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Electrical Engineering year III


Table of Contents
Foreword................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 3
1. Ship's electrical distribution system................................ ................................ ................................ .. 5
1.1. Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 5
1.2. Means of expressing future ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 6
Self-assessment test ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 9
Progress test................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 10
Answers to self-assessment test ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 12
References................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 12
2. Electrical installations and lighting aboard ships................................ ................................ ............. 14
2.1. Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 14
2.2. Adjectives and adverbs................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 16
Self-assessment test ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 20
Progress test................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 20
Answers to self-assessment test ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 21
References................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 22
3. Electrical cables and electrical insulators................................ ................................ ........................ 24
3.1. Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 24
3.2. Wishes................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 25
Self-assessment test ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 27
Progress test................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 28
Answers to self-assessment test ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 29
References................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 29
4. Electric motors aboard vessels ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 32
4.1. Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 32
4.2. Structures with -ing" and to" forms ................................ ................................ ..................... 34
Self-assessment test ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 36
Progress test................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 38
Answers to self-assessment test ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 39
References................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 39
5. Marine electrical power plant ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 41
5.1. Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 41
5.2. Verbs with prepositions................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 42
































































































































































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Self-assessment test ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 45
Progress test................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 46
Answers to self-assessment test ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 47
References................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 47
6. Ship's service generators................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 49
6.1. Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 49
6.2. Structures with have and get ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 50
Self-assessment test ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 51
Progress test................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 52
Answers to self-assessment test ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 53
References................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 53
7. Electrical and electronic circuits ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 55
7.1. Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 55
7.2. Structures with do and make................................ ................................ ................................ .. 56
Self-assessment test ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 57
Progress test................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 58
Answers to self-assessment test ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 59
References................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 59
Bibliography................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 60

































































































































































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Foreword

This is an English language course with useful structures and vocabulary - suitable for students
studying to become, or studying for further qualifications as electrical engineer officers in merchant
ships.
The course aims - within themes relevant to maritime studies - to enable the students to build
up a vocabulary of nautical and technical terms as well. The grammar section aims at developing certain
aspects of grammar that will be useful for reading and writing English - for a coherent communication.
The applied technical terminology will increase general knowledge of ships and shipping. Of course, the
course consists of 7 units, each of them covering language work relevant to the topic of the unit.
































































































































































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Unit 1


Ships electrical distribution system

Contents Pagina

Objectives...... 5
1.1. The function of electrical distribution system
... 5
1.2. The necessity of emergency power system.
.. 5
1.3. M eans of expressing future ...
6
Self-assessment test....................................................... 9
Progress test.. 10
Answers to self-assessment test 11
References. 11





































































































































































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1.

Ships electrical distribution system
1.1. Objectives


-

reading comprehension skills - the function of electrical distribution
system; the necessity of emergency power system.
-

language development - means of expressing future.

The function of ship's electrical distribution system is to safely convey the generated electrical
power to every item of consumer equipment connected to it. Probably the most obvious element in the
system is the main distribution centre, the ship's main switchboard the main board supplies bulk power
to motor group starter boards (often part of the distribution board), section boards and distribution
boards. Protection, circuit-breaker and fuses, strategically placed throughout the system automatically
disconnect a faulty circuit within the network. Transformers interconnect the high voltage and low
voltage distribution sections of the system.
The operational state of a distribution system is indicated by the monitors for power, voltage,
current and protection relay for over currents and earth-faults at each main control centre. The vast
majority of ships have an alternating current (a.c.) distribution system in preference to a direct current
(d.c.) system. The required electrical services are broadly considered as main and emergency supplies.
An a.c. network is cheaper to install and operate than a d.c. system. In particular, a.c. offers a
higher power/weight ratio for the generation, distribution and utilization of electricity. Simple
transformers efficiently step-up or step-down a.c. voltages where required.
The frequency of an a.c. power system can be 50 Hz or 60 Hz. In Europe and most of the world
the national frequency is 50 Hz but is 60Hz, in North America and few other countries. This higher
frequency means that motors and generators run at higher speeds with a consequent reduction in size
for a give power rating.
Light and low power single-phase supplies usually operate at the lower voltage of 220V a.c.
although 110V a.c. is also used. These voltages are derived from step-down transformers connected to
the 440V system.
The distribution system is the mean by which the electrical power produced by the generators is
delivered to the various motors, lighting, galley services, navigation aids .
The main electrical load is dividing into essential and non-essential services.
Emergency supplies are necessary for loads which are required to handle a potentially dangerous
situation. An emergency electrical power service must be provided on board in the event of a main
power failure. Such a supply is required for emergency lighting, alarms, communications, watertight
doors and other services necessary to maintain safety and to permit safe evacuation of the ship.
The emergency power system must be ready and available at all times. Such reliability requires
special care and maintenance. The main generators are not shut down but the emergency power sources
are energized and connected to supply the emergency services for the period of the practice session.
To maintain generator operation during an overload, a preferential load shedding arrangement is
employed. This is achieved by special overload relay, called a preference trip relay. If generator overload
develops, the preference trip relay sets an alarm and acts to trip selected non-essential loads. This
































































































































































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reduces the generator load so that it may continue to supply essential circuits. The generator preference
trip system can also be initiated by low speed at the generator prime-mover.


1.

Answer the following questions:
1.

What does the ship's main switchboard supply?
2.

Is an a.c. network cheaper or more expensive to install and operate?
3.

The main electrical load is dividing into .
4.

What is a preference trip?

2.

Speak about the 50 Hz and 60 Hz frequency.

1.2. Means of expressing future
Future simple
will/shall + verb (bare infinitive)

Time expressions: tomorrow; tonight, soon, next week/month/year, summer etc.
USE EXAMPLE
On-the-spot decisions
I'd like something sweet; I'll buy some
chocolate.
Predictions about the future based on
what we think, imagine, believe
I think he will call you.
Promises, warnings, threats, requests,
suggestions, offers
I'll tell mom if you don't stop hitting me.
Actions and events that we cannot
control and will definitely happen.
She will be 21 in February.

Will is not used in time clauses which are usually introduced by when, until, 'till, before, after. Instead
we use an adequate tense.
e.g. We will go fishing when we finish our homework.
(NOT: We will go fishing when we will finish our homework).

"Be going to" future
The be going to future is formed with the present of the auxiliary verb to be + going + the long infinitive
of the verb.

Time expressions: tomorrow, tonight, soon, next week/month/year/summer etc. (the same used with
future simple)
USE EXAMPLE
Intentions, plans and ambitions
I am going to be a famous scientist
one day.
Decision for the near future He is going to buy a new house.
Predictions based on evidence There are black clouds in the sky. It is
































































































































































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going to rain.
Intentions, plans and ambitions
I am going to be a famous scientist
one day.

Will + be + Verb + ing
These verbs do not double the final consonant write -writing, open- opening.
Be careful with the spelling of these verbs: lie - lying, die - dying

Time expressions: tomorrow, this time tomorrow/next week/month, year, today etc.
USE EXAMPLE
Actions in progress at a stated time in
the future
She will be dying my hair this time
tomorrow.
Actions that are part of a routine
I'll be visiting my aunt next
Saturday. (I visit her every Saturday)
Polite questions about somebody's
plans.
Will you be driving to the office this
morning? Could you give me a lift?

will + have + verb (past participle)
"Until" and "till" can only be used in negative sentences. In affirmative sentences "by" is used.
e.g. He will not have finished the project until I get home.

USE EXAMPLE
Actions which will be completed
before a future stated time.
She will have finished dinner by the
time you start eating

Present simple with future reference
The present simple can be used with future reference in timetables and programs.
e.g. The train leaves at eight o'clock tonight.

Present continuous with future reference
The present continuous can be used with future reference for fixed arrangements in the near future
(social arrangements).
e.g. We are playing football tomorrow.

1. Choose the most suitable equivalents of the sentences below.
Model: I am threatening my brother with not helping him with the homework.
a.

I am not going to help you with the homework!
b.

I won't help you with the homework.
1.

Heavy clouds gathered on the sky.
a.

It will rain.
b.

It is going to rain.
2.

I plan to learn to drive.
a.

I will take driving lessons.
b.

I'm going to take driving lessons.
































































































































































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3.

She doesn't plan to leave this job.
a.

She won't leave her job.
b.

She isn't going to leave her job.
4.

I can't carry my luggage. I'm asking for help.
a.

Will you help me with the luggage?
b.

Are you going to help me with the luggage?
5.

We've arranged a football match for Sunday.
a.

We will have a football match on Sunday.
b.

We are having a football match on Sunday.
6.

She is likely to be successful.
a.

She will probably be successful.
b.

She is probably going to be successful.
7.

I have an appointment at the dentist's for today.
a.

I will see the dentist today.
b.

I'm seeing the dentist today.
8.

The weather forecast says snow for tomorrow.
a.

It is going to snow tomorrow.
b.

It will snow tomorrow.
9.

Her lips are trembling.
a.

She is going to cry.
b.

She will cry.
10.

I'm saying "goodbye" to a friend. The next meeting is tomorrow.
a.

I'll see you tomorrow.
b.

I'm going to see you tomorrow.

2. Rephrase the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.
Model: I intend to spend more time with my daughter.
I am going to spend more time with my daughter.
1.

I promise to download the film for you.
I will .......... you.
2.

She refuses to let me read her diary.
She won't .......... her diary.
3.

I have arranged a meeting with Hilary for Monday.
I .......... on Monday.
4.

I will be in my car this time tomorrow.
This time tomorrow, I .......... .
5.

My decision is to borrow some money from my friend.
I .......... from my friend.
6.

How about buying some ice-cream?
Shall .......... ice-cream?
7.

I can't solve this problem. Can you help me, please?
Will .......... this problem?
8.

What do you see yourself doing in ten years' time?
What will .......... in ten years' time?
9.

Writing the composition won't take them more than half an hour.
They will .......... the composition in half an hour.
10.

Would you like me to buy you a Coke?
Shall .......... a Coke?
































































































































































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Self-assessment test
1.

Match the words in group I with their definitions in group II.
1.

generator
2.

light
3.

overload relay
4.

relay
5.

starter
6.

switch-board
7.

transformers
8.

trip relay

a.

a machine or device that is used to convert mechanical energy, into electricity
b.

one or more insulating panels containing the electrical devices and instruments
such as switches, required to operate electrical equipment
c.

starting device for starting electrical motor
d.

a device that transfers electrical energy from one alternating circuit to another
with a change in voltage, current, phase, or impedance
e.

an electronic or electromechanical switching device, typically operated by a low
voltage, that controls a higher-voltage circuit and turns it on or off
f.

a greater amount of electrical current than an electrical system can handle
g.

an electrical switch designed to interrupt a circuit, or the power to a machine,
quickly
h.

the equipment used for providing artificial light

2.

Match the examples with the meanings in the table.
1.

Are you going to the match tomorrow?
2.

Are you going to go out this evening or not?
3.

My driving license expires in 2030.
4.

I've had enough. I'll finish this tomorrow.
5.

We'll be sending you more details in the post.

































































































































































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3.

Tick the most appropriate of the underlined words.
1. She looks very pale. I think she'll / she's going to faint.
2. I'll / I'm going to do that for you, if you like.
3. I'll be / I'm going to be a rocket scientist when I grow up.
4. 'Somebody's at the door.' 'I'll / I'm going to see who it is.'
5. I need to be home early today so I leave / am leaving at 4.00.
6. We'll be in plenty of time providing the traffic is not / won't be too bad.
7. She asked if I would / will be so kind as to give her a lift.
8. What sort of job do you think you will do / will be doing in a few years' time?
9. By the time you get back, all the food will have gone / will go.
10. The two Prime Ministers are to / shall discuss the current economic crisis.


4.

Match the following phrases with the corresponding explanations:
1.

to smell a rat
2.

by all means
3.

in a sense
4.

to see red
5.

in the best sense of the term

a.

giving the word the best possible meaning;
b.

to be violently angry;
c.

from one aspect;
d.

to suspect that something wrong is being done;
e.

at all costs


Progress test
1.

Translate, paying attention to the new terms:

Main generator units have to be run in parallel to share a total load that exceeds the
capacity of a single machine.

