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1991

P.O. Box 933, 1099 Manila, Philippines
The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) was established in 1960 by the Ford
and Rockefeller Foundations with the help and approval of the Government of the
Philippines. Today IRRI is one of the 13 nonprofit international research and
training centers supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural
Research (CGIAR). The CGIAR is sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organi-
zation of the United Nations, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Devel-
opment (World Bank), and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
The CGIAR consists of 50 donor countries, international and regional organizations,
and private foundations.
IRRI receives support, through the CGIAR, from a number of donors includ-
ing the Asian Development Bank, the European Economic Community, the Ford
Foundation, the International Development Research Centre, the International
Fund for Agricultural Development, the OPEC Special Fund, the Rockefeller
Foundation, UNDP, the World Bank, and the international aid agencies of the
following governments: Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Fin-
land, France, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, The
Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, United Kingdom, and United States.
The responsibility for this publication rests with the International Rice
Research Institute.

Copyright © International Rice Research Institute 1991
All rights reserved. Except for quotations of short passages for the purpose
of criticism and review, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in
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IRRI does not require payment for the noncommercial use of its published works,
and hopes that this copyright declaration will not diminish the bona fide use of its
research findings in agricultural research and development.
The designations employed in the presentation of the material in this publi-
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or the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 971-22-0020-5
Foreword

Farmers everywhere search for ways to widen the narrow margin of profit
between production costs and crop returns. Weeds cause more yield losses in
ricefields than any other pest. Cost-effective methods for controlling weeds
could help preserve profits and increase yields.
The authors have designed this book to provide practical information on
controlling weeds in the many different rice cultural systems, using an inte-
grated management approach. It is exceptionally comprehensive, and can be
used as a textbook, as a field guide, and as a manual for making decisions in
crop management.
The handbook has been especially designed to facilitate inexpensive trans-
lation and copublication. Contact Communication and Publications Services,
IRRI Information Center, for permission and assistance, at no charge, in any
activities to extend its benefits to rice workers who read languages other than
English.

Klaus Lampe
Director General
Preface

Weeds are an important constraint to increasing yields wherever rice is grown,
and rice researchers have created a great amount of useful scientific informa-
tion on weed control. That information, however, is scattered among many
journals, books, and reports that are not always accessible in tropical
countries. The result is no readily-available source of practical information on
weed control for many national agricultural development program workers.
This handbook summarizes important information on weed control in rice.
Our intent was to provide essential, practical, up-to-date information for use
by rice researchers, extension workers, farmers, teachers, and students.
Publication of this handbook would have been impossible without the
assistance and sustaining interest of so many people, it is impossible to
mention them all here. It is with profound gratitude that we acknowledge
those who helped us compile the material and those who contributed to
improving the presentation.
We specifically thank Dr. James E. Hill, extension agronomist, University of
California at Davis, USA; Dr. Shooichi Matsunaka, professor of pesticide
science, Kobe University, Japan; Dr. Marcos R. Vega, visiting professor in
weed science, University of the Philippines at Los Baños (UPLB); Dr. Aurora
M. Baltazar, affiliate assistant professor in weed science, UPLB; and Dr. D. H.
Drennan, Department of Agricultural Botany, University of Reading, U. K., for
extensive reviews of the manuscript and for their valuable suggestions for its
improvement.
We thank Dr. Keith Moody, Ms. Marian Llagas, Mr. Paul Bernaso, and
Mr. Teodoro Migo of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) for their
assistance in compiling the material.
We are greatly appreciative of Bill B. Fischer, farm advisor, Fresno, Califor-
nia, USA, author of Growers Weed Identification Handbook, and Dr. Hill for their
help in securing photographs of important weeds.
Our sincere appreciation goes to Mr. Walter Rockwood for the final editing
of the manuscript and for insightful suggestions that made the handbook
more readable.
We also acknowledge the help of Gemma Q. Lucero for initial editing and
proofreading; Corazon Bambase and Rosalina Gabriel for careful typing
through several drafts; and Ramon Quizon for preparing the illustrations.
Finally, our thanks to the staff of the Information Center, IRRI, for
producing this book.

Kwesi Ampong-Nyarko
S. K. De Datta
IRRI July 1990
Contents

FOREWORD 5 PRINCIPAL RICE HERBICIDES 65
PREFACE Herbicide mixtures, rotations, and sequences 65
Herbicide classification and uses 65
1 SIGNIFICANCE OF WEEDS IN RICE FARMING 1 Differences in herbicide tolerance
Effects of weeds 1 among rice cultivars 72
2
Rice-weed competition
Growth requirements of rice 3
6 WEED CONTROL IN IRRIGATED RICE 73
Transplanted in puddled soil 73
Factors of weed competition 3
Direct seeded on puddled soil 76
Characteristics of successful weeds 4
Direct seeded on dry soil 78
2 RICE WEEDS OF WORLD IMPORTANCE 7 Water seeded 80
7
Life cycles
Morphology 7
7 WEED CONTROL IN RAINFED LOWLAND RICE 83
Transplanted in puddled soil 83
Habitat 8
Direct seeded on puddled soil 85
Approved computer codes for weeds 8
Direct seeded on dry soil 87
Lowland rice weeds 9
Upland rice weeds 25 8 WEED CONTROL IN UPLAND RICE 91
Deepwater rice weeds 38 9 WEED CONTROL IN DEEPWATER AND
3 WEED CONTROL FLOATING RICE 95
Planning effective control 41 Deepwater and floating rice cultures 95
Control methods 41 Weed control before flooding 95
Economics of control 46 Weed control after flooding 98
Integrated weed management 46 10 MANAGEMENT OF SOME DIFFICULT WEEDS
4 PRINCIPLES OF HERBICIDE USE 49 IN RICE 99
Types of herbicides 49 Scirpus maritimus 99
Herbicide selectivity 49 Paspalum distichum 100
Herbicide movement in plants 50 Echinochloa species 100
Timing of herbicide application 50 Wild rice 101
Behavior of herbicides in soil 51 Cyperus rotundus 102
Effect of environment on herbicidal activity 52 Imperata cylindrica 102
Properties of herbicides 52 Rottboellia cochinchinensis 103
Herbicide formulations 53 REFERENCES CITED 104
Herbicide labels 54
APPENDICES 107
Herbicide applicators 55
Operation of the knapsack sprayer 56 INDEX 110
Field techniques for using herbicides 60
Safe use of herbicides 62
Chapter 1

Significance of weeds
in rice farming

Weeds are plants growing where Table 1.1. Cultivated species of rice evolved from weedy wild species (adapted from Chang
1976).
they are not wanted. A weed in one
place may be a useful food, feed, or South and Southeast Asia Tropical Africa
medicine in another. Thus, a plant
Wild perennial O. rufipogon Griff. O. longistaminata A. Chev. & Roehr.
species cannot be classified as a weed Wild annual O. nivara Sharma & Shastry O. barthii A. Chev.
under all conditions. Many plants, Cultivated annual O. sativa O. glaberrima
however, are classified as weeds
everywhere they occur, because they
commonly grow on regularly tilled Table 1.2. Yield losses due to uncontrolled after weed control. These losses can
weed growth in different types of rice culture in
areas such as ricefields. the Philippines (sources: IRRI 1977 to 1988).
amount to 46 million t (based on 1987
Many weeds co-evolved with world rough rice production). There
crops and, in some cases, were Yield Experi- is considerable variation in yield loss
Type of rice culture loss ments
ancestors of cultivated plant species. (mean %) (no.)
to weeds among countries.
For example, the wild rices Oryza There is a need to improve farm-
barthii and O. longistaminata are lrrigated ers’ weed control practices. Improved
Transplanted 48 42
ancestors of cultivated O. glaberrima Water seeded 44 1 weed management will contribute
in Africa. The wild rices O. rufipogon Direct seeded 55 28 significantly to future gains in rice
and O. nivara are ancestors of Rainfed lowland yield in many countries.
cultivated O. sativa in Asia Direct seeded (dry seeds) 74 11
Direct seeded on 61 7
(Table 1.1). puddled soil
Increase in rice production costs
The prevalent weeds in ricefields Transplanted in puddled 51 9 The cost of rice weed control, includ-
are often legacies of previous years’ soil ing herbicides, cultural and mechani-
crops—seeds, rhizomes, tubers, and Rainfed upland cal practices, and hand weeding, is
Broadcast or drilled 96 16
bulbs surviving in the soil. The weed estimated to be about 5% of world
flora in a ricefield is greatly influ- rice production and amount to
enced by the rice culture practiced. US$3.5 billion annually. When the
Continuous rice with an unchanged Effects of weeds 10% loss of rough rice grain yield is
cultural system encourages the Weed infestations primarily constrain added to this cost, the world’s total
buildup of weeds adapted to that rice production by reducing grain estimated cost for rice weeds and
system. In contrast, where crop yield. Yield reductions caused by their control amounts to 15% of total
rotation is practiced, a diverse weed uncontrolled weed growth through- annual production—valued at
flora will result. Perennial weeds out a crop season have been esti- US$10.5 billion (based on 1987
increase in nontilled ricefields. mated to be from 44 to 96%, depend- average export prices at Bangkok,
ing on the rice culture (Table 1.2). In Thailand, for 5% brokens white rice
practice, almost all farmers control US$230/t, IRRI 1988b).
weeds in their ricefields. Worldwide,
some 10% loss of rice yield can be
attributed just to weeds that grow

Significance of weeds 1
Table 1.3. Weeds as secondary hosts for diseases, insects, and nematodes of rice. weeding, by hand or with simple
Disease/insect Host weeds Reference tools, than on any other farming task.
Hand weeding 1 ha of rice requires
Rice dwarf disease (vlrus) Echinochloa crus-galli Ou (1985) from 100 to 780 labor-hours per crop,
Rice stripe disease (virus) E. crus-gall; Ou (1985)
Cynodon dactylon depending on the rice culture.
Setaria vindis
Digitaria adscendens Aquatic weed problems
Rice yellow dwarf (virus) Paspalum distichum Ou (1985)
Leptochloa chinensis Nutrient availability and favorable
Leersia hexandra temperatures throughout the year,
lmperata cylindrica especially in the tropics, allow luxuri-
Rice hoja blanca (virus) Leptochloa spp. Ou (1985)
Digitaria spp. ant aquatic weed growth in flooded
Bacterial leaf blight L. chinensis Ou (1985) ricefields. Noxious aquatic weeds
(Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae) have increasingly infested
Brown spot C. dactylon
(Cochliobolus miyabeanus) L. hexandra Ou (1985) impounded water in the tropics.
Digitaria sanguinalis Heavy aquatic weed infestation
Whlte tip S. viridis Ou (1985) causes excessive water loss through
(Aphelenchoides oryzae) Cyperus iria
I. cylindrica evaporation and impedes water flow
Meloidogyne (nematodes) Fimbristylis miliacea Ou (1985) in irrigation canals. In some cases,
Echinochloa colona aquatic weeds may be a health
Rlce grassy stunt virus L. hexandra IRRI (1988a)
(transmltted by brown C. dactylon hazard to persons living near
planthopper Nilaparvata lugens) Cyperus rotundus impounded water. For example, the
E. colona association of the weed Ceratophyllum
Monochoria vaginalis
Rice tungro assoclated viruses C. rotundus IRRI (1988a) demersum with the intermediate host
F. miliacea snail of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)
Oryza longistaminata Bulinus sp. is well documented.
Oryza barthii
Nymphula depunctalis (Avenee) L. chinensis IRRI (1986)
(caseworm) L. hexandra
lschaemum rugosum Rice-weed competition
Weeds interfere with rice growth by
competing for one or more growth-
Weeds as secondary Effects on harvesting and limiting resources, such as light,
hosts for pests grain quality nutrients, and water. Allelopathy
Weeds indirectly limit production by Weeds hamper rice harvesting and (chemical production by living or
serving as hosts for organisms that increase harvest costs through direct decaying weed plant tissues) may
adversely affect rice. Weeds provide interference with the harvesting also adversely affect the growth of a
food, shelter, and reproduction sites operation and by causing lodging. neighboring rice plant.
for insects, nematodes, pathogens, Weed seeds contaminate rough rice, Rice and rice weeds have similar
and rodents. Table 1.3 lists weeds thus reducing grain quality and requirements for growth and devel-
that serve as alternate hosts to rice market value. For example, the weed opment. Competition occurs when
pests. This indicates the importance red rice has a pigmented layer that one of the limiting resources falls
of recognizing weeds as secondary shatters easily and readily short of the combined requirements
hosts for pests and of removing contaminates rough rice. Removing of both. The degree of rice-weed
weeds from the margins of ricefields all traces of the pigmented layer competition depends on rainfall, rice
to prevent continued infection of the requires intense milling and results in variety, soil factors, weed density,
rice crop. decreased grain quality and lower duration of rice and weed growth,
milling rates. crop age when weeds started to
compete, and nutrient resources,
Social costs of weed control among other variables.
The drudgery of weeding and labor
shortages have made rice farming
unattractive. In most tropical coun-
tries, farmers spend more time on

~~

2 Weed control handbook
Cultural practices greatly alter the Water explains why submergence protects
competitive relationship between rice The water requirement of rice rice plants from severe competition
and weeds. Thus, different cultures depends on the soil, climate, variety, with C4 weeds. On the other hand,
(irrigated, rainfed lowland, upland, growth stage, and duration of plant upland rice and rainfed lowland rice
and deepwater) will be subjected to growth. Plant stress from water with limited precipitation face severe
different kinds and degrees of weed shortage at any stage reduces yield, competition with C4 weeds.
competition. To understand this more so if the water shortage occurs
competition, it is essential to know during the reproductive phase. Nutrients
the growth requirements of rice and Drought stress symptoms include leaf Nitrogen (N) is the most important
helpful to know the growth require- rolling, leaf scorching, reduced nutrient for rice, and N deficiency
ments of weeds. tillering, stunted growth, delayed occurs almost everywhere. Deficien-
flowering, and spikelet sterility. cies of phosphorus (P) and potassium
Growth requirements (K) that may also occur greatly
C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways reduce rice plant tillering. In the
of rice Since its discovery in the late 1960s, tropics, the harvest of a ton of rice
Rice growth varies with climatic and interest in the C4 photosynthetic straw and grain removes an average
cultural conditions. Growth during pathway has been high. The C4 16 kg N, 3 kg P, and 17 kg K/ha.
the first 6 wk is slow. Depending on photosynthetic pathway is a mecha-
moisture availability and tempera- nism for concentrating atmospheric Factors of weed
ture, a seed may take 5-20 d to CO2 at the ultimate site of fixation
germinate and 14-22 additional days within the leaf before entering the C3 competition
to reach the 4-leaf seedling stage. The photosynthetic pathway (Patterson The availability of light, water, and
total leaf area of a standing rice crop 1985). Some plants are C4 types, nutrients affects the growth and
at flowering determines its photo- others C3. Rice is a C3 plant, as are the competitiveness of plants. In theory,
synthetic capacity for spikelet filling, weeds Monochoria vaginalis, Cyperus the amount of these resources in a
and thus determines the grain yield. difformis, Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea given rice environment is fixed-
Tillering capacity is also important spp., and Ageratum conyzoides. whatever is used by one plant species
because number of panicles is a Examples of C4 plants are maize, is not available for another. This
principal component in determining sugarcane, Sorghum bicolor, means that resources taken by weeds
grain yield. Amaranthus spp., Brachiaria spp., are lost to rice, and vice versa. In
Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, general, rice dry matter yield will be
Light Digitaria spp., Echinochloa spp., reduced by 1 kg for every kilogram of
The light requirement of rice varies Eleusine indica, Leptochloa chinensis, weeds produced in the same area.
with crop growth stage. Shading Rottboellia cochinchinensis, and
during the seedling stage greatly lmperata cylindrica. Light
decreases rice growth. Low light from It has been suggested that the C4 Competition for light can occur
10 d before to 20 d after full bloom photosynthetic pathway provides its throughout rice growth. Most weeds
induces high spikelet sterility, result- greatest advantage under hot, arid, and rice have maximum photosyn-
ing in poor grain yield. Low light high light conditions. C 4 plants have thesis and growth in full sunlight.
after flowering reduces rice dry higher water-use efficiency than C3 Competition for light occurs when
matter because of decreased photo- plants, and their nitrogen use effi- one leaf shades another. Weeds
synthesis—75-80% of grain carbohy- ciency may also be greater. compete with rice by growing faster
drate is photosynthesized after Competition between C3 and C 4 and by shading rice with large,
flowering. weeds has been examined in relation
to soil moisture regime (Matsunaka
1983). C3 plants were dominant in
submerged soils; C4 plants were
dominant in dryland soils. This

Significance of weeds 3
horizontal leaves. Tall plants have
an advantage over short plants.
Nutrients
Characteristics of
The three most common yield-
For example, when Rottboellia limiting nutrients are N, P, and K. successful weeds
cochinchinensis was allowed to grow Competition, however, may occur for Weeds and crops may have common
with rice, R. cochinchinensis was 150 any nutrient required for plant origins, and hence, may have similar
cm tall and rice was 50 cm tall at 8 wk growth. Many weed species have a characteristics. Weeds often have
after seeding. The amount of light nutrient uptake similar to that of rice, evolved adaptive traits that increase
received at 25 cm within the rice but have higher nutrient-use their persistence or competitiveness,
canopy was only 3% of the light at efficiency than rice. In general, factors or both. Traits contributing to
the top of the weed canopy. In this that give a plant a competitive successful weeds fall under three
situation, the weed clearly had an advantage in water uptake also give categories: 1) weed competitiveness
advantage. the plant a competitive advantage in and growth, 2) weed reproduction
nutrient uptake. and dispersal, and 3) similarities
Water between weed and rice.
Rice yield losses from water deficit Critical period of weed competition
depend on the severity and duration Competition between weed seedlings Weed competitiveness and growth
of the deficit, environmental condi- and direct seeded rice seedlings Some weeds have large seeds which
tions, cultivar, and growth stage usually begins as competition for allow for rapid seedling growth.
when drought stress occurs. Drought light. The effect of shading on rice Some weeds are climbers; others are
stress reduces photosynthesis by growth is most severe during the tall. Some weeds have higher rates of
reducing leaf expansion and causing seedling stage, but rice can recover photosynthesis, faster growth, larger
loss of leaf turgor, which leads to from weed competition if weeds are leaves, and deeper root systems than
stomatal closure. Transpiration and eliminated early in the season. Weeds rice and other crops. Deep root
photosynthesis by leaves are greatly will not further reduce the grain yield systems enable a weed to exploit
reduced when stomata close. of a mature rice crop ready for har- nutrients essential for crop growth.
Responses to drought stress include vesting. Weeds are highly adaptable to
wilting and increased leaf mortality. The so-called critical period lies changing environments (phenotypic
Rice and weeds differ in their between the seedling and harvest plasticity). Under favorable condi-
tolerance for drought because of stages, the 30-45 d when weed tions, weeds become large and
differences in their root distribution, competition is most damaging to rice. produce many seeds. Under unfavor-
root elongation rate, genetic tolerance To avoid grain yield losses, it is able conditions, weeds remain small
for low water availability in plant important to controI weeds through- and produce only a few seeds.
tissue, and control of water loss out this critical period. At 45- to
through transpiration. C4 weeds have 60-d-old, well-established, weed-free Reproduction and dispersal
lower water requirements than those rice plants are able to suppress later Many weeds produce large quantities
of C3 rice and are able to tolerate germinating weed seedlings. When of seed in favorable environments.
more drought stress than rice. herbicides are used, their persistence For example, Eckinochloa colona may
should be long enough to cover the produce 100,000 seeds/plant; Eleusine
critical period of competition. indica, 50,000 seeds/plant; Commelina
benghalensis, 1,600 seeds/plant;
Trianthema portulacastrum, 52,000
seeds/plant; and Amaranthus spp.,
196,000 seeds/plant. Production of a
large number of seeds ensure species

4 Weed control handbook
survival even in adverse environ- Weed seed dispersal also contrib-
ments. Weed seeds ripen nonsyn- utes to the survival of weed species.
chronously—viable seeds are Mature seeds and fruits of weeds are
produced and shatter before the rice dispersed by wind and water, and by
crop matures. animals and man. Moving water is an
Some annual weeds have short life important pathway in the spread of
cycles and may produce several weed seeds, particularly in the
generations a year when moisture is interconnected canals of irrigated and
not limiting, particularly in the rainfed lowland ricefields.
tropics.
Perennial weeds reproduce both Similarities between weeds and rice
sexually and vegetatively. Vegetative The growth requirements and habits
reproduction includes rhizomes, of many weeds resemble those of rice.
tubers, corms, bulbs, and stolons. These adaptations include similarities
Such weeds are highly adaptive. in seed size, seed maturity, morphol-
Vegetative organs depend on the ogy, and physiology. Wild rice
parent plant for their supply of species, for example, are very similar
nutrients and water during develop- to cultivated rice species. A classic
ment and use stored reserves to example is the rice mimic Echinochloa
support later establishment. Vegeta- oryzoides (Ard.) Fritsch; hundreds of
tive structures, which are normally years of hand weeding is thought to
larger and contain more stored food be the selective agent responsible for
than seeds, grow fast and emerge its vegetative mimicry. It is rarely
from greater soil depths than seeds. found outside the rice environment.
Examples of these weeds are Cynodon
dactylon, lmperata cyclindrica, Cyperus
rotundus, and Commelina benghalensis.
Many viable weed seeds
remain dormant even under favor-
able conditions, and dormancy pre-
vents weed seeds from germinating
under unfavorable conditions. Seed
dormancy may be genetic or arise
from environmental conditions such
as deep burial, unfavorable tempera-
tures, low oxygen supply, or water-
logging. Weed seeds in the soil may
be in different states of dormancy
and may germinate at different
times, making weed eradication
through weed control practices
difficult. The high seed production
ability and long dormancy periods
result in large reserves of viable weed
seeds in the soil, including many
seeds that can survive for several
years.

Significance of weeds 5
Chapter 2

Rice weeds of worldwide
importance

National and regional methods of and agricultural importance are Stolons are horizontally growing
classifying rice cultures can vary described. Local names of weeds in stems with long slender internodes;
widely, depending on rice-growing the countries where they are of major adventitious roots form at the nodes
conditions and purposes of the classi- concern are provided to compliment when in contact with soil. Paspalum
fication system. A classification the photographs for weed identifica- distichum is a weed with stolons.
system may be based on general tion. (We know the list of local names A tuber is a specialized structure
surface hydrology, source of water, is not complete, and the spelling used that results from the swelling of the
landform and soil units, ecological for the local names may not be the one terminal portion of an underground
factors, or crop season. For weed preferred. Readers are invited to send stem or root; it contains stored food.
control, general surface hydrology the authors the correct local names.) Cyperus rotundus produces tubers.
and rice seeding method are more Weeds in rice are classified by their
important than other factors (De Datta life cycle, habitat, and morphological
1981). characteristics. Morphology
A classification based on surface Weeds are also classified as mono-
hydrology and seeding method is cotyledonous or dicotyledonous.
used here to discuss weed problems Life cycles
and the integrated methods available Weeds are classified as annual or Monocotyledons
for weed control in each type of rice perennial, or both. Where moisture or The seeds of monocotyledonous
culture. Rice culture is classified on temperature is not limiting and life weeds have a single cotyledon (seed
the basis of water management as cycle is short, an annual weed may leaf). A monocotyledon’s mature
lowland, upland, or deepwater; it may complete more than one life cycle in a leaves are long and narrow with
be irrigated or rainfed. This is further year. Annuals produce many seeds, parallel veins. The stem or culm is
subdivided on the basis of rice estab- some of which remain dormant and cylindrical and the growing point is
lishment method. buffer a species against weed control protected by a sheath. The root
This chapter covers weeds of measures. systems arise adventitiously and are
worldwide importance in lowland, Perennial weeds propagate by usually fibrous. Examples of families
upland, and deepwater ricefields. The vegetative structures such as bulbs, of monocotyledoneae are
weeds in each ecosystem are arranged corms, rhizomes, stolons, and tubers. Potamogetonaceae, Pontederiaceae,
alphabetically on the basis of family. A bulb is an underground bud. Cyperaceae, Poaceae, and
Photographs show seed, seedling, Rhizomes are underground shoots Commelinaceae. Sedges (Cyperaceae)
mature plant, and flower for each with short, thick internodes buried in resemble grasses but differ from
weed, and each weed’s characteristics the soil. They have specialized buds grasses in that their stems are
that can remain dormant. These unjointed, solid, and often triangular
shoots are rich in stored food and in cross section.
enable plants to survive from year to
year. Imperata cylindrica and Cynodon
dactylon are rhizomatous weeds.

Weeds worldwide 7
Dicotyledons For further information on the
The seeds of dicotyledonous weeds biology of the weeds listed in this
have two cotyledons. Mature leaves chapter, and on other weeds that may
are broad and usually net-veined. The be of interest, readers can refer to the
root systems have tap roots. The book The world's worst weeds - distribu-
dicotyledons have a branched growth tion and biology (1977) by L.G. Holm
form. Not all broadleaf weeds how- and colleagues. Other references
ever, are dicotyledonous. Commelina include Krantz et al (1977), Moody
benghalensis, Monochoria vaginalis, and (1981), and Moody et al (1984).
Eichhornia crassipes have broad leaves
but are monocotyledonous weeds. Approved computer
codes for weeds
Habitat Computer codes for weeds now
Weeds in rice can be grouped on the available (Bayer Agrochemicals
basis of their adaptation to submerged Division 1986) are useful for univer-
conditions as lowland or upland sal identification in bibliographies
weeds. Lowland weeds may be and data bases. An approved com-
semiaquatic or aquatic; upland weeds puter code is a five-letter abbrevia-
are adapted to dry sites. tion based on the scientific name of
Information on yield loss from each plant. In general, the first three
uncontrolled weeds from different letters refer to the genus and the last
experiments around the world is two denote the species, the subspe-
given when available to indicate the cies, or the variety. For example, the
weed's potential competitive ability. code for Echinochloa colona is ECHCO;
The losses will differ from one locality for Echinochloa crus-galli, ECHCG;
to another because they are affected and for Echinochloa crus-galli P.B. var.
by environmental factors such as nu- kasaharae Ohwi, ECHCK.
trient, moisture, temperature, time of
weed emergence, and density. The
yield loss information is not meant to
show the relative competitiveness
among the different weeds, and the
yield loss figures should not be used
to target particular weeds for control,
leaving others to compete with the
crop.

8 Weed control handbook
Lowland rice weeds
ASTERACEAE (Compositae, sunflower family)

Weed name: Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. Mature plant
Synonyms: Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk.,
Eclipta erecta L., Verbesina alba,
Verbesina prostrata L.
Local names:
Country Common name
Argentina yerba de tago (Spanish)
Bangladesh keshuti (Bengali)
France eclipte blanche
India bhangra, kesadura, ghuzi
Indonesia urang-aring (Javanese)
Japan takasaburo
Malaysia aring-aring
Mexico hierba-prieta (Spanish)
Myanmar kyeik-hman
Pakistan daryai buti
Peru florcita (Spanish)
Philippines higis manok (Tagalog) Seed, magnified
Sri Lanka sindu kirindi (Sinhalese)
kaikechi (Tamil)
Sudan tamar el ghanam
Thailand ka-meng (Thai)
USA eclipta
Vietnam co muc
Life cycle: An annual or perennial
broadleaf weed that can grow as tall as
90 cm. Propagates by seeds, which
show no dormancy. In the tropics, the
seed germinates throughout the year.
Habitat: Thrives in continuously wet
soils but can grow at dry sites. Also
found in poorly drained wet areas.
Weedy nature: An adaptable weed
with fast vegetative growth.
Agricultural concern: Prevalent in
lowland and upland ricefields. Rice Flower
yield losses of 25% have been
recorded in the Philippines.

