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FAMILY NURSING CARE PLAN
DEFINITION A Family Nursing Care Plan is the set of actions the nurse decides to implement to be able to resolve identified family health and nursing problems.
CHARACTERISTICS 1. The nursing care plan focuses on actions which are designed to solve or alleviate an existing problem. • The plan is a blueprint for action; the meats of the plan are the approaches, strategies, activities, methods, and materials by which the nurse hopes to change the problem situation. 1. The nursing are plan is a product of deliberate systematic process. • It is not based on impulsive or spur of the moment decisions. The planning process is characterized by logical thinking whereby relationships are put together to arrive at rational decisions. The actions the nurse decides to implement are chosen from among alternatives after careful analysis and weighing options open to her. 1. The nursing are plan, as with all other plans, relates to the future. • It utilized events in the past and what is happening in the present to determine trends. It also envisions the future if the problem situation is not corrected. 1. The nursing care plan revolves around identified health and nursing problems. • The problems are the starting points for the plan, and the bases for the objectives of care and subsequent intervention measures. 1. The nursing care is a means to an end, not an end in itself. • The goal in planning is to deliver the most appropriate care to client. If it does not serve the purpose for which it is initiated it becomes useless and an expensive undertaking. 1. Nursing care planning is continuous process, not a one-shot deal. • The results of the evaluation of the plan’s effectiveness pave the way for another cycle of planning until the problems are resolved. DESIRABLE QUALITIES OF A NURSING CARE PLAN 1. It should be based on a clear definition of the problems. • A nursing care plan takes time and effort to make. It will be a sheer waste of resources if it does not produce the intended results because of a vague or erroneous definition of a problem. A good plan is based on a comprehensive analysis of the problem situation. The main as well as the contributory causes in the perpetuation of the problem should be identified. 1. A good plan is realistic.
It can be implemented with reasonable chance of success. This realism of a plan is related to the quantity and quality of resources required in its execution.
1. The nursing care plan should be consistent with the goals and philosophy of the health agency. • If the health agency for instances, promotes self reliance of the client as one of the philosophies, then the nurse must bear this in mind when planning her approach and intervention measures. 1. The nursing care plan is drawn with the family. • This is consistent with the principle that the nurse works with and NOT for the family. She involves the family in determining health needs and problems, in establishing priorities, in selecting appropriate course of action, implementing them and evaluating outcomes. Through participatory planning, the nurse also gives the family the feeling that its dignity and integrity are preserved because of the realization that is not totally helpless and can still do something about the problem situation. 1. The nursing care plan is best kept in a written form. • It is a means of communication not only among the nurse but also between nurses and other members of the health team. Moreover, it is impossible for a nurse to keep many family care plan in her mind and remember the salient point of care. The development of standard forms can help motivate nurses to write their nursing care plans. Written plans also serve as useful administrative device for evaluating staff performance and the quality of care provided to clients. IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING CARE 1. They individualized care to clients • The recipient of care whether individual of family or the entire community are different from each other. Nursing care, to be appropriate should suit and be unique to a particular client. Planning facilities the delivery of the most appropriate care by considering the individuality of each client 1. The nursing care plan helps in setting priorities • By providing information about the client as well as the nature of his problems, the nurse set her priorities for care. 1. Nursing care plan promote systematic communication among the health care team • Nursing care plan define the problems and details of nursing interventions done to resolve them. 1. Continuity of care is facilitated • Gaps and duplication in services provided are minimized. Gaps and duplications of services are bound to occur in setting where there is frequent turnover of staff or when several health workers are providing care to the same family. 1. It facilitates the coordination of care • By making known to other members of the health team what nursing care is rendered. Coordination of care prevents fragmentation of
services and increases the efficiency of the health service delivery system. ESTABLISHING PRIORITIES • After the date analysis, the nurse may realize that the family is faced with a number of health nursing problems, which cannot be taken up all the same time considering the available resources for both the family and the nurse. Considering this situation, she can rank the identified problems into priorities. There are four criteria for determining priorities among health problems. These includes: 1. NATURE OF PROBLEM PRESENTED- categorized into health threat, health deficit, and foreseeable crisis. 2. MODIFIABILITY OF THE PROBLEM- refers to the probability of success in minimizing, alleviation or totally eradicating the problem through nursing intervention. 3. PREVENTIVE POTENTIAL- refers to the nature and magnitude of future problems that can be minimized or totally prevented if intervention is done on the problem under consideration. 4. SALIENCE- refers to the family’s perception and evaluation of the problem in terms of seriousness an urgency attention needed.