The system should be designed in such a way that under all normal conditions of
operation, power should be distributed from main switchboard.

If the starter motor armature just happens to stop on a bad spot" the circuit is open
and the starter won't turn.

The circuit breakers must be capable of safely and rapidly interrupting a short-circuit
current.

Fuses are fitted in circuits to give protection against short-circuit.

The transformers are generally air cooled, being mounted in sheet steel enclosures
which are often located adjacent to the main switchboard.

The relay may be electromagnetic or electronic.
































































































































































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An overload relay detects the fault current and initiates the trip action.

To maintain the preference relay trip settings as originally specified they must be
periodically tested and calibrated.

2.

Choose the correct variant in each of the following pairs in italics.
Model: What are you going to do / will you do with the project?
1. Stay calm 'till you find out/will find out the truth.
2. When are you having/do you have the party?
3. This time next Monday she will be taking/will take an important exam.
4. Hurry up or you'll miss/be missing the school-bus!
5. By the time he gets /he will get to school, the English class will have finished.
6. What am I going to do? She won't / isn't going to help me.
7. By the time he wakes up his mother will be preparing/will have prepared breakfast.
8. What time is the plane taking off/does the plane take off?
9. I'll finish /I'll have finished homework in ten minutes.
10. Shall/Could I lend you a helping hand?

3.

Put each verb in brackets into a suitable verb form.
1. Can you go to the shop honey? I ........................................ (make) a salad in the evening, but
I don't have all the ingredients.
2. Hurry up! The movie ........................................ (start) in a minute.
3. I ........................................ (give up) smoking.
4. I'm sure he ........................................ (finally crop up).
5. As you can see in the schedule our boss ........................................ (have) three meetings
tomorrow.
6. Be careful and enjoy the holidays. I ........................................ (wait) for you.
7. I ........................................ (see) Kate in the evening. Would you like to join us?
8. By the time she arrives, I ........................................ (clean) all the mess.
9. The concert ........................................ (finish) at 7. I can pick you up later.
10. What present ........................................ (you buy) for Kate?
11. We ........................................ (go) on holidays to France, and you?
12. Our team is playing terribly. We ........................................ (lose).
13. Don't call me after midnight. I ........................................ (sleep).
14. There is no point going to the concert now. When we arrive, it ........................................
(already finish).
15. Take me with you daddy. I promise I ........................................ (not grumble).
16. Sheila ........................................ (move out) next month. She says she has to.
17. You shouldn't have given up your job. You ........................................ (not find) a better one.
18. It ........................................ (be) Monday tomorrow, such a terrible day.
19. We won't see each other. When they come, I ........................................ (already go out).
20. At 6 p.m. we ........................................ (watch) our favourite serial, so don't try to bother.

































































































































































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Answers to self-assessment test
1.

1. a; 2. h; 3. f; 4. e; 5. c; 6. b; 7. d; 8. g.
2.

1. fixed plans / arrangements; 2. a personal intention; 3.an unalterable arrangement
or fact; 4. an immediate decision; 5. an action that will happen because it is regular or
decided.
3.

1. she's going to; 2. I'll; 3. I'm going to be; 4.I'll; 5. am leaving; 6. is not; 7. Would; 8.
will be doing; 9. will have gone; 10. are to.
4.

1. d; 2. e; 3. c; 4. b; 5. a.


References
Alexander, L., G., English Grammar, Longman, London, 1996.
Bell, I., Gower, R., First certificate expert coursebook, Pearson Education Limited,
Edinburgh, England, 2009.
Blankey, T., N., English for Maritime Studies, Pergamon Press, Great Britain, 1983.
Hewings, M., Advanced grammar in use, Cambridge University Press, Edinburgh, 2003.
Kluijven, P., C., The International Maritime Language Programme, Alk Heijnen Publishers,
Alkmaar, The Netherlands, 2003.
Nisbet A., Kutz A. W., Logie C., Marlins English for Seafarers study pack 1, Marlins,
Edinburgh, 1997.

































































































































































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Unit 2


Electrical installations and lighting aboard ships

Contents Pagina

Objectives.. 13
2.1. Electrical installation aboard ships
.... 13
2.2. The amount of redundancy based on the types of voyage
. 13
2.3. Insulated distribution systems
.. . 14
2.4. Special purpose lighting
14
2.5. Adjectives and adverbs
.. 15
Self-assessment test....................................................... 19
Progress test... 19
Answers to self-assessment test. 20
References.. 21





































































































































































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2.

Electrical installations and lighting aboard ships
2.1. Objectives


-

reading comprehension skills - electrical installation aboard ships;
the amount of redundancy based on the types of voyage; insulated
distribution systems; energy sources for emergency lighting and
communications; special purpose lighting.
-

language development - adjectives and adverbs.

Electrical installations aboard ships

Electric installations aboard ships are very complete part of electrical engineering. They have to
cover the complete spectrum from power generation, switchgear and distribution to all large and small
power consumers: all automation, remote control, internal and external communication, navigation -
and nautical equipment.
The basic difference between a ship electric system and a share electric system is that a ship has
to be self-supporting. This means, that it requires sufficient redundancy. The people who are able to
repair the various components in case of a failure, and the necessary spares to do so must be on board.
The required amount of redundancy is based on the voyages the ship is designed for. A ship for short
voyages, costal, or inland, can do with less spare equipment than a ship which has to stay at sea several
months or even a year.
Redundancy is the amount of spare equipment or even systems installed on board to be able to
continue in case of a single failure. Examples:
- a second light in a public space powered from a second group.
- a second generator in an engine-room connected to a separate section of the switchboard.
- a second electric motor driving a standby section of the switchboard.
Some types of ships and offshore equipment require this redundancy not only in case of
breakdown, but even in case of fire in a space, or flooding of a space. Whole engine-rooms are doubled
in the heaviest class of redundancy: a second engine-room with a second set of generators connected to
a second switchboard. The redundancy goes on in supplies to the consumers, cable routing etc. No
primary cable shall run together with the redundancy second cable.
The same goes for controls and control cables. The way an installation is controlled has its impact
on the design: a manned engine-room needs less control equipment than an unmanned engine-room.
These considerations have their consequences for the basic design, including the location of equipment,
the spare equipment and cable routing.

INSULATED AND EARTHED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

The early electrical installations on board of ships were small, the cables poor, and duplication of
components or systems rare. To be able to continue operation with a single earth fault , the components
were insulated, i.e. no connection of the neutral (starpoint or the zero cable) with the ship's hull
(earth).This made it possible to continue operation of the ship, in case of a single earth fault, while
searching for this earth fault.
































































































































































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Nowadays the installations are large, and the capacitive coupling of the cable network to earth is
large. Consequently, the current resulting from the first single earth fault, can be something like a ten
amperes, equivalent to a heater of various kilowatts.
Based on above, it is therefore recommended to use a 3 phase, 4 wire neutral earthed
distribution system, the same as used ashore. Apart from earlier mentioned reasons, also, because all
other conditions are very much alike shore installations.
Electrical equipment for ships in the past was specially designed for marine use, heavier installation, and
more robust construction, but nowadays it is shore equipment adapted do the marine environment. The
marine environment means vibration, ships regular and irregular movements, salt, dust, etc. contrary to
most shore conditions.

EMERGENCY ELECTIC SUPPLY

Batteries are energy sources for emergency lighting and communications during a certain time. On large
ships and on ships carrying more than 32 passengers the required capacity of batteries for emergency
lighting and communication is too big to handle practically. A separate emergency generator is for such
ships the normal solution.
An emergency generator is a generator with the same main characteristics as a main generator, but
located in a space separated from the main generators and independent of any equipment outside this
space.
Therefore, in the emergency generator room the following is installed:
- emergency generator, with double starting equipment,
- fuel in a separate fuel tank,
- the emergency switchboard.

1.

Answer the following questions:
1.

Which is the basic difference between a ship electric system and a share electric system?
2.

What is redundancy?
3.

How was the electrical equipment for ships in the past?
4.

What is the required capacity of batteries on large ships?

2.


1.

Speak about earth fault.
2.

Give the characteristics of the emergency generator.


Lighting aboard a ship

The ship's lighting system is a subsystem of the ship service and emergency power systems.
Its primary function is to light the ship. It also provides power to small appliances and service
receptacles. The lighting system provides for general, detail, special, low level, and emergency
illumination.
Overhead and bulkhead-mounted lighting fixtures provide general lighting for compartments
and spaces. Detail lighting is added where general lighting is inadequate for a specific task. Special
purpose lighting includes temporary lighting (portable lanterns, relay lanterns, and portable floodlights),
deck lighting, ship numeral lights, and boom lights. Low level lighting includes red, yellow, low level
white (LLW), and broad band blue (BBB) illumination.
































































































































































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Emergency lighting consists of a selected group of fixtures provided for all spaces and interior
watch-stations where continuous illumination is essential. LLW lighting is used on submarines in
command and control spaces to minimize interference with viewing of display consoles, and to provide
dark adaptation for nighttime periscope viewing. Some surface ships have LLW installed in command and
control spaces that have color display consoles.

1.

Give the full form for the following abbreviations: BBB and LLW.
2.

Where is LLW lighting used and why?
3.

Speak about the emergency lighting.

2.2. Adjectives and adverbs

Adjectives
They describe nouns and are placed before nouns and after some verbs such as be, feel, look,
seem, become.
e.g. You are/seem/look happy.
I feel sad.
She has become disappointed.


Adjectives have the same form in the singular and in the plural and do not change for male and
female.
e.g. What a nice girl!
What a nice boy!
What nice children!


Gradable adjectives
To describe similar qualities we can use different adjectives at different levels of the same quality.
For example there are more adjectives that we can use to describe hot and cold.
freezing cold cool warm hot boiling


Intensifiers
Intensifiers are used to describe how much with adjectives: very, really, extremely.
We can use very, really, extremely with an adjective which has a neutral meaning.
e.g. It is a very good play.
But we cannot use an adjective with an extreme meaning with a strong intensifier.
e.g. We cannot say The play is extremely excellent.


Adjectives ending In -ed and -ing
Adjectives ending in -ed and -ing are often confused.
Something or someone can be -ing (boring) and if something is -ing, it makes us feel -ed (bored). So
the adjective ending in -ing is the cause, and the adjective ending in - ed is the effect.
e.g. The lesson is boring, so I am bored.
The film is frightening, so I am frightened.


Adverbs
Adverbs say where, when, how, how often something is done, or someone does something.
Adverbs describe verbs and they come after verbs.
































































































































































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e.g. She walks slowly.
He spoke angrily.


Formation of adverbs
The starting point in forming an adverb is an adjective. We usually form the adverb by adding -ly to the
adjective.
e.g. bad - badly, calm - calmly
Adjectives ending in -le drop the -e and add -y.
e.g. simple - simply, horrible - horribly
Adjectives ending in consonant + y drop the - y and add -ily.
e.g. happy - happily; angry - angrily
Adjectives ending in -l double the -l when adding the -ly.
e.g. careful - carefully, wonderful - wonderfully


Adverbs with the same form as adjectives
hard, fast, late, well (adjective = healthy, in good condition) and well (the adverb of good)
e.g. It is a hard challenge.
We worked hard.
I don't feel well. (adjective)
He plays the piano well.

Some of the adverbs which have the same form as adjectives can also have a -ly form but with a change
of meaning.
hard: He works hard.
hardly: He can hardly walk, (meaning "almost not") = He can almost not walk.
late: I arrived late.
lately: We've quarreled a lot lately, (meaning "recently")


Frequency adverbs
Frequency adverbs show how often someone does an action or something happens.
The most used frequency adverbs are: always, often, usually, frequently, sometimes, normally,
occasionally, rarely, hardly ever, seldom, never.
Frequency adverbs go between the subject and the verb.
e.g. I seldom skip classes.
BUT frequency adverbs are used after the verb BE.
e.g. She is never sad.

