dengan teliti. Jawab semua soalan.
Markah tidak akan ditolak bagi jawapan yang salah.
Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian B. Tulis jawapan anda di ruang yang disediakan.
Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam Bahagian C. Semua jalan kerja yang sesuai hendaklah
ditunjukkan. Bagi jawapan berangka, unit hendaklah dinyatakan di mana-mana yang sesuai. Mulakan
setiap jawapan pada helaian kertas jawapan yang baharu dan susun jawapan anda mengikut tertib
berangka.
Koyakkan muka hadapan kertas soalan ini dan helaian jawapan anda bagi Bahagian B, dan ikatkan
kedua-duanya bersama-sama dengan helaian jawapan anda bagi Bahagian C.
Jawapan boleh ditulis dalam bahasa Inggeris atau Bahasa Malaysia.


30
BLANK PAGE




















































964/1

31
HALAMAN KOSONG



















































964/1


32
Section A [15 marks]

Answer all questions in this section.

1 Which property of water is important to living organisms?
A Polar molecule
B Non polar molecule
C Low specific heat capacity
D Low latent heat of vaporisation

2 Which monosaccharide, example and its description correspond?
Monosaccharide Example Description
A Pentose Ribose A coenzyme involved in the transfer of
hydrogen during glycolysis
B Pentose Ribulose A source of NADPH production
C Triose Glyceraldehyde An important intermediate substance in
glycolysis
D Triose Dihydroxyacetone A monomer of cellulose

3 Which is not true of lipid?
A It is soluble in water.
B It is a solvent for cholesterol.
C It is soluble in organic solvents.
D It is an ester formed from the reaction of fat and alcohol.

4 Which amino acid is the first to be carried by tRNA to ribosome during translation?
A Leucine
B Tyrosine
C Tryptophan
D Methionine

5 Which organelle gives rise to the membranes of a cell?
A Vacuole
B Nucleus
C Lysosome
D Smooth endoplasmic reticulum








964/1

33
Bahagian A [15 markah]

Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

1 Sifat air yang manakah yang penting kepada organism hidup?
A Molekul berkutub
B Molekul tak berkutub
C Muatan haba tentu yang rendah
D Haba pendam pengewapan yang rendah

2 Monosakarida, contohnya, dan penerangan yang manakah yang berpadanan?
Monosakarida Contoh Penerangan
A Pentosa Ribosa Satu koenzim yang terlibat dalam
pemindahan hydrogen semasa glikolisis
B Pentosa Ribulosa Sumber penghasilan NADPH
C Triosa Gliseraldehid Bahan perantara penting dalam glikolisis
D Triosa Dihidroksiaseton Monomer selulosa

3 Yang manakah yang tidak benar tentang lipid?
A Terlarut dalam air.
B Pelarut bagi kolesterol.
C Terlarut dalam pelarut organik.
D Satu ester yang terbentuk daripada tindak balas lemak dan alkohol.

4 Asid amino yang manakah yang pertama dibawa oleh tRNA ke ribosom semasa translasi?
A Leusina
B Tirosina
C Triptofan
D Metionina

5 Organel yang manakah yang membentuk membran sel?
A Vakuol
B Nukleus
C Lisosom
D Jalinan endoplasma licin









964/1

34
6 Which statement is not true of xylem?
A Xylem cells contain pits.
B Matured xylem cells are dead cells.
C Companion cells provide nutrients to the xylem.
D Xylem consists of vessel elements and tracheids.

7 The table below shows the components of a cell membrane and their functions.

Component of a cell
membrane
Functions
I Oligosaccharide
II Lecithin
III Protein

IV Cholesterol
p Acts as a receptor to a certain molecule such as hormone
q As an indicator so that the cells can recognise each other
r Gives the semi-permeable and selective characteristics to
the membrane
s Maintains the fluid characteristics of the membrane

Which components of cell membrane and functions correspond?
I II III IV
A p q r s
B q r p s
C r p s q
D s r q p

8 Which factor reduces enzyme activity?
A Extreme pH
B Heavy metal
C Competitive inhibitor
D Very high temperature

















964/1

35
6 Penyataan yang manakah yang tidak benar tentang xilem?
A Sel xilem mengandungi pit.
B Sel xilem yang matang ialah sel mati.
C Sel rakan membekalkan nutrien kepada xilem.
D Xilem terdiri daripada unsur salur dan trakeid.

7 Jadual di bawah menunjukkan komponen-komponen satu membran sel dan fungsinya.

Komponen
membran sel
Fungsi
I Oligosakarida

II Lesitin

III Protein
IV Kolesterol
p Bertindak sebagai reseptor kepada molekul tertentu seperti
hormon
q Sebagai penanda supaya sel boleh mengecam antara satu
sama lain
r Memberi sifat separa telap dan sifat memilih pada membran
s Mengekalkan ciri bendalir bagi membran

Yang manakah yang betul bagi komponen membran sel di atas dan fungsi masing-masing?
I II III IV
A p q r s
B q r p s
C r p s q
D s r q p

8 Faktor yang manakah yang mengurangkan aktiviti enzim?
A pH yang melampau
B Logam berat
C Perencat persaingan
D Suhu yang sangat tinggi
















964/1

36
9 Which graph shows the possible changes in the rate of a reaction catalysed by an enzyme in the
presence of a competitive inhibitor?











A B











C D

10 Which statement describes the advantage of immobilised enzyme?
A The efficiency of enzyme increases.
B The enzyme can be easily retrieved but cannot be reused.
C The end product does not contain the enzyme and easily retrieved.
D The characteristics of enzyme can be changed in order to increase its surface area.

11 What is the fate of all carbons from a glucose molecule after it is completely oxidised?
A Pyruvate
B Carbohydrate
C Carbon dioxide
D Acetyl coenzyme A

12 In a condition without oxygen, pyruvate in plants will
A be converted into lactate
B be converted into acetaldehyde
C enter the Krebs cycle immediately
D be converted back into phosphoglyceraldehyde




964/1
Without
inhibitor
With
inhibitor
1/V
1/[S]
Without
inhibitor
With
inhibitor
1/V
1/[S]
Without
inhibitor
With
inhibitor
1/V
1/[S]
With
inhibitor
Without
inhibitor
1/V
1/[S]

37
9 Graf yang manakah yang menunjukkan kemungkinan perubahan kadar tindak balas yang
dimangkinkan oleh enzim dalam kehadiran perencat persaingan?











A B










C D

10 Penyataan yang manakah yang memerihalkan kelebihan enzim pentakmobilan?
A Keefisienan enzim bertambah.
B Enzim boleh didapatkan dengan mudah tetapi tidak boleh digunakan semula.
C Produk akhir tidak mengandungi enzim dan mudah didapatkan.
D Ciri enzim boleh diubah bagi meningkatkan luas permukaan.

11 Apakah yang terjadi kepada semua karbon dari molekul glukosa selepas dioksidakan dengan
lengkap?
A Piruvat
B Karbohidrat
C Karbon dioksida
D Asetil koenzim A

12 Dalam keadaan ketiadaan oksigen, piruvat dalam tumbuhan akan
A ditukarkan kepada laktat
B ditukarkan kepada asetildehid
C masuk ke kitar Krebs dengan segera
D ditukar semula kepada fosfogliseraldehid




964/1
Tanpa
perencat
Dengan
perencat
Tanpa
perencat
Dengan
perencat
Dengan
perencat
Tanpa
perencat
1/[S]
1/[S] 1/[S]
Tanpa
perencat
Dengan
perencat
1/[S]
1/V 1/V
1/V 1/V

38
13 In cyclic photophosphorylation, the excited electron which returns to its ground state will emit
A light
B microwave
C gamma ray
D ultraviolet radiation

14 Which statement describes the characteristic of bundle sheath cell of C
4
plants?
A It has small grana.
B It contains a few starch granules.
C The activity of photosystem I is high.
D Carbon dioxide is assimilated by PEP carboxylase.