Seedling

Weeds worldwide 9
Lowland rice weeds / CYPERACEAE (sedge family)

Weed name: Cyperus difformis L.
Synonyms: None
Local names:
Country Common name
Australia dirty dora
France souchet a petites fleurs
Japan tamagayatsuri
Korea albang dong sani
Malaysia rumput air
Seed, magnified
Nigeria imeremere (Yoruba)
Philippines baki-baki (Ilongo)
ballayang (Tagalog)
Sierra Leone a-kek-a-pot
Thailand kok ka-narg
USA smallflower, umbrella
sedge

Life cycle: An annual sedge that can
grow as tall as 75 cm. Normally propa-
gates by seeds.
Habitat: Adapted to moist lowland
soils or flooded areas.
Weedy nature: A heavy seed
producer. Can complete one life cycle
in about 30 d. Through high seed
production and short life cycle, can
spread rapidly to become a dominant Mature plant
weed in a ricefield.
Agricultural concern: Produces a
dense stand within a short time, thus
competing with rice for moisture and
nutrients. Has caused rice yield reduc-
tions of 12-50%.

Seedling Inflorescence

10 Weed control handbook
Lowland rice weeds / CYPERACEAE (sedge family)

Weed name: Cyperus iria L.
Synonyms: None
Local names:
Country Common name
Bangladesh barachucha (Bengali)
Brazil tiririca-do-brejo
(Portuguese)
Cambodia kak kangkep (Khmer)
India morphula (Assamese)
Indonesia djekeng (Javanese)
Japan kogomegayatsuri
Korea chambang-donsani
Pakistan khana
Philippines alinang (Bicolano)
paiung-paiung (Tagalog)
Thailand kok huadaeng
USA rice flatsedge

Life cycle: An annual sedge that
grows as tall as 60 cm. Propagates by
seeds, which may be dormant but can
germinate about 75 d after shedding.
Habitat: Grows well in moist to wet
soil. Seedling
Weedy nature: A prolific seed
producer and spreads quickly.
Agricultural concern: Can be very
competitive for nutrients and reduce
rice yields 40%.

Mature plant

Seed, magnified

Inflorescence

Weeds worldwide 11
Lowland rice weeds / CYPERACEAE (sedge family)

Weed name: Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Mature plant
Vahl
Synonym: Fimbristylis littoralis Gaud.
Local names:
Country Commonname
Bangladesh bara javani (Bengali)
Brazil cominho (Portuguese)
Cambodia kâk phenk kdam (Khmer)
Indonesia adas-adawan (Javanese)
Japan hideriko
Korea barambaneulgiji
Malaysia rumput tahiker bau
Myanmar monhnyin Inflorescence
Philippines ubod-ubod (Tagalog)
Thailand agor
USA globe fingerush
Life cycle: An annual sedge that
grows as tall as 60 cm. Propagates by
seeds. Large proportion of seeds have
no dormancy and can germinate
immediately after reaching maturity.
Seed requires light for germination.
Habitat: Adapted to moist soils and
areas of occasional flooding. Does not
establish in submerged soils.
Weedy nature: Produces many
seeds, which germinate throughout the
year. Thus, some weeds escape the
weed control measures. Can become a
dominant weed within a short time.
Agricultural concern: Competition
is mainly for nutrients and water. Can
reduce rice grain yields 50%.

Seed, magnified

Seedling

12 Weed control handbook
Lowland rice weeds / CYPERACEAE (sedge family)

Weed name: Scirpus maritimus L. Mature plant

Synonyms: None
Local names:
County Common name
France scirpe maritime
Peru coco grande (Spanish)
Philippines apulid (Tagalog)

Life cycle: A perennial sedge that Tubers and rhizomes

spreads by tubers.
Habitat: Grows in wet and flooded
soils.
Weedy nature: Tubers have
dormancy. Stems grow rapidly during
early rice growth and may severely
shade semidwarf rice cultivars during
the first 40 d. Difficult to control
because of apical bud dormancy and
capacity to produce numerous tubers.
Establishes, spreads, and becomes a
dominant weed within a short time.
Agricultural concern: Very competi-
tive in lowland rice. Rice yield losses of
60-80% can occur. Difficult to eradi-
cate because of dormant tubers and
buds.

Mature plants in the field

Vegetative shoot

Weeds worldwide 13
Lowland rice weeds /MARSILEACEAE

Weed name: Marsilea minuta L.
Synonym: Marsilea crenata Presl.
Localnames:
Country Common name
France marsilea a quatre feuilles
Japan denjiso
Malaysia tapak itek (Malay)
Philippines kaya-kayapuan (Tagalog)
Thailand phakwaen
USA airypepperwort
Life cycle: An aquatic fern that
reproduces by rhizomes and spores.
Habitat: Grows well in lowland fields
and along irrigation canals.
Agricultural concern: Persistent
and very competitive in rice. Yield
reduction of 70% has been recorded.

Mature plant

Seedling

14 Weed control handbook
Lowland rice weeds / ONAGRACEAE (evening-primrose family)

Weed name: Ludwigia octovalvis Mature plant
(Jacq.) Raven
Synonym: Jussiaea suffruticosa L.
Local names:
Country Common name
Brazil cruz-de-malta (Portuguese)
Malaysia jinaleh
Philippines balakbak, malapako
(Tagalog)
Thailand phak phaeng phuai
USA long fruited primrose-
willow

Life cycle: An annual aquatic broad-
leaf weed that can grow as tall as
100 cm. Propagates by seeds, some
of which will germinate immediately in
wet or flooded soils. Flower
Habitat: Adapted to wet and aquatic
conditions.
Weedy nature: Very competitive
with rice.
Agricultural concern: Can reduce
rice yields 50-80%.

Seed, magnified

Seedling

Weeds worldwide 15
Lowland rice weeds /POACEAE (grass family)

Weed name: Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) E. crus-galli var. austro-japonensis
Beauv. E. crus-galli species is consid- is essentially found in eastern Asia,
ered to include two subspecies, each extending south from Taiwan, China,
with two varieties (Michael 1983): and adjacent parts of mainland Asia to
E. crus-galli ssp. crus-galli var. the high, cool areas of Southeast Asia.
crus-galli, Synonyms: None
E. crus-galli ssp. crus-galli var. Local names:
praticola, Country Common name
E. crus-galli ssp. hispidula var. Bangladesh shama
Brazil capimp-da-colonia
hispidula, and
(Portuguese)
E. crus-galli sp. hispidula var. France panic, pied-de-coq
austro-japonensis India kauada, sawant
E. crus-galli var. crus-galli is (Malayalam)
abundant in the more temperate rice- Indonesia djawan (Javanese)
Korea pi
growing areas such as the Indian
Malaysia sambau
subcontinent, China, Japan, Southern Peru mijo japones Seedling
Europe, North and South America, and Philippines daua-daua (Tagalog)
Australia. Sri Lanka martu
E. crus-galli var. praticola is an Thailand ya-plong
USA common barnyard grass
upland rice weed in eastern Asia.
E. crus-galli var. hispidula is an Life cycle: An annual grass that can
abundant rice weed throughout grow as tall as 150 cm. Propagates by
Southeast Asia, parts of the Indian seeds, which may remain dormant
subcontinent, and Sri Lanka. 3-4 mo.
Habitat: Adapted to wet soils.
Grows best at soil moisture of 80%
water-holding capacity. Optimum
germination occurs at 70-90% of water-
holding capacity. Seeds can also
germinate under water. Growth
becomes increasingly poor with
increased depth of submergence.
Weedy nature: A prolific seed
producer; one plant may produce
40,000 seeds. Tillers profusely and
germinates throughout the year.
Ecologically similar to rice. During early
vegetative phase, almost indistinguish-
able from rice plants.
Agricultural concern: Very competi-
tive with rice. Can reduce rice yields
100%.

16 Weed control handbook
Mature plant

Inflorescence

Seed, magnified

Weeds worldwide 17
Lowland rice weeds / POACEAE (grass family)

Weed name: Echinochloa glabrescens Mature plant
Munro ex Hook.f.
Synonyms: None
Local names:
Country Common name
Japan inubie
Philippines bayakibok, daua-daua
(Tagalog)
Life cycle: An annual grass that Inflorescence
grows 0.5-1.0 m tall. Propagates by
seeds.
Habitat: Adapted to wet soils.
Distribution extends from the Indian
subcontinent through mainland
Southeast Asia and China to Korea,
southern Japan, and the Philippines
(Michael 1983).
Weedy nature: Ecologically similar
to rice.
Agricultural concern: Very competi-
tive with rice. When E. glabrescens
seedlings were transplanted with rice,
yield losses ranged from 7% when 5%
of the rice hills were infested to 87%
when 50% of the rice hills were
infested (IRRI 1987).

Seed, magnified

Seedling

18 Weed control handbook
Lowland rice weeds/POACEAE (grass family)

Weed name: Ischaemurn rugosum
Salisb.
Synonyms: None
Local names:
Country Common name
Bangladesh moran (Bengali)
Brazil capin macho (Portuguese)
Colombia trigillo (Spanish)
Dominican
Republic yerba de papo (Spanish)
Fiji comuraina
India mararo (Bengali)
Indonesia blemben (Javanese)
Malaysia rumput ekor jawi (Malay)
Myanmar ka-gyi-the-myet
Peru mozorquilla (Spanish)
Philippines tinitrigo (Tagalog)
Sri Lanka kudukedu (Sinhalese)
Thailand yah daeng
USA saramollagrass
Life cycle: An annual grass that
grows to 120 cm tall. Propagates by
seeds, which may remain dormant.
Mature plant
Habitat: Prefers wet soils and
swampy areas.
Weedy nature: A vigorous, aggres-
sive weed. Seeds shatter easily, so
that there is a constant source of
infestation. During vegetative growth,
resembles the rice plant, making it
difficult to recognize as a weed. Seed, magnified
I. rugosum, however, has deep red-
dish-brown to purple leaf sheaths, a
color only weakly developed in rice.
Agricultural concern: Very competi-
tive: 5 plants/m2 reduced rice yields
15% and 80 plants/m2 reduced yields
82% in IRRl trials (IRRI 1987).

Inflorescence

Weeds worldwide 19
Lowland rice weeds / POACEAE (grass family)

Weed name: Leersia hexandra Sw. Mature plants in the field
Synonyms: None
Local names:
Country Common name Inflorescence
Australia swamp ricegrass
Bangladesh araila (Bengali)
Brazil arroz-bravo (Portuguese)
Indonesia kalamenta
Malaysia rumput lidah riman
(Malay)
Myanmar thaman-myet
Philippines barit (Tagalog)
Surinam alesi grasie
Thailand yah-sai
USA southern cutgrass
Venezuela lamedora
Vietnam có bac

Life cycle: An aquatic perennial
grass that can grow as tall as 100 cm.
Propagates by seeds, rhizomes, and
stolons.
Habitat: Grows in constantly
flooded or marshy habitats.
Agricultural concern: In some
habitats, resembles rice plants.
Because it propagates by both seeds
and vegetatively, has a tremendous
ability to survive and proliferate. Can
cause 60% rice yield losses. Seed, magnified

Mature plant

20 Weed control handbook
Lowland rice weeds / POACEAE (grass family)

Weed name: Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Mature plant
Nees
Synonyms: None
Local names:
Country Common name
Colombia plumilla (Spanish)
El Salvador cola de buey (Spanish)
Indonesia bebontengan (Javanese)
Japan azegaya
Philippines palay-maya (Tagalog) Inflorescence
Thailand yoa yon hun
USA Chinese sprangle top
Vietnam có duöi phung

Life cycle: An annual or perennial
grass that can grow as tall as 120 cm.
Propagates by seeds.
Habitat: Grows well in marshy fields
but will not survive continuous flood-
ing. Can also grow in upland fields.
Weedy nature: Propagates from
cuttings of the culm or rootstocks,
therefore establishes and spreads
easily under tillage.
Agricultural concern: A serious
weed in rice. Competes with rice for
nutrients and light and can reduce
yields more than 40%.

Seed, magnified

Seedling

Weeds worldwide 21
Lowland rice weeds / POACEAE (grass family)

Weed name: Paspalurn distichurn L. Mature plant
Synonym: Paspalurn paspalodes
(Michx.) Scribn.
Local names:
Country Commonname Inflorescence
Australia water couch
Indonesia lamhani (Sundanese)
Japan kishusuzuuenchie
Malaysia rumput masin
Philippines luya-luyangdagat,
pagetpet (Tagalog)
USA knotgrass

Life cycle: A perennial grass that
can grow as tall as 30-60 cm.
Propagates mainly by creeping stolons
and, to some extent, by seeds (flowers
but produces few viable seeds).
Habitat: Grows well in moist to wet
soils.
Weedy nature: Spreads aggres-
sively by means of stolons. Difficult to
control because detached stolon
fragments regenerate easily. Tolerant
of many herbicides.
Agricultural concern: Can be very
competitive in rice, reducingyields up
to 85%.

Mature plants in the field

22 Weed control handbook
Lowland rice weeds / PONTEDERIACEAE (pickerel-weed family)

Weed name: Monochoria vaginalis Mature plant

(Burm. f.) Presl
Synonyms: None
Local names:
Country Common name
Bangladesh panee kachu
Cambodia chrach (Khmer)
India neerthomarai (Tamil)
Indonesia et jeng padi Inflorescence
Korea mooldalgebi
Malaysia keladi agas (Malay)
Philippines biga-bigaan (Tagalog)
Thailand ninlabon
USA monochoria
Vietnam rau mác lá thon

Life cycle: A perennial aquatic
monocotyledonous plant. May behave
like an annual in flooded ricefields,
where it grows as tall as 50 cm.
Propagates by seeds.
Habitat: A lowland weed that grows
well in subaquatic to aquatic condi-
tions.
Weedy nature: In saturated soils,
seeds germinate throughout the
growing season, enabling seedlings to
emerge and establish after early-
season weed control. A very aggres-
sive weed in soils with high N levels.
Agricultural concern: Can reduce
rice yields 85%.

Seed, magnified

Seedling

Weeds worldwide 23
Lowland rice weeds / SPHENOCLEACEAE (sphenoclea family)

Weed name: Sphenoclea zeylanica Mature plant
Gaertn.
Synonyms: None
Local names:
Country Common name
Indonesia goenda
Malaysia cabaikera
Pakistan mirch booti
Philippines silisilihan (Tagalog)
Thailand phak-pot
USA gooseweed
Vietnam xa bông

Life cycle: An annual broadleaf that
grows as tall as 150 cm. Propagates
by seeds.
Habitat: Grows in wet soils; prefers
stagnant water.
Weedy nature: Grows and flowers
throughout the year.
Seed, magnified
Agricultural concern: In dense
populations, competes with rice for
light and nutrients and can cause 45%
yield loss.

Seedling

Inflorescence

24 Weed control handbook
Upland rice weeds
AIZOACEAE (carpet-weed family)

Weed name: Trianthema Seed, magnified
portulacastrum L.
Synonym: Trianthema monogyna L.
Local names:
Country Common name
Australia giant pigweed
Cambodia pti thmâr (Khmer)
France pourpier courant
Ghana adwera-akoa (Twi)
India pasalikeera (Malayalam) Mature plants in the field
saranai (Tamil)
verrugoligeru (Telegu)
Mexico verdolaga de hoja ancha
Nigeria dáaburin sa aniyaá
(Hausa)
Philippines toston (Tagalog)
Thailand phak bia hin
USA horse purslane
Life cycle: An annual broadleaf
weed that can grow 40 cm tall. Propa-
gates by seeds, which may be dormant
for as long as 4 mo.
Habitat: Grows well in dry to moist
soils.
Weedy nature: A prolific seed pro-
ducer with a short life cycle.
Completes several life cycles within a
year. Early vegetative growth is very
rapid, especially in fertile soils.
Agricultural concern: If control in
upland rice is delayed, can smother
rice seedlings within 2-3 wk. Normally
succumbs to insects after about 5 wk
but can reduce rice yields 30%.

Seedling Inflorescence

Weeds worldwide 25
Upland rice weed / AMARANTHACEAE (amaranth family)

Weed name: Amaranthus spinosus L.
Synonyms: None
Local names:
Country Common name
Argentina atato espinado
Australia needle burr
Bangladesh katanata (Bengali)
Brazil caruru-de-espinho
(Portuguese)
Cambodia pti banla (Khmer)
El Salvador huisquilite
France amarante epi neuse, blette
epineuse
Ghana sraha nsoe (Twi)
India kataili chauli Seed, magnified
(Gujrati)
kantaneutia (Orya)
Indonesia bajem duri (Javanese)
Mexico quelite espinosa (Spanish)
Myanmar tsu-gyi
Nigeria tete elegun (Yoruba)
Philippines oray, kulitis (Tagalog)
USA spiny amaranth, spiny
pigweed
Zimbabwe imbowa
Life cycle: An annual broad leaf with
red stems and spiny leaves. Can grow
as tall as 120 cm. Propagates by
glossy, dark-brown seeds, which are
dispersed by wind and water. Germina-
tion may occur from a few days after
Mature plant
harvest to about 5 mo. Germinates
throughout the year when moisture is
available.
Habitat: Grows best in soils with no
standing water.
Weedy nature: A prolific seed
producer.
Agricultural concern: Very competi-
tive in rice, can cause 80% yield loss.

Seedling Inflorescence

26 Weed control handbook
Upland rice weeds / ASTERACEAE (sunflower family)

Weed name: Ageratum conyzoides L.
Synonyms:None
Localnames:
Country Common name
Australia billygoat weed
Brazil erva-de-sao-joao
Colombia hierba de chivo
France agerate a feuilles
de conyza
Ghana efoe momoe (Fanti)
India gundhuabon, mahakaua
Indonesia ban do tan
Malaysia ruptahi-ayam
Seed, magnified
Nigeria imiesu (Yoruba)
Philippines bulak-manok (Tagalog)
Sri Lanka hulantala
Thailand ya-tabsua
USA tropic ageratum
Zambia kabalakila (Chitonga)
Life cycle: An annual broadleaf that
can grow as tall as 120 cm at flower-
ing. Propagates by seeds. Seed germi-
nates throughout the year. In some
areas, 50% of the seeds germinate
within 2 wk after shedding; in other
areas, the seed has a pronounced
dormancy with about 1% of the seeds
germinating after some months.
Mature plant
Habitat: Grows in dry to moist soils.
Weedy nature: Among the most
common weeds found in rice. Rapidly
colonizes cultivated areas. Has a short
life cycle and completes several cycles
in a year. Produces enormous amounts
of seeds, which are dispersed by wind
and water. Seeds germinate in a wide
range of environments. As soon as the
first stand is destroyed, another flush
of seedlings grows. Seedling
Agricultural concern: Can achieve a
dense growth and compete with rice
for nutrients and moisture. Can reduce
rice yields 40%. Inflorescence

Weeds worldwide 27
Upland rice weeds / COMMELINACEAE (spiderwort family)

Weed name: Commelina Mature plant
benghalensis L.
Synonyms: None
Local names:
Country Common name
Angola ndakala
Bangladesh kanaibashi (Bengali)
Ghana nyame-bowu-an amewu
(Fanti)
India kona simolu (Assamese)
kena (Marathi)
kanchara kankaua (Orya)
Indonesia gewor
Mauritius herbe aux cochons
Myanmar myet-cho
Philippines alikbangon (Tagalog)
Samoa Mauutoga
Thailand phak plaap
USA tropical spider wort
Zambia nkumbaile

Life cycle: A creeping annual or
perennial broadleaf that grows as tall
as 40 cm. Propagates by seeds and
stolons.
Habitat: Grows best in wet soil.
Weedy nature: Able to grow rapidly
from stem cuttings. Shows rapid
vegetative growth under favorable
conditions and forms dense pure
stands, smothering low-growing rice
crop. Difficult to control because
Seedling Inflorescence
vegetative fragments regenerate easily
and because it is resistant to many
soil-applied herbicides.
Agricultural concern: Can cause
50% yield loss.

Seed, magnified

28 Weed control handbook
Upland rice weeds / CYPERACEAE (sedge family)

Mature plant
Weed name: Cyperus rotundus L.
Synonyms: None
Local names:
Country Common name
Argentina cebollita
Bangladesh motha (Bengali)
Brazil tiririca-comum
(Portuguese)
Cambodia smav kravanh chrouk
(Khmer)
France souchet rond
Ghana hyia-me-nonum (Fanti)
India nagar, motha (Orya)
korai (Tamil)
dila (Telegu)
Indonesia teki
Malaysia rumput haliyahitan Rhizomes and tubers
(Malay)
Mexico coquillo (Spanish)
Pakistan deela (Urdu)
Philippines mutha (Tagalog)
Senegal ndidan (Wolof)
Sri Lanka kalanthi (Sinhalese)
Thailand haew moo (Thai)
USA purple nutsedge
Life cycle: A perennial sedge that
can grow as tall as 75 cm. Propagates
mainly by tubers and produces few
seeds.
Habitat: Grows well in moist soils.
Weedy nature: Persistent and
difficult to control. Enormous amounts
of tubers may be produced. Tubers,
which have dormancy, can survive long
periods of environmental stress.
Difficult to control by cultivation
because cultivation breaks the
dormancy in the interconnected tuber
leading to more vigorous sprouting.
Agricultural concern: Limits rice
Inflorescence
production by competing for water and
nutrients. Can reduce rice yields 50%.

Seedling

Weeds worldwide 29
Upland rice weeds / EUPHORBIACEAE (spurge family)

Weed name: Euphorbia hirta L.
Synonyms: Chamesyce hirta (L.)
Millsp., Euphorbia pilulifera L.
Local names:
Country Common name
Bangladesh bara dudhia (Bengali)
Brazil erva-de-Santa-Luzia
(Portuguese)
France euphorbe poilue
Ghana ahinkogye (Twi)
Seed, magnified
India dudhi (Marathi)
baridhudhi (Orya)
amman paccharisi (Tamil)
Indonesia gendong anak (Javanese)
Malaysia ara tanah (Malay)
Mexico hierba dela golon drina
(Spanish)
Myanmar majo
Nigeria buje (Yoruba)
Philippines gatas-gatas, botobotonis
(Tagalog)
Thailand namnom raatchasee
(Thai)
USA garden spurge
Vietnam cô sua lông

Life cycle: An annual broadleaf that
grows as tall as 30 cm. Propagates by
seeds.
Habitat: Grows in dry or moist soils.
Weedy nature: A prolific seed
producer with a life cycle of about
Mature plant
1 mo. Flowers throughout the year.
Dense stands develop easily within a
short time.
Agricultural concern: Can reduce
rice yields 30%.

Seedling Inflorescence

30 Weed control handbook
Upland rice weeds / POACEAE (grass family)

Weed name: Cynodon dactylon (L.)
Pers.
Synonyms: None
Local names:
Country Common name
Angola usila
Argentina chepica (Spanish)
Brazil capim deburro
(Portuguese)
Cambodia smav anchien (Khmer)
Chile pasto gallina (Spanish)
France herbe des bemu das
India arugampulu, doob (Tamil)
garika (Telugu)
Indonesia gigirinting
Mauritius chiendent
Pakistan dub
Philippines kotatai, kawad-kawad
(Tagalog)
Sudan nagil
USA bermudagrass
Vietnam co chi
Zambia kapinga
Life cycle: A creeping perennial Mature plant in the field
grass. Can grow as tall as 40 cm.
Propagates almost exclusively by
stolons and rhizomes and produces
few seeds. Seeds are very small but
can survive about 50 d submergence.
As long as moisture is present, seeds
can germinate throughout the year.
Habitat: Adapted to dry or moist
well-drained soils.
Weedy nature: Rhizomes and
stolons root easily at the nodes and
reestablish immediately after cutting.
Rhizomes grow deeply in the soil,
enabling the weed to withstand
extreme environments. A common and
persistent weed, very competitive, with Inflorescence Seedling
rapid shoot growth. Difficult to control
because detached fragments regener-
ate easily.
Agricultural concern: Can reduce
rice yields by 55%.

Weeds worldwide 31
Upland rice weeds / POACEAE (grass family)

Weed name: Digitaria sanguinalis (L.)
Scop.
Synonyms: None
Local names:
Country Common name
Brazil milha-de-pendao
(Portuguese)
Colombia conejo Seed, magnified
France digitaire sun guine, panic
sanguin
Indonesia suket djrempak
Myanmar myet-naya
Nicaragua manga larga (Spanish)
Peru digitaria (Spanish)
Philippines pagpagai (Bontoc)
Thailand yaa teenka
USA large crabgrass
Venezuela pendejuelo (Spanish)

Life cycle: An annual grass that can
grow as tall as 70 cm. Propagates by
seeds, which have a short dormancy
after shedding.
Habitat: Grows in moist to wet
soils.
Weedy nature: A prolific seed
producer with enormous tillering
ability. A few plants can spread to
occupy a large area. An elaborate root
system gives it an advantage in below-
ground competition. Regrowth after Mature plant
weeding is rapid.
Agricultural concern: Very competi-
tive in rice; can reduce yield 70%.

Seedling Inflorescence

32 Weed control handbook
Upland rice weeds / POACEAE (grass family)

Weed name: Echinochloa colona (L.)
Link
Synonyms: None
Local names:
Country Common name
Argentina grama pintada (Spanish)
Australia awnless barn yardgrass
Egypt abu-rokba (Arabic)
France ble de dekkan
India kauada, sawank
(Malayalarn)
Indonesia roernpoet bebek
Iraq dahnan
Malaysia padi burong, rumput
kusa-kusa
Philippines pulang puit (Tagalog)
Sri Lanka gira-taro (Sinhalese)
Sudan difera
Thailand ya-plong
USA junglerice
Zambia zibaila (Chitonga)
Life cycle: An annual grass that can
grow as tall as 90 cm. Propagates by
Mature plant
oval, tan to brownish seeds. In the
tropics, seed has little or no dormancy
and germinates throughout the year
when moisture is available.
Habitat: Normally grows under
dryland conditions: does not thrive in
continuously flooded soils.
Weedy nature: A prolific seed
producer; has a short life cycle and can
complete several life cycles in a year.
Easily adapts to the environment-for
example, grows erect when in competi-
tion with rice and prostrate when not in
competition. Young plants resemble
rice, which makes hand weeding
Seedling
difficult at early weed stages.
Agricultural concern: Competitive
in rice; can reduce yields 85%.

Seed, magnified

Weeds worldwide 33
Upland rice weeds / POACEAE (grass family)

Weed name: Eleusine indica (L.)
Gaertn.
Synonyms: None
Local names:
Country Common name
Australia crowsfootgrass
Brazil capim-pe-de-galinha
Cambodia smav choeung kras
(Khmer)
France eleusine des indes
India kodai, mandla
Indonesia godong ula (Javanese)
Malaysia rumput sambou (Malay)
Mexico pata de gallo (Spanish)
Myanmar sin-ngo-let-kya
Nigeria gbegi (Yoruba)
Philippines sabung-sabungan
(Tagalog)
Sri Lanka bela-tana (Singhala)
Thailand yah teenka
Uganda kasibanti
USA goosegrass
Zambia lukata (Chitonga)
Zimbabwe rapoko
Mature plant
Life cycle: An annual grass that
grows as tall as 60 cm. Propagates by
brownish-black seeds that germinate
throughout the year when moisture is
available. Seed,
Habitat: Grows best in moist to wet magnified
soils.
Weedy nature: Produces enormous
amounts of seeds—40,000 seeds per
plant have been recorded. Flowers
after 30 d and can complete several Seedling
life cycles in a year, which leads to
heavy population buildup. Develops an
extensive root system.
Agricultural concern: Competitive
in rice; can reduce yields 80%.
Inflorescence

34 Weed control handbook
Upland rice weeds / POACEAE (grass family)

Weed name: lmperata cylindrica (L.) Mature plant
Raeuschel
Synonyms: None
Local names:
Country Common name Inflorescence
Argentina carrizo marciego (Spanish)
Cambodia sbauv (Khmer)
Cameroon baya
Fiji pi
France imperate
Ghana segogro (Twi)
India dabh
Indonesia alang-alang
Ivory Coast nse
Kenya nyeki
Madagascar tena
Mauritius lalang
Nigeria ekan (Yoruba)
Philippines kogon (Tagalog)
Tanzania motomoto
Thailand yoa khaa
USA cogongrass
Zimbabwe ibamba

Llfe cycle: A perennial grass that
grows as tall as 120 cm. Propagates
by seeds and creeping rhizomes.
Seeds have little or no dormancy.
Habitat: Adapted to dry and moist
soils.
Weedy nature: Produces large
amounts of seeds and a tremendous
mass of rhizomes, which make weed
control by any means difficult.
Agricultural concern: A serious
weed in upland areas. Many infested
ricefields are abandoned.