The comparison of adjectives
Form of the adjective Positive Comparative Superlative
one syllable adjectives short adjective + -er
shorter
the + adjective + -est the
shortest
two or more
syllable adjectives
ending in
-
y, -w, -er
happy adjective + -er happier the + adjective + -est the
happiest
two or more syllable
adjectives
important more + adjective more
important
the most + adjective the
most important
































































































































































18



Spelling
One syllable adjectives ending in one consonant double the final consonant when adding -er or -est.
e.g. big - bigger, the biggest,
One syllable adjectives ending in -e only add -r and st
e.g. large - larger, the largest
Two or more syllable adjectives ending in y change the -y to -l when adding the -er or -est
e.g. happy - happier, the happiest

Some two-syllable adjectives form their comparative and superlative either by adding -er / -est or with
more / the most. These are: common, quiet, stupid, tired and adjectives ending in -ow, -le, -er.
e.g. quiet - quieter, the quietest; quiet - more quiet, the most quiet.
slow - slower, the slowest, slow- more slow, the most slow.


The comparison of the adverbs
Form of the
adverb
Positive Comparative Superlative
Adverbs with the
same form as
adjectives
fast adverb + -er faster the+ adverb + -est
the fastest
Two syllable
adverbs
early adverb + -er earlier the + adverb + -est
the earliest
Compound
adverbs
(adjective + ly)
angrily more + adverb more
angrily
the most + adverb
the most angrily


Spelling
Two syllable adverbs ending in - y change the -y to -i when adding -er or -est.
e.g. early - earlier, the earliest.
As many commonly used adverbs form their comparative and superlative in -er and -est (early, late,
hard, fast), other adverbs which normally form the comparative and superlative with more and most also
tend to change to -er and -est form in informal speech.
e.g. slowly - more slowly, the most slowly (formal)
slow - slower, the slowest (informal)
quickly - more quickly, the most quickly (formal)
quick - quicker, the quickest (informal)
loudly - more loudly, the most loudly (formal)
loud - louder, the lodest (informal)


Making comparison
When comparing two things we use the comparative.
e.g. Mary is more beautiful than Rita.
When using the superlative we compare one thing with an entire group of similar things.
e.g. Mary is the most beautiful girl in the class.
There are three types of comparative:
1.

to a higher degree (comparative form + than) e.g. She is smarter than her colleague.
































































































































































19

2.

to the same degree (as .. as/ not as ... as)
e.g. Thomas is as tall as Lawrence.
Sandra is not as famous as Madonna.
3.

to a lower degree (less + than)
e.g. Fiona is less friendly than her sister.

Choose the correct adjective in each pair in italics.
Model: I don't like this dish. It's disgusting / disgusted.
1.

Ouch! You should have told me that the tea was warm/boiling.
2.

This building is absolutely impressing/impressed.
3.

The Colossus of Rhodes was a big/huge statue.
4.

That's the best film I have ever seen. It's a good/fantastic film.
5.

A very touching film. The plot was shocked/shocking.
6.

What's wrong? You seem worried/happy.
7.

I can hardly feel my fingers. It's cold/freezing.
8.

So many Mathematics books. Little did I suspect that you're interesting / interested in
Mathematics.
9.

The weather was warmer/colder than I expected, so I didn't need to wear heavy clothes.
10.

We watched the children playing hide and seek. They were amused/amusing.

Rewrite each sentence so that it has a similar meaning and contains the word given.
Model: She is such a careless driver. (drives)
She drives carelessly.
Your handwriting is wonderful. (write)
......................
This is a fast train. (goes)
......................
You should pay attention while handling the china. (carefully)
......................
They should treat her better. (don't)
......................
Tim and Philip are hard-working students. (work)
......................
She's an awful dancer. (dances)
......................
He was disappointed because of the bad results at the exam. (did)
......................
She is a quick languages learner. (learns)
......................
His English is very good. (speaks)
......................
He had serious wounds. (was wounded)
......................

































































































































































20


Self-assessment test
1.

Give the definition for the following terms: lighting fixture, branch circuit,
switchboard, network, appliance.

2.

Choose the right ending (s) for:
1.

"to fit" means:
a.

to be the right shape / size for;
b.

to suit;
c.

to be healthy;
2.

"fit" (adj.) means:
a.

light;
b.

proper;
c.

ready;
3.

"to fix up" means:
a.

to be isolated;
b.

to make arrangements;
c.

to repair.

3.

Find words that are opposites of these:
openly, narrow, deep, strong, well.
4.

Give the antonyms for the words in the list below:
healthy, weak, dark, strong, fat, ill, thin, light, bad, good.
5.

Choose the right word in the pair in italics.
Model: She feels well / good.
Can you please walk slow/slowly?
She screamed frighteningly/frightening.
She seemed happy/happily.
She thought she was beautiful/beautifully.
He presented a successful/successfully project.
They are impressed/impressing by our efforts.
She felt badly/bad because of the mistakes she had done.
They never seem to enjoy anything; they are always bored/boring.
Good/Well kids always listen to their mothers.
I'm getting hungry/hungrily.


Progress test
1.

Translate the following paragraph:
Navigation light is a colored source of illumination on an aircraft, spacecraft, or
waterborne vessel, used to signal a craft's position, heading, and status. Commonly, their
placement is mandated by international conventions or civil authorities. A vessels lights should
indicate:
what type of vessel it is;
what the vessel is doing;
the direction that the vessel is travelling.

2.

Write the missing forms:
































































































































































21


bad / worse / the ...

good / ... / the best

late ... / the last
... / the ...

3.

Choose the word or phrase marked A, B, C or D that best completes each sentence.
Model: Although she reads a lot she is the ...C... intelligent student in her class.
A. most B. less C. least D. more
1.

She is in the class.
A. the most tall girl B. the girl most tall C. the tallest girl D. the girl most tall
2.

You dance better... anyone in our group.
A as B. than C. then D. besides
3.

She is ... smart... her brother.
A. as . than B. as....then C. as ... as D. less ... as
4.

The scenery here seems to be ...
A. more wild B. more wilder C. wilder D. a wilder
5.

I was feeling ...
A. worse and worse B. badder and badder C. worst and worst D. the worst and
worst
6.

He runs ...Mike.
A. as fast than B faster than C. more fast than D. less faster than
7.

I'm afraid your daughter is ... Mary.
A. as good as B. not as good as C. worse as D. not as better as
8.

I think this play is ... interesting ... the previous one.
A. more ... as B. less ... as C. less ... than D. little ... than
9.

Can you please walk ... I am tired.
A. more slowly B. less slowly C. the most slowly D. slow
10.

Thomas is ... swimmer... Tim.
A. as good ... as B. a better... than C. less ... than D. a worse ... as


Answers to self-assessment test
1.


lighting fixture - a fixture providing artificial light
branch circuit - the portion of an electrical wiring system that extends beyond the final,
automatic overcurrent protective device (circuit breaker or fuse),
switchboard - one or more panels accommodating control switches, indicators, and other
apparatus for operating electric circuits.
network - a group or system of electric components and connecting circuitry designed to
function in a specific manner.
appliance - a device or instrument designed to perform a specific function, especially an
electrical device
2.

1. a, b; 2. b, c; 3. b, c.
3.

secretly, wide, shallow, weak, bad.
4.

ill, strong, light, weak, thin, healthy, fat, dark, good, bad.
5.

1. slowly; 2. frighteningly; 3. happy; 4. beautiful; 5. successful; 6. impressed; 7. bad; 8.
bored; 9. good; 10. hungry.

































































































































































22


References
Alexander, L., G., English Grammar, Longman, London, 1996.
Bell, I., Gower, R., First certificate expert coursebook, Pearson Education Limited,
Edinburgh, England, 2009.
Blankey, T., N., English for Maritime Studies, Pergamon Press, Great Britain, 1983.
Kluijven, P., C., The International Maritime Language Programme, Alk Heijnen Publishers,
Alkmaar, The Netherlands, 2003.
Logie C., Vivers E., Nisbet A., Marlins English for Seafarers study pack 2, Marlins, Edinburgh,
1998.

































































































































































23


Unit 3


Electrical cables and electrical insulators

Contents Pagina

Objectives.. 23
3.1. Types of cables
.. 23
3.2. Electrical insulators
... 24
3.3. W ishes ..
24
Self-assessment test....................................................... 26
Progress test... 27
Answers to self-assessment test. 28
References.. 28





































































































































































24


3.

Electrical cables and electrical insulators
3.1. Objectives


-

reading comprehension skills - types of cables; skin and proximity
effects; materials that can serve as safe insulators; electrical
breakdown of an insulator;
-

language development - wishes.

Electrical cables may be made more flexible by stranding the wires. In this process, smaller
individual wires are twisted or braided together to produce larger wires that are more flexible than solid
wires of similar size. Bunching small wires before concentric stranding adds the most flexibility. Copper
wires in a cable may be bare, or they may be plated with a thin layer of another metal, most often tin but
sometimes gold, silver or some other material. Tin, gold, and silver are much less prone to oxidation than
copper, which may lengthen wire life, and makes soldering easier. Tinning is also used to provide
lubrication between strands. Tinning was used to help removal of rubber insulation. Tight lays during
stranding makes the cable extensible.
Cables can be securely fastened and organized, such as by using trunking, cable trays, cable ties
or cable lacing. Continuous-flex or flexible cables used in moving applications within cable carriers can be
secured using strain relief devices or cable ties.
Two or more wires may be wrapped concentrically, separated by insulation, to form coaxial
cable. At high frequencies, current tends to run along the surface of the conductor. This is known as the
skin effect. For many high-frequency applications, proximity effect is more severe than skin effect, and in
some limited cases, simple stranded wire can reduce proximity effect. For better performance at high
frequencies, litz wire, which has the individual strands insulated and twisted in special patterns, may be
used.

Solid versus stranded

Solid wire, also called solid-core or single-strand wire, consists of one piece of metal wire.
Stranded wire is composed of a bundle wires to make a larger conductor.
Stranded wire is more flexible than solid wire of the same total cross-sectional area. Solid wire is cheaper
to manufacture than stranded wire and is used where there is little need for flexibility in the wire. Solid
wire also provides mechanical ruggedness; and, because it has relatively less surface area which is
exposed to attack by corrosives, protection against the environment. Stranded wire is used when higher
resistance to metal fatigue is required. Such situations include connections between circuit boards in
multi-printed-circuit-board devices, where the rigidity of solid wire would produce too much stress as a
result of movement during assembly or servicing; a.c. line cords for appliances; computer mouse cables;
welding electrode cables; control cables connecting moving machine parts; trailing machine cables; and
numerous others.

1.

Answer the following questions:
1.

What is the skin effect?
2.

What kind of wire is used at high frequencies for better performance?
































































































































































25

3.

What is a stranded wire; when is used this type of wire?
2.

Speak about the flexibility of electrical cables.


Electrical insulators

The first electrical systems to make use of insulators were telegraph lines; direct attachment of
wires to wooden poles was found to give very poor results, especially during damp weather.
An insulator, also called a dielectric, is a material that resists the flow of electric charge.
Insulating materials are used in electrical equipment as insulators or insulation. Their function is to
support or separate electrical conductors without allowing current through themselves. The term also
refers to insulating supports that attach electric power transmission wires to utility poles or pylons.
Some materials such as glass, paper or Teflon are very good electrical insulators. Even though
they may have lower bulk resistivity, a much larger class of materials are still "good enough" to insulate
electrical wiring and cables. Examples include rubber-like polymers and most plastics. Such materials can
serve as practical and safe insulators for low to moderate voltages (hundreds, or even thousands, of
volts).
Insulators are commonly used as a flexible coating on electric wire and cable. Since air is an
insulator, in principle no other substance is needed to keep power where it should be. High-voltage
power lines commonly use just air, since a solid (e.g., plastic) coating is impractical. However, wires
which touch each other will produce cross connections, short circuits, and fire hazards. Wires which
expose voltages higher than 60V can cause human shock and electrocution hazards. Insulating coatings
help to prevent all of these problems.
The electrical breakdown of an insulator due to excessive voltage can occur in one of two ways:
Puncture voltage is the voltage across the insulator (when installed in its normal manner) which
causes a breakdown and conduction through the interior of the insulator. The heat resulting
from the puncture arc usually damages the insulator irreparably.
Flashover voltage is the voltage which causes the air around or along the surface of the insulator
to break down and conduct, causing a 'flashover' arc along the outside of the insulator. They are
usually designed to withstand this without damage.