FACTORS AFFECTING PRIORITY-SETTING 1. 2. 3. 4. Current knowledge, technology, and interventions to manage the problem Resources of the family- physical, financial, manpower Resources of the nurse- skills, knowledge, and time Resources of the community- facilities and community organization or support.
SCALE FOR RANKING FAMILY HEALTH PROBLEMS ACCORDING TO PRIORITIES CRITERIA 1. NATURE OF THE PROBLEM PRESENTED SCALE: • • • Health Deficit Health Threat Foreseeable Crisis 3 2 1 1 SCORE WEIGHT
1. MODIFIABILITY OF THE PROBLEM SCALE:
• • •
Easily Modifiable Partially Modifiable Not Modifiable
2 1 0 2
1. PREVENTIVE POTENTIAL SCALE: • • • High Moderate Low 3 2 1 1
1. SALIENCE SCALE: • • • A serious problem, immediate action needed A problem but not needing immediate attention Not a felt need/problem TOTAL/HIGHEST SCORE Scoring: 1. Decide on a score for each of the criteria. 2. Divide the score by the highest possible score and multiply by the weight. SCORE/HIGHEST SCORE X WEIGHT 3. Sum up the scores for all the criteria. The highest score is 5, is equivalent to the total weight. A. SCABIES AS A HEALTH DEFICIT TO THREE PRE-SCHOOL MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY CRITERIA NATURE OF THE PROBLEM • HEALTH DEFICIT COMPUTATI ON 3/3 X 1 ACTUAL SCORE 1 JUSTIFICATION A health deficit that requires immediate attention and adequate management to reduce likelihood of transfer of the disease to the rest of the family members. 2 1 0 5 1
MODIFIABILTY • PARTIALLY MODIFIABLE
The family does not have adequate resources to solve the problem. Inadequacy of living space and water supply are barriers to achievement of good personal hygiene, which is important in the management and prevention of scabies. Transfer of scabies to other family members is reduced or eliminated if the problem is managed adequately as soon as possible. The family recognized it as a problem. It consulted the health personnel a month ago, however, it does not see the problem as needing immediate action.
PREVENTIVE POTENTIAL • HIGH
3/3 X 1
SALIENCE • A PROBLEM BUT NOT NEEDING IMMEDIATE ATTENTION
1/1 X 1
4 A. IMPROPER REFUSE DISPOSAL
CRITERIA NATURE OF THE PROBLEM MODIFIABILITY PREVENTIVE POTENTIAL
COMPUTATI ON 2/3 X 1 2/2 X 2 3/3 X 1
ACTUAL SCORE 0.67 2 1
JUSTIFICATION It is a health threat Resources are available and interventions are feasible Communicable disease transferred by insects and rodents can be prevented The family does not perceive this as a health problem
SALIENCE TOTAL SCORE
0/2 X 1
B. MALNUTRITION CRITERIA COMPUTATI ACTUAL JUSTIFICATION
ON NATURE OF THE PROBLEM 3/3 X 1
SCORE 1 It is a health deficit that requires immediate management to eliminate untoward consequences. The problem is easily modifiable since the nurse’s resources are available, she can help the family on effective budgeting of money and scheduling of time. she can develop skills of other members to achieve good nutrition – proper food selection and preparation, and feeding practices. The nurse can also educate the family to utilize the backyard by planting nutritious vegetables. Susceptibility to other diseases and infections can be prevented if malnutrition is eliminated; normal growth and development can thus be achieved. A serious problem needing immediate action and attention
2/2 X 2
3/3 X 1
SALIENCE TOTAL SCORE
2/2 X 1
The list of health problems ranked according to priorities is presented: 1. MALNUTRITION 5 2. SCABIES 4 3. IMPROPER REFUSE DISPOSAL3.67
3. FORMULATION OF GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF NURSING CARE ESTABLISHMENT OF GOALS GOALS • • • Is a general statement of purpose. It is the end towards which all efforts are directed. It i the condition or state to be brought about by specific courses of action. Example: after nursing intervention, the family will be able to take care of the premature infant competently. Goals established by the nurse with the family usually relate to health mater, specifically the alleviation of disease conditions. Health problems are
however, intertwined with other problems like socio-economic ones. It is common therefore, for a community health nurse to find herself setting in non-health goals like: Example 1: at the end of nursing intervention, the family will be able to start a piggery business. Example 2: at the end of nursing intervention, the family will be able to start litigation proceedings against landlord. • A cardinal principle in goal setting states that goals must be set mutually with the family. This ensures their acceptance and realization. Unless the family understands and accepts the goals of nursing care it cannot be expected to participate actively in the implementation of needed actions. • Basic to the establishment of mutually acceptable goals in the family’s recognition and acceptance of existing health needs and problems. The nurse must as certain the family’s knowledge and acceptance of the problem as well as the desire to take actions to resolve them. This is done in the assessment phase. • Goals set by the nurse and the family should be realistic or attainable. They should therefore be set in reasonable levels. Too high goals and their subsequent failure frustrate the nurse and the family. • Goals are best stated in terms of client’s outcomes, whether at the individual, family, or community levels. Perpetuate