Rhizomes

Seed, magnified

Weeds worldwide 35
Upland rice weeds / POACEAE (grass family)

Weed name: Rottboellia cochinchinen- Mature plant
sis (Lour.) W.D. Clayton
Synonym: Rottboellia exaltata L.f.
Local names:
Country Common name
France herbe bettle-elise
Ghana nkyenkyemma (Twi)
Indonesia bandjangan inflorescence
Philippines aguingay (Tagalog)
Spain caminadora
Thailand yaa prong khaai
USA itchgrass
Zambia mulungwe
Zimbabwe shamvagrass

Life cycle: An annual grass that can
grow as tall as 3 m. Propagates by
seeds, which have a dormancy of
1-4 mo.
Habitat: Prefers well-drained soils.
Weedy nature: Produces many
seeds, which shatter easily. Grows and
flowers throughout the year. These
characteristics, combined with rapid
growth and sharp irritating hairs, make
it very competitive.
Agricultural concern: Very aggres-
sive in upland areas, where it can
completely shade out rice. Total yield
loss is normal.

Seed, magnified

Seedling

36 Weed control handbook
Upland rice weeds / PORTULACACEAE (purslane family)

Weed name: Portulaca oleracea L.
Synonyms: None
Local names:
Country Common name
Brazil beldroega
Cambodia kbetchoun (Khmer)
France comun pourpier
Ghana adwera (Twi)
India baralunia, kufa (Orya)
karie, keerai (Tamil)
Indonesia gelang
Malaysia gelang pasir
Mauritius pourpier
Mexico verdolaga comun (Spanish)
Myanmar mya-byit
Nigeria esan omode (Yoruba)
Pakistan kulfa, lunak
Philippines ulasiman (Tagalog)
Thailand phak bia yai
Vietnam rausam
Zambia yelele (Chitonga)
Life cycle: An annual broadleaf with Mature plant
succulent and fleshy stems that are
sometimes reddish brown. Grows as
tall as 50 cm. Propagates by seeds
and stem cuttings. Produces
numerous black seeds that normally
are not dormant.
Habitat Grows in upland fields.
Weedy nature: A prolific seed Seedling
producer that grows quickly and
flowers and produces seeds through-
out the year. Difficult to control by
cultivation because plants with flower
buds have enough water stored in the
stems and leaves to complete seed Inflorescence
production after they have been cut.
Cut fleshy stems root easily upon
contact with soil. Under drought
stress, sheds its leaves and survives
until water becomes available. Can
complete its life cycle within 6 wk.
Seeds can remain viable for a long
time. Seed, magnified
Agricultural concern: Can cause
30% yield loss.

Weeds worldwide 37
Deepwater rice weeds
PONTEDERIACEAE (pickerel-weed family)

Weed name: Eichhornia crassipes
(Mart.) Solms
Synonyms: None
Local names:
Country Common name
Bangladesh kachuripana
Brazil aquapede-flor-roxa
Cambodia kamphlok (Khmer)
France eichhornie, jacinthe d’eau
India jalkumbhi, kulauoli
(Malayalam)
akasa-thamarai, neithama
rai (Tamil)
Indonesia etjeng padi
Malaysia keladi bunting
Myanmar beda-bin
Thailand phak top chawaa
USA water hyacinth
Vietnam luc-binh

Life cycle: A perennial, flowering,
aquatic, monocotyledonous, broadleaf
plant. It spreads by producing vegeta-
tive offshoots and seeds. Mature plant
Habitat: Adapted to fresh water; .
found in rivers, canals, and reservoirs.
Moves into deepwater rice with water
currents or strong winds.
Weedy nature: Grows quickly and
crowds out rice through shading.
Impedes water flow in irrigation canals
and causes large amount of water loss
through evapotranspiration.
Agricultural concern: Can
completely destroy deepwater rice by Inflorescence
crowding the rice plants.

38 Weed control handbook
Deepwater weeds / CONVOLVULACEAE (morning glory family)

Weed name: lpomoea aquatica
Forssk.
Synonym: lpomoea reptans (L.) Poir.
Local names:
Country Common name
Cambodia trâkuon (Khmer)
India vellai keerai, kaladana,
nilkalami (Tamil)
tooti koora (Telugu)
Peru camotillo
Philippines kangkong (Tagalog)
USA swamp morning glory
Life cycle: A perennial broadleaf
vine that propagate by seeds and
stem cuttings.
Habitat: Requires aquatic or wet
conditions.
Weedy nature: Fast-growing and
wide-spreading. Roots at the nodes.
Also floats on water.
Agricultural concern: Can cause
30% yield loss. Mature plant

Flower

Weeds worldwide 39
Chapter 3

Weed control

Weeds have always reduced rice techniques. Each control method has Land prepration. Land preparation
yields. As a result, many different advantages and disadvantages, and a includes plowing, disking, harrow-
weed control methods have evolved. single method is rarely adequate for ing, soil puddling, and land leveling.
Farmers consider financial resources effective and economical control. A well-prepared field allows the rice
and availability of labor in deciding crop optimal early growth. Careful
what weed control method to use. Cultural methods land preparation primarily provides
Problems of input availability, avail- A basic principle of cultural control is weed-free conditions at planting.
ability of new technologies, specific to increase the competitive ability of In general, tillage practices most
weed problems, farm size, and rice and enable it to suppress weed affect plant growth during germina-
availability of family labor are basic growth. A vigorous rice crop com- tion, seedling emergence, and stand
management factors they take into petes more effectively with weeds establishment stages. Plowing buries
account in making weed control than does a less vigorous crop. weed seeds to depths from which
decisions. Cultural control methods include they cannot emerge, but it also brings
prevention of weed introduction, some weed seeds to the soil surface
Planning effective land preparation, crop rotation, where conditions favor germination.
cultivar selection, time of seeding, Thus, a new flush of weed seedlings
control planting method, plant population, occurs after each cultivation.
Planning is important in making fertilization, and water management. To destroy as many weeds as
appropriate decisions on weed Prevention of weed introduction. possible, the interval between succes-
control. Unfortunately, weed control Although weed seeds may be intro- sive cultivations should be long
often is not planned. The decision to duced in ways beyond a farmer's enough to allow many weed seeds to
control is not made until the problem control, many aspects of weed disper- germinate and be killed by later
has become serious, when control sal are controllable. Control involves harrowings. This can reduce a weed
may be uneconomical, ineffective, or preventing the introduction, estab- seed population about 50%. Tillage
even impossible. lishment, and spread of weeds, seeds, during the dry season is a practical
Advance knowledge of weed tubers, and rhizomes in a crop or method of controlling perennial
problems can be obtained by survey- between two crops. In rice, this is best grasses such as Paspalum distichum,
ing and recording the weed species in achieved by planting rice seeds free Cynodon dactylon, Oryza longistami-
a ricefield after rice emergence, at of weed seeds in weed-free seedbeds nata, and Imperata cylindrica; it
midseason, and at harvest. This and by seeding rice or transplanting desiccates the perennial structures. In
record is useful in planning weed seedlings in weed-free fields. Field temperate areas, tubers and rhizomes
control and crop rotation programs. borders not cropped or not kept clean brought to the soil surface are killed
are a constant source of weed seeds. during cold, dry periods.
Levees and irrigation canals also The type of land preparation
Control methods must be kept weed free. Weed seeds needed for rice depends on the water
Weed control methods can be can be introduced into a clean area by management system. Land prepara-
grouped into cultural, manual, machinery or tillage equipment that tion can be classified broadly as
mechanical, chemical, and biological are carrying weed seed-contaminated wetland tillage, dryland tillage, and
soil. limited tillage.

Weed control 41
Wetland tillage is common in Under limited tillage, perennial capacity of modern high-yielding
most tropical Asian countries. Tradi- weed problems increase over time. cultivars. Traditional varieties also
tionally, it involves plowing and pud- Where perennial weeds are con- have other attributes, such as suscep-
dling the soil. The processes involved trolled, limited tillage can be used for tibility to lodging, that make them
are both upland and lowland rice culture. undesirable.
flooding the field for about 7 d. Herbicide use is an integral part of Modern rice cultivars, although
plowing the soil to 10- to 20-cm a limited tillage system. However, if competitive against weeds, can have
depth, to bury the weed seeds and inappropriate herbicides are used, more weed problems than traditional
weed and rice stubble. perennial broadleaf weeds and rice cultivars. The erect leaves and
harrowing to break up big clods in grasses common in fallow in the short stature of modern rices allow
the soil. Two to three harrowings tropics are not controlled and signifi- light to reach the soil and stimulate
are done at 7- to 10-d intervals. cant yield losses can occur. Plowing weed seed germination. Within the
leveling the field. and harrowing more often does not crop canopy, small differences in
Puddling hastens crop establish- eliminate the need for direct weed crop height affect the quantity and
ment and tillering of transplanted control. Farmers still must follow quality of light received by weeds.
rice seedlings. This results in vigor- land preparation with other weed The high nitrogen rates used on
ous rice growth and increases the control methods. It is more cost- modern cultivars also aggravate
crop’s competitive ability against effective to reduce preplanting weed problems. This makes competi-
weeds. During transplanting, weed harrowings and combine those with tiveness with weeds a breeding
seedlings also are trampled and direct weed control methods. objective for modern rices. When
incorporated into the soil. Crop rotation. Weeds adapt to the available, such cultivars should be
Dryland tillage is the basis of growing conditions of rice. A ricefield used.
many rice culture systems. Almost all that is tilled regularly has more Time of seeding. When soil moisture
rice-growing areas in the United annual weeds than many undis- is not limiting, allowing weeds to
States and southern Australia, most turbed habitats, which have more germinate before tilling and seeding
of Latin America and West Africa, perennial weeds. Continuous crop- rice reduces weed populations. Rice
and parts of tropical Asia and Europe ping encourages the buildup of seeding, however, should not be
use dryland tillage. In dryland prepa- difficult weeds. delayed beyond the optimum time of
ration, soil clods are broken up so Each rice culture is associated with planting.
they do not interfere with seeding a characteristic weed problem, In rainfed rice crops, time of
and seedling emergence. The seedbed influenced by the cultural practices seeding is critical. Rice plants affected
is left rough because germination of used. Lowland rice has predomi- by drought become stunted and
weed seeds, which are usually much nantly water-tolerant weeds, upland cannot compete effectively with
smaller than rice, is encouraged by rice has mostly dryland weeds. weeds that are more tolerant of
fine tilth. Rice is seeded immediately Rotation of lowland rice with an drought. Dry weather after sowing
following the last tillage operation, to upland crop reduces infestation by can reduce the number of weeds that
give rice an even start with weeds. water-tolerant weeds in the rice and germinate near the soil surface, but
Limited tiIlage covers a range of by upland weeds in the upland crop. rice seed germination will also be
land preparation techniques, from Growing a broadleaf crop in rotation delayed. Perennial and large weed
zero tillage to elimination of one with rice allows the use of herbicides seeds from deeper soil depths are still
preseeding cultivation. Herbicides effective against grassy weeds, which able to germinate and compete
replace the omitted tillage operations. are difficult to control in rice. strongly with the rice crop.
Limited tillage has soil conservation Varietal selection. Improved rice Planting method. Planting method
advantages. cultivars resistant to diseases and affects the ability of rice to compete
Smallholders who use slash-and- insects are more competitive against with weeds. Rice may be trans-
burn land preparation are practicing weeds than are traditional rices. planted or drill seeded in straight
limited tillage. Rice is planted in a Traditional, tall varieties with droopy rows, or broadcast seeded. Straight-
dead mulch with only enough soil leaves are thought to be more com- row planting is necessary for hand
disturbance to cover the seed. petitive against weeds, but research weeding and for using mechanical
Minimum and zero tillage techniques has failed to measure competitive weeders. In a broadcast crop,
can result in timely land preparation differences that are due to cultivar. mechanical and hand weeding
and savings in labor, water, power, The height advantage of traditional damage the rice plants.
and capital. varieties is offset by the high-tillering

42 Weed control handbook
Transplanting rice in a weed-free Plant population. Rice plant spacing 3.1 Recommended times to apply N
fertilizer in different rice cultures.
field gives seedlings a head start is an important production factor. Fertilizer is applied basally and
against weeds. If water management Density per unit area determines the incorporated, or placed 10-cm deep in the
is adequate, this competitive advan- amount of shade created to help rice soil (deep placement) at transplanting or,
for direct seeded rice, before seeding.
tage is maintained throughout most compete with weeds. Light penetra- Fertilizer is topdressed 3-9 d before
of the transplanted rice’s growth. Age tion into the rice canopy increases as panicle initiation (48-57 d after sowing
of seedlings at transplanting, how- row spacing increases. That stimu- [DAS] for 110- to 115-d duration varieties,
or 11-14 d before panicle initiation [56-64
ever, affects the crop’s competitive lates weed growth and reduces rice DAS] for 125 to 130-d duration varieties).
ability. The older the seedlings, the grain yields.
more competitive they are. With The optimum spacing essential for
inadequate weed control, older proper rice crop development and control methods. No weed control
seedlings (20- to 30-d-old) are more high grain yields depends on culti- benefit is obtained when seeding rate
desirable than younger seedlings. var, soil fertility, and season. In the is increased beyond the optimum 100
With young seedlings, flooding the Philippines, the maximum return kg/ha that will give adequate crop
crop to control weeds risks drowning (above variable costs) has been stand establishment.
the seedlings. obtained with manual transplanting Fertilization. Nitrogen (N), phos-
Deep drilling rice seed, which at 20- x 20-cm spacing. phorus (P), potassium (K), and zinc
delays seedling emergence, enables In broadcast seeded flooded rice, (Zn) are the nutrients most commoly
weed seeds near the soil surface to high seeding rates are usually used to applied by rice farmers. Nitrogen
germinate earlier than the rice, help control weeds, but high seeding encourages rapid vegetative growth
making the weeds more competitive. rates cannot substitute for direct (increased height, tiller number, and

Weed control 43
leaf size), with the resultant shade Weed problems intensify in Burning. Burning, common under
helping to suppress late-germinating irrigated and rainfed lowland rice the slash-and-burn system of land
weeds. Phosphorus encourages rice when water supply is inadequate. preparation, kills weed seeds and
root development and increases Increased weed control benefits are weed seedlings, gets rid of unwanted
tillering. Vigorous rice root growth is obtained with improved water vegetation, and reduces the amount
advantageous in below-ground supply and control, high levels of of weed seeds returned to the soil. It
competition with weeds for moisture fertilizer, and improved cultivars also encourages germination of weed
and nutrients. used in concert. seeds near the soil surface. Thorough
Weeds take up nutrients in large Increasing water depth to control burning can keep the ricefield free of
quantities, however, and sometimes weeds as part of integrated weed weeds for the first 2-3 wk.
absorb fertilizer faster than rice. management is cost effective. When Burning saves labor, is low cost,
When weeds are not controlled combined with other direct weed and adds neutralizing ash to low-pH
effectively, however, fertilization is of control methods, increased water soils. On the other hand, widespread
little significance. There is little or no depth can give considerable savings uncontrolled burning leaves the soil
response to N by rice in shade, and P in production costs. bare, increasing soil erosion and loss
and N left on the soil surface will Timely and thorough drainage of of N and other nutrients. Careful
stimulate growth of shallow weed flooded fields reduces aquatic weed planning and rational use can
seeds. At high fertilization levels, it is problems. minimize the adverse effects of
not possible to produce high rice burning. Local regulations on
yields without weeding. Manual methods burning should be followed.
Early- to midseason N applications Manual weed control includes Hand pulling. Hand pulling
are beneficial to rice, but weeds must burning, hand pulling, and mechani- controls weed seedlings growing
be controlled to maximize the effect cal hand weeding. These labor- near and between rice plants where
of N on grain yield. Figure 3.1 shows intensive methods are the oldest and, implements are difficult to use. Hand
the best time to apply N in various in many cases, the farmer’s only pulling is not effective in dry soil,
rice cultures. means of controlling weeds in rice, where weed seedlings break and
Water management. Since ancient and are highly effective. resprout easily. Frequent hand
times, water has been used to manage Several hand tools are still the pulling is necessary for effective
weeds in ricefields. Many nonaquatic principal means of rice weed control weed control because very small
weeds do not survive in submerged in many developing countries. But weed seedlings that are not removed
environments and many aquatic manual methods are slow, grow quickly to reinfest the ricefield.
weeds do not survive in upland unattractive, and tedious, and are This method is the most labor inten-
environments. often carried out after the rice crop sive of all weed control measures,
Water control during the early rice has been severely damaged by and is best suited to small farms.
growth stages has a major effect on weeds. Hand weeding is often In some places, lowland rice
weed control. As weeds become ineffective on weeds with special farmers trample weeds instead of
established, controlling them through survival mechanisms such as the rice hand pulling.
water management is more difficult. mimics (e.g., I. rugosum) and deep- Mechanical weeding. Weeding using
Grassy weeds can be largely elimi- rooted perennial weeds. Rice mimics hand tools is common in almost all
nated by continuous flooding to are difficult to distinguish from rice tropical rice-growing areas. But the
15-cm depth maintained throughout at the early growth stage. Repeated degree of weeding and the problems
crop growth. The response of broad- hand weedings are necessary to associated with it largely depend on
leaf weeds and sedges to different effectively control all weeds. the type of rice culture. In many
water depths varies. After continuous countries, hand tools such as the hoe,
flooding, C3 weeds (see page 3) will narrow spade, Swiss hoe, knife,
be dominant. machete, and pointed sticks are
primarily used to remove weeds in
upland rice. Weeds within rows must
be removed by hand. The amount of
labor required to weed 1 ha ranges
from 10 to 30 d.

44 Weed control handbook
Weeding by machine involves the pastures, forests, and water bodies. In Herbicides, like other components
use of hand-pushed or powered a rice cropping situation with a of an integrated approach to weed
weeders, and is feasible only where mixed weed flora, the selective control, have advantages and disad-
rice is planted in straight rows. control of a single weed will not solve vantages. Herbicides applied before
Conventional single-row rotary the weed problem. The biological rice germinates provide good weed
weeders require 80-90 labor h to agents also work slowly and may control during the early rice growth
weed 1 ha, and are difficult to use take from 30 d to 10 yr to control the stages when rice is most susceptible
because they must be moved back weeds. For these reasons, biological to weed competition. Herbicides can
and forth. The IRRI-developed cono weed control usually is not used by also be applied over large areas in a
weeder uses a conical-shaped rotor to rice farmers. short time, making them suitable for
uproot and bury weeds. It smothers The possibility of using tadpole large farms. Applying herbicides
weeds satisfactorily in a single pass. shrimp (Triopus longicaudatus, avoids much of the drudgery of
The single-row cono weeder is about T. granaris, and T. cancriformis) for weeding and makes farming more
2 times faster (40-50 labor-hours/ha) nonselective weed control in trans- attractive. Appropriate herbicide
and the two-row cono weeder 3-4 planted rice has been demonstrated application to fallow vegetation also
times faster (25-35 labor-h/ha) than in Japan. The small crustaceans feed can replace the need to plow and
the conventional push-pull rotary on weed seedlings and disturb their harrow.
weeder. roots by mechanical agitation of the In industrialized countries, herbi-
Weeds within the crop rows are soil. Labor for hand weeding in farm- cides are often essential inputs in rice
difficult to remove with a cono ers’ fields was reduced 70-80% in farming. Their adoption increases
weeder. If the soil is too dry, the initial field trials with tadpole with increases in labor cost and
weeder rolls over the soil surface shrimp. Unfortunately, the shrimp is profits. Profits increase when farmers
without burying the weeds. The cono nonselective and becomes a pest in adopt improved technological
weeder is also ineffective in standing areas where rice is direct seeded packages.
water. To achieve the best results in (Matsunaka 1975). On the other hand, herbicides have
transplanted rice, a weeder should be The ability of a thick Azolla mat to several disadvantages. First, most
run in two directions, at right angles suppress weed development has long developing countries import
to each other. Mechanical weeding been observed. In rice, a 79% reduc- herbicides. With mounting debt
should be supplemented by hand tion in total weed weight at 50 d after problems and foreign exchange
pulling the weeds that are close to the transplanting has been measured. shortages, sufficient quantities of the
rice plants. The time required for Growth of Azolla reduced the more effective herbicides often are
weeding by this combination is less amount of light and oxygen content not available to meet the growing
than for hand pulling alone. of water; this has been suggested as demand. Herbicide application
an explanation of how Azolla requires appropriate equipment, such
Biological methods suppresses weeds (IRRI 1987). Some as a knapsack sprayer. The initial
Several biological agents, such as weeds can push through an Azolla capital expenditure maybe beyond a
insects, mites, and fungi, have been mat, however, and weeds growing small farmer’s financial resources.
used successfully to control rice above the water surface are not Another disadvantage is that herbi-
weeds. Biological agents are selective affected. cide use, unlike the use of hoes and
in their control action and their sticks, requires skill. Careless herbi-
activity may be restricted to a single Chemical methods cide application, sometimes due to
weed. Herbicide use is one of the most ignorance, may result in inadequate
Biological control programs may labor-saving innovations that have weed control and damage or
be applicable to an introduced been introduced in rice farming. For completely kill the crop, or may
perennial weed growing in areas that successful and economical use, it is adversely affect the environment.
are seldom disturbed, such as important to understand how these Improper application of herbicides
chemicals work and their limitations. can create health hazards for humans
These aspects of herbicide use are and animals.
discussed in detail in later chapters.

Weed control 45
Economics of control Table 3.1. Economic acceptability a of direct weed control methods in irrigated transplanted rice
in the Philippines (data for analysis obtained from Moody et al 1983).
The economic benefit of weed control
Grain Total Total Return above Marginal
must exceed the cost. The primary Control method yield variable return variable cost benefit-
aim of a rational farmer is to optimize (t/ha) cost (US$) (US$) (US$) cost ratio
profits. One way to achieve that is to
No weeding 1.5 0 263 263
reduce weed control costs. It is One hand weeding 3.6 50 630 580 6.3
logical, therefore, that where one or a Two hand weedings 3.7 90 648 558 3.3
combination of methods exists, and Two rotary weedings 2.9 44 508 463 4.5
2,4-D (0.8 kg/ha) 3.1 10.3 543 532 26
both are equally effective, the farmer Thiobencarb/2,4-D 3.3 19.0 578 559 16.0
will choose the least costly. (1.0 + 0.5 kg/ha)
Weed control costs include direct a Assumptions: Labor = US$2.09/d; First hand weeding = 24 d/ha: Second hand weeding = 19 d/ha: First rotary
costs (labor, herbicides, sprayers, etc.) weeding = 11 d/ha; Second rotary weeding = 10 d/ha: Herbicide = 2,4-D (0.8 kg/ha) = US$10.30. Thiobencarb/
and hidden costs. Management time 2,4-D = US$19.

wasted during frequent visits to the
field to take weed inventories to use
in weed control planning is a hidden Table 3.2. Economic acceptability a of direct weed control methods in broadcast seeded flooded
rice (De Datta and Ampong-Nyarko 1988).
cost. A farmer who cleans weed seeds
from contaminated rice seeds before (US$)
planting will incur hidden costs but Rate Weed Grain Marginal
Control method (kg ai/ha) biomass yield Total Total Return benefit-
will avoid future additional weed (g/m2) (t/ha) variable return above cost
control costs. cost variable ratio
Selecting the weed control cost

methods to combine in an integrated No weeding 287 2.1 0 350 350 –
system will depend on the effective- Butachlor 1.0 238 2.7 18.4 473 455 5.7
ness and cost of each method. In Butachlor + 1 0.5 21 4.2 110 735 625 2.5
hand weeding
some situations, hand weeding is
more expensive than applying a Assumptions: Labor = US$2.09/d, One hand weeding = 48 d/ha. Herbicide = butachlor (1.0 kg ai/ha) =
US$18.40.
herbicides; in other situations, hand
weeding costs less than herbicide
application. Sometimes a combina-
tion of herbicides, or herbicides Integrated weed management is Several cultural methods have
supplemented by hand weeding, is the rational use of direct and indirect been suggested to complement direct
more economical than hand weeding control methods to provide cost- methods in an integrated approach.
or use of herbicide alone (Tables 3.1 effective weed control. A further However, researchers often do not
and 3.2). refinement, implied in the terms provide an economic assessment of
integrated weed management and these indirect methods. As a result,
Integrated weed integrated pest management (IPM), is
that, whenever possible, weed control
farmers and their agents frequently
misjudge the economic significance of
management should be integrated with measures the new methods whose adoption
The resilience of weed populations that further protect crops from they are considering. Among the
under intensive herbicide use, insects, diseases, nematodes, and commonly suggested indirect meth-
buildup of weed species tolerant of other injurious organisms, and ods for rice are land preparation,
the control methods used, and should be practiced with an under- water management, plant spacing,
increasing public concern about standing of the interrelationships seed rate, cultivar use, and fertilizer
indiscriminate pesticide use and its between weed populations and those application. Direct methods include
effects on the environment and organisms. An illustrated guide to hand weeding and use of herbicides.
human health have led to widespread integrated pest management (Reissig
appreciation of the integrated weed et al 1985) is available from IRRI.
management concept (Fryer and
Matsunaka 1977, Fryer 1983).

46 Weed control handbook
The essential factor in any Indirect weed control methods, if
integrated weed management proven to be biologically feasible,
program is the number of indirect should be subjected to partial budget-
and direct methods that can be ing using relevant prices of major
combined economically in a given inputs. Farm-level resources,
situation. Farmers are interested in constraints, and other limitations
net benefits and in protecting them- should also be recognized. Cost-
selves against risks. A critical assess- effective integrated weed manage-
ment of the indirect weed control ment practices should be consistent
methods suggested for use in and compatible with other rice
integrated weed management—their production practices. That can be
cost-benefit ratio and their relative designated integrated crop
contribution to long- and short-term management.
weed control—should be provided to
put the integrated weed management
concept in perspective. For example,
increased frequency of plowing and
harrowings does not eliminate the
need for direct weed control. Farmers
still have to follow land preparation
with direct weed control. It is, there-
fore, more cost-effective to use fewer
pre-planting harrowings and
combine them with direct weed
control methods than to carry out
more harrowings, with or without
direct control measures. A high
seeding rate cannot substitute for
direct control. No benefit is obtained
when seeding rate is increased
beyond the optimum needed to give
adequate stand establishment. It is
also not economical to produce high
rice yields by substituting high
fertilization for weeding. Fertilizer
efficiency is maximized when weeds
are controlled.
Maximum rice yields at minimum
cost should determine the relative
mixture of indirect and direct
measures in an integrated weed
management system. Agronomic
practices such as water management,
which indirectly suppresses weeds,
and fertilizer application, which
increases the competitive ability of
rice, are highly economical.
Combined with any of the direct
weed control methods, these
practices can constitute an economi-
cally viable production system.