1.

Answer the following questions:
1.

What is an insulator?
2.

Is the term insulator synonym with dielectric?
3.

What materials are very good electrical insulators?
2.

Explain how an electrical breakdown of an insulator can occur.
3.2. Wishes
wishes about the present and future
1. We use 'wish' + past simple to express that we want a situation in the present (or future) to be
different.
I wish I spoke Italian. (I don't speak Italian.)
I wish I had a big car. (I don't have a big car.)
I wish I was on a beach. (I'm in the office.)
Future: I wish it was the weekend tomorrow. (It's only Thursday tomorrow.)

2. We use 'wish' + past continuous to express that we want to be doing a different action in the
































































































































































26

present (or future).
I wish I was lying on a beach now. (I'm sitting in the office.)
I wish it wasn't raining. (It is raining.)
Future: I wish you weren't leaving tomorrow. (You are leaving tomorrow.)
wishes about the past

We use 'wish' + past perfect to express a regret, or that we want a situation in the past to be different.
I wish I hadn't eaten so much. (I ate a lot.)
I wish they'd come on holiday with us. (They didn't come on holiday with us.)
I wish I had studied harder at school. (I was lazy at school.)
wish + would

We use 'wish' + would + bare infinitive to express impatience, annoyance or dissatisfaction with a
present action.
I wish you would stop smoking. (You are smoking at the moment and it is annoying me.)
I wish it would stop raining. (I'm impatient because it is raining and I want to go outside.)
I wish she'd be quiet. (I am annoyed because she is speaking.)

Important points
1. To simply express that you want something to happen in the future (not talking about wanting an
action or situation to be different, and not talking about impatience or annoyance) we use 'hope', not
'wish'.
I hope it's sunny tomorrow.
I wish it was sunny tomorrow. x
I hope she passes her exam next week.
I wish she were passing her exam next week. x
I hope the plane doesn't crash tomorrow.
I wish the plane wouldn't crash tomorrow. x

2. We can use 'wish' + infinitive or 'wish' + object + infinitive to mean 'want' in a formal situation.
I wish to leave now. (+ infinitive)
I wish to speak to your supervisor please. (+ infinitive)
I do not wish my name to appear on the list. (+ object + infinitive)

3. We can use '(I) wish you' in fixed expressions.
I wish you a happy birthday.
We wish you good luck in your new job.

1. Choose the correct form:
1.

I don't understand this point of grammar. I wish I ..... it better.
a. understood b. would understand c. had understood
2.

It never stops raining here. I wish it ..... raining.
a. stopped b. would stop c. had stopped
3.

I should never have said that. I wish I ..... that.
a. didn't say b. wouldn't say c. hadn't said
4.

I miss my friends. I wish my friends ..... here right now.
a. Were b. would be c. had been
5.

I speak terrible English. I wish I ..... English well.
































































































































































27

a. spoke b. would speak c. had spoken
6.

I cannot sleep. The dog next door is making too much noise. I wish it ..... quiet.
a. kept b. would keep c. had kept
7.

This train is very slow. The earlier train was much faster. I wish I ..... the earlier train.
a. caught b. would catch c. had caught
8.

I didn't see the TV programme but everybody said it was excellent. I wish I ..... it.
a. saw b. would see c. had seen
9.

I went out in the rain and now I have a bad cold. I wish I ..... out.
a. didn't go b. wouldn't go c. hadn't gone
10.

This movie is terrible. I wish we ..... to see another one.
a. went b. would go c. had gone

2. Choose the suitable continuation for each sentence.
Model: I haven't got a bike and I want one. ..A..
A. I wish I had a bike. B. I wish I had had a bike.

3. I haven't eaten anything and I am very hungry.
A. I wish I ate a sandwich. B. I wish I had eaten a sandwich.
2. It is raining and I am soaked to the skin.
A. I wish I had an umbrella. B. I wish I had had an umbrella.
3. I had an argument with my best friend and now I'm sorry.
A. l wish I didn't have that argument. B. I wish I hadn't had that argument.
4. You, students, are so noisy.
A. I wish you would talk less. B. I wish you will talk less.
5. He hasn't studied enough for his exam.
A. He wishes he would study more. B. He wishes he had studied.
6. The neighbour next door keeps insulting my dog.
A. I wish he would stop insulting my dog. B. I wish he will stop insulting my dog.


Self-assessment test
1.

Fill in the gaps with the right word:
The most important insulation material is air. A variety of solid, liquid, and ..1.. insulators
are also used in electrical apparatus. In smaller .2..., .3..., and .4.., insulation on the wire
coils consists of up to four thin layers of polymer varnish film. Film insulated .5.. permits a
manufacturer to obtain the maximum number of turns within the available space. Windings
that use thicker conductors are often wrapped with supplemental fiberglass .6. . Windings
may also be impregnated with insulating varnishes to prevent .7.. and reduce magnetically
induced wire vibration. Large power transformer windings are still mostly insulated with .8..,
wood, varnish, and .9. .

electrical corona, paper, mineral oil, gaseous, transformers, generators, electric motors,
magnet wire, insulating tape.

2.

Complete these sentences with suitable forms of the verbs given.
Model: I am thirsty. I wish I (buy) ... a bottle of water.
I am thirsty. I wish I had bought a bottle of water.
































































































































































28

1. I'm dead tired. I wish I (go) ... to bed earlier yesterday night.
2. That man is selling ice-cream. I wish I (can) ... buy one, too.
3. It is rather cold. I wish I (be) ... wearing my heavy coat.
4. I haven't told her the truth and I'm sorry. I wish I (tell) ... her the truth.
5. He doesn't like us. We wish he (like) ... us.
6. Our teacher is very strict when it comes to doing our homework. I wish she (be) ... less
strict.
7. I fell asleep before the interesting part of the fairy tale. I wish I (fall) ... asleep before the
interesting part of the story.
8. What a cute dog. I wish I (have) ... one, too.
9. She sings so beautifully. I wish I (can) ... sing like that.
10. They tease the new boy every day. I wish they (not tease) ... him.

3.

Match the following phrases with the corresponding explanations:
1.

to rub shoulders with all kinds of people
2.

no laughing matter
3.

never mind!
4.

to take matters easy
5.

as a matter of fact

a.

something very serious, of people;
b.

it is of no consequence;
c.

to pay a little attention of what is happening;
d.

in reality;
e.

to meet and mix with all kinds.


Progress test
1.

Translate the paragraph and make sentence with the new technical terms.
Dirt, pollution, salt, and particularly water on the surface of a high voltage insulator can create
a conductive path across it, causing leakage currents and flashovers. The flashover voltage can
be more than 50% lower when the insulator is wet. High voltage insulators for outdoor use are
shaped to maximize the length of the leakage path along the surface from one end to the
other, called the creepage length, to minimize these leakage currents.

2.

Translate the following paragraph, paying attention to the new technical terms:
Electrical wires are usually covered with insulating materials, such as plastic, rubber-like
polymers, or varnish. Insulating and jacketing of wires and cables is nowadays done by passing
them through an extruder. Formerly, materials used for insulation included treated cloth or
paper, and various oil-based products. For many decades, plastic and polymers exhibiting
properties similar to rubber have predominated.

3.

I hate living in England. It's cold and it's damp. I wish I ..... in Spain.
a. Lived b. would live c. had lived
4.

I love California. I wish I ..... there right now.
a. Were b. would be c. had been
































































































































































29

5.

My car is too small. I wish I ..... a bigger one.
a. Had b. would have c. had had
6.

I was only in Miami for a week. I wish I ..... more time there but I had to go on to
New York.
a. Had b. would have c. had had
7.

My face is bright red. I wish I ..... in the sun so long yesterday.
a. didn't sit b. wouldn't sit c. hadn't sat
8.

It was supposed to be a secret. I wish you ..... him.
a. didn't tell b. wouldn't tell c. hadn't told
9.

They didn't offer me the job. I wish they ..... it to me.
a. Offered b. would offer c. had offered
10.

You're always moaning about something or other. I wish you .....
a. shut up b. would shut up c. had shut up
11.

I hate having red hair. I wish I ..... blonde hair.
a. Had b. would have c. had had
12.

This exercise is very boring. I wish the teacher ..... us some more interesting
things to do.
a. gave b. would give c. had given

4.

Complete each sentence in a suitable way.
Model: You are so noisy. I wish you ... talking.
You are so noisy. I wish you would stop talking.
1. I'm late. I wish I ... earlier.
2. He is sorry for the things he said. He wishes ... those things.
3. This dress is extremely nice and cheap. I don't have enough money to buy it. I wish I ...
more money.
4. She wants to win the beauty contest. I wish she ... the beauty contest.
5. I don't understand a thing she says. I wish I ... Dutch.
6. I'm homesick. I wish I ... home.
7. I am so bored. I wish I ... to do.
8. Your dog has been barking for minutes. I wish it ... stop barking.


Answers to self-assessment test
1.

1. gaseous; 2. transformers; 3. generators; 4. electric motors; 5. magnet wire; 6.
insulating tape; 7. electrical corona; 8. paper; 9. mineral oil.
2.

1. had gone; 2. could; 3. were wearing; 4. had told her; 5. liked; 6. were; 7. hadn't
fallen; 8. had; 9. could; 10. wouldn't tease.
3.

1. e; 2. a; 3. b; 4. c; 5. d.


References
Alexander, L., G., English Grammar, Longman, London, 1996.
Blankey, T., N., English for Maritime Studies, Pergamon Press, Great Britain, 1983.
Hewings, M., Advanced grammar in use, Cambridge University Press, Edinburgh, 2003.
Kluijven, P., C., The International Maritime Language Programme, Alk Heijnen Publishers,
Alkmaar, The Netherlands, 2003.
Nisbet A., Kutz A. W., Logie C., Marlins English for Seafarers study pack 1, Marlins,
Edinburgh, 1997.
































































































































































30


































































































































































31


Unit 4


Electric motors aboard vessels

Contents Pagina

Objectives.. 30
4.1. Electric motor as a machine used on a large scale
. 30
4.2. The use of electric propulsion systems
.. 31
4.3. Structures with -ing and to forms
... 32
Self-assessment test....................................................... 35
Progress test... 36
Answers to self-assessment test. 37
References.. 37





































































































































































32


4.

Electric motors aboard vessels
4.1. Objectives


-

reading comprehension skills - electric motor as a machine used on
a large scale; the use of electric propulsion systems;
-

language development - structures with -ing" and to" forms.

Electric motor is a machine that converts electricity into mechanical energy or motion; an
electric motor is a type of prime mover for a mechanical system.
The reverse process, producing electrical energy from mechanical energy, is done by generators
such as an alternator or a dynamo. Many types of electric motors can be run as generators and vice
versa. For example, a starter/generator for a gas turbine or traction motors used on vehicles often
performs both tasks. Electric motors and generators are commonly referred to as electric machines.
Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps,
machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives. They may be powered by direct
current (e.g., a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle), or by alternating current from a
central electrical distribution grid or inverter. Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric
power, by their internal construction, by their application, or by the type of motion they give.
The physical principle of production of mechanical force by the interactions of an electric current
and a magnetic field was known as early as 1821. Electric motors of increasing efficiency were
constructed throughout the last century, but commercial exploitation of electric motors on a large scale
required efficient electrical generators and electrical distribution networks.

1.

After translating the paragraph above, make sentences of your own with the following
words and give their definition: electric motor, electrical energy, battery, fan,
compressors.

2.