15 The diagram below shows non-cyclic photophosphorylation during the light reaction of
photosynthesis.

















Which are represented by X, Y and Z

?
X Y Z
A Ferredoxin Plastoquinone Plastocyanin
B Ferredoxin Plastocyanin Plastoquinone
C Plastocyanin Plastoquinone Ferredoxin
D Plastoquinone Plastocyanin Ferredoxin










964/1


39
13 Dalam pemfotofostorilan berkitar, elektron teruja yang kembali ke keadaan asas akan
membebaskan
A cahaya
B gelombang mikro
C sinar gamma
D sinaran ultra lembayung

14 Penyataan yang manakah yang memerihalkan ciri sel berkas tumbuhan C
4
?
A Mempunyai grana yang kecil.
B Mengandungi beberapa granul kanji.
C Aktiviti fotosistem I adalah tinggi.
D Karbon dioksida diasimilasi oleh PEP karboksilase.

15 Gambar rajah di bawah menunjukkan pemfotofosforilan bukan kitar semasa tindak balas cahaya
fotosintesis.

















Yang manakah yang diwakili oleh X, Y, dan Z

?
X Y Z
A Ferredoksin Plastokuinon Plastosianin
B Ferredoksin Plastosianin Plastokuinon
C Plastosianin Plastokuinon Ferredoksin
D Plastokuinon Plastosianin Ferredoksin









964/1

Penerima
pertama
Penerima
pertama
Kompleks
sitokrom
Cahaya
Cahaya
NADP
+

reduktase

40
BLANK PAGE




















































964/1

41
HALAMAN KOSONG



















































964/1

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42
Section B [15 marks]

Answer all questions in this section.

16 A quantity of cells taken from a type of tissue were homogenised and their organelles were
separated by ultracentrifugation. The diagrams below show three types of organelles obtained.



(a) State where these cells may have been taken from. [1 mark]

....................................................................................................................................................................

(b) Arrange the order of sedimentation of organelles X, Y and Z. Explain your answer. [2 marks]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(c) From the above diagrams, name the structure labelled P, Q and R. [3 marks]

P: ...............................................................................................................................................................

Q: ...............................................................................................................................................................

R: ...............................................................................................................................................................

(d) Give one function of organelle Y. [1 mark]

....................................................................................................................................................................

(e) Give one common function of organelles X and Z. [1 mark]

....................................................................................................................................................................













964/1
P
Q
R
Organelle X Organelle Y Organelle Z

43
Bahagian B [15 markah]

Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

16 Sejumlah sel yang diambil daripada tisu telah dihomogenkan dan kandungan organelnya
diasingkan melalui ultrapengemparan. Gambar rajah di bawah menunjukkan tiga jenis organel yang
diperoleh.



(a) Nyatakan dari manakah sel-sel ini mungkin telah diperoleh. [1 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

(b) Susunkan turutan pengenapan bagi organel X, Y, dan Z. Jelaskan jawapan anda. [2 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(c) Daripada gambar rajah di atas, namakan struktur yang berlabel P, Q, dan R. [3 markah]

P: ...............................................................................................................................................................

Q: ...............................................................................................................................................................

R: ...............................................................................................................................................................

(d) Berikan satu fungsi organel Y. [1 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

(e) Berikan satu fungsi sepunya bagi organel X dan Z. [1 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................












964/1
P
Q
R
Organel X Organel Y Organel Z
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17 The diagram below shows photophosphorylation in light reaction for plants.





















(a) Name the photosystems labeled Q and R, and give the wavelengths of their appropriate
reaction centres. [4 marks]

Name of photosystem Wavelength

Q: ..................................... .....................................

R: ..................................... .....................................

(b) What are the forms of energy represented by S and T? [2 marks]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(c) Name the process that occurs at Q. [1 mark]

....................................................................................................................................................................













964/1


Oxidation-
reduction
potential
(Relative
energy
level)

45
17 Gambar rajah di bawah menunjukkan pemfotofosforilan dalam tindak balas cahaya bagi
tumbuhan.





















(a) Namakan fotosistem yang berlabel Q dan R, dan berikan panjang gelombang bagi pusat
tindak balas yang sewajarnya. [4 markah]

Nama fotosistem Panjang gelombang

Q: ..................................... .....................................

R: ..................................... .....................................

(b) Apakah bentuk tenaga yang diwakili oleh S dan T? [2 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(c) Namakan proses yang berlaku di Q. [1 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................












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Keupayaan
pengoksidaan
penurunan
(Aras tenaga
relatif)

Penerima elektron
Penerima elektron
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HALAMAN KOSONG



















































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48
Section C [30 marks]

Answer any two questions in this section.

18 (a) Describe the primary, secondary and tertiary structures of proteins. State the importance of
these structures which are related to the properties of proteins. [11 marks]
(b) Based on their functions, proteins can be classified into several types. Give two types of these
proteins and their functions in living organisms. [4 marks]

19 (a) Distinguish a bacteria chromosome from a eukaryotic chromosome. [8 marks]
(b) Describe the distinctive anatomical features of vascular bundles in maize leaves. [7 marks]

20 (a) Explain three different classes of enzymes based on the reactions that they catalyse.
[6 marks]
(b) By giving two examples of enzymatic reactions, explain how the appropriate cofactor and
inhibitor affect their activities. [9 marks]


























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49
Bahagian C [30 markah]

Jawab mana-mana dua soalan daripada bahagian ini.

18 (a) Perihalkan struktur primer, sekunder, dan tertier bagi protein. Nyatakan kepentingan struktur
ini yang berkaitan dengan sifat protein. [11 markah]
(b) Berdasarkan fungsinya, protein boleh dikelaskan kepada beberapa jenis. Berikan dua jenis
protein ini dan fungsinya dalam organisma hidup. [4 markah]

19 (a) Bezakan kromosom bacteria daripada kromosom eukariot. [8 markah]
(b) Perihalkan ciri anatomi yang ketara bagi berkas vaskular pada daun jagung. [7 markah]

20 (a) Perihalkan tiga kelas enzim yang berbeza berdasarkan tindak balas yang dimangkinkan.
[6 markah]
(b) Dengan memberi dua contoh tindak balas enzim, jelaskan bagaimana kofaktor dan perencat
yang sesuai mempengaruhi aktiviti masing-masing. [9 markah]




































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50

Identity card number:………………………….. Centre number/index number:……………………….
(Nombor kad pengenalan) (Nombor pusat/angka giliran)
51

SPECI MEN PAPER
964/2 STPM
BIOLOGY (BIOLOGI)
PAPER 2 (KERTAS 2)
One and a half hours (Satu jam setengah)
MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)
SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE)
































This question paper consists of printed pages and blank page.
(Kertas soalan ini terdiri daripada halaman bercetak dan halaman kosong.)
© Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia
STPM 964/2
For examiner’s use
(Untuk kegunaan
pemeriksa)
Section B
(Bahagian B)
16
17
Section C
(Bahagian C)


Total
(Jumlah)

Instructions to candidates:
DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE
TOLD TO DO SO.
There are fifteen questions in Section A. For each question, four choices
of answers are given. Choose one correct answer and indicate it on the
Multiple-choice Answer Sheet provided. Read the instructions on the
Multiple-choice Answer Sheet very carefully. Answer all questions. Marks
will not be deducted for wrong answers.
Answer all questions in Section B. Write your answers in the spaces
provided.
Answer any two questions in Section C. All essential working should be
shown. For numerical answers, unit should be quoted wherever appropriate.
Begin each answer on a fresh sheet of paper and arrange your answers in
numerical order.
Tear off the front page of this question paper and your answer sheets of
Section B, and tie both of them together with your answer sheets of Section C.
Answers may be written in either English or Bahasa Malaysia.