Weed control 47
Chapter 4

Principles of herbicide use

Herbicides are chemical substances or Translocated herbicides Physical factors of selectivity
cultured biological organisms that kill Translocated (systemic) herbicides To be effective, herbicides must come
or suppress plant growth by affecting move from the point where the into contact with the target plant and
one or more of the processes—cell herbicide comes into contact with the be retained on its surfaces (root or
division, tissue development, plant to other plant parts. Systemic shoot) long enough and in amounts
chlorophyll formation, photosynthesis, herbicides may be applied to stems and large enough to kill the plant. The
respiration, nitrogen metabolism, leaves or to the soil (those applied to physical factors of selectivity are those
enzyme activity—that are vital to plant soil are known as residual herbicides). that affect contact between the herbi-
survival. In general, herbicides applied Butachlor, 2,4-D, and glyphosate are cide applied and the plant surfaces and
at high rates kill all plants. At low rates, examples of translocated herbicides. the retention of the herbicides. Plants
some herbicides kill some plants Glyphosate is a systemic herbicide absorb soil-applied herbicides through
without damaging other plants. when applied to stems and leaves, but roots and shoots of seedlings pushing
Herbicides with such an ability are said it has no activity when applied to the upward through the soil. Selectivity is
to be selective. Use of selective soil. Translocated herbicides may be affected by herbicide dosage, formula-
herbicides for weed control has be- either selective or nonselective. tion, and placement and by the plant
come popular among rice farmers growth stage.
because of increasing labor costs for Herbicide dosage. The amount of a
hand or mechanical weeding. Herbicide selectivity herbicide absorbed by rice is critical for
Herbicide selectivity is very important selectivity. Most herbicides are
in crop production. Through selectiv- nonselective at high application rates.
Types of herbicides ity, it is possible to use a herbicide to Herbicide formulation. Selectivity may
Herbicides are commonly referred to as kill a grassy weed, such as Echinochloa be achieved through application of
contact or translocated. crus-galli, in a grassy crop such as rice. herbicides as granular formulations.
In practice, to avoid killing the rice The granules that would be harmful to
Contact herbicides plants and for good weed control, rice if retained on its leaves bounce off
Contact herbicides control weeds by selective herbicides should be used at and fall to the soil.
killing the tissues in direct contact with recommended rates. Reduced rates Herbicide placement. To be effective,
the herbicide. They are normally result in poor weed control. Nonselec- herbicides must first enter the plant.
applied to leaves and stems. Because tive herbicides, such as paraquat, are Selectivity based on placement is
they affect only the plant parts they harmful to rice even at low rates. achieved by preventing herbicides
come into contact with, they are less Herbicide selectivity can also be from coming into contact with sites of
effective on perennial weeds than on achieved during application, by entry into the rice plant. This is
annual weeds. Thorough coverage of directing the spray away from the crop
the plant is essential for contact herbi- or by using protective shields. Chemi-
cides to be effective. A contact herbi- cal antidotes may be used to prevent
cide may be selective, such as oxyfluor- the herbicide from killing a susceptible
fen and propanil, or nonselective, such plant. For example, pretilachlor can
as paraquat. only be used in direct seeded rice in
conjunction with an antidote (e.g.,
fenclorim).

Herbicide use 49
achieved by applying herbicides to the crus-galli. This is due to differences in The xylem is the plant system
soil surface, by band application, or by plant enzyme levels. Rice plants have a through which water and dissolved
using shields. Selectivity of soil- high level of aryl acylamidase, an mineral nutrients pass to the leaves.
applied herbicides may be lost if the enzyme that hydrolyzes propanil to Herbicides taken up by the root move
herbicides leach through the soil and nonphytotoxic 3,4-dichloroaniline and along this stream. Herbicide uptake is
come into contact with rice roots and propionic acid. E. crus-galli has a low therefore affected by factors affecting
shoots. level of this enzyme and is unable to transpiration rate, such as light, tem-
Plant growth stage. In general, plants hydrolyze propanil; therefore it is perature, wind speed, humidity, and
are most susceptible to herbicides at easily killed. This detoxification soil moisture. The triazine herbicides
the seedling stage. As plants grow, process can be inhibited by organo- are good examples of herbicides trans-
they become less susceptible. In direct phosphorus and carbamate insecti- ported up in the system.
seeded rice, there is no difference in cides. For a more detailed discussion of the
growth stage between rice and weeds, principles of herbicide action, refer to
and selectivity cannot be achieved
through plant growth stage. In trans-
Herbicide movement Weed science principles by W.P. Ander-
son (1983).
planted rice, however, differences in in plants
growth stage and position of growing
points of rice and weeds can be used to
Herbicides must enter the plant before Timing of herbicide
their toxic effect can be induced.
achieve selectivity. Plants growing Herbicides applied to leaf surfaces and application
under drought conditions are less buds penetrate the plant by diffusion. Weeds should be removed from rice as
affected by herbicides than plants Higher temperatures increase the rate early as possible. Thus, herbicides
growing with normal soil moisture. of penetration. Herbicide absorption should be applied during early crop
takes place in the guard cells of the growth stages. The time to apply a
Biological factors of selectivity stomata and through the cuticle. herbicide depends on the properties of
Biological factors of herbicide selectiv- In the soil, herbicides move in the the herbicide and the target weeds,
ity include differences in morphology, soil solution to the seed and roots, or weather, and cultural practices. Herbi-
physiology, and metabolism among are intercepted by the root tips. Herbi- cides can be applied at several periods
plant species. Leaf surfaces that are cides may penetrate the walls of root before and during the crop growing
waxy, smooth, or densely hairy are epidermal cells by mass flow. period. In general, herbicides are
wetted less readily by aqueous sprays Once in plants, herbicides move via applied at preplanting, preemergence,
than are surfaces that are less waxy or the phloem and the xylem systems to or postemergence.
moderately hairy. Vertical leaves retain cells and tissues remote from the site of
less spray than do horizontal leaves. uptake. The phloem conveys sugar Preplanting herbicide application
Once absorbed by a plant cell, the from the green tissues of the plant A preplanting herbicide application is
herbicide may be immobilized within (where sugar is manufactured) to made before the rice crop is sown. This
the cell; that also contributes to herbi- storage tissues. Very young leaves do application helps in land preparation
cide selectivity. Selectivity among not export sugar, so herbicides applied in a minimum tillage cropping system.
plant species may be achieved when to them remain there. If the transport of Translocated foliar herbicides (such as
some plant species are able to detoxify sugar is restricted, as when plants are glyphosate) kill perennial broadleaf
a particular herbicide, while others are under low light intensity, redistribu- weeds and grasses found in the fallow
unable to do so and are killed. For tion of herbicides will not occur. As a vegetation. Where annual weeds
example, rice plants are 40 times more result, the general recommendation for predominate, paraquat is adequate.
tolerant of propanil than Echinochloa many translocated herbicides is that Where volatile preplanting herbicides
the weeds should be in active growth. are used, they must be incorporated
Glyphosate and MCPA are examples into the soil before planting, to avoid
of herbicides translocated in the damage to the rice crop.
phloem.

50 Weed control handbook
Weakly adsorbed herbicides remain
Preemergence herbicide application Behavior of herbicides active against germinating weed seed-
Preemergence herbicides are applied to
the soil surface after planting but in soil lings and buds passing through the
before rice and weeds emerge for direct The environment of a flooded ricefield herbicide layer. Weak adsorption
seeded rice, and before weeds emerge differs from that of an upland ricefield prevents the herbicide from leaching
for transplanted rice. These are also in physical, chemical, and biological into layers where the growing point of
known as residual herbicides. Selective properties of soil, as well as in prevail- rice is located. This is an example of
systemic herbicides are normally used ing aquatic conditions and the kinds selectivity by physical separation.
this way. Nonselective contact herbi- and ecology of animals and plants In practice, herbicides are applied at
cides, such as paraquat, can be used to found, including weeds. Soils in a higher rate to soils high in clay and
kill germinated weeds, but they must flooded fields differ from upland soils organic matter than to sandy soils,
be applied before rice germinates. in aerobic and redox conditions and because more herbicide is adsorbed in
Residual herbicides form a thin, soil pH. Because of these differences, clayey than in sandy soils.
protective, continuous layer 2 cm or so the degradation rate of herbicides
deep on the soil surface. Roots of weed differs between upland and flooded Leaching
seedlings or emerging shoots take up soils. Leaching causes movement of herbi-
the herbicide when they pass through A large amount of the herbicides cides through soil with the flow of
this layer and are killed in the process. applied to floodwater enters the soil water. The extent of leaching varies
Moisture is necessary to carry the layer with the percolating water. Many with the water solubility of the herbi-
herbicide to weeds germinating below herbicides are retained in the soil cide and with soil texture. When a
the soil surface. Good weed control surface layer, where they are mostly residual herbicide is applied to the soil
cannot be achieved when a residual degraded by soil microorganisms. The surface, it must move evenly 2-5 cm
herbicide is applied to dry soil and the degradation rate depends on the into the soil, to the area where most
weather remains dry. Residual herbi- properties of the soil and the herbicide. weed seeds germinate. Hence, soil
cides for dry seeded rice cultures Microorganisms in a submerged soil moisture after herbicide application is
should, therefore, be applied to moist deplete oxygen. The soil is, therefore, important. As was pointed out earlier,
soil or during light rain, or irrigation reduced (redox) except for the 0.5-1 cm preemergence residual herbicides
should follow a few days after herbi- surface layer, which is kept in an applied to dry soil will not be effective.
cide spraying. oxidized state by oxygen that diffuses However, too much water or leaching
from the floodwater to the soil surface. will carry the herbicide too deeply into
Postemergence herbicide application Thus, in flooded soils, except for the the soil, below the zone where weed
Postemergence herbicides are applied uppermost layer, ferric iron is reduced seeds are found. This also reduces the
after rice and weeds have germinated to ferrous iron, soil pH reaches 6-7, effectiveness of the herbicide.
or after rice has been transplanted. The aerobic organisms are inactive, and Herbicides in flooded ricefields are
herbicide must, therefore, be selective anaerobes are abundant. These result continuously leached with percolating
or rice seedlings will be killed. If the in differences in herbicide degradation water. Fortunately, many rice herbi-
herbicide is selective, it can be applied between the oxidative and reductive cides are readily adsorbed to the soil
over the foliage to kill the weeds layers of the soil, and between upland components. Such herbicides are
without harming the rice. Examples and flooded soils. retained in the soil long enough for
are 2,4-D, propanil, and bentazon. Se- residual activity to control weeds.
lectivity also can be achieved by direct- Adsorption
ing application away from the crop to When herbicides reach the soil surface,
prevent the herbicides from coming some herbicide is taken up and bonded
into contact with the rice foliage. to the surface of soil colloids (ad-
sorbed) due to electrical attraction
between the herbicide and the colloids.
Adsorption occurs in the clay and
organic matter fraction of the soil.

Herbicide use 51
Runoff Photodegradation propanil is applied to rice when the
Runoff is one of the main pathways of Photochemical and biochemical temperature is above 38 °C, phytotoxic-
herbicide loss from flooded ricefields. degradation of herbicides govern their ity may occur. At high temperatures,
Herbicides are usually transported as fate in a flooded environment. For simetryn will cause injury, even in
solutes in soil water; their movement example, the high pH of the water japonica rice, as a result of higher
will depend on solubility and adsorp- induces hydrolysis of carboxylic esters. absorption through the roots. In
tive capacity. In runoff water, however, Some herbicides adsorb ultraviolet general, the rate at which herbicide
herbicides are transported both as radiation. The presence of humic acids degrades increases with increasing
solutes and on soil sediment particles. in floodwater may also induce photo- temperature.
An irrigation system needs to be well- chemical degradation of herbicides
regulated to retain herbicides within that do not adsorb ultraviolet radiation Relative humidity
the system. Irrigation drainage and (Yaron et al 1985). At high relative humidity, leaf stomata
overflow should be avoided, to reduce are open, which increases absorption of
herbicide losses and to protect down- Persistence herbicide into the leaf. Evaporation of
stream water from pollution. Herbicide persistence is the length of herbicides from leaf surfaces is slowed
time a herbicide remains active in the at high relative humidity. Slow evapo-
Volatilization soil. Persistence depends on the ration lengthens the time the herbicide
All herbicides are volatile (have a amount of herbicide applied, the rate at can enter the plant.
tendency to change from a solid or which it is broken down, properties of
liquid to a gaseous state). Volatility, the particular herbicide, and leaching. Soil moisture
however, varies among herbicides and Herbicides with long persistence keep Soil moisture affects herbicide effec-
increases with higher temperature. a crop weed-free for a longer time than tiveness by influencing the amount of
Volatile herbicides should be mechani- do herbicides with short persistence. herbicide in the soil solution and the
cally incorporated into the soil to avoid Persistence of a herbicide beyond the depth of herbicide movement in the
excessive chemical loss. rice-growing season, however, is soil profile. When a residual herbicide
Volatilization from the floodwater undesirable because other crops is applied to a dry soil, it relies on soil
into the atmosphere is an important sensitive to that herbicide cannot be moisture (from rain or from irrigation)
route of herbicide loss from lowland grown on the same land for some time. to move it to the root zone. Inadequate
ricefields. The volatilization rate movement is a common cause of the
depends on water evaporation rate, Effect of environment on failure of herbicides in upland fields.
water depth, water solubility, and
vapor pressure of the herbicide. herbicidal activity Wind
Volatilization loss of herbicides from a Several environmental factors affect Wind adversely affects the absorption
shallow, warm water flooded field can the success of weed control by soil or of foliar-applied herbicides by increas-
be highly significant. Volatilization foliar-applied herbicides. Temperature, ing the evaporation of spray droplets
from the soil surface of upland rice relative humidity, soil moisture, and and the volatilization of herbicide
may be much greater than that from wind are important. residue from the leaf surfaces.
the floodwater of lowland rice.
Thiocarbamate herbicides are volatile Temperature
in floodwater. Absorption and translocation of herbi- Properties of herbicides
cides increase as temperature When the probable behavior of a
increases, and selectivity can be herbicide can be predicted from its
changed by differences in absorption properties, that information can be
and translocation. For example, if used to design safer and more effective
application. Some properties of herbi-
cides that affect their biological activity

52 Weed control handbook
and behavior in the crop environment Herbicide formulations Flowables (F). In flowable herbicides,
include partition coefficient, vapor the active ingredient is not readily
pressure, and water solubility. Parti- Herbicides are not sold as 100% active soluble in water or an organic solvent.
tion coefficient describes the relative ingredient. Powders, solvents, stickers, The flowable consists of a finely
distribution of a compound between a or wetting agents usually are added to ground wettable powder suspended in
fatlike layer and water when shaken help disperse the active ingredient a small amount of liquid and mixed
together. Compounds that accumulate throughout a carrier. The final product with emulsifiers.
in the fatlike layer are likely to be is a formulated herbicide that may Granules (G or g). Granules are a
stored in the fat of animals. have a number of names and may ready-to-use, dry formulated product
contain different proportions of active with a carrier, usually clay. Granules,
Vapor pressure ingredient. which may contain 2-20% active
Most organic chemicals tend to change A small amount of herbicide (about ingredient, can be broadcast on flood-
to vapor. This tendency is measured as 2.0 kg) mixed with about 200 liters of water to control weeds growing in the
vapor pressure and is affected by water carrier is sufficient to cover a water (submerged weeds). Granules
temperature. As temperature in- hectare. It is essential that the herbicide are usually designed to improve
creases, vapor pressure also increases. be uniformly distributed in the spray handling and application properties
A liquid with a high vapor pressure is water. (e.g., selectivity). An advantage of
recognized as a volatile compound, Some of the types of formulations granules is that there is less drift than
one that evaporates rapidly. In con- are explained below. with fine sprays under windy condi-
trast, herbicides with high boiling Water-soluble concentrate (S). The tions. Granules, however, are bulky
points have lower vapor pressures, and active ingredient in a water-soluble and often have higher handling costs.
thus are less volatile (Davies et al 1988). concentrate dissolves readily in water. Adjuvant. Adjuvants are materials
Thiocarbamate herbicides have a high Wettable powder (WP or W). When an that facilitate the action of herbicides or
vapor pressure. active ingredient does not dissolve modify characteristics of the herbicide
When herbicides with high vapor readily in standard solvents, a wettable formulation. Examples of adjuvants
pressure are applied to the soil surface, powder is prepared. The formulation are surfactants and wetting agents, oils,
they can evaporate so rapidly they are consists of the dry herbicide plus stickers, thickening agents, emulsifiers,
ineffective. Such herbicides should be another inert solid, such as clay, and stabilizing agents.
incorporated in the soil. It has been together with agents that allow disper- Surfactants are commonly used to
frequently observed that more herbi- sal and suspension of fine particles in improve the emulsifying, dispersing,
cide is lost from a moist soil than from liquid. Wettable powders mix readily spreading, or wetting ability of the
a dry soil. with water, but tend to settle at the herbicide formulation by modifying its
bottom of the spray tank. Wettable surface characteristics. A surfactant
Water solubility powders are being replaced by flow- increases retention of the herbicide on
Practically all herbicides have a meas- ables and water-dispersible granules the leaf surface after spraying. It also
urable solubility in water. Water that overcome many of the storage and helps entry of the herbicide into leaves
solubility is important in determining spraying problems that have occurred and stems.
leaching, degree of adsorption, and in wettable powder.
mobility in the environment. Herbi- Emulsifiable concentrate (EC or E). An
cides that are water soluble leach emulsifiable concentrate is used for
readily. Where a herbicide is less herbicides that are not water soluble
soluble, sorption onto suspended but are soluble in organic solvents. An
matter in the water tends to take the emulsifier is added to form a stable oil-
chemical out of most of the water. in-water emulsion when the herbicide
is mixed with water.

Herbicide use 53
Surfactants are often added to
herbicide formulations by the manu-
facturer, but additional surfactants
may be needed for some postemer-
gence herbicides or in some environ-
mental conditions (e.g., bentazon
under low temperatures). The herbi-
cide label indicates how much
surfactant to use when an additional
surfactant is required. When surfac-
tants are not recommended, their use
with foliage-applied herbicides can
result in loss of selectivity.

Herbicide labels
The best source of information con-
cerning safe and effective herbicide use
is the product label (Fig. 4.1) printed
on or attached to the herbicide con-
tainer. It gives directions on effective,
safe use of the herbicide. The label
should be read carefully and under-
stood before any herbicide is used. The
herbicide label is a legal document that
in many countries has government
approval. Every herbicide product
label should contain the following
information:
Trade or brand name. The trade or
brand name identifies a herbicide of
one company and differentiates it from
those of other companies. Like com-
mon weed names, trade names of
herbicides may change from country to
country. Thus, the trade name is not
always adequate for identifying a
herbicide or determining correct rates
of application. When an application
rate is recommended with a trade
name, the rate normally refers to the
amount of formulated product, and tional Union of Pure and Applied 4.1 All herbicide labels are required to
provide important information. Users should
not the rate of active ingredient or the Chemistry [IUPAC]). The chemical read and understand the label before opening
acid equivalent. name refers to the active ingredient. In any herbicide container.
Chemical and common names. Herbi- addition to the chemical name, each
cides have complex chemical names. herbicide is given a common name
Rules for selecting suitable chemical which also applies to the active ingre-
names are given by appropriate dient. The common name is not the
chemical associations (e.g., the Interna- same as the trade name of the same
herbicide. Common names for herbi-
cides are approved by appropriate pro-
fessional bodies, such as the Interna-
tional Standardization Organization

54 Weed control handbook
Table 4.1. Meanings of signal words found on herbicide formulation labels, to state danger to Hazards to humans and domestic
humans. animals. The hazards portion of a label
Lethal oral dose indicates how the herbicide may be
Approximate lethal (LD 50) for rats harmful to man and domestic animals.
Signal word Acute toxicity oral dose for an (mg/kg body It gives information on how to avoid
adult human weight) (See p. 62
for discussion on poisoning or contamination, such as
LD50) the type of protective clothing re-
Highly toxic A taste to one 5-50
quired.
Danger/Poison
teaspoonful (5 ml) Environmental hazards. To help
Warning Moderately toxic One teaspoonful to 2 50-500 reduce undesirable effects on the
tablespoonfuls (30 ml)
Low to relatively 30-450 ml 500-5,000
environment, the label also provides
Caution
nontoxic environmental precautions. It may
No signal word Relatively nontoxic include warnings that it is harmful to
birds, fish, and wildlife, and advice on
how to avoid contaminating water
(ISO). A herbicide may be produced or Signal words and symbols. Herbi- bodies.
formulated by more than one company cide labels state how poisonous the Harvesting statement. A harvesting
and thus be sold under several brand product is, using specific signal words statement is printed on labels when
names, but the common name or and symbols. Examples are shown in there is a chance that the treated crop
chemical name should always be the Table 4.1. may be fed to animals or handled by
same on all products. For example: Labels of all highly toxic products humans. Because residues of a herbi-
Trade or brand names: Machete, have, in addition to the word poison, cide require a minimum number of
Butanex, Lambast the skull and cross-bones symbol. days to degrade, a harvesting state-
Chemical name: N-(buthoxymethyl)-2- Pictograms-graphically definitive ment specifies the number of days
chloro-N-(2,6diethylphenyl) symbols-arealso recommended for between the last herbicide application
acetamide inclusion on agrochemical labels (Info and the time when the crop can be
Common name: butachlor Letter 1988). Examples of pictograms safely cut, threshed, or eaten.
Active ingredient. Each label specifi- are drawings of a pair of pants in boots
cally names the active ingredient and a pair of hands in gloves, to convey
present in the herbicide. The amount of the need to wear footwear and gloves Herbicide applicators
active ingredient may be given in for safe handling of chemicals. These A herbicide applicator is any device
percentage by weight or in grams per labels also include the statement Keep used to apply herbicides on plant and
liter, and may be listed by its common out of reach of children. soil surfaces. Applicators distribute an
name or by its chemical name. The Directions for use. Directions for use exact quantity of a herbicide uniformly
inert ingredients need not be named, provide instructions on how to use the over a given area. They can be classi-
but the label should specify their per- herbicide. This includes information on fied as nonpressurized or pressurized.
centage of content. weeds that the herbicide controls, Nonpressurized applicators include
Formulation. Some labels spell out crops on which application of the the water can, granular applicator,
the formulation, others use abbrevia- herbicide is safe, application rates, controlled-droplet applicator, and
tions, such as EC or E for emulsifiable application time, and application direct-contact applicators such as rope
concentrates; WP or W for wettable method. All directions for use must be wicks and wipers.
powder; FW, F, or L for flowables; G followed. Hydraulic (pressurized) applicators
for granules; and S for solubles. Name of manufacturer. The name and usually need water to work. A pressur-
Content. Each label gives the total address of the manufacturer or ized applicator may be manually
amount of herbicide in the container distributor of the product often is operated (such as the lever-operated
(eg, in liters [L] or kilograms [kg]). required by law to be on the label. knapsack sprayer), motorized, or
ground-driven (Fig 4.2).

Herbicide use 55
Controlled-droplet applicator 4.2 Top, a leverage-operated
A controlled-droplet applicator (CDA) knapsack sprayer; bottom, a
controlled-droplet applicator.
produces uniform-sized droplets of
spray. Weeds may be effectively
controlled with as little as 18 liters
water/ha. Droplet size is controlled
within narrow limits by spinning discs
inside the applicator. Controlled-
droplet applicators are lightweight.
They have a plastic spray head, a small
motor that drives the rotating disc, a
liquid reservoir, a handle, and a power
supply (e.g., one to eight 1.5-volt dry-
cell batteries). Models that use a
manually operated air pump (Fig. 4.3)
(e.g., Birky sprayer) have been intro-
duced. This eliminates the cost of
batteries for the first-generation CDA.

Granular applicator
Herbicides sold as granules are applied
using granular applicators. Whatever
its size, a granular applicator consists
of a hopper to contain the granules, a
metering device to control flow rate,
and a distribution mechanism. Granu-
lar herbicides that are soluble in water
may not require the same uniformity of
distribution as those that are not
soluble in water.
Granules are often applied by hand,
especially in the tropics. Because
broadcasting granules by hand is not
precise, the quantity of herbicide used
will be higher than with other
application techniques. More uniform
application can be achieved on small
areas by shaking the granules from a
corrosion-resistant material, such as Operation of the
stainless steel, polyvinyl material, or
container with a perforated lid. fiber glass. The tank has a special lid knapsack sprayer
through which it is filled. The lid Herbicide and water are poured into
Hydraulic applicator (pressurized) contains a strainer to remove debris the sprayer tank. The lever is moved
Hydraulic applicators commonly that might clog the nozzle. The pump up and down, causing the pump to
consist of a tank, pump, and nozzle. drives the solution through the pres- draw spray liquid from the tank into a
Other components include an agitator, sure chamber to the nozzle. The most special chamber inside the tank called
pressure gauge, pressure regulator, widely used small hydraulic applicator the pressure chamber. Air trapped in
hose, and boom. The tank that holds is the lever-operated knapsack sprayer
the spray solution is made of a (Fig. 4.4). For a detailed discussion, see
Pesticide application methods (Matthews
1979).

56 Weed control handbook
4.3 Controlled-droplet applicators that
use a manually operated air pump are
available.

4.4 Simplified drawing of a lever-operated
knapsack sprayer.

the pressure chamber is compressed as The faster the lever is moved, the Selecting the nozzle
the liquid is forced in. On one side of higher the pressure becomes. High The flow rate through a nozzle de-
the pressure chamber is the hose, pressure makes the herbicide droplets pends on the size of the nozzle opening
which is connected to the trigger smaller and increases the speed with and the spray pressure. Increasing the
handle, and the on-and-off switch which the solution comes out of the nozzle size (diameter of opening) and
known as the cutoff valve. Compressed nozzle (flow rate). For herbicide increasing the pressure will increase
air forces the liquid from the pressure spraying, where coarse spray droplets the flow rate. A pressure of 70-275 kPa
chamber through the hose to the are desired, 5-6 lever strokes per (see Appendix A) is recommended for
nozzle. The nozzle turns the liquid into minute are adequate. herbicide application. The best way to
droplets, which aid in uniform cover- regulate the flow rate is to change
age of the weed or soil. nozzle tips and to increase or decrease
walking speed.

Herbicide use 57
It is important to select the proper There are several ways to find out
type of nozzle for each activity how much spray is applied to a given
(Fig. 4.5). For residual herbicides area for a given time. A well-tested
applied to the soil, impact nozzles (e.g., technique for calibrating a sprayer
Polijet) should be used because they (Fraser and Burrill 1979) is as follows:
cause less drift problems. For systemic, Step 1. Make sure the sprayer is in
translocated herbicides, where thor- good working condition (no leaks, no
ough wetting of stems and leaves is blocked nozzles, etc.). Calibration
not required, an impact nozzle or fan should be done on a surface similar to
nozzle is recommended. For contact the field to be sprayed. Measure and
herbicides, use a hollow cone nozzle, mark out an area of 100 m2 (10 m x
an impact nozzle, or a fan nozzle 10 m). Trace with a stick the rows on
operated at 275 kPa. which rice normally would be sown in
the field. The row width should be the
Sprayer calibration one you will use in planting rice.
Sprayer calibration determines the Step 2. Place the sprayer on level
volume of water that will be applied on ground and put in 10 liters of clean
a given area by a given applicator water. Mark the outline of the sprayer
under given conditions. The volume of on the ground so the same spot can be
water applied by a sprayer depends on found later. Put the sprayer on your
walking speed, sprayer pressure, and back. Position the nozzle above the first
nozzle size. seed row mark. Pump the sprayer to
Walking speed. An increase in walk- develop pressure. Begin spraying the
ing speed results in less spray mixture plot you have marked, adjusting the
applied to a given area. Conversely, a height of the nozzle to cover whatever
decrease in walking speed results in swath width you desire. Maintain a
application of a greater volume applied constant nozzle height. Walk at a
per unit area. comfortable pace, which you must
Sprayer pressure. Increasing sprayer maintain throughout the calibration,
pressure results in a greater volume of and later in actually spraying the field.
spray mixture applied to a given area. Spray the 100-m 2 plot once. When you
Conversely, a lower spray pressure have completed spraying the plot,
results in less spray mixture applied. place the sprayer back on the ground in
The sprayer should be operated to give its outlined position and measure the
as steady a pressure as possible. A water level.
pressure gauge may be fitted to the Step 3. Determine the application
sprayer. rate by subtracting the volume of water
Nozzle size. The use of a large nozzle remaining in the sprayer from the
opening increases the volume of spray amount you started with. For example,
mixture applied to a given area. if the amount of water in the tank
Smaller openings deliver a smaller before spraying was 10 liters and the
spray volume.