Match the words in the first group with the ones in the second group.
1.

alternator
2.

compressors
3.

conductor
4.

current
5.

direct current
6.

electric power
7.

electrical distribution grid
8.

gas turbine
9.

pumps
10.

watt

a.

the flow of negative charges (electrons) through a conductor.
b.

a material that opposite extremely low resistance when current is passing it.
c.

electric machinery that produces electric potential by a rotary magnetic field through windings.
































































































































































33

d.

a type of internal combustion engine with an upstream rotating compressor coupled to a
downstream turbine, and a combustion chamber in-between.
e.

mechanical apparatus able to transfer liquid from one side to another.
f.

current that is flowing in one direction in a conductor , without passing through 0 position.
g.

heavy conductors connected from a source of power to all the electronic and electric devices
that need to be supplied.
h.

mechanic machine driven bay an electric motor or internal combustion motor , that is able to
inject small air volumes with a fast frequency ,usually , storing it in a recipe. The air inside the
recipe is compressed and so the term compressor".
i.

in the International System of values Watt is the measuring unit for power. The term is coming
from the name of a great scientist named James Watt.
j.

the amount of energy consumed when electric apparatus are supplied.


Electric propulsion represents the driving of a vessel's propeller shaft by an electric motor, with
the electric power for it being produced in one or more generators driven by steam propulsion, diesel
engines using residual fuel oil, or gas turbines.
Modern electric propulsion systems use alternating current. With early alternating current
systems the electric motor speed was changed by changing the speed of the alternator, and the direction
was changed by means of switch gear. This meant that the propulsion electrical generation system had
to be separate from the system serving the rest of the vessel. With a modern alternating current system
the same electrical generation plant generates power for the propulsion motors and the rest of the
vessel.
The propulsion motor generally runs at a constant speed and the speed and direction of the
vessel are changed by means of a controllable pitch propeller.
As there is no technical limit to the size of an electric motor, even large vessels can be equipped
with electric engines. The limitation is the power supply to the motors, which can be solved with newer
battery technology and the use of hybrid systems.
Some modern ships, including cruise ships and icebreakers, use electric motors in pods called
azimuth thrusters underneath to allow for 360 rotation, making the ships far more manoeuvrable.
While most boats on the water today are powered by diesel engines, and sail power and gasoline
engines are also popular, it is perfectly feasible to power boats by electricity too.
Gas turbines are also used for electrical power generation and some vessels use a combination:
the Queen Mary 2 has a set of diesel engines in the bottom of the ship plus two gas turbines mounted
near the main funnel; all are used for generating electrical power, including that used to drive the
propellers.
Early submarines used a direct mechanical connection between the engine and propeller,
switching between diesel engines for surface running, and electric motors for submerged propulsion.

1.

Translate and give the definition for the underlined words:
The diesel engine is installed with the prime purpose of charging the battery banks, and the
electric motor with that of propulsion. There is some reduction in efficiency if motoring for long
distances as the diesel's power is converted first to electricity and then to motion, but there is a
balancing saving every time the wind-, sail- and solar-charged batteries are used for manoeuvring and
for short journeys without starting the diesel.

2.

Speak about the modern electric propulsion systems.
































































































































































34


4.2. Structures with -ing and to forms

Some verbs are followed by a to-infinitive but not
-ing: agree, aim, ask, decline, demand, fail,
hesitate, hope, hurry, manage, offer, plan,
prepare, refuse, want, wish.
Some verbs are followed by -ing but not a to-
infinitive: admit, avoid, consider, delay, deny,
detest, dread, envisage, feel like, finish, imagine,
miss, recall, resent, risk, suggest.
The verbs begin, cease, start, and continue can be followed by either a to-infinitive or an -ing form with
little difference in meaning:
Even though it was raining, they continued to play /playing.
However, with these verbs we normally avoid using two -ing forms together, as a repeated pattern can
sound awkward:
I'm starting to learn Swahili. (rather than I'm starting learning Swahili.)
The verbs advise and encourage are followed by -ing when there is no object and to-infinitive when
there is one. Compare:
I'd advise taking more exercise.
and
I'd advise you to take more exercise.
Other verbs can be followed by either a to-infinitive or an -ing form, but there can be a difference in
meaning. These include come, go on, mean, regret, remember, stop, try.
+ to-infinitive + -ing
come to talk about a gradual change

After some years, they came to
accept her as an equal.
to say that someone moves in the way that
is described

He came hurrying up the path.
go on to mean that something is done after
something else is finished

After the interval, Pavarotti went on
to sing an aria from Tosca.
to say that someone moves in the way that
is described

Although she asked him to stop, he
went on tapping his pen on the
table.
mean to say that we intend(ed) to do something

I meant to phone you last week.
to say that something has something else as
a result

If we want to get there by 7.00, that
means getting up before 5.00.
regret to say that we are about to do something
we are not happy about

I regret to inform you that your
application has been unsuccessful.
to say we have already done something
that we are not happy about

It's too late now, but I'll always
regret asking John to do the work.
remember to mean that remembering comes before
the action described

Remember to take your hat when
you go out. (first remember, and
then take it)
to mean the action comes before
remembering

I remember going to the bank, but
nothing after that. (I remember
that I went there)
stop to say why we stop doing something

She stopped to make a cup of tea.
to say what it is that we stop doing

They stopped laughing when
Malcolm walked into the room.
































































































































































35

try to say that we attempt to do something

I tried to get the table through the
door, but it was too big.
to say we test something to see if it
improves a situation

I tried taking some aspirin, but the
pain didn't go away.
Some verbs must have an object before an -ing form:

The police found the man climbing the wall.

She overheard them talking about the
closure of the factory.
Other verbs like this include catch, discover, feel,
hear, leave, notice, observe, see, spot, watch
Notice, however, that this is not the case when these verbs are in the passive:

The man was found climbing the wall.

Some verbs can have an object or no object before an -ing form:

They can't stand (him) driving his old car.

I remember (you) buying that jumper.
Other verbs like this include detest, dislike, dread,
envisage, hate, imagine, like, love, mind (in
questions and negatives), miss, recall, regret,
resent, risk, start, stop

Some verbs can't have an object before an -ing form:

Despite his injury he continued playing.

I actually enjoy cleaning shoes. It's relaxing!
Other verbs like this include admit, advise,
consider, delay, deny, deserve, escape, face,
finish, forget, propose, put off, suggest

Some of the verbs (admit, deny, forget, recall, regret, remember) can be followed by having + past
participle instead of the -ing form, with little difference in meaning:

He remembered having arrived at the party, but not leaving, [or He remembered arriving...)

I now regret having bought the car. (or I now regret buying...)

These pairs of sentences have the same meaning:

I resented Tom winning the prize.
and

I resented Tom's winning the prize.

Mary recalled him borrowing the book.
and

Mary recalled his borrowing the book.

Other verbs that can be followed by an object with a possessive and then an -ing form include verbs of
'(dis)liking' such as detest, disapprove of, dislike, hate, like, love, object to, and verbs of 'thinking' such
as envisage, forget, imagine, remember, think of. Notice that we can only use a possessive form (Tom's,
his) like this to talk about a person or a group of people:

I remembered the horse winning the race. (but not ...the horse's winning...)

The possessive form in this pattern is usually considered to be rather formal.

A few verbs (feel, hear, notice, observe, overhear, see, watch) can be followed either by an -ing form or
a bare infinitive, but the meaning may be slightly different:
an -ing form a bare infinitive
































































































































































36

suggests that the action is repeated or happens
over a period of time.

Did you hear those dogs barking most of
the night?
suggests that the action happens only once

I noticed him throw a sweet wrapper on the
floor, so I asked him to pick it up.
suggests that we watch, etc. some of the action,
but not from start to finish

I was able to watch them building the new
car park from my office window.
suggests that we watch, hear, etc. the whole action
from its start to its finish

I watched him climb through the window,
and then I called the police.

1.

Complete these sentences in any appropriate way using either the to-infinitive or the -ing form
of the verb in brackets. If both forms are possible, give them both.
a.

Passing the kitchen, he stopped ... (drink)
b.

When the car broke down, she started ... (push)
c.

Here's the money I owe you. I meant ... (give)
d.

To lose weight, I'd advise you ... (cut out)
e.

I found that my back stopped ... when ... (ache)
f.

To help me get to sleep, I tried ... (think)
g.

The orchestra was just beginning ... (play)
h.

Please don't hesitate ... (call)
i.

When he found that he couldn't walk, he began ... (shout)
j.

The handle came off when I tried ... (lift)
k.

You could see the doctor today but as you haven't got an appointment it would mean ...
(wait)

2.

Complete the sentences with one of these verbs and, if necessary, an appropriate object. If it is
possible to have an object or no object, include an object but write it in brackets.
denied found heard imagined missed put off remembered spotted watched

2.

Through the bedroom window, I ... spotted my .sister leaving the house.
3.

I ... borrowing the book, but not returning it.
4.

The evidence seemed overwhelming, but Mason ... committing the murder.
5.

We can't ... buying a new car any longer. The one we've got now just doesn't start in
the morning.
6.

We searched the house, and eventually ... reading a book in her bedroom.
7.

I ... calling my name, so I went outside to see who was there.
8.

I closed my eyes and ... lying on a deserted beach in the sunshine.
9.

As the sun set, we ... appearing in the sky.
10.

Mark was a good guitarist, and after he went home we ... playing in the garden in the
evenings.


Self-assessment test
1.

Choose the correct correspondence for the terms in group I.
1.

battery
2.

blower
3.

electric motor
































































































































































37

4.

electrical energy
5.

electrostatic force
6.

generate
7.

magnetic fields

a.

machinery that converts electric energy into mechanical energy.
b.

the energy produced by the flow of electrostatic charges through an apparatus ,
supplying it .
c.

invisible magnetic lines formed by current passing through a conductor.
d.

to produce electrical potential.
e.

force that attract or repel materials that are positive charged or respectively
negative charged.
f.

powerful fan that supply with air for combustion the pistons of an engine.
g.

device that is able store electricity

2.

Complete these sentences with either a to-infinitive or an -ing form. Choose an
appropriate verb. Sometimes more than one verb is possible.
admire buy check enjoy introduce live notify put race say smoke
spend talk tell tear turn down
1.

a. Although it was hard at first, she came ... working for the airline.
b. As I walked through the gate, the dog came ... towards me.
c. After working with her for so long, I came ... her patience and efficiency.
d. Yesterday, Tom was so late he came ... downstairs, grabbed a cup of coffee and left.

2.

a. The children were shouting and screaming, but he went on ... to Frank.
b. We've tried to persuade her to stop, but she just goes on ...
c. Dr Harris welcomed the members of the committee and went on ... the subject of
the meeting.
d. Then, in her letter, she goes on ... that most of her family have been ill.

3.

a. I regret ... you that the model you want is out of stock.
b. We regret ... you that your request for a tax refund has been rejected.
c. Almost as soon as I had posted the letter, I regretted ... the job.
d. It cost me a fortune, but I don't regret ... a year travelling around the world.

4.

a. Bill was very young when they left, and he could no longer remember ... in the
house.
b. Did you remember ... a newspaper on the way home?
































































































































































38

c. Remember ... your answers before handing in your exam paper.
d. I remember ... the money in the top drawer, but it's not there now.

3.

Choose the right endings:
1.

"to occur" means:
a.

to persuade;
b.

to happen;
c.

to come into somebody's mind;
2.

"to suit" means:
a.

to be convenient to;
b.

to make suits;
c.

to fit;
3.

"to swing" means:
a.

to hang;
b.

to sway or wave to and fro;
c.

to oscillate;
4.

"to crack" means:
a.

to fracture;
b.

to cram;
c.

to break partially or suddenly;
5.

"to count" means:
a.

to have a certain value;
b.

to number;
c.

to sum up.


Progress test
1.

Translate and expand on the main ideas.
The advantage of electric boat propulsion systems are the low maintenance costs, the limited
noise and emission free operation. Charging the batteries with a photovoltaic solar system can
make the whole system fully independent of any external energy source. If this is not sufficient
for longer trips, the system can be equipped with a range extender, like a small gasoline or
diesel generator which recharges the batteries.

2.

If possible, rewrite these sentences using the possessive form of the object. If it is not
possible, write X.
I disapproved of him smoking in the house. I disapproved of his smoking...
We discovered the children hiding the chocolates under their beds.
The plan envisages Tony becoming Director next year.
If the authorities catch anyone breaking the rules, the punishment is severe.
I could imagine the car failing its annual inspection.
We objected to the company building a petrol station in our road.
































































































































































39

It amuses me to think of him sitting at a desk in a suit and tie.
My mother disapproved of the cat sleeping in my bedroom.