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Arahan kepada calon:
JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA ANDA DIBENARKAN BERBUAT
DEMIKIAN.
Ada lima belas soalan dalam Bahagian A. Bagi setiap soalan, empat pilihan jawapan diberikan.
Pilih satu jawapan yang betul dan tandakan jawapan itu pada Borang Jawapan Aneka Pilihan yang
dibekalkan. Baca arahan pada Borang Jawapan Aneka Pilihan itu dengan teliti. Jawab semua soalan.
Markah tidak akan ditolak bagi jawapan yang salah.
Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian B. Tulis jawapan anda di ruang yang disediakan.
Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam Bahagian C. Semua jalan kerja yang sesuai hendaklah
ditunjukkan. Bagi jawapan berangka, unit hendaklah dinyatakan di mana-mana yang sesuai. Mulakan
setiap jawapan pada helaian kertas jawapan yang baharu dan susun jawapan anda mengikut tertib
berangka.
Koyakkan muka hadapan kertas soalan ini dan helaian jawapan anda bagi Bahagian B, dan ikatkan
kedua-duanya bersama-sama dengan helaian jawapan anda bagi Bahagian C.
Jawapan boleh ditulis dalam bahasa Inggeris atau Bahasa Malaysia.


52
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53
HALAMAN KOSONG




















































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54
Section A [15 marks]

Answer all questions in this section.

1 The graph below shows the oxygen dissociation curves for myoglobin, maternal haemoglobin and
foetal haemoglobin.




Which curves correspond to myoglobin, maternal haemoglobin and foetal haemoglobin?
Myoglobin Maternal haemoglobin Foetal haemoglobin
A P Q R
B P R Q
C Q R P
D R P Q

2 Which factor causes the stomata to close?
A Water stress
B Low temperature
C High light intensity
D Low carbon dioxide concentration

















964/2
Partial pressure of oxygen/mm Hg
Percentage of
oxygen saturation

55
Bahagian A [15 markah]

Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

1 Graf di bawah menunjukkan lengkung penceraian oksigen untuk mioglobin, hemoglobin ibu dan
hemoglobin fetus.




Lengkung yang manakah yang sepadan dengan mioglobin, hemoglobin ibu, dan hemoglobin
fetus?
Mioglobin Hemoglobin ibu Haemoglobin fetus
A P Q R
B P R Q
C Q R P
D R P Q

2 Faktor yang manakah yang menyebabkan penutupan stoma?
A Tekanan air
B Suhu rendah
C Keamatan cahaya yang tinggi
D Kepekatan karbon dioksida yang rendah
















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Tekanan separa oksigen/mm Hg
Peratus ketepuan
oksigen

56
3 The graph below shows the pressure changes in the atrium, ventricle and aorta during a complete
cardiac cycle.



What do X, Y and Z represent?
X Y Z
A Aortic pressure Atrial pressure Ventricular pressure
B Ventricular pressure Atrial pressure Aortic pressure
C Atrial pressure Ventricular pressure Aortic pressure
D Atrial pressure Aortic pressure Ventricular pressure

4 Which statement about the control of heart beat is true?
A The secretion of adrenaline increases the rate of heart beat.
B The decrease in blood pH inhibits neurons in the chemoreceptors at the aorta and carotid
artery.
C The propagation of impulse through the sympathetic nerve towards the sinoatrial and
atrioventricular nodes decreases the rate of heart beat.
D The propagation of impulses through the parasympathetic nerve towards the sinoatrial and
atrioventricular nodes increases the rate of heart beat.

5 The role of the Casparian strip in the endodermal cell of the root is
A to carry out active transport
B to strengthen the root structure
C to ensure that water and minerals enter the vascular tissue via the symplastic route
D to ensure that water and minerals enter the vascular tissue via the apoplastic route







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Time/s

Pressure/kPa

57
3 Graf di bawah menunjukkan perubahan tekanan di dalam atrium, ventrikel, dan aorta semasa satu
kitar kardium yang lengkap.



Apakah yang diwakili oleh X, Y, dan Z?
X Y Z
A Tekanan aorta Tekanan atrium Tekanan ventrikel
B Tekanan ventrikel Tekanan atrium Tekanan aorta
C Tekanan atrium Tekanan ventrikel Tekanan aorta
D Tekanan atrium Tekanan aorta Tekanan ventrikel

4 Penyataan yang manakah yang benar tentang kawalan denyutan jantung?
A Rembesan adrenalina meningkatkan kadar denyutan jantung.
B Penurunan pH darah menrencat neuron pada aorta dan arteri carotid dalam kemoreseptor
C Perambatan impuls melalui saraf simpatetik ke arah buku sinoatrium dan buku atreoventrikel
merendahkan kadar denyutan jantung.
D Perambatan impuls melalui saraf parasimpatetik kearah buku sinoatrium dan buku
atreoventrikel meningkatkan kadar denyutan jantung.

5 Peranan jalur Caspary di dalam sel endodermis akar ialah
A menjalankan pengangkutan aktif
B mengukuhkan struktur akar
C memastikan bahawa air dan mineral memasuki tisu vaskular melalui laluan simplas
D memastikan bahawa air dan mineral memasuki tisu vaskular melalui laluan apoplas








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Masa/s

Tekanan/kPa
Sistol
atrium
Sistol
ventrikel
Diastol


58
6 The role of calcium ions during muscle contraction is
A to form tropomyosin-troponin complex
B to bind myosin to actin forming cross-bridges
C to bind with tropomyosin exposing the myosin head
D to bind with troponin allowing the formation of cross-bridges

7 Which statement refers to the mechanism of action of adrenaline?
A Transcription and translation occur.
B Hormone diffuses through the plasma membrane.
C The hormone-receptor complex enters the nucleus.
D Hormone binds with a receptor on the plasma membrane.

8 The events regarding the action of oestrogen are given as follows.
I A specific gene is activated.
II Transcription and translation occur.
III Hormone receptor complex enter the nucleus.
IV Hormone diffuses through the plasma membrane.
Which sequence of events is correct?
A I IV II III
B I IV III II
C IV III I II
D IV III II I

9 Which structure cease to function after the formation of placenta in the development of
mammalian foetus?
A Allantois
B Yolk sac
C Chorionic membrane
D Amniotic membrane















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59
6 Peranan ion kalsium dalam pengecutan otot adalah
A untuk membentuk kompleks tropomiosin-troponin
B untuk mengikat miosin kepada aktin membentuk titian silang
C untuk mengikat dengan tropomiosin mendedahkan kepala miosin
D untuk mengikat dengan troponin membenarkan pembentukan titian silang

7 Penyataan yang manakah yang merujuk kepada mekanisme tindakan adrenalina?
A Transkripsi dan penterjemahan berlaku.
B Hormon meresap melalui membran plasma.
C Kompleks hormon reseptor memasuki nukleus.
D Hormon mengikat dengan reseptor pada membran plasma.

