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**MKK / TM1 1101 / 3 sks
**

Dr. Fauzun

ISI KULIAH 2:

2. Functions

a. Definition

b. Variable

c. Macam-macam Function dan Grafik

− Linear

− Polynomial

− Exponential

− Logaritmic

− Hyperbolic

− Trigonometry

A function is an operation performed on an input (x) to produce

an output (y = f(x) ).

The Domain of f is the set of all allowable inputs (x values)

The Range of f is the set of all outputs (y values)

f

x

y =f(x)

Domain

Range

Functions

What is a Variable?

• Simply, something that varies.

• Specifically, variables represent persons or objects

or anything that can be manipulated, controlled, or

merely measured for the sake of research.

• Variation: How much a variable varies. Those

without (sometime with little) variation are called

constants.

Commonly, x and y are called variable

There are two kind of variables:

1. Independent variable:

2. Dependent variable:

Variables that you put

into the equations

Variables that you solve

for

Example:

y = 2x - 4

Using the equation above, y has to be the

variable

Why?

Because it is the variable that is

being solved for

Dependent

For above example, because linear equation, it

has two variables (x & y), there are many

possible combinations of answers

Those possible solutions are written as ordered

pairs. Usually an ordered pair is written with

the independent variable first then the dependent

variable >>>>> (x,y)

Most of the time when we use the

variables x & y in an equation, x is

independent and y is dependent

There are some exceptions, but we will

work with those at a much later time

As said before, there are many possible

ordered pairs

To find more than one solution, we use a

Table of Values

x y

2 3

-2 1

0 -3

.... ....

To be well defined a function must

− Have a value for each x in the domain

− Have only one value for each x in the domain

e.g: y = f(x) = √(x-1), x is not well defined as if x < 1 we

will be trying to square root a negative number.

y = f(x) = 1/(x-2), x is not well defined as if x = 2 we

will be trying to divide by zero.

This is not a function as some x values

correspond to two y values.

Dom

ain

y = (x-2)

2

+3

2

The Range is

f(x) ≥ 3

Finding the Range of a function

Draw a graph of the function for its given Domain

The Range is the set of values on the y-axis for which a

horizontal line drawn through that point would cut the

graph.

Range

Domain

3

y = (x-2)

2

+3

The Function is f(x) = (x-2)

2

+3 , x

The Function is f(x) = 3 – 2

x

, x

The Range is f(x) < 3

f

x

g(f(x))

= gf(x)

g

f(x)

Finding gf(x)

Note: gf(x) does not

mean g(x) times f(x).

Note : When finding f(g(x))

Replace all the x’s in the rule for

the f funcion with the expression

for g(x) in a bracket.

e.g If f(x) = x

2

–2x

then f(x-2) = (x-2)

2

– 2(x-2)

Composite Functions

gf(x) means “g of f of x” i.e g(f(x)) .

First we apply the f function.

Then the output of the f function becomes the input for the g function.

Notice that gf means f first and then g.

Example if f(x) = x + 3, x and g(x) = x

2

, x then

gf(x) = g(f(x)) = g(x + 3) = (x+3)

2

, x

fg(x) = f(g(x)) = f(x

2

) = x

2

+3, x

g

2

(x) means g(g(x)) = g(x

2

) = (x

2

)

2

= x

4

, x

f

2

(x) means f(f(x)) = f(x+3) = (x+3) + 3 = x + 6 , x

Notice that fg and gf are not the same.

The Domain of gf is the same as the Domain of f since f is the

first function to be applied.

The Domain of fg is the same as the Domain of g.

For gf to be properly defined the Range (output set) of f must fit

inside the Domain (input set) of g.

For example if g(x) = √x , x ≥ 0 and f(x) = x – 2, x

Then gf would not be well defined as the output of f could be a

negative number and this is not allowed as an input for g.

However fg is well defined, fg(x) = √x – 2, x ≥ 0.

Domain

of f

Range

of f

b

f

a

f

-1

= Domain

of f

-1

= Range

of f

-1

Note: f

-1

(x) does

not mean 1/f(x).

Inverse Functions.

The inverse of a function f is denoted by f

-1

.

The inverse reverses the original function.

So if f(a) = b then f

-1

(b) = a

One to one Functions

If a function is to have an inverse which is also a function then it must be one to one.

This means that a horizontal line will never cut the graph more than once.

i.e we cannot have f(a) = f(b) if a ≠ b,

Two different inputs (x values) are not allowed to give the same output (y value).

For instance f(-2) = f(2) = 4

y = f(x) = x

2

with domain x is not one to

one.

So the inverse of 4 would have two

possibilities : -2 or 2.

This means that the inverse is not a function.

We say that the inverse function of f does not

exist.

If the Domain is restricted to x ≥ 0

Then the function would be one to one and its

inverse would be

f

-1

(x) = √x , x ≥ 0

Domain

The domain of the inverse = the

Range of the original.

So draw a graph of y = f(x) and

use it to find the Range

Finding the Rule and Domain of an inverse function

Rule

Swap over x and y

Make y the subject

Drawing the graph of the Inverse

The graph of y = f

-1

(x) is the reflection in y = x of the graph of y = f(x).

Example:

Find the inverse of the function y = f(x) = (x-2)

2

+ 3 , x ≥ 2

Sketch the graphs of y = f(x) and y = f

-1

(x) on the same axes showing the relationship between

them.

Domain

This is the function we considered earlier except that its domain has been restricted to x ≥ 2 in

order to make it one-to-one.

We know that the Range of f is y ≥ 3 and so the domain of f

-1

will be x ≥ 3.

Note: we could also have

-√(x –3) = y-2

and y = 2 - √(x –3)

But this would not fit our

function as y must be

greater than 2 (see graph)

Rule

Swap x and y to get x = (y-2)

2

+ 3

Now make y the subject

x – 3 = (y-2)

2

√(x –3) = y-2

y = 2 + √(x –3)

So Final Answer is:

f

-1

(x) = 2 + √(x –3) , x ≥ 3

Graphs

Reflect in y = x to get the graph of the inverse function.

Note: Remember with inverse

functions everything swaps over.

Input and output (x and y) swap

over

Domain and Range swap over

Reflecting in y = x swaps over the

coordinates of a point so (a,b) on

one graph becomes (b,a) on the

other.

Macam-macam Functions dan Grafik

o Linear

o Polynomial

o Exponential

o Logaritmic

o Hyperbolic

o Trigonometry

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