3.

Consider which verb form is more likely and why.
I heard the baby cry / crying for most of the night.
I felt the snake bite / biting me and saw it slither off into the bushes.
When you came out of the station, did you notice the children play / playing musical
instruments across the street?
I noticed her quickly slip / slipping the necklace inside her coat and leave the shop.


Answers to self-assessment test
1.

1. g; 2. f; 3. a; 4. b; 5. e; 6. d; 7. c.
2.

1. a. to enjoy; b. racing/tearing; c. to admire; d. tearing/racing; 2. a. talking; b.
smoking/ spending; c. to introduce; d. to say; 3. a. to tell / to notify; b. to tell / to
notify; c. turning down; d. spending; 4. a. living; b. to buy; c. to check; d. putting.
3.

1. b, c; 2. a, c; 3. a, b, c; 4. a, c; 5. a, b, c.


References
Alexander, L., G., English Grammar, Longman, London, 1996.
Bell, I., Gower, R., First certificate expert coursebook, Pearson Education Limited,
Edinburgh, England, 2009.
Blankey, T., N., English for Maritime Studies, Pergamon Press, Great Britain, 1983.
Hewings, M., Advanced grammar in use, Cambridge University Press, Edinburgh, 2003.
Kluijven, P., C., The International Maritime Language Programme, Alk Heijnen Publishers,
Alkmaar, The Netherlands, 2003.

































































































































































40


Unit 5


Marine electrical power plant

Contents Pagina

Objectives.. 39
5.1. Electrical power plant aboard vessels
. . . . .... 39
5.2. Types of generators and their operation
39
5.3. Verbs with prepositions
..... 40
Self-assessment test....................................................... 43
Progress test... 43
Answers to self-assessment test. 44
References.. 45





































































































































































41


5.

Marine electrical power plant
5.1. Objectives


-

reading comprehension skills - electrical power plant aboard
vessels; types of generators and their operation;
-

language development - verbs with prepositions.

Electrical engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the technology of electricity,
especially the design and application of circuitry and equipment for power generation and distribution,
machine control and communication.
A modern marine electrical power plant is a very complex system which demands trained
personnel to ensure safe and economical operation; the electrical power plant is considered the heart on
board the ship. If the heart stops, the ship will go out of control and may cause an accident with possible
fatal consequences.
Electrical power plants can vary from small plants with one generator to large complex systems
consisting of several generators with different types of prime movers such as diesel engines, steam
turbines, gas turbines and a main shaft.
A large amount of electricity is required aboard ship to power machinery that supplies air, water, food,
and other services. Communications between the various parts of a ship also depend on the availability
of electric power. The generator is the power source for the ship's electrical system.
A generator operates most efficiently at its full-rated power output, and it is not practical to
have one large generator operating constantly at reduced load.
Two or more generators are usually installed and operated aboard ship, for many reasons. If one
generator is shut down because of damage or scheduled maintenance, there is still a source of power for
lighting until the defective generator has been repaired. . Most generators used aboard ships are ac
generators. However, some dc generators are still in service.
A dc generator is a rotating machine that changes mechanical energy to electrical energy.
There are two essential parts of a dc generator:
- the yoke and field windings, which are stationary;
- the armature, which rotates.
At present, practically all ships have 450-volt, 60-hertz (Hz), ac ship's service and emergency
generators.
The ac generators are also called alternators. In an ac generator, the field rotates, and the
armature is stationary. To avoid confusion, the rotating members of dc generators are called armatures;
in ac generators, they are called rotors. The general construction of ac generators is somewhat simpler
than that of dc generators.
An ac generator, like a dc generator, has magnetic fields and an armature; in a small ac generator the
armature revolves, the field is stationary, and no commutator is required.
In a large ac generator, the field revolves and the armature is wound on the stationary member
or stator.
The principal advantages of the revolving-field generators over the revolving-armature
generators are as follows:
































































































































































42

1. the load current from the stator is and connected directly to the external circuit without using a
commutator;
2. only two slip rings are necessary to supply excitation to the revolving field;
3. the stator winding is not subjected to mechanical stresses that are due to centrifugal force.

1.


1.

Speak about electrical engineering.
2.

Name some types of prime movers.

2.

Answer the following questions:
1.

What kind of personnel does a modern marine electrical power plant demand?
2.

What is the power source for the ship's electrical system?
3.

How many generators are usually installed and operated aboard vessels?
4.

What is the difference between an a.c. generator and a d.c. generator?

5.2. Verbs with prepositions
learn about/of & know about/of
We use either about or of with learn and know when we talk about something that happens to
somebody or something, or about a particular event. Of is more formal with these verbs:

I have just learnt about/of the death of Dr Brown. (= found out about)

What little is known about/of the plans suggests they will be unpopular.
know & know about/of
We use know + noun when we talk about personal experience of people and things. Otherwise,
we use know about/of + noun. Compare:
- My uncle knew Churchill.
and
- The whole country knew about/of Churchill's love of cigars.
learn about & know about
We use learn about and know about (not 'of') when we talk about a particular subject that we study:

They began to learn about nutrition when they were at primary school.

Ten years ago we knew little about black holes.
ask about & enquire about
We use ask about or enquire (or inquire) about when we talk about getting information about
something or someone:

He got angry when they started to ask about / enquire about his private life.
ask after & enquire after
We use ask after or enquire (or inquire) after to ask for information about a person (but not a thing),
particularly concerning their health. Ask/enquire about can also be used:
- I'm phoning to ask (or enquire) after/about Mrs. Brown. She's in Ward 4.
ask for You use ask for (not 'enquire for') to ask someone to give you something or do something:

He finished the drink quickly and asked for another.
enquire into
When we enquire into (not 'ask into') some organization, event or person we try to find out facts in
order to investigate them:

The body has been set up to enquire into near-accidents reported by airline pilots.
think of/about
































































































































































43

Think of is preferred when you talk about something that suddenly enters your mind (it occurs to
you) and think about when you talk about something that you consider over a longer period:

He suddenly thought of Hilary. Perhaps she would help. (rather than ...thought about...)

We have been thinking about Jan and her problems for a while. (rather than ...thinking of...)
think about
We use think about (rather than 'think of') when we talk about concentrating on something:
- Your job is to think about safety and nothing else.
think of
We use think of (rather than 'think about') to give opinions and ask about them, to talk about an idea,
and to talk about remembering something. We also prefer of in the pattern (be) thinking of + -ing to
talk about intentions:

What do you think of my car? I've just bought it.

I don't think a lot of his work. (= it's not very good)

He thinks a lot of his sister. (= likes/respects her)

He's always thinking of ways to increase our sales.

I know it's here somewhere. I just can't think of where I've put it.

I'm thinking of selling my motorbike.
hear about/of
We can use either hear about or hear of when we talk about gaining information about someone
or something:

I heard about/of this restaurant through Pam.

You don't often hear about/of people with cholera in Britain.
hear about
We use hear about (not 'hear of') to talk about getting some news about someone or something:

Have you heard about Jan's accident?

Did you hear about the match? I won!
hear of
We use hear of (rather than 'hear about') to indicate whether we know about the existence of
something or somebody:

You must have heard of the Amsterdam flower market. It's famous.

It was a book by an author I'd never heard of.
We use the expression won't hear of to mean that someone refuses to let you do something:

I want to repay Jim the money I owe him, but he won't hear of it.
hear from
We use hear from when we talk about receiving some communication - e.g. a phone call or letter -
from somebody:

I heard from Pauline recently. She told me she's moving back to Greece.

When did you last hear from Don?
laugh about/at
We can say we laugh at an amusing person, thing or situation, or something we don't take seriously,
when the amusing thing, etc., is present. We use laugh about when we are remembering the amusing
person, thing or situation at a later date:

We spent a happy couple of hours laughing at photos from the party.

The programme was so funny! We laugh about it every time we think of it.
If one person is the object of another person's amusement, instead of sharing in the amusement, and
consequently suffers, we use laugh at. We don't use laugh about in this way:

When she fell off her chair, all her friends laughed at her and she started to cry.
































































































































































44

agree with
We use agree with to say that two people have the same opinion; to say that you approve of a
particular idea or action; or to say that two things match. We also use agree with to talk about things
that make us feel healthy or happy:

Adam thinks we should accept the offer, and I agree with him.

I agree with letting children choose the clothes they want to wear.

Tom's story agreed with that of his son.

Being on holiday agrees with me. I feel great.
agree to
We use agree to to say that someone allows something to happen, or to say that someone is
prepared to do something:

Once the government agreed to the scheme it went ahead without delay.

He agreed to the idea of a barbecue on condition that he could do the cooking.
agree on
We use agree on to say that two or more people decide something:

We agreed on a time and place to meet.
agree about
We use agree about to say that people have the same opinion on a particular subject. When a
decision depends on people's opinions, we can use either agree on or agree about:

Something that everyone can agree about is that we all want to be happy.

We couldn't agree on/about the colour to paint the kitchen.

1. Put in the correct or most appropriate preposition. Sometimes two answers are possible.
1.
..............................
I've been thinking ... your proposal, and I've decided I would like to join
you after all.
2.
..............................
The more she learnt... the American Civil War, the more fascinated with it
she became.
3.
..............................
I know she thinks a lot... your work, so you'll probably get the job.
4.
..............................
He slept soundly and only learnt ... the fire when he went to work
next morning
5.
..............................
I am writing to enquire ... the possibility of hiring a conference room at
the hotel on 2
nd
September.
6.
..............................
Karen's leaving and I'm thinking ... applying for her job.
7.
..............................
I phoned my solicitor and asked ... an appointment to see her.
8.
..............................
There seemed to be no way into the house without his keys. But then he
thought... the window at the back he'd left open that morning.
9.
..............................
Only four people in the company knew... the robbery.
10.
.............................
Conversation was rather slow until I asked... their lives before they came
to Canada.
11.
.............................
I'm thinking advertising for someone to take care of the garden.
12.
.............................
Terry phoned and asked me... a lift into the office.
13.
.............................
She knows more... classical music than anyone I've ever met.
14.
.............................
The government is going to enquire... standards of health in the city.

2. Complete these sentences with an appropriate verb (ask, enquire, know, learn, or think) in a
correct form and a preposition (about, after, into, or of).
1.
................................ ................................ .
A special committee is being set up to ... the
rioting at the prison.
































































































































































45

2.

It took a long time, but finally I ... a plan.
3.
................................ ................................ .
Although it was a history lesson we ... a lot ...
contemporary politics, too.
4.
................................ ................................ .
I knew that Jim had been unwell, but when I ...
him I was shocked to hear that h was in hospital.
5.
................................ ................................ .
A: I'm having trouble with the brakes.
B: You should speak to Bob. He ... a lot ... cars.
6.
................................ ...........................
As I sat waiting outside the office, the more I ... the
coming interview, the more nervous I got.
7.
................................ ...........................
Lucy's a lot better now, thanks. Nice of you to ... her.


Self-assessment test
1.

Fill in the gaps with the appropriate technical term:
The switchboard operator .1. or sets the generator .2. at any value within certain limits.
When additional .3. are applied to a .4., there is a tendency for the voltage to .5.. The
automatic regulator keeps the voltage of a generator constant at various loads.

2.

Rewrite these sentences using a form of the verb think and either about or of. If both
about and of are possible, give them both.
1.

If you consider it, we're quite lucky to live where we are.
2.

I didn't like the film much.
3.

They're talking about going to Mexico for their holiday.
4.

I'm sure I know what number their house is, but I've forgotten it for the moment.
5.

It's my job to come up with suggestions for improvements.
6.

How do you like my new guitar?

3.

Match the following phrases with the corresponding explanations:
1.

on the mend
2.

at will
3.

to earn fame
4.

to pour oil on the flame
5.

in the course of

a.

during;
b.

to make anger more intense;
c.

to earn a great reputation;
d.

improving; recovering;
e.

whenever .and however one pleases.

































































































































































46


Progress test
1.

Translate and expand on the main ideas:
The main switchboard (MSBD) is probably the most obvious element in the electrical
power plant. The main switchboard is the main control centre for the electrical power plant.
In addition to the monitoring, control and protection equipment for the generator
sets, the MSBD supplies power to motor group starter boards (often part of the main
switchboard), section boards and distribution boards.