8 Peristiwa berkenaan tindakan estrogen diberikan seperti yang berikut.
I Gen spesifik diaktifkan.
II Transkripsi dan translasi berlaku.
III Kompleks hormon reseptor memasuki nukleus.
IV Hormon meresap melalui membran plasma.
Yang manakah urutan peristiwa yang benar?
A I IV II III
B I IV III II
C IV III I II
D IV III II I

9 Struktur yang manakah yang berhenti berfungsi selepas pembentukan plasenta dalam
perkembangan fetus mamalia?
A Alantois
B Pundi yolka
C Membran korion
D Membran amnion















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60
10 The following are events that occur during seed germination.
I Activation of enzyme
II Initial uptake of water
III Flow of sugar into embryo
IV Activation of gibberellic acids
Which is the correct sequence of events during seed germination?
A II I III IV
B II I IV III
C II III I IV
D II IV I III

11 Which substance is produced by the mammalian liver during protein metabolism?
A Bile
B Urea
C Glycogen
D Cholesterol

12 The simplified diagram of the humoral response is shown below.
















What do W, X and Y represent?
W X Y
A B cell Memory B cell Antibody
B B cell Antibody Memory B cell
C T cell Memory T cell Antibody
D T cell Memory T cell Cytotoxic T cell





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Antigen
Stimulate
W
X
Y
Plasma cell

61
10 Peristiwa berikut berlaku semasa percambahan biji benih.
I Pengaktifan enzim
II Permulaan pengambilan air
III Pengaliran gula kedalam embrio
IV Pengaktifan asid giberelik
Yang manakah urutan peristiwa yang betul semasa percambahan biji benih?
A II I III IV
B II I IV III
C II III I IV
D II IV I III

11 Bahan yang manakah yang dihasilkan oleh hati mamalia semasa metabolisma protein?
A Hempedu
B Urea
C Glikogen
D Kolesterol

12 Gambar rajah yang diringkaskan tentang tindakan humor ditunjukkan di bawah.
















Apakah wang diwakili oleh W, X , dan Y

?
W X Y
A Sel B Sel B ingatan Antibodi
B Sel B Antibodi Sel B ingatan
C Sel T Sel T ingatan Antibodi
D Sel T Sel T ingatan Sel T sitotoksik





964/2
Antigen
Rangsangan
W
X
Y
Sel plasma

62
13 The diagram below shows the immune response in the human body.
























Which statement about the above diagram is true?
A Cell X secretes lymphokine, then divides to form cells Y and Z in the presence of substance R.
B Cell Z responds quickly towards the repeated infection of a particular disease.
C Substance S induces proliferation of lymphocytes involved in the immune disease.
D Cell Y prepares other lymphocytes to produce antibodies.

14 The following are the stages of life cycle of Plasmodium that causes human malaria.
I Formation of gametocytes
II Multiplication in liver
III Injection of parasite
IV Completion of gametogony
V Migration of sporozoites to mosquito salivary gland
VI Invasion and multiplication in red blood cells
Which is the correct sequence of the Plasmodium life cycle?
A I II III IV V VI
B III II I V IV VI
C III II IV V I VI
D III II VI I IV V



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63
13 Gambar rajah di bawah menunjukkan gerak balas imun dalam badan manusia.
























Penyataan yang manakah yang benar tentang gambar rajah di atas?
A Sel X merembeskan limfokin, kemudian membahagi menghasilkan sel Y dan Z dalam
kehadiran bahan R.
B Sel Z merespon dengan cepat terhadap jangkitan semula penyakit tertentu.
C Bahan S merangsang proliferasi limfosit yang terlibat dalam penyakit keimunan.
D Sel Y menyediakan limfosit lain untuk menghasilkan antibodi.

14 Yang berikut ialah peringkat kitar hidup Plasmodium yang menyebabkan malaria kepada
manusia.
I Pembentukan gametosit
II Pengandaan di dalam hati
III Suntikan parasit
IV Pelengkapan gametogoni
V Penghijrahan sporozoites kepada kelenjar liur nyamuk
VI Serangan dan pengandaan dalam sel darah merah
Yang manakah urutan yang benar tentang kitar hidup Plasmodium?
A I II III IV V VI
B III II I V IV VI
C III II IV V I VI
D III II VI I IV V


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Bahan S Bahan S
Bahan R
Sel Z
Sel X
Bergerak
ke nodus limfa
Sel prekursor dari
sum-sum tulang
Sel Y

64
15 A person suffering from abrupt onset of fever, headache, facial flushing, conjuctival suffusion and
severe backache is most likely to contract
A dengue
B cholera
C malaria
D tuberculosis














































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65
15 Seorang yang menderita serangan mendadak demam, sakit kepala, kemerahan pada wajah,
konjugtivitis dan sakit pinggang kemungkinan besar menghidap
A denggi
B kolera
C malaria
D tuberkulosis














































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67
HALAMAN KOSONG



















































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Section B [15 marks]

Answer all questions in this section.

16 The diagram below shows the simplified chemical reaction that occurs during the transport of
carbon dioxide by the red blood cell in a mammal.

















(a) Name the substances labelled R, S and T. [3 marks]

R: ...............................................................................................................................................................

S: ...............................................................................................................................................................

T: ...............................................................................................................................................................

(b) Explain what happens at stages I and II. [4 marks]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................













964/2
Cell/tissue
R + O
2
CO
2
+ H
2
O

CO
2
+ H
2
O


H
2
CO
3

HCO
3

H
+
+ Hb O
2

HbO
2

S
I
T
Erythrocyte membrane
II

69
Bahagian B [15 markah]

Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

16 Gambar rajah di bawah menunjukkan tindak balas kimia yang diringkaskan yang berlaku semasa
pengangkutan karbon dioksida oleh sel darah merah dalam mamalia.

















(a) Namakan bahan yang berlabel R, S, dan T. [3 markah]

R: ...............................................................................................................................................................

S: ...............................................................................................................................................................

T: ...............................................................................................................................................................

(b) Jelaskan apa yang berlaku pada peringkat I dan II. [4 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................











964/2
Sel/tisu
R + O
2
CO
2
+ H
2
O

CO
2
+ H
2
O


H
2
CO
3

HCO
3

H
+
+ Hb O
2

HbO
2

S
I
T
Membran eritrosit
II
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17 The diagram below shows simplified events in menstrual cycle of humans.



(a) Name the structure labelled P and Q. [2 marks]

P: ...............................................................................................................................................................

Q: ...............................................................................................................................................................

(b) State two types of hormones which influence the above menstrual cycle, and state the role of
each hormone. [4 marks]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(c) What happens to structure Q if
(i) fertilisation occurs? [1 mark]

....................................................................................................................................................................

(ii) fertilisation does not occur? [1 mark]

....................................................................................................................................................................









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P
Q
Thickness of
endometrium

Menstrual
phase
Proliferative
phase

Secretory
phase
Ovulation

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17 Gambar rajah di bawah menunjukkan ringkasan peristiwa dalam kitar haid manusia.



(a) Namakan struktur berlabel P dan Q. [2 markah]

P: ...............................................................................................................................................................

Q: ...............................................................................................................................................................

(b) Nyatakan dua jenis hormon yang mempengaruhi kitar haid di atas, dan nyatakan peranan
setiap hormon. [4 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(c) Apakah yang berlaku kepada struktur Q jika
(i) persenyawaan berlaku? [1 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................
(ii) persenyawaan tidak berlaku? [1 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................









964/2
P
Q
Ketebalan
endometrium
Fasa
haid
Fasa
proliferatif

Fasa
rembesan
Ovulasi
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74
Section C [30 marks]

Answer any two questions in this section.