4.5 Selecting the appropriate nozzle for
each spraying task is important. Types
include top, hydraulic nozzle (shown in
the nozzle body, left, and in parts, right)
and, bottom, a fan nozzle, left, and
impact nozzle, right.

58 Weed control handbook
amount after spraying is 8 liters, then contact herbicide application because Divide a concentration given in
the amount of water used was 2 liters. the weeds must be wetted thoroughly grams per liter (g/liter) by 10.
The sprayer output per hectare for effective treatment. Whatever Example: 600 grams of 100% bu-
(10,000 m2 ) is then calculated as volume of water is used, the amount of tachlor per liter
active ingredient (ai) per hectare
should always be the same (i.e., 2.0 kg
of butachlor/ ha can be applied in
200 liters or 300 liters water/ha,
depending on the sprayer calibration). Multiply a concentration given in
Controlled-droplet applicators and imperial pounds (lb) per imperial
certain very low-volume nozzles fitted gallon by 10.
to the knapsack sprayers can use as Example: 2 Ib/imperial gallon
low as 10-40 liters water/ha. When in
A simpler calculation is to multiply the doubt, check the herbicide label. Most
number of liters you sprayed on the manufacturers indicate the volume
10-m x 10-m plot by 100, to get applica- rate to be used under certain condi- Multiply a concentration given in
tion rate in liters per hectare. tions. pounds (lb) per US gal by 12.
Step 4. Make sure your walking pace Example: 2 lb/US gallon
is uniform by repeating Step 2 a few Herbicide dosage calculation
times, until you are putting exactly Before calculating herbicide dosage, a
2 liters of water on the calibration plot herbicide or herbicide combination
every time you spray it. If you use should be chosen for the best results The following general formula may
more than 2 liters, you should increase under the particular set of conditions. be used to calculate most herbicide
your walking pace while spraying. If To calculate the amount of herbicide to dosage determinations:
you use less than 2 liters, you should be applied to a given area, the follow-
walk more slowly. If the rate remains ing information is needed:
on the 2-liter mark, your walking pace Recommended dosage of the
is uniform. Remember: sprayer output herbicide to be used.
for a given area may be adjusted by Amount of herbicide (ai) in a given
changing walking pace or nozzle size, quantity of the commercial product
or pressure, or any combination of (formulation) to be used. Example: Apply 2.0 kg ai/ ha of Ma-
these. The product label shows the chete, which has 60% ai as butachlor.
amount, in ai, present in the formula-
Amount of water to use tion. The percentage ai for liquid
Mixing a herbicide with water enables formulations may be given in weight
spreading the herbicide evenly over a per volume (e.g., g/liter), or as a
large area. The amount of water used weight:weight ratio (percentage). Under many conditions, the area to
affects the herbicide's effectiveness and Conversion factors can be used to be sprayed will not be exactly 1 ha.
the ease of application. Usually a calculate the correct percent ai in a Also, the sprayer tank may not be big
medium volume of water—200-300 liquid herbicide formulation from the enough to hold all the herbicide and
liters/ha—is adequate for bare soil or weight per volume concentration, as water required for 1 ha. This makes it
small weeds. More water is needed for follows: necessary to calculate the amount of
herbicide and water required for an

Herbicide use 59
area less than 1 ha or for a tankful. The To summarize, the steps required to The product labels of most commer-
amount of water needed to spray a arrive at the amount of herbicide and cial herbicide formulations containing
given area can be calculated as water to be sprayed on a given area are salts and esters specify the amount of
1. Determine sprayer output per acid equivalent present in the formula-
hectare (calibrate the sprayer). tion. The acid equivalent is equal to the
2. Determine the quantity of formu- difference in weight, expressed as per-
lated product required per hectare cent, between the parent acid molecule
(from label or other recommendations). (minus a value of 1, representing the
3. Use the size of the area to be loss of the H+) and that of the salt or
If the area to be sprayed is 1,000 m2 and sprayed or the sprayer capacity ester molecule. It is always less than
the sprayer output is 200 liters/ha (whichever is smaller) to determine the l00%, and is calculated by the
(from the calibration described earlier), amount of water needed. following formula:
then the amount of water required to 4. Calculate the formulated product Molecular weight (mol/wt) of
spray this area is : needed for the quantity of water. acid
Appendix B gives calculated dosage
rates per hectare for different formula-
tions, so that you can cross check your
When the area to be sprayed is de- own calculations.
termined on the basis of sprayer
capacity, area can be calculated as Calculation of dosage in acid
equivalents of salts and esters Example: The molecular weight of
Herbicide dosage recommendations 2,4-D is 221. The molecular weight of
computed in kilograms of active its isopropyl ester is 263. The acid
ingredient per hectare refer to the equivalent of the isopropyl ester of
unaltered chemical molecule. But in 2,4-D is determined as
If a knapsack sprayer has a capacity herbicide molecules that are acids, the
of 15 liters and the sprayer output is acidic portion is normally transformed
200 liters/ha, then the area covered by to a salt or ester, to improve such
one full tank (15 liters) is characteristics as solubility in water or
oil and foliar penetration. In general,
the parent acid portion of the herbicide Field techniques for
molecule remains as the herbicidally
The total amount of formulated active portion, while the ester or salt using herbicides
product to be used in the examples attached to the parent acid satisfies the Proper field techniques are important
above can be calculated as functions for increased solubility or to get good weed control from herbi-
increased penetration. The acid equiva- cides. Read all labels before using a
lent of a salt or ester form of a herbi- herbicide, and follow the directions. To
cide, therefore, is that portion of the kill the weeds and not the rice, using
molecule representing the original acid the correct dosage is essential. Contact
form of the molecule. The dosage rec- herbicides work best when they are
ommendation for such herbicides is applied in a high volume of water.
given as kilograms of acid equivalent
of the active ingredient per hectare.
The recommended dosage of herbi-
cides applied as salts or esters is often
based on the herbicidal portion of the
salt or ester molecule, and excludes the
herbicidally inactive portion
(Anderson 1983).

60 Weed control handbook
The decision to spray should be Do not guess the amount of herbi- Maintain a constant nozzle height
made after considering cide to use. Always measure or weigh above the target weeds in the field. A
the degree of weed species and the exact calculated amount. Fill the nozzle height of about 50 cm from the
weed growth, sprayer tank about half-full with water. target to the ground is ideal.
the recommendation for weed Add the measured herbicide to the Avoid missing strips or overlapping
control, tank, then fill the tank completely with spray swaths.
the control measures available, water. Be sure both herbicide and Use rice rows as a measure (spacing
the correct timing of herbicide appli- water pass through the strainer in the from 25 to 30 cm). Walk over every
cation, tank. Mix the contents of a knapsack third or fourth row to give a 1-m
the previous experience in spraying, sprayer tank by shaking it. spray width.
the probable cost-benefit of apply- Place sticks or sighting poles at
ing the herbicide, and Herbicide selection swath width intervals before
safety. Most herbicides are suitable for use starting to spray.
Always follow the chemical only in selected crops; they would kill While spraying, maintain a constant
manufacturer’s instructions on safety other crops. To assure the safety of the walking speed. When you slow your
precautions. rice crop, use only herbicides recom- pace, the amount of herbicide applied
A few days before spraying, ensure mended for rice. Some herbicide increases. When you walk faster, the
that groups tend to control certain families amount decreases. Underapplication
chemical supplies on the farm are of weeds better than others. Consider results in unsatisfactory weed control;
adequate for the job at hand, the weeds on your farm and select the applying more than the recommended
a readily accessible water supply for herbicide that will control those weeds. amount may result in injury or death to
filling the sprayer is available, and the rice crop. Overapplication also
the sprayer is clean and in good Nozzles wastes a costly input.
working condition. Select the most suitable nozzle size and
On the day of spraying, check to see type. In general, use Cleaning the sprayer
that a cone nozzle for applications where Do not leave herbicide solutions in the
appropriate protective clothing is it is important to cover the crop sprayer overnight. Whether spraying
worn, foliage (e.g., for foliar herbicides), research plots or large areas, it is
the calibration used is correct, and important to thoroughly clean the
weeds are in suitable condition for a low-pressure fan nozzle for sprayer before using a different herbi-
treatment, residual herbicides. cide. Herbicides retained in the pump,
ground conditions are satisfactory, hose, boom, or sprayer tank, if sprayed
weather conditions and forecasts are Spraying later on sensitive plants, will cause
satisfactory, and Do not spray when the wind is too crop injury. To clean the sprayer,
the person to do the spraying is strong. If you must spray when it is 1. Rinse the sprayer with clean water
healthy and fit. windy, hold the nozzle close to the to remove most of the chemical. A
ground to prevent the droplets from household detergent can be added to
Mixing being blown away during calibration water used for cleaning. Pour this out
The concentrated active ingredient of a of the sprayer and during actual field and add clean water again.
herbicide must be mixed thoroughly spraying. Always walk downwind, so 2. Operate the pump for at least 10
with water (the carrier). When using a that any spray blown off the crop is strokes and pour out the remaining
wettable powder, agitate the solution carried away from you. water.
to prevent the herbicide from settling Always carry a spare nozzle. Check 3. Repeat these procedures two more
out. That would plug nozzles and give the sprayer nozzle often for possible times.
non-uniform application rates. The blockage (this would be indicated by a
water used should be clean and free poor spray pattern) and clean it when
from clay, mud, organic matter, and necessary. A faulty nozzle delivers the
dissolved salts. wrong dosage. If a faulty nozzle
develops, attend to it at the end of the
field. Use a soft material to clean
blocked nozzles. Never clean a nozzle
with a wire or pin.

Herbicide use 61
Granular herbicide application To calculate the application rate, use Indiscriminate herbicide use in
Most farmers apply granular herbicides the following formula: irrigated rice can adversely affect wild-
by broadcasting. Whatever the method life, humans, and the environment.
Granules applied
used, safety and uniformity of applica- in g per 100 m Improper herbicide use will contami-
Application rate
tion are important. Unlike liquid formu- in kg/ha = Swath width × 10 nate local water bodies. Inappropriate
lations, where the amount of water used in cm herbicide use or use of herbicides
is not critical as long as the sprayer has highly toxic to fish will kill or contami-
been calibrated to deliver a certain rate, Example: If the weight of granules nate the fish in that water, which will
granular formulations are not further used over a 100-m length with a swath affect the fish consumers.
diluted with a carrier. Thus the formu- diameter of 40 cm is 120 g, then the
lated product is constant and the application rate is Safe handling of herbicides
amount applied is determined by the 120 × 10 Handling an undiluted herbicide is
recommended application rate per 40 = 30 kg/ha more dangerous than handling the
hectare. It is important to follow this diluted product. Herbicides can enter
calibration method: Granular herbicides, although about the human body through the skin,
1. Determine the amount of formulated twice as costly as nongranular ones, mouth, nose, and eyes. Absorption
product per hectare using the formula can be applied once by hand, in asso- through skin is common and can occur
on page 59. ciation with fertilizer. They can also be from chemical spilling and splashing,
Example: To apply 2.0 kg ai/ha of applied using any one of a number of and from drifting of spray. Absorption
Machete with 5% ai, multiply 2 kg by mechanical spreaders. In small plots, through the nose and mouth can occur
100, then divide by 5 = 40 kg/ha. granules can be applied by shaking from inhaling spray droplets, vapors,
2. Measure and mark out a 5-m × 5-m them from a bottle with perforated lid or chemical dust. Safety tips for herbi-
area and determine the amount of (IRRI, unpublished circular). cide use are as follows:
granules required for the area. The Mix herbicides or other pesticides in
amount of butachlor required for the open air, never in enclosed
25 m2 is
Safe use of herbicides places with inadequate ventilation.
25 Improper herbicide use can harm Read the label on the herbicide
× 40 kg = 0.1 kg = 100 g crops, humans, wildlife, domestic
10,000 container and make sure any special
animals, and the environment. There instructions are understood.
3. Walk at a comfortable pace and are two types of herbicide toxicity: Leaks from a badly maintained
practice applying the herbicide several acute (a single oral dose) and chronic sprayer may increase contact
times, until you achieve a 100 g/25 m2 (a sublethal dose repeated over time). between the herbicide and the skin,
application rate. permitting the herbicide to enter the
When the granules are to be mixed in LD50 and LC50 body. Tighten leaking sprayer parts
a carrier such as sand, use a different LD50 is the expression for a single dose and check seals and washers to
calibration method, as follows: that, when taken orally, kills 50% of a avoid leakage.
1. Measure and mark out a length of 100 group of test animal. It is usually Wear protective clothing. Special
m. expressed in milligrams of herbicide protective clothing is heavy and
2. Weigh enough herbicide to cover this per kilogram of body weight of test expensive, and uncomfortable when
area. Walk at a comfortable pace and animal. The higher the herbicide toxi- used in the tropics. For small-scale
practice applying herbicide uniformly city, the lower the LD50. For example, farmers who use herbicides occa-
over this area. the LD50 of paraquat is 150 mg/kg; that sionally, a complete set of protective
3. Reweigh the herbicide remaining. of butachlor is 2,000 mg/kg. clothing may not be necessary. All
The difference will give the amount of We emphasize that the LD50 is NOT
herbicide applied. the safe dose level—50% of test ani-
4. Measure the swath width. mals die at that dose.
LC50 is the concentration required to
kill 50% of the test organisms in an
environment (usually water). The LC50
[96 h] for carp is 0.32 mg/liter.

62 Weed control handbook
farmers, however, should wear Storage of herbicides dusts. In case of poisoning accidents,
clothing and footwear that will Herbicides should be stored in a safe take the following first aid measures:
minimize any skin contact with place, preferably in a separate building 1. Remove the affected person from
herbicide. For operators who spray or in a place that can be locked at all the sprayed area.
regularly, protective clothing is re- times, to prevent unauthorized per- 2. Keep the patient at rest and warm,
quired. Basic protective clothing in- sons-especially children-from but avoid overheating.
cludes rubber boots, long trousers, entering. A complete inventory of all 3. Remove all protective clothing and
long-sleeved shirt, and rubber herbicides in the storage area is essen- other wet or contaminated clothing.
gloves. When opening herbicide tial. Wash any affected body parts thor-
containers, or pouring and mixing Herbicides should not be stored oughly with soap and water. When the
herbicides, goggles should also be near food, animal feed, or other items eyes are contaminated, wash them
worn. When spraying tall weeds, a that could be contaminated by spilled with plenty of clean water, normal
waterproof hat and face shield or volatile herbicides. Always store all saline, or phosphate buffer for about
should be worn. herbicides, however small the quan- 15 min and cover them with
Wash yourself and your clothes tity, in the original, labeled container. sterilized pads.
after spraying is done and all Herbicides must never be stored in any 4. Make sure the patient is breathing
spraying equipment has been other containers, especially not in old and be prepared to give artificial
cleaned. bottles or other containers where they respiration.
could be mistaken for food, beverage, 5. If a herbicide has been swallowed,
Herbicide drift or drugs for humans or animals. and the patient is awake, induce vomit-
Herbicide drift occurs when the Liquid herbicide products, espe- ing by tickling the back of the person’s
smaller drops in the spray are carried cially those containing organic solvents throat with a clean finger or by giving
away from the target by wind, or when with low temperature flash points, warm salty water (2 tablespoons of salt
vapor from a volatile herbicide is present special hazards because of in a glass of water). Vomiting can be
carried away during or after spraying. their flammability. Highly flammable induced only in a conscious person.
Growth regulator herbicides (such as products will readily ignite and burn, Retain samples of vomit for analysis in
2,4-D or MCPA) cause the greatest drift or explode when overheated. Some dry the hospital.
damage. Crops such as tomato, cotton, powder formulations may also present 6. Do not attempt to administer
lettuce, and tree fruits are particularly fire or explosion hazards. These anything by mouth to an unconscious
sensitive to them. Herbicide drift can dangers are important considerations patient.
be avoided by in selecting and using storage areas for 7. If the patient is convulsing, ensure
Spraying only when a light wind is herbicides. that clothing is loose around the neck
blowing away from susceptible and that air passages are free. Place
crops. Disposal of empty herbicide containers something strong between the teeth to
Using large nozzle tips, thus apply- Empty herbicide containers pose a prevent biting the tongue.
ing larger size droplets and larger health hazard to the general public, 8. Obtain medical help as soon as
spray volumes (more than 100 especially to children. No matter how possible. Depending on the severity of
liters/ha). well empty containers are cleaned, the exposure, the patient should either be
Using the minimum pressure chemicals can never be removed examined by a doctor immediately or
required for the nozzles to operate completely. All empty herbicide taken to hospital. In most cases of
properly. containers should be destroyed. Bury poisoning or overexposure to chemi-
Holding sprayer nozzles close to them in a pit away from ponds and cals in the field, it is most practical to
the target. other water bodies. Bottles and tins take the patient to the nearest casualty
Leaving a 10-m-wide strip should be crushed or broken before or emergency unit. In all cases, the
unsprayed between the rice and any burying. chemical involved should be
field where sensitive crops are identified.
growing. Other weed control Poisoning by herbicides For more information on agropesti-
methods can be applied to the Poisoning may result from absorption cides and their management, refer to
unsprayed strip. of herbicides through the skin and Agro-pesticides: theirmanagementand
eyes, through the gastro-intestinal tract application by Oudejans (1982).
by swallowing, and by the lungs
through inhaling vapor, spray, or

Herbicide use 63
Chapter 5

Principal rice herbicides

Herbicides play an important role in Herbicides that may be combined effects on the environment. Herbicides
integrated weed management in rice. often are sold as formulated products. may be classified, for convenience, by
Early-season weed competition When these are not available, two or method and timing of application. Or
significantly reduces rice grain yield, more herbicides may be mixed in the they may be classified by chemical
and preemergence herbicide treat- spray tank at the time of application- group, which also gives an indication
ments are widely used. But most weed a tank-mix combination. Combina- about how the herbicide may be used.
seeds germinate over a long time, and tions must be selected carefully and
preemergence herbicides, with their comply with manufacturers’ recom- Anilides
relatively short residual life, may not mendations to avoid product Anilides are used to control germinat-
control weeds long enough to opti- incompatibility. ing annual weeds, especially grasses.
mize rice yields. Then, postemergence They often are most active as surface
herbicides may be needed along with Herbicide classification preemergence treatments. The primary
other control measures. Moreover, any mechanism of action is through inter-
one herbicide may not control all the and uses ference with nucleic acid and protein
weeds present in a ricefield. Herbicide The herbicides commonly used for synthesis. Butachlor, pretilachlor, and
mixtures are used to obtain a wider weed control in rice are described propanil are examples of this group.
range of weed control. here. Table 5.1 lists the weeds con- Butuchlor. Butachlor is absorbed
trolled by the herbicides. Details on primarily through germinating shoots
their use are discussed in Chapters 6-9. and secondarily through roots. Its
Herbicide mixtures, Every effort has been made to ensure mode of action is inhibition of protein
rotations, and that the information presented is synthesis. It is used at 2-3 kg ai/ha for
correct (Roberts 1982, Swarbrick 1984, preemergence control of most annual
sequences Attwood 1985, Chemical and Pharma- grasses at the 1- to 2-leaf stages and of
Mixing herbicides and spraying them ceutical Press 1986, Thomson 1986, certain broadleaf weeds, and can be
simultaneously increases the range of Worthing 1987). But because herbicide applied postemergence. For trans-
weed control. Using herbicide mix- activity varies from locality to locality, planted rice, it is applied 3-7 d after
tures can also save time and reduce only general recommendations are transplanting. For direct seeded rice, it
application costs. A broadleaf herbi- given. Specific recommendations is applied 10-12 d after emergence.
cide and a grass herbicide are often should be obtained from weed special-
mixed together (e.g., bensulfuron + ists in the reader’s locality.
butachlor). Residual and foliar contact Most herbicides are organic com-
herbicides may be combined (e.g., pounds. Herbicides are considered
thiobencarb + 2,4-D). ideal if they are toxicologically safe,
selective to rice, cost-effective, effective
on weeds, and have no lasting adverse

Principal herbicides 65
Table 5.1. Susceptibilitles a of important rice weeds to common rice herbicides (treatment at recommended doses and application times).

Herbicide

Weed

Acanthospennum hispidum S R S R R S S S R R MS
Aeschynomene viginica S S R S S MS S S R MS R
Ageratum conyzoides S S S R S S S S R R S
Altemanthera sessilis S MR S R S S S S R S
Amaranthus spinosus S S S S R S S S S S S S R S R S
Ammannia coccinea S S S R S S S R S MR
Bidens pilosa S S R S S MR S S R S
Brachiaria mutica R R R S R S R R R MR R R R
Commelina benghalensis S S R MR R MR S MR S MR R R MR R
Cynodon dactylon R R R R R R R MS R S R R R R R R R R R
Cyperus difformis S S S S S S S S R S S MS MS S S S S S S S R
Cyperus esculentus S MS MS S MS R S MR S S R R R MR R R
Cyperus iria S S S S S s S R S MS MS S S R S S S S S MR S R
Cyperus rotundus R MS R R R R MS R R S MS R R R R R R R R MR R R
Dactyloctenium aegyptium R R S S S R S S S S S R R
Digitaria sanguinalis R S R S S S R S S S S S MR S R
Echinochloa colona R MR S S S S R S MR S R S S S S S S S S S S R
Echinochloa crus-galli S R MR S S S S R S MR S R S S S S S S S S S S R
Echinochloa glabrescens S R MR S S S S R S MR S R S S S S S S S S S S R
Eclipta alba S MR S R MR S S MR S S R MR MR S
Eichhornia crassipes S R S MS R R
Eleusine indica R MS S S R S S S R S S S S S R MS S R
Eleocharis acicularis S S S R S S S S S S R
Euphorbia hirta S MS R S MS S S MR R
Fimbristylis miliacea S S S S S S R S S S MS S S S R S S MR S
lmperata cylindrica R R R R R R MR R S R R R R R R R R R R
Ipomoea aquatica R S R R MR MS R
Ischaemum rugosum R S S R S S R R S S S S MS R
Leersia hexandra R R R R S S R R R MR R
Leptochloa chinensis R MR S R S S S R S S S S S MR R S R
Ludwigia octovalvis S S MS S R S S S S S S R S S S
Marsilea minuta S S S MR R S MR S S R MS
Monochoria vaginalis S S S S S S S R S S S S S S S S S MS MS
Nymphaea stellata S R S S
Butachlor in soil is broken down by
microbial activity. In soil or water, it is
rapidly converted to water-soluble
derivatives. It may persist for 6-10 wk.
Formulations available include
granules and emulsifiable concentrate.
When applied postemergence, it can
be tank-mixed with propanil.
Water solubility is 20 mg/liter at
20 °C. LD50 for rats is 2,000 mg/kg.
Contact causes irritation to skin and
eyes. It has high fish toxicity-LC 50
(96 h) for carp is 0.32 mg/liter.
Pretilachlor. Pretilachlor is a selec-
tive chloroacetamide rice herbicide
that can be applied before transplant-
ing or any time between transplanting
and weed emergence. Pretilachlor at
0.6 kg ai/ha is well-tolerated by trans-
planted rice, but it cannot be used for
direct seeded rice without an antidote.
Rice can be protected against injury by
applying fenclorim one day before, at
the same time as, or up to 3 d after,
pretilachlor application (Christ 1985).
Fenclorim is also effective in protect-
ing water seeded rice, but is not
suitable for use on upland rice.
Water solubility is 50 mg/liter at
20 °C. LD50 is 6,099 mg/kg. It has high
fish toxicity-LC 50 (96 h) for rainbow
trout is 0.9 mg/liter.
Propanil. Propanil is a contact
herbicide that can be applied post-
emergence. It is effective against
several grassy and broadleaf weeds at
the 2- to 3-leaf stages, and has no
residual effects. Its effectiveness
decreases on grasses to negligible at
the tillering stage. Rice is extremely
tolerant of propanil because rice plants
have high levels of the hydrolyzing
enzyme aryl acylamidase, which
detoxifies propanil.