2.

Put in the correct or most likely preposition. Sometimes two answers are possible.
1.

Did you hear ... the tiger? It's escaped again.
2.

They heard... the Department of Transport that their house was on the route of a
proposed new road.
3.

I know it's unkind to laugh... her, but her new hair style looks so funny.
4.

We couldn't agree... what caused the accident or what we should do about it.
5.

Who has now heard... the thousands of Greeks who were forced to flee their homes
last century?
6.

My parents think that we should move to a bigger house, but personally I don't agree
... them.
7.

We found it difficult to agree... what to do with the money.
8.

The concert was given by people I had never heard ....
9.

He's told that joke so often that no-one laughs... it any more.
10.

Julian spent most of his holiday in the bathroom. He ate some seafood that didn't agree
... him.
11.

After much discussion, they finally agreed... the changes.
12.

I hope that one day we'll be able to laugh... how I had to sell my watch in order to buy
some food.
13.

He generally kept quiet, afraid of being laughed ...
14.

You often hear ... women who work right up until the day they give birth.
15.

I agreed ... my neighbour that we should remove the fence between the gardens.
16.

We used to see each other regularly, but I haven't heard ... him since last year.
17.

Most people have never even heard... a graphic equalizer.
18.

I wanted to buy a motorbike but my parents wouldn't hear... it.
19.

At the meeting in Bonn, the ministers agreed... new measures to combat terrorism.

3.

Match the sentence halves, adding an appropriate form of the verb agree and about, with,
to, or on. If more than one answer is possible, consider what difference in meaning there
might be. Example: 1 + c: The children couldn't agree about / on which game to play next.
1.

The children couldn't
2.

You don't have to
3.

Many of my colleagues
4.

The rebels have
5.

Despite early opposition, local residents have now
6.

The two airline companies have
7.

I don't often
8.

We'd hoped to have a holiday this year, but we couldn't

a.

the release of all prisoners,
b.

the proposal to build a road through the area,
































































































































































47

c.

which game to play next,
d.

Campbell's political views to enjoy his writing,
e.

whether to go hill-walking or laze on a beach,
f.

me about our working conditions,
g.

my brother, but I think he's right this time,
h.

a plan to co-operate in scheduling trans-Atlantic flights.


Answers to self-assessment test
1. 1. adjusts; 2. voltage; 3. loads; 4. generator; 5. drop.
2. 1. If you think about it, we are quite lucky.
2. I didn't think much of the film.
3. They're thinking about/of going to Mexico for their holiday.
4. I'm sure I know what their house number is, but I can't think of it for the moment.
5. It's my job to think of suggestions for improvements.
6. What do you think of my new guitar?
3. 1. d; 2. e; 3. c; 4. b; 5. a.


References
Bell, I., Gower, R., First certificate expert coursebook, Pearson Education Limited,
Edinburgh, England, 2009.
Blankey, T., N., English for Maritime Studies, Pergamon Press, Great Britain, 1983.
Hewings, M., Advanced grammar in use, Cambridge University Press, Edinburgh, 2003.
Kluijven, P., C., The International Maritime Language Programme, Alk Heijnen Publishers,
Alkmaar, The Netherlands, 2003.
Logie C., Vivers E., Nisbet A., Marlins English for Seafarers study pack 2, Marlins, Edinburgh,
1998.

































































































































































48


Unit 6


Ships service generators

Contents Pagina

Objectives. 47
6.1. Ships service generators supplying electricity aboard vessels
47
6.2. Turbine-driven generators and Diesel-driven generators .
47
6.3. Structures with have and get .
48
Self-assessment test...................................................... 49
Progress test.. 50
Answers to self-assessment test 51
References. 51





































































































































































49


6.

Ships service generators
6.1. Objectives


-

reading comprehension skills - ship's service generators supplying
electricity aboard vessels; turbine-driven generators and Diesel-
driven generators;
-

language development - structures with have and get.

Ship's service generators furnish electricity for the service of the ship. Aboard most steam driven
ships of the Navy, these generators are driven by turbines. Large ships may have as many as six or eight
ship's service generators and from one to three emergency diesel-driven alternators.
New cruisers and destroyers have three gas turbine- driven ship's service generators and smaller
diesel-driven emergency generators. These generators are located in three different compartments and
separated by at least 15 percent of the length between perpendiculars to make sure they survive.
Turbines used for driving the ship's service generators differ from other auxiliary turbines; they
usually operate on superheated steam. The service generator turbine exhausts to a separate auxiliary
condenser that has its own circulating pumps, condensate pumps, and air ejectors. Cooling water for the
condenser is provided by the auxiliary circulating pump through separate injection and overboard valves.
Superheated steam is supplied to the ship's service generator turbine from either the main steam line or
a special turbo-generator line that leads directly from the boiler. Aboard some ships, the turbine-in the
event of condenser casualty-may be discharged directly to the atmosphere or to the main condenser
when the main plant is in operation.
The ship's service generator must supply electricity at a constant voltage and frequency (hertz),
which requires the turbine to run at a constant speed even when loads vary. Constant speed is
maintained by a speed-regulating governor. The turbine also has over-speed and back-pressure trips,
which automatically close the throttle if the turbine exceeds acceptable operating conditions. A manual
trip is used to close the throttle quickly if there is damage to the turbine or to the generator. The shaft
glands of the ship's service generator turbine are supplied with gland-sealing steam. The system is
similar to that used for main propulsion turbines.
The typical shipboard plant consists of two diesel emergency generators, one forward and one aft, in
spaces outside engine rooms and fire-rooms. Each emergency generator has its own switchboard and
switching arrangement. This controls the generator and distributes power to certain vital auxiliaries and
a minimum number of lighting fixtures in vital spaces. The capacity of the emergency units varies with
the size of the ship. Regardless of the size of the installation, the principle of operation is the same.

1.

Translate the following fragment and expand on the main ideas:
The main parts of a generator are the rotor, the stator and the commutator.
The rotor is a rotating electro-magnet. It produces a magnetic field.
The rotor rotates within the stator.
Around this stator, or armature, coils of wire are wound. These coils induce (make") electric current.
The process is called induction. The induced current is collected by the commutator.
The rotor is excited by the direct current that is delivered by the stator.

































































































































































50

2.

Answer the following questions:
1.

How many service generators do large ships may have?
2.

Does the turbine run at a constant speed?
3.

How many Diesel emergency generators does a typical shipboard plant have?
4.

Does the capacity of the emergency units vary with the size of the vessel?

6.2. Structures with have and get

1. CAUSATIVES
We can use get and have in both active and passive patterns when we talk about making other people
do something for us.

The active pattern, meaning 'cause or order someone to do something', is get + person + to-
infinitive, or have + person + infinitive without to: I'll get the waiter to bring you the menu.
I'll have the waiter bring you the menu. Note that have is much more common in American English; get is
common in spoken British English.

The passive pattern, meaning 'arrange for somebody else to do something', is get/ have + object
+ past participle:
I'll have/get the menu brought to you. I had to get/have my jacket cleaned after the party. I must go and
get/have my photo taken for my new passport.
I'll get /have those copies made for you immediately. She's getting / having her teeth fixed.

2. GET + -ED: ACTIVE AND PASSIVE
We can sometimes use get instead of be in the passive. This is usually informal:
They got punished by the principal for making so much noise.
Lucky Paul got promoted / elected / chosen / appointed
yesterday.
Poor Tom his dog got run over last night.

Get meaning 'become' is often used in collocation with some past participles:
get dressed, get married, get used to, get stuck, get lost, get caught, get burned, get involved

The meaning of these phrases can be active: I got dressed as quickly as I could.

Others have a passive meaning: How did they get caught?

We can use some of the active phrases with an object:
I have to get the children dressed early every morning. Don't get your family involved in the business.

3. THINGS THAT HAPPEN TO YOU
We use have + object + past participle to describe things that happen to us, often misfortunes. The
subject is the person who experiences what happened:
I've had my car stolen. (Compare: My car was stolen.)
He's had his application for citizenship turned down. (Compare: His application for citizenship has been
turned down.)
My mother's had her letter published in The Times. (Compare: My mother's letter has been published in
The Times.)

In spoken English we can sometimes use get instead of have:
She's got another letter published in The Times.

Note that sometimes only the context will identify precise meaning. Consider:
They had their fence pulled down. (= either: they employed somebody to pull it down (causative); or it
was pulled down without their planning it, e.g. by vandals.)
































































































































































51


1. Complete each of the following sentences using a causative form, so that it is as similar as possible in
meaning to the sentence before it.
Example:
Hasn't that film been developed yet?
Haven't you had that film developed yet?
1.

Can it be true that you're really going to deliver my sofa today?
Can it be true that I'm ............ today?
2.

One of the others agreed to post my letters for me.
I got ............ to post my letters for me.
3.

My dentist is supposed to be capping my two front teeth this morning.
I'm ............ this morning.
4.

My car really needs servicing.
I really ............ serviced.
5.

Why did you let them go without signing the receipt?
Why didn't you ............ letting them go?

2. Rearrange the words to make coherent sentences inside the first and last words given.
Example:
film to has just be
That film just has to be seen.
1.

your ever your house belongings into any and had broken of you
Have .................... stolen?
2.

fingerprints police your on you never had files have can put you
Once .................... relax.
3.

something get got have done just about this to
You .................... office.
4.

your I not passport help would got have my for But stamped.
5.

us organized get at can the everything of all same
All .................... time.
6.

care any take to must such involved dangerous in family your not get
You .................... situations.
7.

arrested taxed if will get you car be almost and certainly don't your
You .................... insured.
8.

interest Government seems to never to brought get under able rates be
The .................... control.


Self-assessment test
1. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate terms:
Aboard ship, batteries are one of the ...1... for emergency and portable power. Storage
batteries are used to power emergency equipment, ship's boats, and forklifts. The ...2...
battery is also used as a source of energy for ...3... diesel generators, gyrocompasses, and
emergency radios.
Seafarers should be familiar with ...4... precautions they must follow when working around
batteries.
Batteries must be protected from salt water, which can mix with the electrolyte (the acid
solution) and release poisonous ...5... .

































































































































































52

2. Complete these sentences with the most likely form of have or get. Give possible
alternatives.
1. Carl had food poisoning and had to ... his stomach pumped.
2. She left the lights on overnight and in the morning couldn't ... the car started.
3. We always ... the car cleaned by the children who live next door.
4. When they ... it explained to them again, the students could understand the point of
the experiment.
5. I won't ... my valuable time taken up with useless meetings!
6. We ...the painting valued by an expert at over $20,000.
7. When he tried to tidy up his desk, he all his papers mixed up.
8. I won't ... Richard criticised like that when he's not here to defend himself.

3. Which of these sentences are causatives?
1. He tried to escape but got caught.
2. They were aiming to walk the entire route but got tired in the end.
3. I need to get my hair cut.
4. I'm going to have my portrait painted.
5. I had my car broken into last week.

4. Choose the correct ending for:
1.

"to realize" means;
a.

to make real;
b.

to fall back
c.

to understand
2.

"way" means:
a.

road or track
b.

manner
c.

specified direction
3.

"to hold up" means:
a.

to raise
b.

to set as an example
c.

to become conscious


Progress test
1. Translate pointing out the technical terms:
Two emergency diesel generator sets provide electric power for limited lighting and for vital
auxiliaries if the ship's service power should fail. These units are located in the forward and aft
emergency generator rooms. The forward emergency switchboard is normally energized from
the forward ship's service switchboard. The aft emergency switchboard is normally energized
from the aft ship's service switchboard.

2. Underline the correct or more likely alternative.
1. Sorry I'm late. I became / got lost.
2. Although he was young, he became / got regarded by the people as their leader.
3. He wouldn't let me get a word in and it became / got a bit irritating in the end.
4. It's time to go to school. Become / Get ready quickly!
































































































































































53

5. She became / got a minister in the government in 1981.
6. As the microscope was focused, the bacteria became / got visible.
7. The children became / got really excited on Christmas Eve.
8. As his condition worsened his speech became / got unintelligible.