18 (a) Give the definition, causes and methods of prevention of each of the following cardiovascular
disorders.
(i) Arteriosclerosis
(ii) Hypertension
[10 marks]
(b) With the aid of Munch Model, describe the mechanism of mass translocation in phloem.
[5 marks]

19 (a) With the aid of a diagram, describe the process of double fertilisation in an angiosperm.
[5 marks]
(b) Describe the main structural features that favour cross-pollination in an angiosperm.
[4 marks]
(c) Describe the characteristics of the following types of asexual reproduction.
(i) Polyembryony
(ii) Parthenogenesis
(iii) Vegetative reproduction
[6 marks]

20 (a) Name the organs of the lymphatic system, and describe their functions. [8 marks]
(b) A malfunctioned kidney may be replaced by a healthy one which is transplanted from a
donor.
(i) Explain why the healthy kidney may later be rejected by the recipient’s body. [4 marks]
(ii) What are the steps taken to overcome the problem of rejection by the recipient’s body?
[3 marks]




















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75
Bahagian C [30 markah]

Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

18 (a) Berikan takrif, punca, dan kaedah pencegahan setiap penyakit kardiovaskular yang berikut.
(i) Arteriosklerosis
(ii) Hipertensi
[10 markah]
(b) Dengan bantuan Model Munch, perihalkan mekanisme translokasi jisim dalam floem.
[5 markah]

19 (a) Dengan bantuan gambar rajah, perihalkan proses persenyawaan ganda dua dalam suatu
angiosperma. [5 markah]

(b) Perihalkan sifat struktur utama yang menggalakkan pendebungaan silang dalam suatu
angiosperma. [4 markah]
(c) Perihalkan ciri bagi jenis pembiakan aseks yang berikut.
(i) Poliembrioni
(ii) Partenogenesis
(iii) Pembiakan vegitatif [6 markah]

20 (a) Namakan organ dan struktur dalam system limfa, dan perihalkan fungsi masing-masing.
[8 markah]
(b) Ginjal yang tidak berfungsi boleh digantikan dengan ginjal yang sihat yang dipindahkan
daripada seorang penderma.
(i) Jelaskan mengapa ginjal yang sihat mungkin kemudiannya akan ditolak oleh badan
penerima. [4 markah]
(ii) Apakah langkah-langkah yang diambil untuk mengatasi masalah penolakan oleh badan
penerima itu? [3 markah]




















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76

Identity card number:………………………….. Centre number/index number:……………………….
(Nombor kad pengenalan) (Nombor pusat/angka giliran)
77

SPECI MEN PAPER
964/3 STPM
BIOLOGY (BIOLOGI)
PAPER 3 (KERTAS 3)
One and a half hours (Satu jam setengah)
MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)
SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE)































This question paper consists of printed pages and blank page.
(Kertas soalan ini terdiri daripada halaman bercetak dan halaman kosong.)
© Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia
STPM 964/3
For examiner’s use
(Untuk kegunaan
pemeriksa)
Section B
(Bahagian B)
16
17
Section C
(Bahagian C)


Total
(Jumlah)

Instructions to candidates:
DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE
TOLD TO DO SO.
There are fifteen questions in Section A. For each question, four choices
of answers are given. Choose one correct answer and indicate it on the
Multiple-choice Answer Sheet provided. Read the instructions on the
Multiple-choice Answer Sheet very carefully. Answer all questions. Marks
will not be deducted for wrong answers.
Answer all questions in Section B. Write your answers in the spaces
provided.
Answer any two questions in Section C. All essential working should be
shown. For numerical answers, unit should be quoted wherever appropriate.
Begin each answer on a fresh sheet of paper and arrange your answers in
numerical order.
Tear off the front page of this question paper and your answer sheets of
Section B, and tie both of them together with your answer sheets of Section C.
Answers may be written in either English or Bahasa Malaysia.


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Arahan kepada calon:
JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA ANDA DIBENARKAN BERBUAT
DEMIKIAN.
Ada lima belas soalan dalam Bahagian A. Bagi setiap soalan, empat pilihan jawapan diberikan.
Pilih satu jawapan yang betul dan tandakan jawapan itu pada Borang Jawapan Aneka Pilihan yang
dibekalkan. Baca arahan pada Borang Jawapan Aneka Pilihan itu dengan teliti. Jawab semua soalan.
Markah tidak akan ditolak bagi jawapan yang salah.
Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian B. Tulis jawapan anda di ruang yang disediakan.
Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam Bahagian C. Semua jalan kerja yang sesuai hendaklah
ditunjukkan. Bagi jawapan berangka, unit hendaklah dinyatakan di mana-mana yang sesuai. Mulakan
setiap jawapan pada helaian kertas jawapan yang baharu dan susun jawapan anda mengikut tertib
berangka.
Koyakkan muka hadapan kertas soalan ini dan helaian jawapan anda bagi Bahagian B, dan ikatkan
kedua-duanya bersama-sama dengan helaian jawapan anda bagi Bahagian C.
Jawapan boleh ditulis dalam bahasa Inggeris atau Bahasa Malaysia.


78
BLANK PAGE




















































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79
HALAMAN KOSONG




















































964/3

80
Section A [15 marks]

Answer all questions in this section.

1 Which genera belongs to the phylum Coniferophyta?
A Zea
B Cycas
C Dryopteris
D Marchantia

2 Housefly is classified into the Order
A Diptera
B Hemiptera
C Orthoptera
D Hymenoptera

3 Which statement is true of an ecosystem?
A It encompasses living and non living components.
B It encompasses edaphic, climatic and topographic factors.
C It comprises of various species living together in a habitat.
D It comprises of organisms with the same morphological characteristics.

4 Which energy flows in an ecosystem involves the transfer of the greatest amount of energy?
A Plant Herbivore
B Herbivore Carnivore
C Carnivore Decomposer
D Herbivore Decomposer



















964/3

81
Bahagian A [15 markah]

Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini

1 Genus yang manakah kepunyaan filum Coniferophyta?
A Zea
B Cycas
C Dryopteris
D Marchantia

2 Lalat dikelaskan kedalam Order
A Diptera
B Hemiptera
C Orthoptera
D Hymenoptera

3 Penyataan yang manakah yang benar tentang ekosistem?
A Meliputi komponen hidup dan bukan hidup
B Meliputi faktor edafik, faktor iklim, dan faktor topografik
C Meliputi pelbagai spesies yang hidup bersama dalam suatu habitat
D Meliputi organisma yang mempunyai ciri morfologi yang sama

4 Pengaliran tenaga dalam ekosistem yang manakah yang melibatkan pemindahan amaun tenaga
yang paling banyak?
A Tumbuhan Herbivor
B Herbivor Karnivor
C Karnivor Pengurai
D Herbivor Pengurai


















964/3

82
5 The graph below shows the survivorship curves for three species of animals.















Which characteristic of the animal is correctly matched to its survivorship curve?
Characteristic Curve
A Natality rate is high (c)
B Care for offspring is minimal (a)
C Mortality rate remains constant with age (a)
D Mortality is concentrated at the end of the maximum life span (b)

6 Which statement is not true of an artificial classification system?
A The system is based on phylogenetic relationship.
B The system can be used to construct dichotomous keys.
C Organisms are placed into groups for specific purposes.
D Organisms are placed into groups according to their different characteristics which are
arbitrarily chosen.

7 The processes below contribute to speciation except
A isolation
B succession
C natural selection
D formation of different gene pool

8 Alleles A and B are codominant. How many types of phenotype would be produced from the
cross AB AB?
A 1
B 2
C 3
D 4




964/3

Number of
survivors
(log scale)
Percentage of maximum life span

83
5 Graf di bawah menunjukkan lengkung kemandirian bagi tiga spesies haiwan.















Ciri haiwan yang manakah yang sepadan dengan betul dengan lengkung kemandiriannya?
Ciri Lengkung
A Kadar kenatalan yang tinggi (c)
B Penjagaan anak minima (a)
C Kadar kemortalan kekal malar dengan umur (a)
D Kemortalan tertumpu pada akhir tempoh hidup maksimum (b)

6 Penyataan yang manakah yang tidak benar tentang sistem pengelasan buatan?
A Sistem yang berdasarkan hubungan filogenetik.
B Sistem itu boleh digunakan untuk membina kunci dikotomi.
C Organisma diletakkan ke dalam kumpulan untuk kegunaan spesifik.
D Organisma diletakkan ke dalam kumpulan mengikut perbezaan ciri yang dipilih secara
sembarangan.