BARRIERS TO JOINT GOAL SETTING BETWEEN THE NURSE AND THE FAMILY: 1. Failure on the part of the family to perceive the existence of the problem. 2. The family ay realize the existence of a health problem but is too busy at the moment with other concerns and preoccupations. 3. Sometimes the family perceives the existence of the problem but does not see it as serious enough to warrant attention. 4. A big barrier to collaborative goal setting between the nurse and the family failure to develop a working relationship. 5. The family may perceive the presence of a problem and the need to take action. It may, however, refuse to face and do something about the situation, freeman offers the following reasons for this kind behaviour: • FEAR OF CONSEQUENCES OF TAKING ACTION- diagnosis of a disease condition may mean expenses or social stigma for the family. • RESPECT FOR TRADITION- in the Philippine culture, elders plays a part in decision making. Behaviours which are not sanctioned by the old folks in the family are not likely to be adopted. A couple for instance, may not accept the goal of limiting family size to just three children if their parents do not approve of contraceptive practice. • FAILURE TO PERCEIVE THE BENEFITS OF ACTION PROPOSED- this could be a function of a client’s previous experience with the health workers and their services. Going to the health center, for example, is an advice frequently given by the nurse. When this does not yields beneficial results from the point of view of the family, it will be ignored the next time it is offered. • FAILURE TO RELATE THE PROPOSED ACTION TO THE FAMILY’S GOALS- families differ in their prioritizing of their goals. Economic
and social goal generally occupy a higher position than health goals in ranking of concerns and priorities. FORMULATION OBJECTIVES OF NURSING CARE OBJECTIVES • In contrast o goals, objectives refer to more specific statements of the desired results or outcomes of care. They specify the criteria by which the degrees of effectiveness of care are to be measured. Goals tell where the family is going; objectives are the milestones to reach the destination. Objectives can be stated in various ways depending upon the focus, level of generality and time required for their realization. It can either be nurseoriented (based on activities of the nurse) or client-oriented (stated in terms of outcomes). NURSE-ORIENTED Example 1: during the home visit, the nurse will discuss the importance of immunization. Example 2: during the second nurse-family contact, the nurse will show the different types of fertility-regulating methods. CLIENT-ORIENTED Example 3: after the nursing intervention, the malnourished pre-school member of the family will increase their weights by at least one pound per month. Example 4: after the nursing intervention, there will be improved relationship among family members. Example 5: after the nurse’s visit, the family will bring the pre-school members to the well-baby clinic the following day. Stating objectives in terms of client outcomes will indicate during the evaluation phase whether the desired changes in the problem situation resulted from the nurse’s action. Nurse-oriented objectives will not tell if the nurse’s activities produced some beneficial results; they only indicate what the nurse did and in qualitative evaluation, how well she performed them. Objectives can also be stated in general sense or specific terms. GENERAL: after the nursing intervention, the family will utilize community resources for health care. SPECIFIC: after the nursing intervention, a. The family will bring the pregnant member to the health center regularly for check ups; b. The family will also consult the health center on every episode of illness among members. GENERAL: after the nursing intervention, the family will be able to take care of the mentally challenged child competently. SPECIFIC: After the nursing intervention, a. The family will be able to feed the mentally challenged prescribed quantity and quality of food.