Principal herbicides 67
Propanil can be used at 3-4 kg ai/ha Paraquat. Paraquat is nonselective, propanil and the residual activity of
in irrigated and rainfed rice. It should with fast contact action when applied pendimethalin. Because soil and
be applied when most weeds have postemergence. It kills most annual weeds must be completely exposed to
emerged. The water level in a flooded weeds and grasses, including rice. It spray coverage, no floodwater should
ricefield should be lowered to expose can be used in zero tillage or mini- be on the field at the time of applica-
weeds about 24 h before propanil mum tillage systems and in stale tion. The residual activity of
application. Raise the water level again seedbed land preparation, at applica- pendimethalin is activated by mois-
1-3 d after treatment, before any new tion rates of 140 to 840 g ai/ha. It is ture. It is most effective when ade-
weeds emerge. A slight leaf burn may rapidly inactivated on contact with soil quate rainfall or irrigation is received
occur on rice after application, but the by strong adsorption to clay. within 7 d after application.
rice plant normally recovers quickly. Water solubility is 70 g/liter at Water solubility is 0.3 mg/liter at
Propanil should not be applied if 20 °C. LD50 for rats is 150 mg 20 ºC. LD50 for albino rats is 1,050-1,250
rain threatens to fall within 5-6 h after paraquat/kg. It has medium fish mg/kg. It has high fish toxicity-
application. It should not be applied to toxicity, depending on the formulation LC50 (96 h) for channel catfish is
rice at the late tillering stage, about used-LC 50 (96 h) for rainbow trout is 0.42 mg/liter.
60 d after planting. Propanil-treated 32 mg/liter.
rice crops should not be treated with Diphenyl ethers
organophosphorus or carbamate in- Dinitroanilines This group includes bifenox,
secticides within 14 d before or after Butralin and pendimethalin are fluorodifen, oxyfluorfen, and
treatment because those insecticides examples of dinitroanilines. Members chlomethoxynil. Diphenyl ether
inhibit the detoxification of propanil of this family are active when applied herbicides are classified as contact
by rice. Commercial mixtures include to the soil and must be applied before herbicides. When applied preemer-
propanil + molinate, propanil + weed seed germination. In general, gence, they inhibit seed germination
bentazon, and propanil + bifenox. dinitroaniline herbicides do not and early seedling growth. They are
Water solubility is 0.2 g/liter at control established weeds. Their mode relatively insoluble in water, and do
25 °C. LD50 is 1,400 mg/kg. It has high of action is inhibition of both root and not readily leach. They are used
fish toxicity-LC 50 (96 h) is shoot development (mitotic poison). principally preemergence or early pos-
13 mg/liter, indicating that streams Butralin. Butralin is a preemergence temergence to control broadleaf weeds
and lakes should be protected from herbicide. It is selective to upland rice and grassy weed seedlings. In general,
contamination. when applied pre-emergence and to these herbicides more effectively
pregerminated rice at the 1- to 4-leaf control broadleaf seedlings than
Bipyridyliums stages (4-6 d after seeding). It is active grassy seedlings.
Herbicides from this group are against many broadleaf weeds. Bifenox. Bifenox is primarily a
primarily postemergence, foliar-acting Water solubility is 1 mg/liter at broadleaf herbicide. It can be applied
compounds with no soil activity. 24 °C. LD50 for albino rats is 12,600 at 2 kg ai/ha as preemergence or
Paraquat and diquat are generally mg/kg. It has high fish toxicity-LC 50 postemergence up to the 2-leaf stage of
nonselective. On treated plants, (48 h) for rainbow trout is 3.4 mg/liter. rice. Bifenox has been found to be
toxicity symptoms are a characteristic Pendimethalin. Pendimethalin used highly toxic to direct seeded flooded
rapid scorch and desiccation. Light, as a preemergence herbicide inhibits rice, resulting in low grain yields (IRRI
oxygen, and chlorophyll are required germination and seedling develop- 1974). Mixtures include bifenox +
for maximum manifestation of ment of susceptible weeds. Where 2,4-D and bifenox + propanil.
phytotoxicity. grasses are expected to be a problem, it
should be applied after planting and
before emergence of rice and weeds. It
can also be applied as a postemer-
gence treatment with propanil, which
combines the direct contact action of

68 Weed control handbook
LD50 for rats is more than 6,400 mg/ Glyphosate is absorbed through the 2,4-D. 2,4-D is a systemic herbicide.
kg. It has high fish toxicity-LC 50 foliage and translocated throughout Postemergence application of 2,4-D
(96 h) for rainbow trout is 27 mg/liter. the plant. The addition of certain salts controls sedges and broadleaf and
Fluorodifen. Fluorodifen is a to glyphosate formulations can aquatic weeds. It normally does not
preemergence and postemergence substantially increase phytotoxicity in control grasses. It can be applied in
contact herbicide. It can be used at some cases. Ammonium salts are rice at 0.4-0.8 kg ai/ha 3-4 wk after
3-4 kg ai/ha to control some broadleaf consistently effective in increasing weeds have emerged. It can also be
weeds and grasses. performance. Glyphosate is inacti- applied 4 d after transplanting at
LD50 for rats is 9,000 mg/kg. It has vated on contact with soil (Duke 1988). 0.8 kg ai/ha to control some annual
high fish toxicity-LC 50 (96 h) for Translocation to underground organs grasses in addition to sedges and
rainbow trout is 0.18 mg/liter. of perennials prevents regrowth from broadleaf weeds. 2,4-D mixtures with
Oxyfluorfen. Oxyfluorfen is used these sites and results in their subse- bifenox, piperophos, butachlor, and
either preemergence or postemer- quent destruction. For best control of thiobencarb are available for use in
gence. It is a contact herbicide perennial weeds, the plant should not rice. Butachlor + 2,4-D mixture has
requiring light for activity. It is be disturbed by tillage until transloca- been found extremely toxic to irrigated
absorbed more readily by shoots than tion is completed-about2 wk. wet seeded rice (IRRI 1985). Rice is
by roots. Most annual broadleaf weeds Visible effects of glyphosate susceptible to 2,4-D at emergence,
and grasses are controlled at relatively normally occur in 2-4 d in annual incipient tillering, booting, and
low rates of 0.15-2.25 kg ai/ha. It is species and in 7-20 d in perennial heading.
more effective on broadleaf weeds species. Rainfall occurring within 6 h Water solubility is 620 mg/liter at
than on grasses, and is most active as a after treatment may reduce effective- 20 °C. LD50 for rats is 375 mg/kg. 2,4-D
postemergence treatment when weeds ness. is not toxic to fish. LC 50 (24 h) of the
are small. Glyphosate can be used in zero- sodium salt for rainbow trout is
Water solubility is 0.1 mg/liter at tillage or minimum-tillage system of 1,160 mg/liter.
20 °C. LD50 for dogs is at least 5,000 rice production, especially where MCPA. MCPA is a postemergence,
mg/kg. It is highly toxic to aquatic perennial weeds are a problem. It selective, translocated broadleaf
invertebrates and fish. should not be applied to growing rice. herbicide. In rice, it is similar to 2,4-D
Water solubility is 10 g/liter at but is more selective at the same
Organophosphorus compounds 25°C. LD50 for rats is 5,000 mg/kg. application rate. It is normally applied
Organophosphorus herbicides are Fish toxicity-LC 50 (96 h) for trout is at 0.2-1.2 kg ai/ha. Mixtures available
primarily foliar acting; they have no 86 mg/liter. include MCPA + bentazon. MCPA
activity through the soil. A major should be applied to rice from
example is glyphosate. Phenoxy acetic acids midtillering to maximum tillering
Glyphosate. Glyphosate is a broad- Phenoxys are a type of growth stages. It should not be sprayed at the
spectrum, postemergence, nonselec- hormone, generally used as foliar- booting stage.
tive, translocated herbicide. It is applied, translocated herbicides. Water solubility is 825 mg/liter at
effective in deep-rooted perennial Phenoxy acetic acid herbicides tend to 20 °C. LD50 for rats is 700 mg/kg.
weeds and annual grasses, sedges, and accumulate in the growing points of LC50 (96 h) for rainbow trout is
broadleaf weeds. Application rates plants. Resulting abnormal cell divi- 232 mg/liter.
range from 0.5 to 4.0 kg ai/ha, with sion and growth interfere with nucleic
most perennials requiring acid metabolism and disrupt the trans-
1.5-2.5 kg ai/ha. location system. Most phenoxy herbi-
cides are formulated as salts and esters
of their parent acids. Members of the
group include 2,4-D, fenoprop (silvex),
MCPA, and 2,4,5-T. Phenoxys are used
selectively to control annual and
perennial broadleaf weeds. Grass
seedlings also may be controlled, but
there is little or no control of estab-
lished grassy weeds.

Principal herbicides 69
Thiocarbamates Thiobencarb. Thiobencarb is more Simetryn. Simetryn is used as a
Thiocarbamates are active when effective on grasses and sedges than mixture with thiobencarb to control
applied to the soil. Some are highly on broadleaf weeds. Thiobencarb broadleaf weeds in rice. LD50 for rats is
volatile, which makes soil incorpora- interferes with protein synthesis and 1,830 mg/kg.
tion necessary. Thiocarbamate herbi- inhibits photosynthesis. Protein Dimethametryn. Dimethametryn is a
cides control germinating annual synthesis and amylase biosynthesis are triazine compound used as a selective,
grassy and broadleaf weeds. The inhibited more in susceptible grass preemergence, and postemergence
process of lipid biosynthesis appears species than in rice. herbicide. It controls annual broadleaf
to be the most sensitive to thiocar- In transplanted rice, thiobencarb weeds and grasses.
bamates. Examples of this group are shows maximum herbicidal selectivity
thiobencarb and molinate. Most by taking advantage of differences in Sulfonylureas
thiocarbamate herbicides have a growth between rice seedlings at the Sulfonylureas have very high biolgical
relatively short soil persistence. Recent 3- to 6-leaf stages and germinating activity, and rates as low as
evidence (Roeth 1986) has shown weeds. Thiobencarb (2-3 kg ai/ha) is 0.002 kg ai/ha have been used.
increased breakdown of some thiocar- distributed in the top soil after applica- Although weed seed germination is
bamate herbicides in soils with a tion and is readily leached from the not usually affected, subsequent root
history of thiocarbamates application. soil. Rice plant injury symptoms and shoot growth are severely inhib-
Molinate. Molinate is a herbicide for include dwarf malformation and deep ited in sensitive seedlings. Weed
selective weed control in rice at greening. In some cases, leaf scorching growth inhibition is rapid, with visual
2-4 kg ai/ha. It is particularly effective appears. symptoms within 1-2 d in rapidly
for controlling Echinochloa weed Thiobencarb should be applied growing plants. The site of action of
species. It can be applied as a granular between preemergence and the 2-leaf the sulfonylureas is the enzyme
formulation to the water in flooded stage of Echinochloa spp. because acetolactate synthase. Inhibition of this
rice. Emulsifiable concentrates herbicidal activity decreases after this enzyme, which is needed for the
applied to the soil surface are stage. For post-emergence application, production of the essential amino acid
extremely volatile and must be thiobencarb should be applied after building blocks valine and isoleucine,
incorporated immediately. Molinate the 1.5-leaf stage of rice to the 2- to results in rapid cessation of growth
can be applied before sowing rice, at 3-leaf stage of Echinochloa spp. to and eventual plant death. All plants
postemergence preflood, at flooding, obtain the best weed kill without contain this target enzyme, but the
or postflood. Moisture is required to damaging the rice. Cool temperatures ability of some plants to rapidly
activate molinate. In pre-flood treat- may delay onset of herbicidal activity. convert the herbicide to an inactive
ment, the area should be flooded as Commercial mixtures available product is the basis for selectivity
soon as possible. Once applied, a include thiobencarb + propanil and (Beyer et al 1988).
continuous water cover must be main- thiobencarb + simetryn. Bensulfuron. Bensulfuron (0.05 kg
tained. Rice is extremely tolerant of Water solubility is 30 mg/liter at ai/ha) is a sulfonylurea herbicide used
this herbicide. Cool temperatures will 20 °C. LD50 for rats is 1,300 mg/kg. in direct seeded and transplanted rice.
cause less than optimal weed control. LC50 (48 h) is 3.6 mg/liter for carp. It has good crop safety on indica rice
Commercial mixtures include varieties, but less crop safety on
molinate + propanil. Triazines japonica types. Indica rices metabolize
Water solubility is 880 mg/liter at The triazines are a large group of the herbicide more rapidly than
20 ºC. LD50 for male rats is 369 mg/kg. herbicides. They are applied preemer- japonica rices. Thiocarbamates
LC50 (96 h) for goldfish is 30 mg/liter. gence and postemergence to control herbicides, except molinate, show an
At recommended rates, molinate had seedling grasses and broadleaf weeds. antidote effect on bensulfuron through
no detectable effects on fish in ditches They control broadleaf weeds better the acceleration of detoxification by
draining water from treated ricefields than grasses and do not control estab- rice.
in California. lished annual or perennial weeds.
Their mode of action is through
inhibition of photosynthesis in plants.
Simetryn and dimethametryn are
triazines.

70 Weed control handbook
Bensulfuron controls many broad- Miscellaneous herbicides Oxadiazon. Oxadiazon is a preemer-
leaf weeds and sedges. It can be Several herbicides do not clearly fall gence herbicide applied at
applied as preemergence or early into any of the groupings. These 0.5-0.75 kg ai/ha. Uptake by weed
postemergence treatment. When used herbicides differ in chemistry, selectiv- seedling shoots causes plant death
in combination with a grass herbicide ity, and mode of action. Bentazon, because root uptake is low. Its
such as thiobencarb, molinate, or chlomethoxynil, cinmethylin, postemergence activity against grasses
butachlor, bensulfuron provides oxadiazon, and quinclorac are is limited. Because it has low water
excellent weed control. Application examples. solubility and high adsorption,
can be made up to the 3-leaf stage of Bentazon. Bentazon (1-2 kg ai/ha) oxadiazon is not leached and has good
the weeds. Bensulfuron provides good selectively controls a number of broad- persistence. It can be used in trans-
control of S. maritimus when applied leaf weeds and sedges, primarily by planted and direct seeded rice.
6-12 d after emergence of the weed contact action. Broadleaf weeds at the Commercial mixed formulations
(Bernasor and De Datta 1986). 2- to 10-leaf stage are controlled most include oxadiazon + 2,4-D and
Water solubility at 25 °C is readily. Delay in application will result oxadiazon + propanil.
120 mg/liter. LD50 in rats is in inadequate control. In irrigated rice, Oxadiazon can be specifically
75,000 mg/kg. LC50 (96 h) for rainbow bentazon should be applied only to formulated to be applied directly onto
trout is >150 mg/liter. weeds that have emerged above the the surface of the ricefield floodwater.
water level. Bentazon does not control A shaker bottle with a calibrated
Polycyclic alkanoic acids grasses and has no known preemer- stopper is used to spread oxadiazon
Polycyclic alkanoic acids control grass gence activity. Available commercial directly onto the water without any
weeds. In general, polycyclic alkanoic mixtures include bentazon + MCPA dilution. The field should be flooded
acids are lost from the soil through and bentazon + propanil. 3-5 cm at application and water should
biodegradation, rather than through Water solubility is 500 mg/liter. not be disturbed for 2-5 d after
leaching or volatilization. Rainfall after LD50 for rats is about 1,100 mg/kg. It application.
foliar application can greatly reduce has low fish toxicity. LC50 (96 h) for Water solubility is 0.7 mg/liter at
herbicide absorption because of a rainbow trout is 510 mg/liter. 20 °C. LD50 for rats is more than
reduced amount of herbicide in Chlomethoxynil (chlometoxyfen). 8,000 mg/kg. LC50 (96 h) for rainbow
contact with the plant. One example of Chlomethoxynil is used at trout is 1-9 mg/liter; for catfish,
the group is fenoxaprop. Herbicides 1.5-2.5 kg ai/ha in transplanted and ³15.4 mg/liter.
such as MCPA, 2,4-D, and bentazon upland rice. It is applied 3-8 d after Piperophos. Piperophos is a
antagonize polycyclic alkanoic acids. transplanting rice. piperidine compound used as a
Fenoxaprop. Fenoxaprop Water solubility is 0.3 mg/liter at preemergence and postemergence
(0.03-0.05 kg ai/ha) is a postemer- 15 °C. LD50 for mice is 3,300 mg/kg. herbicide. It controls annual grasses
gence, selective herbicide for control LC50 (40 h) for carp is 237 mg/liter. and sedges. The commercial product
of annual and perennial grassy weeds. Cinmethylin. Cinmethylin provides containing piperophos + dimethame-
It is a contact herbicide that is partly excellent control of grasses and tryn in the ratio 4:l is used in rice to
systemic. Rice is tolerant from the moderate suppression of broadleaf control most annual weeds. It is
3-leaf stage to early tillering. weeds and sedges. It has been tested at applied at 1-2 kg ai/ha at the 2- to
Fenoxaprop has no soil activity. It 100-200 g ai/ha for transplanted rice 4-leaf stage of weed. It has good selec-
should not be applied with phenoxy 4-9 d after transplanting and at tivity in transplanted and upland rice.
compounds. 100 g ai/ha for direct seeded rice
Water solubility at 25 °C is 7-9 d after seeding.
0.8 mg/liter. LD50 is 2,357 mg/kg. Water solubility is 61 mg/liter.
LD50 is 3,900 mg/kg.

Principal herbicides 71
Quinclorac. Quinclorac is a chino- Susceptibility of rice cultivars to
line-carboxylic acid compound used as grass herbicides has been observed
a selective preplant, preemergence, with propanil, butachlor, thiobencarb,
and postemergence herbicide. It has pendimethalin, molinate, and
been experimentally tested in rice at piperophos-dimethametryn. For
125-300 g ai/ha for grass weed control. example, IR5, IR28, and IR46 are
Organic matter in the soil will decrease susceptible to thiobencarb (Shin et a1
herbicidal activity. Early postemer- 1989). Indica varieties are usually more
gence application when grass weeds susceptible to simetryn than are japon-
are at the 1- to 3-leaf stage will give the ica varieties. On the other hand, ben-
best results. Although results are best sulfuron has good crop safety on
when quinclorac is applied onto indica rice varieties but less crop safety
saturated soil, it can also be applied on japonica types. Cultivar tolerance
onto dry soil or into standing water may be due to differences in growth
not deeper than 5 cm. Quinclorac can rate, growth stage, morphology, physi-
be safely used in dry seeded and water ology, and biochemistry.
seeded rice when application is made Herbicide selectivity is relative and
postemergence, from the 1- to 2-leaf can be overcome by increasing dosage
stage onward. It may be tank-mixed and by changes in environmental
with other rice herbicides. conditions. Herbicide label informa-
Oral LD50 , is 2,610 mg/kg. tion should be followed at all times to
prevent severe damage to the rice
crop.
Differences in herbicide
tolerance among rice
cultivars
Rice cultivars may vary in their
tolerance for or susceptibility to
herbicides. Broadleaf herbicides are
expected to have little effect on rice.
The differences in sensitivity to 2,4-D
and MCPA (phenoxy acetic acid
herbicides) that has been observed is
due to differences in the growth stage
of the cultivars at the time of herbicide
application.

72 Weed control handbook
Chapter 6

Weed control in irrigated rice

About 77 million ha of rice (53% of the Weed problems Because nursery areas are small
world’s rice area) are partially or fully The weeds common in transplanted (about 21 × 21 m will provide enough
irrigated throughout the growing rice (Monochoria vaginalis, Echinochloa seedlings for 1 ha rice) and seedling
season (IRRI 1988b). In South and crus-galli, Cyperus difformis, Cyperus establishment takes only 20-25 d,
Southeast Asia, irrigated rice com- iria, and Scirpus maritimus) are in controlling weeds is easy. Propanil,
prises 33% of the rice-growing area; in general highly competitive. They have thiobencarb, butachlor, quinclorac,
temperate Asia, most ricelands are discontinuous germination and rapid bensulfuron, pretilachlor + fenclorim,
irrigated. In Europe, Australia, Egypt, growth and are adapted to aquatic and pendimethalin give good weed
Pakistan, and USA, ricelands are conditions. Weeds grow and infest an control in rice seedling nurseries.
entirely irrigated. irrigated field if optimum water depth Doubling the seed rate, hand
Irrigated rice is classified into four is not maintained. In poorly flooded weeding, or removing large weed
culture groups according to the crop ricefields, most semiaquatic lowland seedlings from rice seedling bundles
establishment technique used. rice weeds can germinate and survive. resulted in less than 50% control of
Transplanted in puddled soil. weeds. Careful examination of each
Direct seeded on puddled soil Stand establishment method plant to ensure that most weeds are
(broadcast or drill seeded using Twenty- to 30-d-old rice seedlings are removed from the seedling bundles is
pregerminated seed). normally transplanted into a puddled laborious, time-consuming, and more
Direct seeded on dry soil (broadcast soil. In the irrigated rice-growing areas expensive than herbicide treatment
or drill seeded using nongermi- of Asia, seedlings are raised in wet (Moody et al 1988).
nated seed. bed, dapog, or dry bed nurseries. In
Water seeded. the wet bed method, pregerminated Land preparation
seeds are broadcast uniformly on a Mechanical land preparation should
Transplanted in raised bed of puddled soil. Seedlings provide a weed-free field to allow
are ready for transplanting 20-25 d optimal early rice growth. The initial
puddled soil after sowing. In the dry bed method, plowing buries weeds and crop
Among irrigated rice cultures, trans- seedlings are grown similarly, but the stubble from the previous crop.
planted rice has the lowest potential soil is not puddled and drainage is Puddling uproots weeds that grow
loss to weeds, because of the head start provided. after plowing and buries them in the
rice seedlings have over weeds and Weeds in rice seedling nurseries can layers of mud. The field is leveled after
because of the weed control effects of cause the complete failure of the puddling to eliminate inadequately
floodwater. Despite these advantages, nursery. Nurseries used to raise rice flooded areas that are ideal for the
uncontrolled weeds can reduce rice seedlings should be kept weed free to growth and development of difficult-
yields by an average 48%, through prevent transplanting grassy look- to-kill semiaquatic weeds.
competition for light and nutrients. alike weeds along with the rice seed-
lings. Transplanted weeds are highly
competitive and extremely difficult to
control by hand weeding or by
selective herbicides.

Irrigated rice 73
Planting method
Transplanting into well-puddled soil
helps rice seedlings to establish
quickly. Healthy 20- to 30-d-old rice
seedlings transplanted in rows in a
well-prepared weed-free field will
have a head start over weeds. Small
rice seedlings are not competitive
against weeds.

Plant population
Most modern early-maturing rices,
which have a short vegetative period
that limits tillering, do best when
transplanted at close spacing. No
single spacing recommendation,
however, is best for all rice cultivars.
In the absence of lodging and weeds,
yields of most varieties do not change
much with planting distances between
25 and 10 cm in rows or hills. Dense 6.1 Single and 2-row cono weeders.
Drawings, design information, and limited
planting increases the competitiveness technical supported are provided free to 6.2 Rice growth stages
of rice against weeds by reducing later manufacturers who want to produce IRRI when herbicides can be
germinating weed seedlings through designs on a commercial basis. IRRI retains applied in transplanted
worldwide distribution and patent rights for irrigated rice. Bars (-)show
shading. Rice should be transplanted all designs developed by the Institute, and periods during which a
in straight rows, to allow mechanical does not grant exclusive manufacturing particular herbicide is
weeders to be used for weeding. rights or licenses in any country or region. applied. *Timing of herbicide
application is based on weed
emergence and growth stage
Water management within the rice growth stage.
Good water management will elimi-
nate all normal upland weeds in trans-
planted irrigated rice. The anaerobic
conditions prevailing in soil under
5 cm of water inhibit most weed
growth. Reductions in water level
expose the soil surface, which leads to
aerobic conditions that allow weed
seed germination. A field should be
flooded 2-3 d after transplanting and a
5-cm water depth should be main-
tained throughout the growing season.

Fertilizer
Rice response to fertilizer nitrogen is
markedly increased by good weed
control, with maximum yields when
weeds are controlled before fertilizer is
applied.

74 Weed control handbook
Hand weeding Table 6.1. Herbicides suitable for use in transplanted irrigated rice.

Hand weeding is the most common Herbicide Rate Comments and source of information
weed control method in irrigated (kg ai/ha)
transplanted rice. The first 6 wk after
Bensulfuron 0.05 Apply 3-5 d after transplanting (DT)
transplanting is the critical time of (IRRI 1986).
weed competition. Two or three timely Bentazon 1.0-2.0 Apply postemergence to control
weedings will provide adequate weed broadleaf weeds and sedges
(IRRI 1979). Drain before application,
control. if necessary to expose weeds.
Weeding by machine is possible Bifenox + 2,4-D 2.0 + 0.5 Apply preemergence to weeds 4 DT
when irrigated rice is transplanted in (IRRI 1981).
Butachlor 1.0-2.0 Apply 3-6 DT. Water depth of 5-10 cm
rows. Hand weeding requires about at application and for 3-5 d after
120 labor-hours per ha. That is (IRRI 1974).
reduced to 30-90 labor-hours when 2,4-D or MCPA 0.8-1.0 Apply 3-4 wk after weeds have emerged
to control sedges, broadleaf weeds,
mechanical weeders are used. The and aquatic weeds. Drain before
conventional single-row rotary application to expose weeds. Reflood
weeders require 80-90 labor-hours, but within 2-3 d after application. Can also
be applied at 4-5 DT, before weeds
they are difficult to push and must be emerge. Granular herbicides can be
moved back and forth for proper broadcast directly into floodwater
operation. (IRRI 1973, 1981).
Molinate 2.0-4.0 For preflood appllcation, flood as
The IRRI cono weeder (Fig. 6.1) soon as possible. For postflood
uproots and buries weeds with conical application, deepen water at
shaped rotors. Forward movement of application to cover weed foliage,
then lower water after 4-6 d. No need to
the weeder creates a horizontal back- incorporate granular formulation
and-forth soil movement in the top (COPR 1976).
3-cm layer, and the cono weeder Oxadiazon 0.5-0.75 Apply 2-8 DT to control annual grasses
and broadleaf weeds. Field should be
weeds satisfactorily in a single pass. flooded 3-5 cm and maintained at that
Power requirements are low because level for 2-5 d after treatment
only a small quantity of soil is moved. (COPR 1976).
Oxyfluorfen 0.15-0.25 Apply 4 DT (IRRI 1979, 1983).
IRRI’s two-row cono weeder can weed Pendimethalin 0.75 Apply 4 DT to control annual grasses
three to four times faster than conven- (IRRI 1979, 1983).
tional single-row rotary weeders. Piperophos + 0.5 Apply 2-5 DT to control annual
dimethametryn grasses, sedges, and broadleaf weeds
Weeds within or close to rice hills (IRRI 1977).
must be hand-pulled. Piperophos + 2,4-D 0.3 + 0.2 Apply 2-8 DT to control annual grasses,
sedges, and broadleaf weeds
(IRRI 1986).
Herbicides Propanil 3.0-4.0 Apply as postemergence spray to
In fields where heavy weed infesta- control several annual grasses and
tions are expected, weed competition broadleaf weeds at the 2- to 3-leaf
stages. Draln flooded fields 24 h
can be prevented by a wide range of before application and reflood 3-5 d
herbicides. Rice herbicides show after treatment. Do not spray organo-
maximum selectivity in transplanted phosphorus and carbamate
insecticides within 14 d after
rice because of differences in growth appllcation (COPR 1976).
between rice seedlings transplanted at Quinclorac 0.3 Apply 3-5 DT (IRRI 1986).
the 3- to 6-leaf stage and the germinat- Thiobencarb 1.5-4.0 Apply 4-8 DT at the 1- to 2-leaf stages of
weeds. Water should not be drained
ing weeds. Several herbicides and or overflowed for 3-5 d after
herbicide combinations can be used in appltcation (IRRI 1971).
transplanted rice. Applying a pre- Thiobencarb + 2,4-D 1.0 + 0.5 Apply 4-5 DT (IRRI 1971).
emergence herbicide together with
effective water management will
provide season-long weed control.
Some important rice herbicides and
their times of application in irrigated
rice are given in Table 6.1 and
Figure 6.2.

Irrigated rice 75
Direct seeded on Land preparation Water management
Thorough land preparation is essential Good water management is an impor-
puddled soil in direct seeded flooded rice. Land tant factor in weed control in direct
In direct seeded irrigated rice culture, preparation is similar to that for trans- seeded flooded rice. Seeds are broad-
the field is leveled after puddling and planted flooded rice. However, the cast onto puddled soil with little or no
pregerminated seeds are broadcast or final leveling of the field is even more standing water. The water level is
machine-drilled onto the puddled soil. critical than for transplanted rice increased gradually as the rice grows.
Direct seeding, also known as wet because the water level in direct Because the field cannot be flooded
seeding, is practiced in parts of India, seeded fields is kept shallow. An until seedlings are established, some
Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka and has uneven land surface results in areas weeds will grow along with the rice.
become an increasingly important rice where the soil surface is exposed to air. After rice establishment, the water
crop establishment method in South- That creates an ideal condition for level should be raised as rapidly as
east Asia. Broadcast seeded flooded weed germination and growth. Rice possible without damaging the young
rice is also practiced in several rainfed stands in areas that have deeper rice seedlings, then kept uniform and
areas in South and Southeast Asia flooding will be reduced. continuous. Weed emergence and the
(De Datta and Flinn 1986). type of weeds that emerge are closely
Direct seeding has become an Planting method related to floodwater depth. Shallow
acceptable alternative to transplanting Rice seeds are pregerminated (soaked (less than 2.5 cm), continuous flooding
as labor costs have increased, less in water for 24 h, then incubated for facilitates weed growth.
expensive herbicides have become 48 h) before they are sown in the field. For preemergence herbicide appli-
available, and irrigated area has This assures a quick and even stand. cation in direct seeded flooded rice,
increased. However, root anchorage is Pregerminated rice seeds may be the following water management is
poor, and lodging can be more serious broadcast or machine drilled. Mechan- suggested.
in direct seeded than in transplanted ical weeding is possible when seeds Keep the field saturated from
rice. are drilled in rows. sowing to herbicide application. If
the soil dries within this period, add
Weed problems Cultivar enough water to resaturate the
Uncontrolled weeds in direct seeded The cultivar used should have excel- plots.
flooded rice can reduce yields about lent seedling vigor and good tillering Flood the field to 2-3 cm deep and
53%. The culture requires shallow capacity. IRRI and national programs apply herbicide directly into the
flooding, which results in more have released several such rices. water.
exposed soil areas and aerobic condi- Raise water depth to 5 cm 1 wk
tions. Because rice and weeds germi- Plant population after herbicide application and
nate and emerge together, competition Close spacing is essential to reduce maintain that depth until 1 wk
is more intense than in transplanted weed infestation and for high grain before harvest.
rice. The range of herbicides that can yields. In wet seeded rice, less weed
be used safely is also limited, because competition has been observed with Fertilizer
rice and the weeds are at the same seeding rates of 100 kg/ha and higher. High fertilizer application to increase
development stages. Where weeds are not a problem, no yields of modern improved rice
Lowland weeds such as E. crus-gall, rice grain yield advantage has been cultivars enhances weed growth.
Ischaemum rugosum, Leptochloa observed at these seeding rates. Incorporating N into the seedbed at
chinensis, Cyperus difformis, Fimbristylis 5-10 cm reduces N losses and at the
miliacea, and Scirpus maritimus are same time reduces the availability of N
adapted to the wet conditions of direct to weed seedlings that germinate near
seeded flooded rice. the soil surface.