7 Proses di bawah menyumbang kepada penspesiesan kecuali
A pemencilan
B penggantian
C pemilihan semulajadi
D pembentukan kolam gen yang berbeza

8 Alel A dan B adalah kodominan. Berapakah jenis fenotip yang akan terhasil daripada kacukan
AB AB?
A 1
B 2
C 3
D 4




964/3

Peratusan jangka masa maksimum hidup
Bilangan
yang hidup
(skala log)

84
9 The frequency of the allele B in a population at genetic equilibrium is 0.70. What is the frequency
of the Bb genotype?
A 0.21
B 0.42
C 0.49
D 0.70

10 The graphs below show the ultraviolet absorption in the experiment to prove the mode of DNA
replication.




Which conclusion can be made from the above graphs?
A The dispersive mode of DNA replication can be eliminated in the generation 1.
B The conservative mode of DNA replication can be eliminated in the generation 2.
C The semi-conservative mode of DNA replication can be proven in the generation 1.
D The semi-conservative mode of DNA replication can be proven in the generation 2.




964/3
Percentage
of ultraviolet
absorption
Generation 0
Generation 1
Generation 2
Generation 3
Nitrogen content
Nitrogen content
Nitrogen content
Nitrogen content
14
14
N
N

15
14
N
N

15
15
N
N


85
9 Frekuensi alel B dalam populasi dalam keseimbangan genetik ialah 0.70. Berapakah frekuensi
genotip Bb?
A 0.21
B 0.42
C 0.49
D 0.70

10 Graf di bawah menunjukkan penyerapan ultra lembayung dalam uji kaji untuk membuktikan cara
pereplikaan DNA.




Kesimpulan yang manakah yang boleh dibuat daripada graf di atas?
A Mode dispersif pereplikaan DNA boleh dihilangkan pada generasi 1.
B Mode konsevatif pereplikaan DNA boleh dihilangkan pada generasi 2.
C Mode semi konsevatif pereplikaan DNA boleh dibuktikan pada generasi 1.
D Mode semi konsevatif pereplikaan DNA boleh dibuktikan pada generasi 1.




964/3
Peratusan
serapan ultra
lembayung
Generasi 0
Generasi 1
Generasi 2
Generasi 3
Kandungan nitrogen
14
14
N
N

15
14
N
N

15
15
N
N

Kandungan nitrogen
Kandungan nitrogen
Kandungan nitrogen

86
11 Gene expression is defined as
A the transcription of genes from DNA
B the use of information in DNA to produce a protein
C the transfer of one gene from one organism to another
D the translation of one gene by ribosomes to produce protein

12 The pedigree below shows the inheritance of a disease.























The inheritance of the disease is controlled by
A X-linked recessive gene
B X-linked dominant gene
C autosomal recessive gene
D autosomal dominant gene

13 Which statement is not true of mutation?
A The deletion of two bases causes frame-shift mutation.
B Cri-du-chat syndrome is caused by a deletion in chromosome 5.
C Allopolyploidy involved chromosome doubling from different genomes.
D A chromosomal mutation involves the deletion of a base pair from a gene.







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87
11 Pengekspresan gen boleh ditakrifkan sebagai
A transkripsi gen daripada DNA
B penggunaan maklumat dalam DNA untuk menghasilkan protein
C pemindahan satu gen dari satu organisma kepada satu organisma yang lain
D translasi satu gen oleh ribosom untuk menghasilkan protein

12 Salasiah di bawah menunjukkan penyakit pewarisan.























Penyakit pewarisan dikawal oleh
A gen resesif X-terangkai
B gen dominan X-terangkai
C gen resesif autosom
D gen dominan autosom

13 Penyataan yang manakah yang tidak benar tentang mutasi?
A Pelenyapan dua bes menyebabkan mutasi anjakan rangka.
B Sindrom Cri-du-chat disebabkan oleh pelenyapan kromosom 5.
C Alopoliploidi melibatkan pengandaan kromosom daripada genom yang berbeza.
D Mutasi kromosom melibatkan pelenyapan pasangan bes daripada satu gen.







964/3

Lelaki
normal
Perempuan
normal
Perempuan
Penghidap
Lelaki
penghidap
Petanda:

88
14 The diagram below shows steps in DNA cloning using bacterial plasmid.



What processes are represented by P, Q and R?
P Q R
A Amplification Screening Transformation
B Amplification Transformation Screening
C Transformation Screening Amplification
D Transformation Amplification Screening

15 Transgenic bacteria is used in the following industrial processes except
A decomposition of oil spill
B degradation of organic waste
C production of -1-antitrypsin
D introduction of herbicide-resistant gene into plant




















964/3
Source DNA
Plasmid
Cloned DNA

89
14 Gambar rajah di bawah menunjukkan langkah pengklonan DNA mengunakan plasmid bakteria.



Apakah yang diwakili oleh P, Q, dan R?
P Q R
A Amplifikasi Penyaringan Transformasi
B Amplifikasi Transformasi Penyaringan
C Transformasi Penyaringan Amplifikasi
D Transformasi Amplifikasi Penyaringan

15 Bakteria transgenik digunakan dalam proses industri berikut kecuali
A penguraian tumpahan minyak
B degradasi bahan buangan organik
C penghasilan -1-antitrypsin
D pengenalan gen rintangan herbisid ke dalam tumbuhan






















964/3
DNA sumber
Plasmid
DNA terklon

90
BLANK PAGE




















































964/3

91
HALAMAN KOSONG




















































964/3
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92
Section B [15 marks]

Answer all questions in this section.

16 The graphs below show the normal distribution of early population of an organism living in three
different environments, I, II and III. The arrows represent the selection pressure on the phenotypes.



















(a) Sketch the curve to show the effect of natural selection in each case. [3 marks]










(b) State the types of selection represented by the curves you have sketched in (a). [3 marks]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(c) Give one example of the phenomenon resulting from each of the selections II and III.
[2 marks]

....................................................................................................................................................................

964/3
Number of
individuals
Phenotype
I II
Phenotype
Number of
individuals
Phenotype
III
Number of
individuals

93
Bahagian B [15 markah]

Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

16 Graf di bawah menunjukkan taburan normal awal populasi organism yang hidup di tiga
persekitaran yang berbeza I, II, dan III. Anak panah mewakili tekanan pemilihan keatas fenotip.























(a) Lakar lengkung yang menunjukkan kesan pemilihan semula jadi dalam setiap kes.
[3 markah]









(b) Nyatakan jenis pemilihan yang mewakili lengkung yang anda lakar dalam (a).
[3 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(c) Berikan satu contoh fenomena yang dihasilkan daripada pemilihan II dan III. [2 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

964/3
Bilangan
individu
Fenotip

I II
Fenotip
Bilangan
individu

Fenotip

III
Bilangan
individu

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94
17 (a) The diagram below shows the stages of meiosis during the formation of gametes which
involve a pair of chromosome P and a pair of chromosome Q. Draw the complete diagram to show
the arrangement of the chromosomes if non-disjunction occurs involving the pair of chromosome P
during meiosis I. [6 marks]














(b) State the type of the above chromosomal mutation. [1 mark]

....................................................................................................................................................................
































964/3
Gamete Gamete Gamete Gamete
Meiosis I
Meiosis II

95
17 (a) Gambar rajah di bawah menunjukkan peringkat meiosis semasa pembentukan gamet yang
melibatkan sepasang kromosom P dan sepasang kromosom Q. Lukis gambar rajah lengkap untuk
menunjukkan susunan kromosom jika tak disjungsi berlaku yang melibatkan pasangan kromosom P
semasa meiosis I. [6 markah]














(b) Nyatakan jenis mutasi kromosom di atas. [1 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................
