b. They will be able to teach the child simple skills related to activities of daily living and c. The family will be able to apply measures taught to prevent infection in the mentally challenged child. The more specific the objective, the easier is the evaluation of their attainment. Specifically stated objectives define already the criteria for evaluation. Objectives may vary according to the time span required for their realization. 1. SHORT-TERM OR IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVES are formulated for problem situations which require immediate attention, and results can be observed in a relatively short period of time. They are accomplished with few nurse-family contacts and relatively less resources. 2. LONG-TERM OR ULTIMATE OBJECTIVES require several nurse-family encounters and investment of more resources. The nature of the outcomes sought requires time to demonstrate. Such is the nature of behaviour change which is often the object of nursing intervention. 3. MEDIUM-TERM OR INTERMMEDIATE OBJECTIVES are those which are not immediately achieved and are required to attain the long term ones. Example: NURSING GOAL- the family will cope effectively with the threat of pulmonary tuberculosis. SHORT-TERM: the infant and preschool members of the family will be immunized with BCG. MEDIUM-TERM: all members of the family will have a complete physical check-up to rule out pulmonary tuberculosis. LONG-TERM: all members of the family will participate in the care of the sick members and apply preventive measures against the spread of infection.
As with goals, objectives should be realistic and attainable considering the resources of the nurse, the family, and community. In addition, they should be measurable. Specific statements of objectives facilitate the evaluation of their attainment. Objectives and evaluation are directly related. When objectives are stated in terms of observable facts and/or behaviour, then the criteria for evaluation become inherent and evidence. • • 4. SELECTING APPROPRIATE NURSING ACTIONS With the nursing assessment reflecting what the family is experiencing and why, the intervention phase commences. Nursing actions are implemented which hopefully will help the family overcome the obstacles to health functioning. These nursing interventions have been determined by the goals and objectives previously set.
• • • • • • • •
The choice of nursing intervention is highly dependent on two major variables- the nature of the problem and the resources available to solve the problem In family nursing practice, problems resolve around the family’s assumption of the health tasks. Nursing interventions are aimed at minimizing or eliminating the possible reasons for or causes of the family’s inability to do these tasks. To illustrate, the nurse can utilize the following nursing actions to stimulate recognition and acceptance of health needs and problems: – Broaden the base of the family’s information – Help the family to see the implications of the situations, or the consequences of the conditions. – Relate heath needs to the goals of the family- both health related and non-health related goals. – Encourage wholesome emotional attitudes towards the problem. The nurse can work on the family’s failure to decide on taking appropriate health actions through: – Discussing the consequences of inaction. – Identifying the courses of action open to the family and resources needed for each. – Discussing the consequences of each courses of action available. The nurse can increase the family’s confidence in providing nursing care to its sick, disabled and dependent member through demonstrations on nursing procedures utilizing supplies and equipments available in the home. The nurse should involve the patient and family in order to motivate them to assume responsibility for their own care. The nurse also explains and clarifies doubts thus the role of the nurse shifts direct care giver to that of a teacher. She can explore the ways to minimize or prevent threats to the maintenance of health and personal development among family members She can utilize intervention measures involving environmental manipulations through improvements on the physical facilities in the home either by construction of needed ones or modifying existing ones. To minimize or eliminate psychological threats in the home environment, the nurse can work closely with the family to improve its communication patterns, role assumptions and relationships and interaction patterns. The nurse can eliminate barriers or blocks to an effective referral system. The nurse utilizes her own resources, those of the family and the resources available in the community, such as: – Family resources- physical and psycho-social strengths and assets of individual members, financial capabilities, physical facilities and the presence of support system provided by relatives and significant others. – Nurse resources- knowledge about family health and her skills in helping family manage them. These skills may range from simple nursing procedure to complicated behavioural problems such as marital disharmony. Availability of time and logistical support are also part of resources of the nurse. – Community Resources- include existing agencies, programs or activities for health and related needs/problems and community organization for health actions.