76 Weed control handbook
6.3 Rice growth stages when Hand weeding Herbicides
herbicides can be applied in wet-
The first 6 wk after seeding is the Because hand weeding is difficult in
seeded irrigated rice. Bars (—) show
periods during which a particular critical period of weed competition in direct seeded flooded rice, chemical
herbicide is applied. *Timing of direct seeded flooded rice. Hand weed control combined with other
herbicide application is based on
weed emergence and growth stage
weeding in drill seeded and hand cultural practices (such as water
within the rice growth stage. pulling in broadcast seeded rice control) is an alternative that may be
should be done early, although it may practiced to reduce weed competition,
be difficult to distinguish grassy weed crop losses, and labor costs. Several
seedlings from rice seedlings at such herbicides offer effective weed control,
an early stage. Two to three hand but because weeds and rice germinate
weedings are sufficient to prevent at the same time, the number of herbi-
yield losses due to weeds. The first cides that can be used safely may be
weeding can be done within 3 wk after limited. In the tropics, butachlor,
seeding. Weeding will take less time if thiobencarb, butralin, and propanil
rice seeds are sown in rows rather than effectively control weeds and have
broadcast. The use of row weeders in been widely tested in direct seeded
broadcast seeded fields is limited flooded rice.
because of the random distribution of
seedlings (see figure 6.1, p. 74 for
information on row weeders).

Irrigated rice 77
Table 6.2. Herbicides suitable for use in irrigated rice direct seeded on puddled soil.
Rate
Direct seeded on
Herbicide
(kg ai/ha)
Comments and source of information
dry soil
Bensulfuron 0.05 Apply 6-8 d after seeding (DAS) Dry seeded irrigated rice culture is
(IRRI 1985).
Bentazon 2.0 Apply postemergence to control practiced in Africa, Australia, Europe,
broadleaf weeds and sedges, and the USA. Nongerminated seeds
including S. maritimus. Water level are broadcast or drill seeded in dry or
must be lowered for good coverage.
Annual weeds must be small—2- to moist soil. Broadcast seeds are covered
7-leaf stages (IRRI 1984). by harrowing. More seeds are required
Bifenox + 2,4-D 2.0 + 0.6 Apply at early postemergence of for broadcast than for drill seeding,
weeds, about 4-6 DAS (IRRI 1981).
Butachlor 0.75 Apply 6 DAS to control annual grasses and stand establishment is poorer with
and sedges. Soil should be saturated broadcast seeding than with drill
at application and remain nonflooded seeding.
for 3 d after application (IRRI 1983).
Granular butachlor applied 3 DAS
gives better weed control, less stand Weed problems
reduction, and higher yields than when After broadcast or drill seeding rice
applied 6 DAS (IRRI 1986).
Butralin 2.0 Apply 2-3 DAS to control annual into dry soil, the field is irrigated just
grasses (COPR 1976). enough to provide the soil moisture
2,4-D or MCPA 0.5-1.0 Apply 3-4 wk after seeding to control that allows the seeds to germinate.
annual broadleaf weeds and sedges.
Lower water level to expose weeds Flooding the soil would prevent rice
before spraying and reflood within a seedling emergence. Thus, aerobic
few days (COPR 1976). conditions remain ideal for the germi-
Molinate 3.0 Apply 6-7 DAS. Raise water level after
application (IRRI 1977). nation of upland and aquatic weeds,
Oxadiazon 0.75-1.0 Apply preemergence 4-6 DAS. Soil and weed problems are much worse in
must remain moist after application to dry seeded irrigated than in wet
maintain herbicide activity (IRRI 1985).
Oxyfluorfen 0.15-0.25 Apply 3-6 DAS (IRRI 1978, 1982).
seeded rice. Because the water level is
Pendimethalin 0.75-2.0 Apply up to 6 DAS (IRRI 1975, 1982). increased gradually, it is 2-6 wk before
Piperophos + dimethametryn 0.4 + 0.1 Apply 4-6 DAS (IRRI 1977). a continuous flood at 5 cm depth can
Piperophos + 2,4-D 0.3 + 0.2 Apply 6-8 DAS (IRRI 1987).
Pretilachlor + antidote 0.3-0.4 Apply 3 DAS (IRRI 1987). be achieved. Many well-established
Propanil 3.0-4.0 Apply postemergence to control grass upland weeds will survive, making
and broadleaf weeds at the 2- to 5-leaf weed competition more intense in
stages (about 10 DAS). Water level
should be lowered before application
this rice culture than in the cultures
and the field reflooded as soon as described earlier. The fact that rice and
possible (IRRI 1980). weeds germinate together restricts the
Quinclorac 0.3 Apply 6-8 DAS (IRRI 1986).
Thiobencarb 1.5-2.0 Apply about 6 DAS, when grasses have
number of herbicides that can be
1-2 leaves but before the 3-leaf stage of used safely.
grasses and sedges. Keep water low
enough to avoid submerging the rice
plants (IRRI 1972).
Land preparation
Thiobencarb + 2,4-D 1.0 + 0.5 Apply 6-8 DAS (IRRI 1986). Land preparation should provide
weed-free conditions at planting and
favorable conditions for rice growth
Herbicides can be soil-incorporated and development. Land preparation
before sowing rice, applied preemer- and leveling should be thorough
gence to water a few days after sow- because large soil clods will reduce
ing, or applied postemergence before germination of rice seedlings and
weeds reach the 3- to 4-leaf stage. cause irregularity in herbicidal
Table 6.2 and Figure 6.3 outline efficacy. As clods melt down, the
various herbicides and their applica- inner, unexposed soil will allow weeds
tion times for this rice culture. to germinate.

78 Weed control handbook
Reducing weeds in dry seeded rice Table 6.3 Herbicides suitable for use in broadcast or drill seeded, dry-sown irrigated rice.

culture is possible by practicing a stale Rate
seedbed. After land preparation, Herbicide (kg ai/ha) Comments and source of information
weeds are allowed to emerge follow-
ing rain or irrigation, then destroyed Bentazon 2.0 Apply as a postemergence herbicide
by shallow cultivation or application to control broadleaf weeds and
of a nonresidual contact herbicide. The sedges. Apply when weeds have
germinated but are still small. Water
herbicide should be applied or cultiva- level may be lowered to expose weeds
tion done when most of the weeds 24 h. Raise water level after treatment
have reached the 2- to 5-leaf stage. Rice (COPR 1976).
Butachlor 1.5-2.0 Apply as preemergence spray 0-3 d
is then seeded into the weed-free field. after sowing (DAS) to control annual
grasses and sedges (IRRI 1977).
Planting method Butralin 2.0 Apply as preemergence spray 2-3 DAS
to control annual grasses (IRRI 1977).
Rice seeds are broadcast seeded into 2,4-D or MCPA 0.5-1.0 Apply 3-4 wk after seeding to control
dry or moist soil and covered by annual broadleaf weeds and sedges
harrowing, or drilled 3-5 cm deep into (COPR 1976).
Molinate 3.0-5.0 Apply from presowing to early post-
the soil. High seeding rates can sup- emergence to control grassy weeds
press weeds, but the cost of seeds (Smith 1971).
should be considered against other Oxadiazon 0.75-1.0 Preemergence application should be
2-3 DAS (IRRI 1977).
direct control measures available Pendimethalin 2.0 Apply at preemergence of rice
because there is no yield advantage in (IRRI 1977).
increasing seed rates above 100 kg/ha. Piperophos + 0.75-1.25 Apply early postemergence to control
dimethametryn annual weeds (Green and Ebner
1972).
Cultivar Propanil 3.0-4.0 Apply postemergence at the 2- to 3-leaf
stages to control grasses and broad-
Both short- and intermediate-statured
leaf weeds (COPR 1976).
cultivars are used for rice broadcast or Thiobencarb 3.0 Apply preemergence immediately
drilled into dry soil. For broadcast after covering the seeds with soil but
seeded rice, the cultivar used should before the first irrigation or ram.
Irrigate 3-5 d after application
be stiff-strawed to avoid severe (IRRI 1979).
lodging.

Water management
Good water management is important Hand weeding Herbicides
in controlling weeds in broadcast or Interrow mechanical weeding is not The effects of herbicides are similar for
drill seeded flooded rice. After dry possible in broadcast seeded rice. Even broadcast seeded or drilled dry-sown
seeding, the soil may be intermittently when seeds are drilled, the interrow rice and wet-sown flooded rice.
flooded and drained to allow for rice spacing is so narrow that only hand or Because of water management prob-
emergence. The water level is then hoe weeding is possible. In this rice lems and difficulties in hand weeding,
increased gradually for a few weeks culture, two to three-timely hand herbicides are particularly important
until a continuous flood of 5-cm depth weedings are sufficient to ensure in this rice culture. Covering the seeds
is maintained. optimum yields. The soil disturbance with soil after drill or broadcast
involved, however, can cause as much seeding increases the tolerance of rice
damage to rice as to weeds. The first for herbicides but decreases a rice
weeding may be done between 14 and seedling’s flooding tolerance.
21 d, depending on weed growth, Butachlor, molinate, oxadiazon,
followed by subsequent weedings propanil, and thiobencarb are used as
when necessary.

Irrigated rice 79
6.4 Rice growth stages when
herbicides can be applied in dry-seeded Water seeded Weed problems
irrigated rice. Bars (–) show periods Many weeds and rice will germinate
during which a particular herbicide is Water seeding of rice is practiced in through either soil or water, but not
applied. *Timing of herbicide
application is based on weed
several parts of Asia, including India, through both. Water seeding takes
emergence and growth stage within Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and Thailand. advantage of that by establishing an
the rice growth stage. It is widely practiced in the USA, early water covering to suppress
southern Europe, USSR, and Australia. weeds. Continuous flooding in water
preplant, preemergence, postemer- Pregerminated rice is broadcast seeded rice culture, however, encour-
gence, or postflood treatment. directly onto the flooded field. The ages aquatic weeds. Where continuous
Propanil is widely used as a rice, which is seeded into water 7-10 flooding is not maintained, many
postemergence herbicide, either in cm deep, sinks to the soil, germinates, semiaquatic weeds typical of
addition to or in place of a preemer- and emerges from the water. The field discontinuously flooded, dry seeded
gence treatment. Preplanting herbi- remains flooded at a depth of 7-10 cm fields can be found in water seeded
cidal treatments, such as with until a few weeks before maturity. In ricefields. Under such conditions.
glyphosate, may also control perennial the USA, seeding into continuously E. crus-galli, Lepfochloa sp.,
weeds. Table 6.3 and Figure 6.4 outline flooded fields began in the 1930s as a Aeschynomene virginica, and Sesbania
the common herbicides and their times cultural method to control E. crus-galli exaltata are weed problems.
of application for this culture. and later as part of a program to
control red rice.

80 Weed control handbook
Land preparation Water management 6.5 Rice growth stages when
herbicides can be applied in water-
For better and more uniform stands of Appropriate water management is the seeded irrigated rice. Bars (—) show
water seeded rice, the seedbed should most important factor in successful periods during which a particular
be rough or grooved to help anchor weed control in water seeded rice. The herbicide is applied. *Timing of herbicide
application is based on weed emergence
rice seeds and seedlings. Large soil management of floodwater affects the and growth stage within the rice growth
clods that remain exposed above the density, vigor, and uniformity of rice stage.
water level allow the growth and sur- stands, the severity of weed competi-
vival of grass weeds. Land leveling tion, and the effectiveness of herbi- absolutely necessary, such as when
eliminates the high spots on the cides. Weeds are a problem when they weeds requiring contact herbicides
seedbed that favor weed growth, and germinate in moist soil after land need to be treated.
is especially important if a shallow preparation and grow before flooding Exposure of the soil to air, if it lasts
water depth is to be maintained for and rice planting. long enough to allow E. crus-galli
growing modern, semidwarf, rice Flooding to 7-10 cm deep early in seedlings to develop secondary roots,
cultivars. the season will provide partial weed reduces the effectiveness of most
control. Timely, rapid drainage and herbicides. Sedges and broadleaf
Plant population reflooding will encourage rice stands weeds are favored by shallow water or
To compete with weeds, a rice crop and help control aquatic weeds with- when the field is drained.
density of 150-200 plants/m2 at out supporting the growth of
the 3- to 4-leaf stage is desirable. semiaquatic weeds. It is important that
some parts of the rice plant be above
the water surface by at least the 4-leaf
stage, and fields must be kept flooded
through the heading stage. The water
should be drained only when

Irrigated rice 81
Fertilizer Table 6.4. Herbicides suitable for use in water seeded irrigated rice.

Incorporating N and P fertilizers to
5- to 10-cm soil depth reduces their Rate
Herbicide Comments and source of information
(kg ai/ha)
availability to weed seedlings that
germinate near the soil surface. Fertil- Bentazon 2.0 Apply as a postemergence. Weed
izer so applied remains available to foliage must be exposed during
rice plants throughout the season if a application, but avoid draining field
completely (UC 1983).
7- to 10-cm flood is maintained. If the 2,4-D or MCPA 0.5-1.0 Apply as postemergence. Lower
field is drained and air reaches the N, water level to expose foliage of small
it will change form and be rapidly lost weeds, but do not allow soil to dry
(UC 1983).
into the air. If N is applied to flood Endothal 1.0-6.0 Apply as postemergence 25-60 d after
water early in the season, 50% or more sowing to control water weeds. Do not
of it will be rapidly lost. Topdressed N apply before rice has emerged above
water surface. Do not draw water for
and P applications into water also 3-5 d after application. Do not apply
encourage weed growth. Weeds must after rice starts heading (UC 1983,
be controlled before topdressing with California Weed Conference 1985).
Molinate 3.0-5.0 Incorporate preplanting or preflood.
any fertilizer. Postflood application can be pre-
emergence or postemergence. For
Hand weeding postflood applicattons, raise water
depth to cover all weeds. Lower water
Avoiding weed competition is impor- level 4-6 d later (UC 1983).
tant during the first 30 d or so after Propanil 3.0-4.0 Apply postemergence. Lower water
water seeding of rice. Early weed level to expose weed foliage. Raise
water level after application (UC 1983).
removal, when the rice is still at the Thiobencarb 1.5 Apply postemergence at the 2-leaf
early vegetative phase, is desirable to stage of rice. Do not expose soil
maximize yields. One to two hand surface after application (IRRI 1986).
weedings at 3 wk and at about 6-7 wk
after seeding will give adequate
control. Again, as in broadcast or dry
seeded flooded rice, mechanical
methods are difficult to use.

Herbicides
Use of herbicides is essential to
increase the efficiency of other crop
management practices to control
weeds. Because water seeded rice is
grown under continuous flooding, the
ideal times of herbicide application are
preflood, preplanting; postplanting
into the water; and postplanting, post-
emergence above the water.
For foliar-applied herbicides such
as MCPA, bentazon, and propanil, the
weed foliage must be exposed to the
herbicide. The water level may have to
be decreased for 24-48 h to avoid
washing the herbicide off the leaf, to
allow sufficient uptake of the herbi-
cide. The water level should then be
reestablished. Common herbicides of
importance in water seeded rice are
listed in Table 6.4. Time of application
is indicated in Figure 6.5.

82 Weed control handbook
Chapter 7

Weed control in
rainfed lowland rice

Rainfed lowland rice is grown on between field capacity and satura- Weed problems
about 23% of the world’s rice area tion. When there is no rainfall, Because the amount and distribution
(IRRI 1988b). It accounts for about however, moisture content may drop of rainfall for growing rainfed low-
45% of the rice area in South and below field capacity. With excessive land rice are uncertain, fields may not
Southeast Asia, 22% in Africa, and rainfall, deepwater conditions may remain flooded from planting to
6% in Latin America (De Datta 1981). develop. maturity. In Asia, most rainfed low-
In South and Southeast Asia, rainfed Rainfed lowland rice is classified land ricefields change from upland to
lowland rice dominates the area, into three culture groups according to submerged conditions during the
although its importance differs the crop establishment technique monsoon season. Lack of water
among countries. For example, 76% used. control reduces the effectiveness of
of the rice area in Bhutan is rainfed Transplanted in puddled soil. using water as a tool in weed man-
lowland, 69% in Thailand, 56% in Direct seeded on puddled soil agement. Upland, semiaquatic, and
Bangladesh, 56% in Myanmar, 43% in (broadcast or drill seeded using aquatic weeds all present problems.
Philippines, 37% in India, and 17% in pregerminated seed). Conditions favorable for weed germi-
Indonesia (IRRI 1988b). Direct seeded on dry soil (broad- nation and growth, such as exposure
Most of the rainfed lowland rice cast or drill seeded using nonger- of the soil surface (aerobic conditions)
area of Southeast Asia is in major rice minated seed). and high soil moisture, occur for
deltas, such as the Mekong in Viet- extended periods. Once weeds
nam, the Chao Phraya in Thailand, Transplanted in become established, deeper flooding
the Irrawaddy in Myanmar, and the is needed to reduce weed growth
Ganges-Brahmaputra in India and puddled soil substantially (Moody et al 1986).
Bangladesh. Transplanting is the major crop estab- Transplanting gives rice a head start
Rainfed lowland rice is not lishment method for rainfed lowland over weeds, but uncontrolled weeds
irrigated, but the soil is flooded to a rice in most of tropical Asia. can still reduce rice yields as much as
maximum depth of less than 50 cm Primarily grown as a monsoonal 50%.
during a portion of the crop cycle. crop, rainfed lowland rice is known Weed species of importance in this
Water is supplied by frequent rains as kharif in India and as aman in rice culture include Echinochloa spp.,
during the growing season. Soil northeastern India and Bangladesh. lschaemum rugosum, Monochoria
moisture is usually maintained Seedlings raised by a wet bed, dapog, vaginalis, Sphenoclea zeylanica, Cyperus
or dry bed technique are transplanted difformis, Cyperus iria, Fimbristylis
into a puddled soil. miliacea, and Scirpus maritimus.

Rainfed lowland rice 83
Nurseries Table 7.1. Herbicides suitable for use in transplanted rainfed lowland rice.
Seedling nurseries should be kept
weed free to prevent transplanting Herbicide Rate Comments and source of information
(kg ai/ha)
grassy weeds along with rice. Weeds
in the nursery also compete with the Bensulfuron 0.05 Apply 3-5 d after transplanting (DT)
rice seedlings and can cause complete (IRRI 1986).
nursery crop failure. Herbicide such Bentazon 1.0-2.0 Apply postemergence to control
broadleaf weeds and sedges. Weed
as thiobencarb, propanil, oxadiazon, foliage must be exposed at application
and butachlor can be used to control (IRRI 1973).
weeds in the nursery. Butachlor 1.0 Apply 3-6 DT (IRRI 1987).
2,4-D or MCPA 0.5-1.0 Apply 3-4 wk after weed emergence to
control sedges, broadleaf, and aquatic
Land preparation weeds. Lower water level to expose
Mechanical land preparation can foliage of small plants before spraying.
Also may be applied 4-5 DT
provide a weed-free field that is (IRRI 1973).
optimal for early rice growth. The Molinate 2.5-3.0 Apply 4-8 DT.
land should be leveled after puddling Oxadiazon 0.5-0.75 Apply 2-6 DT to control annual grasses
and broadleaf weeds (IRRI 1980).
the soil. Unevenness in the field Oxyfluorfen 0.25 Apply 4 DT (IRRI 1980, 1983, 1988a).
results in areas of inadequate flood- Pendimethalin 0.75 Apply preemergence about 6 DT to
ing. Dikes, to contain and control an control grasses and broadleaf weeds
(IRRI 1980).
undependable water supply, are Piperophos + 0.5 Apply 2-5 DT to control annual grasses,
essential. In India, Sesbania aculeata dimethametryn sedges, and broadleaf weeds
grown during the dry season as a (COPR 1976).
Piperophos + 2,4-D 0.3 + 0.2 Apply 2-8 DT to control grasses,
green manure crop is plowed in sedges, and broadleaf weeds
before transplanting rice (Mukho- (IRRI 1986).
padhyay 1983). This practice results Propanil 3.0-4.0 Apply postemergence to control
several grasses and broadleaf weeds
in less weed infestation in the main at the 2- to 3-leaf stage. Lower water
rice crop. level of flooded fields about 24 h before
application to expose weed foliage
(COPR 1976).
Cultivar Quinclorac 0.3 Apply 3-5 DT (IRRI 1986).
Water depths largely determine the Thiobencarb 3.0 Apply 5-8 DT. Water should be shallow
type of rice grown. In general, mod- at application. Avoid draining or over-
flowing for 3-5 d after herbicide appli-
ern semidwarf cultivars are grown in cation, but do not expose soil surface
shallow rainfed rice-growing areas. after treatment.
In medium-deep rainfed rice-grow- Thiobencarb + 2,4-D 1.0 + 0.5 Apply about 5 DT (IRRI 1983).
ing areas, tall cultivars that are
mostly photoperiod-sensitive are
grown. Water management Fertilizer
Keeping the rainfed lowland field Nitrogen application should be timed
Plant population flooded after transplanting kills some to provide the maximum benefit to
Close spacing, between 10 and 25 cm weeds and reduces the growth of rice but the least benefit to the weeds.
in rows or hills, increases the ability others. In most ricefields, continuous Applying fertilizer to a rice crop with
of rice plants to compete with weeds. flooding to a 5-cm depth is seldom poor weed control could be worse
Rice should be transplanted in achieved because of problems in than applying no fertilizer.
straight rows to allow the use of regulating water depth and drainage.
mechanical weeders. With good land preparation and
good water control, weed problems
will be minimal. Other weed control
methods are necessary when rainfall
is not enough to provide continuous
flooding.

84 Weed control handbook
Direct seeded on
puddled soil
Direct seeding rice on puddled soils
is common in some rainfed areas of
the Asian tropics (Sri Lanka, Bangla-
desh, and Philippines). Pregermi-
nated rice seeds are broadcast onto
puddled fields without much
standing water.

Weed problems
Direct seeded rainfed rice is more
susceptible to weed competition than
is transplanted rainfed rice. Although
soil puddling reduces the weed
problem, uncontrolled weeds still
reduce rice yields about 60%. In some
cases, a puddled lowland field may
be saturated but without any stand-
ing water, because of lack of water
control. The moist, warm, aerobic soil
condition created promotes germina-
tion and rapid growth of many
upland, semiaquatic, and aquatic
weeds which are little affected by
7.1 Rice growth stages when herbicides Herbicides later flooding. Deeper-than-normal
can be applied on rainfed lowland rice flooding is often required to signifi-
The efficiency of herbicides on trans-
transplanted on puddled soil. Bars (—)
show periods when a particular herbicide is planted rainfed lowland rice depends cantly reduce weed growth. Because
applied. *Timing of herbicide application is on water management. If the water in this culture, rice and weeds germi-
based on weed emergence and growth nate at the same time, competition by
stage within the rice growth stages.
depth in the field exceeds 10 cm
during the first week after herbicide weeds is more intense than it is in
application, herbicidal efficacy will be transplanted rice.
Hand weeding reduced due to dilution and leaching. Weeds of importance in this
Hand weeding is the most common Despite water management limita- culture include E. crus-galli and other
weed control method in rainfed tions, however, weeds in rainfed Echinochloa spp., I. rugosum,
lowland transplanted rice. The field lowland rice can be adequately M. vaginalis, S. zeylanica, C. difformis,
should be weed free for 30 d after controlled by herbicides. C. iria, F. miliacea, and Scirpus spp.
transplanting (DT) to prevent yield Herbicides that can be used as an
losses caused by weeds. Two to three alternative or supplement to manual
properly timed hand weedings, the or mechanical weeding include 2,4-D,
first about 21 DT, combined with MCPA, butachlor, thiobencarb,
good water management will ensure propanil, oxadiazon, pendimethalin,
optimum rice yields. Mechanical piperophos, and oxyfluorfen. Table
weeders can be used in rice trans- 7.1 and Figure 7.1 provide informa-
planted in rows, but weeds within tion on available herbicides and
the rows still have to be removed by timing of their application.
hand.

Rainfed lowland rice 85
Land preparation Table 7.2. Herbicides suitable for use in rice direct seeded on puddled soil.
Leveling the puddled soil is critical in
direct seeded rice; poor drainage Herbicide Rate Comments and source of Information
(kg ai/ha)
results in poor germination of rice
seeds. An uneven land surface also Bentazon 2.0 Apply postemergence to control
results in exposed areas which are broadleaf weeds and sedges at the
ideal for germination and growth of 2- to 10-leaf stages. Weed foliage must
be exposed at application (IRRI 1984).
weeds. Bifenox + 2,J-D 2.0 + 0.66 Apply at early postemergence of
weeds (about 6 d after seeding [DAS]).
Planting method Butachlor 1.0 Apply 6-8 DAS to control annual
grasses and sedges. Soil should be
Pregerminated rice seeds are broad- saturated at application (IRRI 1981).
cast or drilled onto puddled soil. Butachlor + 2,4-D 0.75 + 0.6 Apply 6-8 DAS (IRRI 1981).
Pregermination ensures quick growth Butralin 2.0 Apply 4-6 DAS pregerminated rice
(1- to 4-leaf stages) (COPR 1976).
and even, rapid crop establishment. 2,4-D or MCPA 0.5-1.0 Apply 3-4 wk after seeding to control
Hand or mechanical weeding is annual broadleaf weeds and sedges.
enhanced when pregerminated seeds Expose weeds before spraying.
Oxadiazon 0.75-1.0 Apply preemergence 6-8 DAS. Slight
are drilled in rows. phytotoxicity has been observed in rice
seeded on puddled soil (IRRI 1975).
Cultivar Oxyfluorfen 0.10-0.25 Apply 5-10 DAS. May initially be toxic
to rice (IRRI 1981, 1983).
Traditionally, rainfed lowland rice Pendimethalin 0.75-2.0 Apply up to 6 DAS (IRRI 1982).
farmers in tropical Asia depend on Piperophos + 0.4 + 0.1 Apply 4-6 DAS (IRRI 1977).
tall, vigorously tillering plants to dimethametryn
Piperophos + 2,4-D 0.3 + 0.2 Apply 6-8 DAS (IRRI 1977).
provide weed competition. Early- Pretilachlor + antidote 0.3-0.4 Apply 3 DAS (IRRI 1987).
maturing semidwarf rices, such as Propanil 3.0-4.0 Apply postemergence to grassy and
IR28, IR30, and IR36, have been broadleaf weeds at the 2- to 3-leaf
stages (IRRI 1980).
grown successfully when direct Quinclorac 0.3 Apply 6-8 DAS (IRRI 1986).
seeded. Thiobencarb 1.5-2.0 Can be used preemergence or early
postemergence. Postemergence
application should be done after the
Plant population 1- to 2-leaf stage of rice but before the
As in other rice cultures, close spac- 3-leaf stage of grasses and sedges,
ing is essential to minimize weed about 10 DAS (IRRI 1980).
Thiobencarb + 2,4-D 1.0 + 0.5 Apply 6 DAS (IRRI 1980).
infestation. Higher seeding rates are
beneficial when heavy weed infesta-
tions are expected. Seeding rates of
100-200 kg/ha have been used. A Water management Fertilizer
higher seeding rate helps control Good water management often Modern improved cultivars respond
weeds but does not necessarily reduces weed competition and elim- better to nitrogen than do tall tradi-
increase rice grain yield. inates some weeds in direct seeded tional cultivars. Therefore, modern
rainfed lowland fields. Continuous improved cultivars are normally
flooding at 5-cm depth is desirable grown with high fertilizer rates in
but seldom achieved. Puddling order to realize their full yield poten-
enhances water-use efficiency. Water tial. This high fertilization, however,
control can be improved by the use enhances weed growth.
of dikes.

86 Weed control handbook
Direct seeded dry rice culture is
practiced in Africa, South America,
and in parts of tropical Asia. In
Africa, direct seeded rice is grown in
valley bottoms and on hydromorphic
soils—soils on transitional slopes
between upland soils and valley-
bottom soils, with the groundwater
table in the root zone for most of the
growing period. Direct seeded
rainfed lowland rice is known as aus
cropping in northeastern India and
Bangladesh. In Indonesia, it is called
gogorantja (gogorancah).