964/3
Gamet Gamet Gamet Gamet
Meiosis I
Meiosis II
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964/3

97
HALAMAN KOSONG



















































964/3


98
Section C [30 marks]

Answer any two questions in this section.

18 (a) Describe the characteristic features of the phylum Bryophyta and Filicinophyta. [8 marks]
(b) Water pollution is a major threat to aquatic biodiversity in Malaysia. Discuss this statement.
[7 marks]

19 (a) Explain the energy flow in the carbon cycle. [7 marks]
(b) Compare the adaptive characteristics of K-strategies and r-strategies. [8 marks]

20 In a small population, 40 individuals are tasters of phenylthiocarbamide and 60 are non-tasters.
The dominant allele T controls the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide.
(a) (i) Determine the frequencies of allele t and allele T. [6 marks]
(ii) Determine the number of individuals who are heterozygous in the population. [4 marks]
(b) If 20 non-tasters immigrate into the population, determine the new frequencies of allele t and
allele T. [5 marks]































964/3

99
Bahagian C [30 markah]

Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

18 (a) Perihalkan cici-ciri filum Bryophyta dan Filicinophyta. [8 markah]
(b) Pencemaran air adalah ancaman utama kepada kepelbagian biologi di Malaysia. Bincangkan
pernyataan ini. [7 markah]

19 (a) Jelaskan pengaliran tenaga di dalam kitar karbon. [7 markah]
(b) Bandingkan ciri penyesuaian strategi K dan strategi r. [8 markah]

20 Dalam satu populasi kecil, 40 individu ialah perasa feniltiokarbamida dan 60 individu bukan
perasa feniltiokarbamida. Alel dominan T mengawal keupayaan untuk merasa feniltiokarbamida.
(a) (i) Tentukan kekerapan alel t dan alel T. [6 markah]
(ii) Tentukan bilangan individu yang heterozigot dalam populasi itu. [4 markah]
(b) Jika 20 individu bukan perasa berhijrah masuk ke dalam populasi itu, tentukan kekerapan
baharu alel t dan alel T. [5 markah]


































964/3

100




























101
SPECI MEN EXPERI MENT



964/4 STPM





BIOLOGY (BIOLOGI)

PAPER 4 (KERTAS 4)




MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)


SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE)
























© Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia

STPM 964/4
STPM BIOLOGY STUDENT’S MANUAL 20___/20___
102
Experiment 1

Title: Determination of the osmotic potential of plant cells

Objectives: To determine the osmotic potential of the potato cell sap.

Learning Outcome: At the end of the experiment, the candidates should be able to
(i) prepare solutions of various molarities from a stock solution.
(ii) tabulate the results and plot graphs.
(iii) analyse and interpret experimental results.

Introduction:

Osmotic potential of a cell refers to the amount of solute dissolved in the cell sap, containing mostly
water and be the main cause to its osmotic concentration. The difference in osmotic concentration
inside the cell and its surrounding is called a concentration gradient. Movement of water molecules
via semi permeable membrane occurs from a region of higher water concentration (low osmotic
potential) to a region of lower water concentration (high osmotic potential).


Materials and apparatus:
(i) 1.0 M sucrose solution
(ii) Distilled water
(iii) Potato
(iv) Large test tubes
(v) Beakers
(vi) Ruler
(vii) Filter paper
(viii) Petri dish with cover
(ix) Marker pen
(x) Cork-borer
(xi) Single-edge blade
(xii) White tile
(xiii) Graph paper
(xiv) Dissecting needle/Mounted needle
(xv) 25 ml measuring cylinder
(xvi) Fine forceps
(xvii) 10 ml pipette
(xviii) Analytical balance






964/4
STPM BIOLOGY STUDENT’S MANUAL 20___/20___
103
Procedure:

1. Prepare 20 ml of 0.1 M, 0.2 M, 0.3 M, 0.4 M and 0.5 M sucrose solutions from 1.0 M stock
solution in labelled test tubes. Use the following formula to assist you in preparing your
dilution.









2. Record the volume of the stock solution and distilled water used in each dilution in Table 1.

3. Prepare 15 cylindrical strips of potato tissues using a cork-borer. Cut the strips to a uniform
length.

4. Take 3 potato strips, record their average initial length and weight and place them into the test
tube containing 0.1 M sucrose solution. Note down the texture of the potato strips.

5. Repeat step 4 using 0.2 M, 0.3 M, 0.4 M and 0.5 M sucrose solutions and wait for 30 minutes.

6. Plot a standard curve of the osmotic potential against the molarities of the sucrose solutions
using the data given below.

Molarity (M) 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55
Osmotic potential
(in atmosphere)
1.3 2.6 4.0 5.3 6.7 8.1 9.6 11.1 12.6 14.3 16.0

7. After 30 minutes, remove the strips with the dissecting needle/mounted needle provided. Dry
the strips gently with filter paper and record their average final length and weight.

8. Note down any changes to the texture of the potato strips.

9. Create your own table to record the results. (Table 2)

10. Plot another graph of the average change in the length of the potato strips against the molarities
of the sucrose solution used.

11. Use both the graphs to determine the osmotic potential of the potato cell sap.












964/4
where M
1
= initial molarity
V
1
= initial volume
M
2
= final molarity
V
2
= final volume

M
1
V
1
= M
2
V
2

STPM BIOLOGY STUDENT’S MANUAL 20___/20___
104
Result:

Table 1

Molarity 0.1 M 0.2 M 0.3 M 0.4 M 0.5 M
Volume of 1.0 M sucrose solution used (ml)
Volume of distilled water used (ml)

Table 2












Discussion:

1 (a) From the first graph, determine the solute concentration of the cell sap of the potato tissues (in
molarity) of sucrose solution. Explain your answer. [2 marks]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(b) From the standard curve, determine the equivalent osmotic potential (in atmosphere) of the
cell sap. [1 mark]

....................................................................................................................................................................

2 What is the relationship between the changes in weight of the potato strips and their texture?
[2 marks]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

3 Plant fertilizer contains many solutes. Why an overdose of fertilizer may kill a plant? [2 marks]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

Conclusion [1 mark]

....................................................................................................................................................................

964/4
Identity card number:………………………….. Centre number/index number:……………………….
(Nombor kad pengenalan) (Nombor pusat/angka giliran)
105

SPECI MEN PAPER

964/5 STPM


BIOLOGY (BIOLOGI)

PAPER 5 (KERTAS 5)

One and a half hours (Satu jam setengah)

MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)

SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE)





For examiner’s use
(Untuk kegunaan
pemeriksa)
1
2
3
Total
(Jumlah)












This question paper consists of

printed pages and blank page.
(Kertas soalan ini terdiri daripada halaman bercetak dan halaman kosong.)
© Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia

STPM 964/5
Instructions to candidates:
DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE
TOLD TO DO SO.
Answer all questions.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.
Answers may be written in either English or Bahasa Malaysia.

Arahan kepada calon:
JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA ANDA
DIBENARKAN BERBUAT DEMIKIAN.
Jawab semua soalan. Tulis jawapan anda dalam ruang yang
disediakan.
Jawapan boleh ditulis dalam bahasa Inggeris atau Bahasa Malaysia.






106
1 A group of students carried out an experiment on respiration using yeast.
A fermentation tube was filled with 5% glucose solution and 5 drops of 10% yeast suspension. It
was then put inside a test tube as shown below.