The choice of appropriate nursing interventions and the method of nursefamily contact (home-visit, clinic conference, and group approach) are dependent upon the nature of the family health problems presented and the mix or combination of available resources.
1. EVALUATING FAMILY HEALTH CARE DEFINITION AND CONCEPTS • • • • • Evaluation is interwoven in every nursing activity and every step of the health nurse. Concerned with the determination of whether the objectives set were attained or to what degree they were attained. Evaluation is always related to objectives. Evaluation when address to the result or outcome of care answers the question “did the intended results occur?” There is always an element of subjectivity in evaluation; the process involves value judgement which is subjective Evaluation also involves decision-making. “did nursing make a difference?” or “what results came out of the nursing activity?” decisions have to be made on whether the objectives have to be formulated, approaches and strategies modified, resources increased and the like. If evaluation shows that the objectives was not achieved, the nurse has to find out the reason why; the objectives may be unrealistic, nursing actions may be inappropriate or uncontrollable environment factors may be operative in this situation. DIMENSIONS OF EVALUATION – EFFECTIVENESS- focus is attainment of the objectives – EFFICIENCY- relates to cost whether in terms of money, time, effort, or materials – APPROPRIATENESS- ability to solve or correct existing problem situation, a question that involves professional judgement. – ADEQUACY- pertains to its comprehensiveness whether all necessary activities were performed in order to realize the intended results. Criteria and Standard CRITERIA- refer to the signs or indicators that tell us if the objective has been achieved. They are names and description of variables that are relevant indicators of having attained the objectives. They are free from any value judgement and are independent to time frame. STANDARD- once a value judgement is applied to a criterion; it acquires the status of a standard. It refers to the desired level of performance corresponding with a criterion against which actual performance is compared. It tells us what the acceptable level of performance or state of affairs should be for us to say that the intervention was successful. ACTIVITY AND OUTCOME ACTIVITIES- are actions performed to accomplish an objective. They are the things the nurse does in order to achieved a desired result or outcome. Activities consume time and resources. Examples are health teachings, demonstration and referrals.
OUTCOME- is the results produced by activities. Where activity is the cause, outcome is the effect. They can also be immediate, immediate or ultimate outcomes. Patient care outcomes can be measured along three broad lines: – PHYSICAL CONDITION- decreased temperature or weight and change in clinical manifestations – PSYCHOLOGICAL OR ATTITUDINAL STATUS- decreased anxiety and favourable attitude towards health care personnel. – KNOWLEDGE ON LEARNING BEHAVIOR- compliance of the patient with instructions given by the nurse. IMPORTANCE OF EVALUATION • • Evaluation, whether of single activity or an entire program, is an expensive and time-consuming process. The temptation to forego it in favour of more activities is therefore understandably appealing. There are foremost reasons why nurses should evaluate their activities and/or intervention: – To eliminate or stop the continued performance of useless activities and interventions. – To increase the efficiency of nursing interventions – To provide documentations of the results of nursing efforts and justification of the cost of nursing services. – To promote growth of the profession and refinement of nursing practice.
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