3. Here are some verbs commonly used in the pattern get/have something done. Do you know
what they mean?
get/have a prescription filled get/have something fixed get/have a job costed
get/have something overhauled get/have your house done up set/have your hair permed


Answers to self-assessment test
1.

1. sources; 2. storage; 3. emergency; 4. safety; 5. gases.
2.

1. have; 2. get; 3. get / have; 4. had; 5. have; 6. got / had; 7. got; 8. have.
3.

3 and 4 are causatives
4.

1. a, c; 2. a, b, c; 3. a, b.


References
Bell, I., Gower, R., First certificate expert coursebook, Pearson Education Limited,
Edinburgh, England, 2009.
Blankey, T., N., English for Maritime Studies, Pergamon Press, Great Britain, 1983.
Hewings, M., Advanced grammar in use, Cambridge University Press, Edinburgh, 2003.
Kluijven, P., C., The International Maritime Language Programme, Alk Heijnen Publishers,
Alkmaar, The Netherlands, 2003.
Logie C., Vivers E., Nisbet A., Marlins English for Seafarers study pack 2, Marlins, Edinburgh,
1998.

































































































































































54


Unit 7


Electrical and electronic circuits

Contents Pagina

Objectives.. 53
7.1. Electrical and electronic circuits ...
53
7.2. Circuit breakers as part of switchboard equipment
... 53
7.3. Structures with do and make .
54
Self-assessment test....................................................... 55
Progress test... 56
Answers to self-assessment test. 57
References.. 57





































































































































































55


7.

Electrical and electronic circuits
7.1. Objectives


-

reading comprehension skills - electrical and electronic circuits -
their description and the current sources they use; circuit breakers
as part of switchboard equipment
-

language development - structures with do and make.

An electrical circuit is a path which electrons from a voltage or current source follow. Electric
current flows in a closed path called an electric circuit. The point where those electrons enter an
electrical circuit is called the source of electrons. The point where the electrons leave an electrical circuit
is called the return or earth ground. The exit point is called the return because electrons always end up
at the source when they complete the path of an electrical circuit. Electrical circuits use alternating
current sources. The part of an electrical circuit that is between the electrons' starting point and the
point where they return to the source is called an electrical circuit's load.
Electronic circuits typically use low voltage direct current sources. The load of an electronic
circuit may be as simple as a few resistors, capacitors, a lamp.
Circuit breakers are used to isolate faulty circuits, to provide mechanical means to disconnect
the electrical power for equipment maintenance, and to serve as overload protection.
These circuit breakers are part of the switchboard equipment. Circuit breakers, rather than
fuses, are used in circuits that carry large currents. They can be operated for an indefinite period, and
their action accurately controlled.
Circuit breakers open automatically when the current (load) on the circuit exceeds a preset
value, circuit breakers used with shipboard equipment are not susceptible to tripping when subjected to
heavy shocks .
Circuit breakers are used on all rotating electrical machinery and feeders to vital loads, such as
searchlights. In addition to overload relays, reverse power trip relays are provided on ac generator circuit
breakers. These units are designed to open and prevent motorizing a generator in the event of a power
reversal. They are mounted within the generator switchboard.


1.

Give your detailed answers to the following questions:
1.

Do electrical circuits use alternating current sources or direct current sources?
2.

What are circuit breakers used for?
3.

When do the circuit breakers open automatically?

2.

Translate the following fragments, paying attention to the new technical terms and
expand on the main ideas:

a.

Some materials conduct electricity, and some offer more resistance than others. Metals such
as silver, copper, aluminum, and iron offer little resistance and are called conductors. In
































































































































































56

contrast to conductors, some materials such as wood, paper, porcelain, rubber, mica, and
plastics offer high resistance to an electric current and are known as insulators. Electric
circuits throughout the ship are made of copper wires covered with rubber or some other
insulator. The wire conductors offer little resistance to the current, while the insulation
keeps the current from passing to the steel structure of the ship.

b.

To prevent the danger of electrical shock and the possibility of electrocution, ground fault
interrupt (GFI) devices detect open circuits to earth ground in attached electrical or
electronic devices. When an open circuit to earth ground is detected, the GFI device
immediately opens the voltage source to the device. GFI devices are similar to circuit
breakers, but are designed to protect humans rather than circuit components.

7.2. Structures with do and make

We often use do with certain nouns to describe activities, or things that have an effect on people:

I can't wash up - I have to do my homework.

The campaign may have done more harm than good.
Other nouns commonly used with do include business, damage, (an) exercise, (somebody) a favour, (no)
good (or not (do) any good), housework, (somebody) an injury, a job, research.
In informal English, we can use do instead of another verb to talk about certain jobs:

Can you do the shoes before the children go to school? (= clean the shoes)

Aren't you going to do your hair? It looks untidy. (= comb/brush your hair)
We can also use do instead of, for example: arrange (flowers), cook or make (a curry), cut (nails, hair),
make (beds), tidy (a cupboard, a desk, a garden).
We also use do when we talk about general or indefinite rather than particular activities:

I think David has done something to the computer. I can't get it to work.

Did you do anything about the broken window this morning?
We sometimes specify particular actions after first introducing the actions in general with do:

I did a huge amount yesterday. I finished the report, I ordered some new textbooks...

We use do with an -ing form as a noun when we talk about jobs and leisure activities. A word or phrase
such as the, some, a bit of, a lot of, etc. is usually used before the noun:

I normally do the ironing while I'm watching TV.

He's hoping to do a bit of skiing while he's visiting Bernard in Austria.
We also use do to talk about cleaning, cooking, gardening, shopping, washing (up).

Compare:

I'm going to paint.
and
- I'm going to do some painting.

I'm going to read some books. (but not I'm going to do some book reading.) Normally, if there is
an object (e.g. 'some books') after the verb, we can't make a sentence with a similar meaning with do ... -
ing. However, we can talk in this way about bird watching, letter-writing, note-taking, sightseeing.

To talk about constructing or creating something we use make rather than do:

The firm I work for makes children's clothes.
































































































































































57


I cut out the pieces, but she made the model all by herself.

I made some fresh coffee and gave her a cup.
We also use make with certain nouns, particularly when we are talking about an action that someone
performs:

Try not to make a noise!

She made an offer for my car that I accepted.
Other nouns commonly used with make include an announcement, an application, an arrangement, an
attempt, a choice, a comment, a contribution, a decision, a difference, a discovery, an enquiry, an
excuse, a habit of doing something, a list, a journey, a mistake, money, a (phone) call, a plan, a point, a
promise, a remark, a sound, a speech, a suggestion.

We can use make to say how successful someone was or would be in a particular job or position, or how
successful something was or would be for a particular purpose:

He would probably have made an excellent prime minister.

That old table would (or will) make a good place to put the television.

1.

Choose the most likely sentence ending.
1.

The company makes...
a. small electric motors. b. a lot of work for charity.
2.

The children in the class worked really hard. They made....
a. everything they could to help. b. presents for all their brothers and sisters.
3.

With recent advances in technology, we are now able to do...
a. powerful computers as small as a cigarette packet. B. things we could not have dreamed of 10 years
ago.
4.

The local council is doing...
a. nothing to help solve traffic congestion. b. changes to traffic flow in the city centre.

2.

If possible, write a sentence with a similar meaning, using do ...ing. If it is not possible, write X.
1.

I'll shop after work.
2.

She writes a lot of letters in her spare time.
3.

I enjoy cooking when I've got plenty of time.
4.

She said she was staying in to watch television.
5.

I'll iron if you wash up.
6.

Paul often goes to the local lake to watch birds.
7.

He thought he might play football this afternoon.


Self-assessment test
1. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate terms:
The current flowing in an electrical or electronic circuit can be suddenly .1. when a
component part .2.. The increase in current can cause serious .3. to other components in
the circuit or the failure can create a fire hazard. To protect the other components or to
prevent a fire hazard, a device called a "circuit breaker" can be .4. into a circuit. The circuit
.5. will open, or "break", the circuit in which it is installed when the current in that circuit
becomes too high.

2. Choose a form of do or make and one of these nouns to complete the sentences.
arrangement contribution damage discovery research
































































































































































58

1.

The storm ......... a lot of .......... to the trees in our garden.
2.

I'm sure we ... a definite ... to meet on Thursday.
3.

When they studied the figures closely, they ... a startling ....
4.

Michael always ... an important ... to our meetings.
5.

We are ... some ... to try to find the origin of the name of our street.

3. Match the following phrases with the explanations:
1.

to put up a good fight
2.

in days gone by
3.

to be on the market
4.

by means of
5.

as cool as a cucumber

a.

for sale;
b.

long time ago;
c.

with the help of;
d.

completely cairn;
e.

to fight with spirit or courage;


Progress test
1.

Translate the following paragraph and make sentences with the unknown technical
terms:
Electrical and electronic circuits can be complicated. Making a drawing of the connections to
all the component parts in the circuit's load makes it easier to understand how circuit
components are connected. Drawings for electronic circuits are called "circuit diagrams".
Drawings for electrical circuits are called "wiring diagrams .Wiring and circuit diagrams use
special symbols recognized by everyone who uses the drawings. The symbols on the drawings
show how components like resistors, capacitors, inductors, motors, outlet boxes, lights,
switches, and other electrical and electronic components are connected together. The
diagrams are a big help when workers try to find out why a circuit does not work correctly.

2.

Complete these sentences with a form of do or make and any appropriate noun.
1.

While she was skiing she hit a tree and ... herself a serious
2.

If you give him the job you'll be him a(n) ... . He needs some money at the
moment.
3.

She was feeling unwell at the party, so she ... a(n) ... and left.
4.

When Clive left school, he had to... a(n) ... between working for his father and going
to university.
5.

I tried to dissuade her from leaving her job. But it ... any ... - she handed in her
resignation the next day.

3.

Complete these sentences with do/did/does/doing + so if possible. Otherwise,
complete the sentences with do/did/does/doing alone.
1.

Anyone who walks across the hills in this weather ... at their own risk.
2.

I didn't think Don knew Suzanne, but apparently he ...
3.

I thought the book was really good, and Barbara ..., too.
4.

I don't like going to the dentist. None of us in our family ... .
5.

They went to the police station. They ... entirely voluntarily.
































































































































































59

6.

I gave her the medicine, and I take full responsibility for ... .
7.

You can call me Mike. Everyone ... .


Answers to self-assessment test
1.

1. increased; 2. fails; 3. damage; 4. wired; 5. breaker.
2.

1. did a lot of damage; 2. made a definite arrangement; 3. made a startling discovery;
4. made / makes an important contribution; 5. doing some research.
3.

1. e; 2. b; 3. a; 4. c; 5. d.


References
Alexander, L., G., English Grammar, Longman, London, 1996.
Blankey, T., N., English for Maritime Studies, Pergamon Press, Great Britain, 1983.
Hewings, M., Advanced grammar in use, Cambridge University Press, Edinburgh, 2003.
Kluijven, P., C., The International Maritime Language Programme, Alk Heijnen Publishers,
Alkmaar, The Netherlands, 2003.
Nisbet A., Kutz A. W., Logie C., Marlins English for Seafarers study pack 1, Marlins,
Edinburgh, 1997.
































































































































































60

Bibliography

Bell, I., Gower, R., First certificate expert coursebook, Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh, England,
2009.
Blankey, T., N., English for Maritime Studies, Pergamon Press, Great Britain, 1983.
Georgescu M., Outboard Communications, Editura Nautica, Constan;a, 2010.
Gui; C., I., Limba englez maritim, Editura Scorpion, Gala;i, 2003.
Hewings, M., Advanced grammar in use, Cambridge University Press, Edinburgh, 2003.
Kluijven, P., C., The International Maritime Language Programme, Alk Heijnen Publishers, Alkmaar, The
Netherlands, 2003.
Leech, G., An A-Z of English grammar & usage, Longman, Edinburgh, England, 1997.
Logie C., Vivers E., Nisbet A., Marlins English for Seafarers study pack 2, Marlins, Edinburgh, 1998.
Marcu E., Dictionary of maritime electromechanical terminology English-Romanian, Editura Nautica,
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