# MATHEMATICS 1

MKK / TM1 1101 / 3 sks

Dr. Fauzun
ISI KULIAH 2:
2. Functions
a. Definition
b. Variable
c. Macam-macam Function dan Grafik
− Linear
− Polynomial
− Exponential
− Logaritmic
− Hyperbolic
− Trigonometry

A function is an operation performed on an input (x) to produce
an output (y = f(x) ).

The Domain of f is the set of all allowable inputs (x values)
The Range of f is the set of all outputs (y values)

f

x

y =f(x)

Domain

Range

Functions
What is a Variable?
• Simply, something that varies.
• Specifically, variables represent persons or objects
or anything that can be manipulated, controlled, or
merely measured for the sake of research.

• Variation: How much a variable varies. Those
without (sometime with little) variation are called
constants.
Commonly, x and y are called variable
There are two kind of variables:

1. Independent variable:

2. Dependent variable:
Variables that you put
into the equations
Variables that you solve
for
Example:
y = 2x - 4
Using the equation above, y has to be the
variable
Why?
Because it is the variable that is
being solved for
Dependent
For above example, because linear equation, it
has two variables (x & y), there are many
possible combinations of answers
Those possible solutions are written as ordered
pairs. Usually an ordered pair is written with
the independent variable first then the dependent
variable >>>>> (x,y)
Most of the time when we use the
variables x & y in an equation, x is
independent and y is dependent
There are some exceptions, but we will
work with those at a much later time
As said before, there are many possible
ordered pairs
To find more than one solution, we use a
Table of Values
x y
2 3
-2 1
0 -3
.... ....
To be well defined a function must

− Have a value for each x in the domain
− Have only one value for each x in the domain

e.g: y = f(x) = √(x-1), x   is not well defined as if x < 1 we
will be trying to square root a negative number.

y = f(x) = 1/(x-2), x   is not well defined as if x = 2 we
will be trying to divide by zero.

This is not a function as some x values
correspond to two y values.

Dom
ain

y = (x-2)
2
+3

2

The Range is
f(x) ≥ 3

Finding the Range of a function

Draw a graph of the function for its given Domain
The Range is the set of values on the y-axis for which a
horizontal line drawn through that point would cut the
graph.

Range

Domain
3

y = (x-2)
2
+3
The Function is f(x) = (x-2)
2
+3 , x
The Function is f(x) = 3 – 2
x
, x
The Range is f(x) < 3
f

x

g(f(x))
= gf(x)

g

f(x)

Finding gf(x)

Note: gf(x) does not
mean g(x) times f(x).

Note : When finding f(g(x))
Replace all the x’s in the rule for
the f funcion with the expression
for g(x) in a bracket.
e.g If f(x) = x
2
–2x
then f(x-2) = (x-2)
2
– 2(x-2)

Composite Functions

gf(x) means “g of f of x” i.e g(f(x)) .
First we apply the f function.
Then the output of the f function becomes the input for the g function.
Notice that gf means f first and then g.
Example if f(x) = x + 3, x and g(x) = x
2
, x then
gf(x) = g(f(x)) = g(x + 3) = (x+3)
2
, x
fg(x) = f(g(x)) = f(x
2
) = x
2
+3, x
g
2
(x) means g(g(x)) = g(x
2
) = (x
2
)
2
= x
4
, x
f
2
(x) means f(f(x)) = f(x+3) = (x+3) + 3 = x + 6 , x

Notice that fg and gf are not the same.

The Domain of gf is the same as the Domain of f since f is the
first function to be applied.
The Domain of fg is the same as the Domain of g.

For gf to be properly defined the Range (output set) of f must fit
inside the Domain (input set) of g.
For example if g(x) = √x , x ≥ 0 and f(x) = x – 2, x
Then gf would not be well defined as the output of f could be a
negative number and this is not allowed as an input for g.
However fg is well defined, fg(x) = √x – 2, x ≥ 0.

Domain
of f

Range
of f

b

f

a
f
-1

= Domain
of f
-1

= Range
of f
-1

Note: f
-1
(x) does
not mean 1/f(x).

Inverse Functions.

The inverse of a function f is denoted by f
-1

.
The inverse reverses the original function.

So if f(a) = b then f
-1
(b) = a

One to one Functions

If a function is to have an inverse which is also a function then it must be one to one.
This means that a horizontal line will never cut the graph more than once.
i.e we cannot have f(a) = f(b) if a ≠ b,
Two different inputs (x values) are not allowed to give the same output (y value).
For instance f(-2) = f(2) = 4

y = f(x) = x
2
with domain x is not one to
one.

So the inverse of 4 would have two
possibilities : -2 or 2.
This means that the inverse is not a function.
We say that the inverse function of f does not
exist.
If the Domain is restricted to x ≥ 0
Then the function would be one to one and its
inverse would be
f
-1
(x) = √x , x ≥ 0
Domain

The domain of the inverse = the
Range of the original.
So draw a graph of y = f(x) and
use it to find the Range

Finding the Rule and Domain of an inverse function

Rule

Swap over x and y
Make y the subject

Drawing the graph of the Inverse

The graph of y = f
-1
(x) is the reflection in y = x of the graph of y = f(x).

Example:
Find the inverse of the function y = f(x) = (x-2)
2
+ 3 , x ≥ 2
Sketch the graphs of y = f(x) and y = f
-1
(x) on the same axes showing the relationship between
them.

Domain
This is the function we considered earlier except that its domain has been restricted to x ≥ 2 in
order to make it one-to-one.
We know that the Range of f is y ≥ 3 and so the domain of f
-1
will be x ≥ 3.
Note: we could also have
-√(x –3) = y-2
and y = 2 - √(x –3)
But this would not fit our
function as y must be
greater than 2 (see graph)

Rule
Swap x and y to get x = (y-2)
2
+ 3
Now make y the subject
x – 3 = (y-2)
2

√(x –3) = y-2
y = 2 + √(x –3)

So Final Answer is:
f
-1
(x) = 2 + √(x –3) , x ≥ 3
Graphs
Reflect in y = x to get the graph of the inverse function.
Note: Remember with inverse
functions everything swaps over.
Input and output (x and y) swap
over
Domain and Range swap over
Reflecting in y = x swaps over the
coordinates of a point so (a,b) on
one graph becomes (b,a) on the
other.
Macam-macam Functions dan Grafik
o Linear
o Polynomial
o Exponential
o Logaritmic
o Hyperbolic
o Trigonometry