The apparatus set-up was placed in an incubator at 37 C for 60 hours. The heights of the fluid
and the gas in the fermentation tube were recorded every 10 hours.
(a) Is oxygen involved in the process? [2 marks]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(b) Name the end products of the fermentation. [3 marks]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(c) Complete the table below. [3 marks]

Time (hour) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Height of fluid (mm) 100 82 73 68 66 66 66
Height of gas (mm)











964/5
Test tube
Fermentation tube
Height of fluid

107
1 Sekumpulan pelajar telah menjalankan satu uji kaji tentang respirasi dengan menggunakan yis.
Satu tabung penapaian diisi dengan larutan glukosa 5% dan 5 titis ampaian yis 10%. Tabung
penapaian itu kemudian dimasukkan ke dalam satu tabung uji seperti yang ditunjukkan di bawah.



Susunan alat radas diletakkan ke dalam pengeram pada 37 C selama 60 jam. Tinggi bendalir dan
gas di dalam tabung penapaian direkodkan setiap 10 jam.
(a) Adakah oksigen terlibat dalam proses itu? [2 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(b) Namakan hasil akhir penapaian itu. [3 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

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(c) Lengkapkan jadual di bawah. [3 markah]

Masa (jam) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Tinggi bendalir (mm) 100 82 73 68 66 66 66
Tinggi gas (mm)











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Tabung uji
Tabung penapaian
Tinggi cecair

108
(d) Plot a graph of the height of the gas against time. [3 marks]



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109
(d) Plot graf tinggi gas lawan masa. [3 markah]



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110
(e) Based on the graph that you have plotted, describe briefly the fermentation process.
[2 marks]

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....................................................................................................................................................................

(f) State two industrial applications of the yeast fermentation. [2 marks]

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111
(e) Berdasarkan graf yang anda plot itu, perihalkan secara ringkas proses penapaian itu.
[2 markah]

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(f) Nyatakan dua penggunaan industri penapaian yis. [2 markah]

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112
2 (a) A cross-section of an organ that has been diverted out of a rat is shown in the diagram below.



(i) Name the organ, and the structures labelled A and I. [5 marks]

Organ: ...…………………………………………………………………………………………………

A: ……………………………………………….. F: ………………………………………………….

B: ……………………………………………….. G: ………………………………………………….

C: ………………………………………………. H: ………………………………………………….

D: ………………………………………………. I: ….………………………………………………..

E: ……………………………………………….

(ii) State two function of the organ. [2 marks]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(iii) State the similarity and the difference in function between the structures B and C.
[2 marks]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(iv) State the common function of structures F, G and J. [1 mark]

....................................................................................................................................................................



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A
B C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J

113
2 (a) Keratan rentas satu organ yang telah dialih keluar daripada seekor tikus ditunjukkan dalam
gambar rajah di bawah.



(i) Namakan organ itu, dan struktur berlabel A hingga I. [5 markah]

Organ: ...…………………………………………………………………………………………………

A: ……………………………………………….. F: ………………………………………………….

B: ……………………………………………….. G: ………………………………………………….

C: ………………………………………………. H: ………………………………………………….

D: ………………………………………………. I: ….………………………………………………..

E: ……………………………………………….

(ii) Nyatakan dua fungsi organ itu. [2 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(iii) Nyatakan persamaan dan perbezaan fungsi antara struktur B dengan struktur C.
[2 markah]

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(iv) Nyatakan fungsi sepunya struktur F, G, dan J. [1 markah]

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A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J

114
(b) The structures shown in the diagram below are related to the organ in (a).



(i) Name the structures K and L. [2 marks]

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(ii) Give two characteristics of each of the structures. [2 marks]

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(iii) Why are the wall structures of K and L are different? [1 mark]

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K
L

115
(b) Struktur yang ditunjukkan dalam gambar rajah di bawah berkaitan dengan organ pada (a).



(i) Namakan struktur K dan L. [2 markah]

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(ii) Berikan dua ciri bagi setiap struktur itu. [2 markah]

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(iii) Mengapakah struktur dinding bagi K dan L berbeza? [1 markah]

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K
L

116
3 A researcher carried out a cross on pea plants to determine the inheritance of seed forms. He
crossed pure line wrinkled seed with pure line smooth seed to produce F
1
generation and subsequently
F
2
generation. A total of 250 plants were produced in F
2
generation, 59 with wrinkled seeds and 191
with smooth seeds. The diagram below illustrates the crosses.



(a) What is the phenotype of progeny Q? [1 mark]

....................................................................................................................................................................

(b) What is the expected ratio of wrinkled-seed plants to smooth-seed plants of F
2
generation?
[1 mark]

....................................................................................................................................................................

(c) Using the expected ratio in (b), determine the expected number of phenotypes of F
2

generation.

Phenotype Observed number Expected number
Wrinkled 59
Smooth 191
[2 marks]













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Progeny Q
X

117
3 Seorang penyelidik telah membuat kacukan terhadap pokok kacang pea untuk menentukan
perwarisan bentuk biji. Beliau mengkacukkan baka tulen biji yang berkedut dengan baka tulen biji
licin untuk menghasilkan generasi F
1
dan seterusnya generasi F
2.
Sebanyak 250 tumbuhan telah
dihasilkan dalam generasi F
2
, 59 dengan biji berkedut, dan 191 dengan biji licin. Gambar rajah
di bawah menunjukkan kacukan tersebut.



(a) Apakah fenotip bagi progeni Q? [1 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

(b) Apakah nisbah jangkaan pokok dengan biji berkedut kepada pokok dengan biji licin bagi
generasi F
2
? [1 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

(c) Dengan menggunakan nisbah jangkaan pada (b), tentukan bilangan jangkaan fenotip generasi
F
2
.

Fenotip Bilangan cerapan Bilangan jangkaan
Berkedut 59
Licin 191
[2 marks]












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Biji berkedut
Biji licin
Induk jantan Induk betina
X
Progeni Q

118
(d) Using the chi-square formula, determine the chi-square value for F
2
generation. [3 marks]











(e) Chi-square (
2
) values at 5% level is given below. [4 marks]
















Using the data from above table, explain whether the result obtained is in accordance with
Mendel’s first law.

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....................................................................................................................................................................

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(f) Determine the dominant seed forms of pea plants. [1 mark]

Wrinkled: ...................................................................................................................................................

Smooth: ......................................................................................................................................................

(g) With the symbol R as dominant allele and symbol r as recessive allele, determine the
genotypes of both parents and progeny Q. [3 marks]

Female parent:...................................................................................................................................

Male parent: .....................................................................................................................................

Progeny Q: ........................................................................................................................................

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Degree of freedom 5% level
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
3.841
5.991
7.815
9.488
11.070
12.592
14.067
15.507
16.919
18.307

119
(d) Dengan menggunakan rumus khi kuasa dua, tentukan nilai khi kuasa dua bagi generasi F
2
.
[3 markah]










(e) Jadual nilai khi kuasa dua (
2
) pada aras 5% diberikan di bawah. [4 markah]
















Dengan menggunakan data daripada jadual di atas, jelaskan sama ada keputusan yang diperoleh
mematuhi hukum Mendel pertama.

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

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(f) Tentukan kedominanan bentuk biji kacang pea. [1 markah]

Berkedut:....................................................................................................................................................

Licin: .........................................................................................................................................................

(g) Dengan simbol R sebagai alel dominan dan simbol r sebagai alel resesif, tentukan genotip
kedua-dua induk dan progeni Q. [3 markah]

Induk betina:..............................................................................................................................................

Induk jantan:..............................................................................................................................................

Progeni Q:..................................................................................................................................................

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Darjah kebebasan Aras 5%
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
3.841
5.991
7.815
9.488
11.070
12.592
14.067
15.507
16.919
18.307

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