Weed problems
Among rainfed lowland rice cultures,
weed problems in direct seeded rice
are more intense and wider in range
than those in transplanted or broad-
cast rice where puddling reduces
7.2 Rice growth stages when
herbicides can be applied on wet-seeded dependent on soil moisture condi- weed problems. Rice yield losses
rainfed lowland rice. Bars (—) show tions and is markedly reduced by dry from uncontrolled weeds can be as
periods when a particular herbicide is
or deep flooding conditions immedi- high as 74%. Rice-weed competition
applied. *Timing of herbicide application
is based on weed emergence and growth ately after herbicide application. In for moisture is heavy during the early
stage within the rice growth stage. the tropics, butachlor, thiobencarb, growth stage, when there is no
butralin, and propanil have been standing water. Dry rice seeds germ-
used in direct seeded rice. Table 7.2 inate 3-5 d later than pregerminated
Hand weeding and Figure 7.2 provide herbicide rice seeds. Weeds germinate and
Hand pulling of weeds can be done information for this rice culture. establish faster than rice.
in broadcast or drill seeded rice; The prevailing moist, aerobic
mechanical weeding is feasible only Direct seeded condition for direct seeded rice
when rice is planted in rows. Two to encourages the growth of upland,
three hand weedings at 2-3 wk after on dry soil semiaquatic, and aquatic weeds.
sowing are usually sufficient to Direct seeding on dry soil provides Dominance of any of these weed
ensure optimum yields. an opportunity to increase cropping communities depends on the availa-
intensity in rainfed lowland rice. bility and depth of standing water.
Herbicides Eliminating puddling shortens land Many well-established upland weeds
The use of herbicides for weed use time. In this culture, dry seed is continue to survive under flooding
control has proved effective and sown directly into moist, nonpuddled later in the crop cycle. Lowland
economical in direct seeded rainfed soil at the beginning of the rainy weeds that are important include
lowland rice. Because weeds and rice season. The field may be bunded to E. crus-galli, I. rugosum, L. chinensis,
germinate together, the number of accumulate water as the rainy season C. difformis, F. miliacea, and
herbicides that can be used safely is progresses and the crop may end its S. maritimus.
limited. The efficacy of herbicides is cycle under flooding.

Rainfed lowland rice 87
Land preparation Table 7.3. Herbicides suitable for use in rice direct seeded on dry soil.
Land preparation should be done to
Rate
provide weed-free conditions at Herbicide (kg ai/ha) Comments and source of information
planting. Land leveling is essential to
improve water control. Large soil Bentazon 1.0-2.0 Apply postemergence to control
clods must be broken up so that they broadleaf weeds and sedges at the 2-
do not interfere with rice seedling to 10-leaf stages (IRRI 1984).
Butachlor 2.0 Apply as preemergence spray 0-3 d
emergence. A stale seedbed may be after sowing (DAS) to control annual
practiced, but it gives no advantage if grasses and sedges (IRRI 1988).
planting is delayed until after the Butralin 2.0 Apply preemergence 2-3 DAS to
control annual grasses (IRRI 1978).
start of rains. 2,4-D or MCPA 0.5-1.0 Spray 3-4 wk after seeding to control
annual broadleaf weeds and sedges
Planting method (COPR 1976).
Oxadiazon 0.75-1.0 Apply preemergence 6-8 DAS
For most direct seeded rainfed (IRRI 1978).
lowland rice, common establishment Oxyfluorfen 0.14-0.20 Apply preemergence 3-5 DAS
methods include broadcasting on a (IRRI 1982).
Pendimethalin 0.75-2.0 Apply preemergence (IRRI 1982).
leveled field, broadcasting over Pretilachlor + antidote 0.3-0.4 Apply 3 DAS (IRRI 1987).
shallow furrows and passing a spike- Propanil 2.0-4.0 Apply postemergence at the 2- to 3-leaf
toothed harrow at an angle to concen- stages to control grasses and broad-
leaf weeds. Decrease water level of
trate seed in rows, drilling, and flooded fields 24 h before application
dibbling seeds for uniformly spaced to expose weeds (IRRI 1982).
seedlings in hills. In all planting Quinclorac 0.3 Apply 6-8 DAS (IRRI 1986).
Thiobencarb 3.0 Apply preemergence Immediately
methods, close spacing will increase after covering rice seeds with soil,
the competitive ability of rice against before rains (IRRI 1982).
weeds. Seed rates of 100-150 kg/ha
are often used, with higher seed rates
where weed problems are expected. Fertilizer weeds for nutrients and moisture.
Nitrogen application should be timed The first weeding should be done
Cultivar to prevent weed proliferation and to 15-21 d after seeding. Hand weeding
Early-maturing, drought-tolerant rice obtain maximum benefit from the later than this will reduce rice yields.
cultivars are desirable. fertilizer applied. In direct seeded Mechanical weeders can be used if
rainfed lowland rice, application of seed is drilled or dibbled in straight
Water management fertilizer after thorough weeding rows.
There may be no standing water in gives maximum benefits.
the early crop growth stages of direct Herbicides
seeded rainfed lowland rice. Later, Hand weeding In fields with no standing water,
when water from rains has accumu- Two to three well-timed hand weed- rainfall after herbicide application is
lated, water is an important tool in ings should provide adequate weed needed for preemergence herbicides
suppressing weed growth. However, control. An advantage of early hand to be effective. The persistence of
continuous flooding to a 5-cm depth weeding is that it requires less time. residual preemergence herbicides
is seldom achieved. If weeds establish Early-season hand weeding, espe- under warm, moist, or flooded
because of lack of standing water cially where there is no standing conditions may be too low to provide
early in the season, deep flooding at water, reduces the competition of a weed-free rice crop. Follow-up
10-20 cm is necessary to reduce weed hand weeding or postemergence
growth. Where rainfall is not enough herbicide application may be
to maintain continuous submergence, necessary.
other weed control methods are
essential.

88 Weed control handbook
The use of herbicides has proved Sequential applications of residual 7.3 Rice growth stages when herbicides
can be applied on dry-seeded rainfed
beneficial in direct seeded rainfed preemergence herbicides followed by lowland rice. Bars (—) show periods when
lowland rice, considering the crop’s 2,4-D perform better than do residual a particular herbicide is applied. *Timing of
high labor requirements and herbicides alone. Table 7.3 and herbicide application is based on weed
emergence and growth stage within the
unfavorable weather at weeding Figure 7.3 provide information on the rice growth stage.
time. Herbicide combinations, common herbicides available for
whether as tank mixtures or sequen- direct seeded rainfed lowland rice.
tial sprays, will improve weed
control where the weed spectrum is
too diverse for any one herbicide.
Propanil plus butachlor, thiobencarb,
or pendimethalin applied early pos-
temergence provide good broad-
spectrum control of weeds.

Rainfed lowland rice 89
Chapter 8

Weed control in upland rice

Upland rice, also known as dryland or Upland rice, like all upland crops, is upland weeds include Cyperus rotun-
pluvial rice, is grown on rainfed, planted in moist soil, that, in general, dus, Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica,
naturally well-drained soils. Strictly does not retain moisture beyond field Rottboellia
defined, upland ricefields are not capacity. Water is supplied by rains cochinchinensis, Cynodon dactylon,
bunded and no surface water accumu- during the growing season. Optimum Digitaria sanguinalis, Imperata cylindrica,
lates. temperature, sufficient aeration, and Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina
About 13% (18.8 million ha) of the ideal moisture for weed germination benghalensis, Trianthema portulacastrum,
world's rice area is upland (IRRI and growth exist at planting time. This Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea,
1988b). About 11.9 million ha is in enables weeds to germinate earlier and and Euphorbia hirta.
Asia, 4.5 million ha in Latin America, grow more vigorously than the rice
and 2.2 million ha in Africa. It is the crop. Land preparation
dominant rice culture in Latin America Weed competition is more intense Land preparation for upland rice
and West Africa. in upland rice than in irrigated and varies greatly among regions. In West
Upland rice is grown under a wide rainfed lowland rice because upland Africa, where shifting cultivation is
range of management practices that fields do not have standing water to common, slash-and-burn is practiced
vary from shifting cultivation-as suppress weed growth. Some weeds in with hand tools. In South Asia, upland
practiced in Malaysia, Philippines, upland rice can withstand drought fields are plowed by bullocks and in
Peru, and West Africa-tothe mecha- better than rice because their roots Southeast Asia, by water buffalo.
nized cultivation practiced in Brazil. penetrate deeper into the soil to tap Deep plowing (25 cm or deeper)
Most of the world’s upland rice is moisture. Poor rice germination due to moist soil at the end of the rainy
grown on poor soils in areas with drought results in excessive weed season is recommended for upland
uncertain rainfall by small farmers growth, especially if semidwarf rice grown in the West African savan-
using traditional, low-input techno- varieties are grown. nahs (FAO 1976). Deep plowing and
logy. Because weeds in upland rice subsoiling conserve soil moisture in
germinate throughout the season, the rainy season and enhance root
Weed problems dense weed growth may reoccur after growth and extraction of soil moisture
Weeds rank second to drought stress hand weeding or after the residual from deeper soil layers. It also will
in reducing upland rice grain yields effects of herbicides have worn off. bury weed seeds deep enough to pre-
and quality (Sankaran and De Datta A mixture of annuals and peren- vent them from emerging. Subsequent
1985). Yield losses caused by uncon- nials, and grasses and broadleaf tillage operations must be shallow.
trolled weeds in upland rice are about weeds, intensifies the competitive
96%. effects of weeds in upland rice. C4
weeds, which have higher water-use
efficiency than rice, prevail (Ampong-
Nyarko and De Datta 1989). Common

Upland rice 91
An upland field should be Latin America. Dibbling, or hilling, is Crop rotation is practiced to pre-
harrowed to break up soil clods, but practiced in Africa and Asia by farm- vent the buildup of weeds adapted to
field leveling is not critical. Rice ers using slash-and-burn systems. A upland ricefields, but easy to control in
should be planted as soon as possible pointed stick is used to make holes in other crops. Herbicides that control
following the last harrowing to pro- the soils; 4-8 unsprouted seeds are problem weeds but are toxic to rice
vide rice an even start with the weeds. dropped in and covered with soil. In also can be used on a tolerant crop in
The stale seedbed technique can Latin America, mechanized drilling is the rotation. That will reduce the rice
reduce weed problems in upland rice. becoming increasingly popular. weed problem.
After land preparation, weeds that Row drilling or dibbling in rows
grow are killed at the 2- to 5-leaf stage makes weeding and other manage- Fertilizer
by herbicides or using mechanical ment practices easier. Timely sowing Nitrogen response is high for modern
methods. Germination of most of the and rapid canopy closure minimize short- to medium-statured upland rice
viable weed seeds is essential to the weed growth and ensure good stand cultivars that are resistant to lodging.
success of the stale seedbed technique. establishment. In most soils, split application of N
Under unfavorable conditions for Weed problems in broadcast seeded gives higher grain yield than does
weed seed germination (e.g., dry fields are higher because mechanical single basal application.
soils), no weed control advantage may hand weeding cannot be done, and Applying fertilizer to upland rice,
be achieved. weeding must be delayed because it is however, will reduce grain yield if the
Use of the stale seedbed technique difficult to tell grassy weeds from rice field is not weeded. The first applica-
should not delay rice seeding beyond at early growth stages. tion should be delayed until after
the optimum time. Planting at the weeding. Subsequent topdressings of
optimum time assures more rainfall Cultivar N after weeding will maximize fertil-
from seeding through spikelet filling; Upland rice cultivars with drought izer-use efficiency. The N application
late-planted rice is likely to suffer avoidance (through deep root sys- rate should be reduced in drought-
drought and reduced solar radiation tems) and drought recovery abilities prone areas.
during the reproductive stage, which are preferred. Intermediate-statured Phosphorus deficiency is common
can substantially reduce yields. cultivars with moderate tillering, big in upland rice, especially in Oxisols
Zero tillage can be used to establish panicles, blast resistance, and tolerance and Ultisols in Brazil, West Africa, and
an upland rice crop where no difficult- for iron deficiency and aluminum some parts of South and Southeast
to-control perennial weeds are found toxicity are also desirable. Asia (Gupta and O'Toole 1986). In the
in the fallow vegetation or when Philippines, 18 kg P/ha is recom-
appropriate herbicides are available. Plant population mended for upland rice (PCARR
But zero tillage may not be successful Seeding rate and spacing for upland 1977). Some coarse-textured soils in
under all soil conditions; restricted rice vary with planting method and high-rainfall areas are affected by
root development and reduced grain the rice cultivar used. A high plant potassium deficiency. Applying
yield have been observed (Stone et a1 population is important for upland 33 kg K/ha has been adequate in some
1980). rice to quickly develop a canopy that African countries (IRCN 1982). Zinc,
will suppress weed growth. Seeding iron, and sulfur deficiencies also occur
Planting methods rates vary from 80 to 150 kg/ha, in upland rice. Deficiency of any of
Broadcasting, dibbling, and drilling depending on the seeding method. these nutrients will reduce the vigor of
are the common seeding practices for Row spacing also varies between 20 rice and, hence, its competitiveness
upland rice. Broadcasting is common and 30 cm. Broadcast seeding requires against weeds.
in many countries in Asia, Africa, and more seeds than drilling or dibbling.
Tall leafy cultivars should be planted
at wider spacing than semidwarf culti-
vars. Growing tall cultivars at narrow
spacing increases lodging.

92 Weed control handbook
Hand weeding Two or three well-timed weedings 8.1 Rice growth stages when herbicides
can be applied on upland rice. Bars (—)
The weed-free period required by are enough to meet the weed-free show periods when a particular herbicide is
upland rice is from 10 to 60 d after requirement. Weeding during early applied. *Timing of herbicide application is
seeding (DAS). By and large, keeping weed growth stages requires less labor based on weed emergence and growth
stage within the rice growth stage.
the crop weed free for the first 60 DAS than weeding after weeds have
will give optimum yields. Weeds matured. Wet soil may reduce the
germinate earlier and grow more effectiveness of hoe weeding because
vigorously than upland rice during the most weeds will be merely trans-
first 5 wk after planting. Weeds should planted. Improved mechanical meth-
be removed 15-25 d after planting to ods such as push-type and motorized
obtain good rice yields. weeders may be as effective as hand
weeding in a row-seeded rice crop.
When combined with hand removal of
weeds within the row, these methods
can also save time.

Upland rice 93
Herbicides Table 8.1. Herbicides suitable for use in upland rice.
Chemical weed control in upland rice
is economical and effective under Herbicide
Rate
Comments and source of information
(kg ai/ha)
certain conditions. It may be the only
weed control method feasible for
Bentazon 1.0-2.0 Selective postemergence control of
large-scale rice farms. Herbicides can certain broadleaf weeds and sedges
complement other weed control (IRRI 1982). Does not control grasses.
Apply postemergence when weeds are
methods or can be used in combina-
at the 4- to 10-leaf stages. Delayed
tion with hand weeding to give application allows the weeds to exceed
acceptable weed control. maximum size, resulting in inadequate
For optimum effectiveness of pre- control.
Bifenox 2.0 Apply preemergence from seeding to
emergence herbicides, which require early spikelet stage. Apply to moist
moist or wet soil, timely rains after soils for best results. Bifenox +
application are essential. When resid- propanil can be applied post-
emergence when rice has 2-3 leaves
ual herbicides are applied to soils that and weeds are 2.5 cm high (Akobundu
have remained dry for a long time, 1987).
they give variable results. The persis- Butachlor 2.0 Effective against grasses and broad-
leaf weeds; less effective against
tence of many preemergence herbi- perennial sedges (IRRI 1975).
cides is so short, they cannot control Butralin 2.0 Apply preemergence to control annual
successive flushes of weed seedlings. grasses (IRRI 1976).
2,4-D or MCPA 0.5 Apply as postemergence spray after
This makes follow-up hand weeding tiller initiation, about 21-30 d after
or application of a postemergence seeding (DAS) (Dixit and Singh 1981).
Dinitramine 1.5 Apply preemergence (IRRI 1978).
herbicide necessary.
Fluorodifen 2.5-4.0 Apply 0-3 DAS for residual pre-
Among the preemergence emergence control of annual grasses
herbicides, butachlor, oxadiazon, (De Datta 1972).
dinitramine, pendimethalin, Oxadiazon 0.75-1.5 Apply preemergence 0-2 DAS. Rice
growth depression has been observed
thiobencarb, fluorodifen, and 15-20 d after emergence (IRRI 1975).
piperophos-dimethametryn have been Oxyfluorfen 0.35 Apply preemergence. May be
widely tested. Postemergence herbi- moderately toxic to rice (IRRI 1983).
Pendimethalin 2.0 Apply preemergence or early post-
cides such as propanil and MCPA are emergence,
also effective. Herbicide combinations combined with propanil (IRRI 1975).
are often more effective than a single Excellent for control of Rottboellia
cochinchinensis.
herbicide. Applying a preemergence Piperophos + 1.0-2.0 Apply 4-6 DAS (Dubey et al 1980).
herbicide such as oxadiazon, dimethametryn
Propanil 3.0-6.0 Apply at 2- to 3-leaf stages of grass.
butachlor, or thiobencarb, followed by
High temperatures increase contact
propanil 15-25 d later will provide burn and may injure rice (IRRI 1980).
better weed control than will any of Thiobencarb 3.0 Apply before 2-leaf stage of weeds
and after 1-leaf stage of rice
these herbicides applied alone. Early
(IRRI 1988a).
postemergence application of a poste-
mergence herbicide (eg, propanil)
combined with a residual herbicide,
done at the time the postemergence
herbicide is most effective, has the
advantages of providing season-long
control and saving time and labor by
combining two spraying operations.
Table 8.1 and Figure 8.1 provide
information on common herbicides
that may be used in upland rice.

94 Weed control handbook
Chapter 9

Weed control in deepwater
and floating rice

Deepwater and floating rice constitute that successively compete with the rice seed or transplant deepwater rice,
about 11% of the world’s rice area crop. Weeds adapted to dryland puddling reduces weed infestation.
(IRRI 1988b). They are grown in the compete at early crop stages, die upon Amphibious weeds, such as the
deltas, estuaries, and river valleys of flooding, and are succeeded by aquatic wild rices, Scirpus sp., Sesbania sp., and
Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, weeds. Leersia hexandra, can compete with rice
Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Before flooding, deepwater and under dryland or flooded conditions.
Vietnam. In Africa, deepwater and floating rice may be infested by Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica,
floating rice-growing areas are found Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica, Monochoria vaginalis, and Pistia
in the inland Niger River delta in Mali, Cyperus rotundus, C. iria, and stratiotes are found in deepwater rice
in the Niger River delta, Nigeria, and C. difformis. These weeds also may after flooding has occurred.
in inland swamps. compete with rice during the early Weeds such as the wild rices
stages of flooding. possess flood tolerance and elongation
ability, and grow with rice in rising
Deepwater and floating Deepwater and floating rice may
suffer severe weed infestations during floodwater. Therefore, they are able to
rice cultures the preflood period. Weed problems cause considerable yield losses. Masses
Deepwater rice is grown in areas are often aggravated by poor stand of E. crassipes are usually introduced to
where the maximum depth of stand- establishment due to drought. At the the ricefield by water currents or
ing water exceeds 50 cm for a signifi- preflood stage, weeds reduce growth strong winds. When this occurs, E.
cant period of rice growth. Where and tillering of rice plants and can crassipes can completely smother the
water depth is greater than 100 cm, the reduce grain yield as much as 33% (De rice crop within a few days. In West
culture is referred to as floating rice or Datta and Hoque 1982). Total crop loss Africa, the most troublesome weeds
very deep water rice. Fields are not can occur if flooding is below normal. include E. stagnina and E. pyramidalis,
bunded and flooding usually occurs Minimizing competition from and the wild rices Oryza longistaminata
only during the later part of the grow- weeds at early rice growth stages and O. barthii.
ing season. Rice may grow under largely determines how well deep-
drought conditions for 40-60 d before water and floating rice will tolerate Weed control before
flooding occurs. stresses caused by flooding at later
stages. Aquatic weeds that occur upon flooding
Weed problems flooding are less a problem when The deepwater rice cycle has two
Weeds are a major problem in deep- stand establishment is good and rice distinct phases—before flooding and
water and floating rice because rice tillering is adequate than when early after flooding. Weed control methods
normally is seeded into soils that may weed competition is severe. In small can be described best within these
remain dry for 6-12 wk. Fields may cropping areas where farmers wet phases. Deepwater rice before flooding
also be flash flooded. The dry soil and is treated either as rainfed lowland rice
intermittent flash flooding result in a or as upland rice, using the same weed
broad spectrum of weeds-from control methods.
upland to semiaquatic and aquatic-

Deepwater and floating rice 95
Land preparation Table 9.1. Herbicides suitable for use in deepwater and floating rice.
Land preparation for dry seeded deep-
water and floating rice is similar to Herbicide Rate Comments and source of information
(kg ai/ha)
that for upland rice. At planting, the
seed bed should be weed free. Deep Bentazon 2.0 Selective control of certain broadleaf
plowing and harrowing are recom- weeds and sedges. Does not control
mended in the dry season if rhizo- grasses. Apply postemergence early,
when weeds are at the 4- to 10-leaf
matous perennials are a problem. stages. Delayed application allows
Many deepwater and floating rice soils weeds to exceed maximum size and
have a high clay content, and, the only results in inadequate control (COPR
1976).
time to plow them is often when they Butachlor 1.0-2.0 Effective against grasses and broad-
are dry and very hard. Cultivation leaf weeds. Less effective against
must start early because the crop, perennial sedges (COPR 1976).
Butralin 2.0 Apply preemergence to control annual
which draws first on residual moisture
grasses (COPR 1976).
and moisture from occasional show- 2,4-D or MCPA 0.5 Apply as postemergence spray after
ers, must reach the stage where it can rice tillering, 21-30 d after seeding
(DAS) (COPR 1976).
elongate before flooding starts. The Fluorodifen 2.5-4.0 Apply preemergence 0-3 DAS to
stale seedbed technique can be used to control residual annual grasses
reduce weed problems, particularly (COPR 1976).
Oxadiazon 0.75-1.0 Apply 6-8 d after application
infestation by wild rices. (COPR 1976).
Piperophos + 1.0-2.0 Apply 4-6 DAS (COPR 1976).
Planting method dimethametryn
Propanil 3.0 Apply at 2- to 3-leaf stages of grass
Broadcast seeding rice into dry soil is (IRRI 1980).
common in deepwater and floating Thiobencarb 2.0-4.0 Apply before 2-leaf stage of weeds and
rices. Transplanting or broadcasting after 1-leaf stage of rice (COPR 1976).
pregerminated seeds into puddled soil
is also practiced in some areas. If early
flash floods occur, however, trans- Plant population Fertilizer
planting involves a greater risk of crop Because of poor stand establishment, Deposits of the silt carried by rivers
failure than does broadcast seeding. seeding rates tend to be high- during their annual floods provide
The rice seedling grows as an upland 80-200 kg/ha. The crop produces high fertility for most deepwater and
crop for 4-20 wk before flooding nodal tillers at low plant densities, floating rice soils. The high soil fertility
occurs. As the floodwaters rise, deep- however, and a high seeding rate does improves stand establishment and
water rice plants elongate to as tall as not necessarily increase final grain elongation ability of rice, but weeds
6 m and form a dense mat on the yield. Nevertheless, the high seeding also grow quickly and compete
water surface. rate is a good agronomic practice aggressively for nutrients, moisture,
because a high plant population and light. Weeds must be controlled to
Cultivar allows rice to develop a canopy that maximize the nutrient uptake
Rice cultivars with elongation ability, suppresses weed growth. efficiency of the rice crop.
photoperiod sensitivity, drought toler- Crop rotations can help control or
ance at the seedling stage, and prevent the buildup of difficult-to-
tolerance for stagnant water conditions control weeds. In Bangladesh, farmers
at later growth stages are ideal for on the higher ridges of deepwater rice
deepwater and floating rice. areas grow a crop of jute after one or
more deepwater rice crops. The jute
crop suppresses wild rice and other
weeds.

96 Weed control handbook
Hand weeding Herbicides 9.1 Rice growth stages when herbicides
can be applied on deepwater and floating
Hand weeding is the most effective Most common weeds present before rice. Bars (—) show periods when a
weed control method in deepwater flooding can be controlled by the particular herbicide can be applied. *Timing
and floating rice. Weeding should be herbicides recommended for upland of herbicide application is based on weed
emergence and growth stage within the
done 15-25 d after planting. Two to rice. Butachlor, oxadiazon, rice growth stage.
three hand weedings may be neces- pendimethalin, thiobencarb, pipero-
sary, depending on the time of flood- phos-dimethametryn, and oxyfluorfen
ing. Weeds germinate earlier and grow are effective when applied preemer- used to control O. longistaminata
more vigorously than rice during the gence. Postemergence herbicides such during fallow. Table 9.1 and Figure 9.1
preflood period. Mechanical weeding, as propanil, 2-4D, and MCPA are also provide information on herbicides and
combined with hand weeding for effective in controlling weeds such as their appropriate times of application.
weed removal within the rows, may I. aquatica. Residual herbicides give
be effective when rice is row-seeded. variable results when applied to dry
soils or when flash floods occur soon
after application. Glyphosate can be

Deepwater and floating rice 97
Weed control after
flooding
Weed control after flooding in deep
water and floating rice is mainly done
by hand. Farmers in some areas grow
a strip of Sesbania aculeata or
Aeschynomene aspera along the borders
of deepwater and floating ricefields to
provide a barrier against the entry of
E. crassipes and other weeds into the
fields. Barricades of bamboo poles and
bars are sometimes installed.

Hand weeding
Attempts to weed deepwater and
floating rice from boats-adifficult
task-havebeen made in cases of
severe weed infestation. In Mali,
farmers hand weed after flooding to
minimize competition from
O. longistaminata and O. barthii.
Perennial E. stagnina is also removed
by hand.

Herbicides
Herbicides are effective in deepwater
and floating rice only before flooding.

98 Weed control handbook
Chapter 10

Management of some
difficult weeds in rice

Many weeds can be controlled effec- Cultural control Herbicides
tively only by using a combination of Cultural control of S. maritimus Herbicides effective against
methods. Using only one weed control involves tillage, crop rotation, and S. maritimus in transplanted and direct
method leads to a buildup of weed water management. seeded flooded rice include bentazon,
problems. This chapter gives informa- Depth and type of primary cultiva- fenoxaprop, propanil, 2,4-D, and
tion on how intractable rice weeds can tion greatly affect the S. maritimus bensulfuron. 2,4-D at 0.5 kg ai/ha is
be managed through an integrated population. Shallow cultivation and best applied when S. maritimus has
approach. zero tillage encourage emergence of 6-8 leaves. 2,4-D applied preemergence
tubers retained on the soil surface, does not control the weed, although it
resulting in rapid population buildup. may reduce the stand of annual
Scirpus maritimus Deep plowing buries the tubers and grasses. Bentazon at 1-2 kg ai/ha
Scirpus maritimus, a perennial sedge results in growth of fewer seedlings. should be applied at the 6- to 8-leaf
that spreads by tubers, is widespread The practice of zero tillage leads to stage (about 25 d after sowing [DASI).
in lowland rice in several countries in the buildup of a S. maritimus popula- Bensulfuron at 50 g ai/ ha applied at
Asia, Europe, and temperate climate tion, but minimum tillage can be as 6-8 DAS or DT (2- to 3-leaf stage of the
USA (see page 000). S. maritimus is a effective as conventional tillage in weed) effectively controls S. maritimus
very competitive weed: it produces limiting its growth. The weed persists and annual weeds.
numerous tubers, has fast shoot under continuously wet conditions but
growth, is able to emerge through diminishes dramatically with time Integrated control
fields with standing water, and has under continuously dry conditions. A Integration of all workable weed
rapid nutrient uptake. Season-long year of rotation of an upland crop with control practices can provide effective
competition from S. maritimus can lowland rice will reduce the preva- and economical control of S. maritimus.
reduce rice yields 60-100%. Its tubers lence of S. maritimus. Such integration should begin by
and buds can remain dormant in the creating an environment favorable to
soil, making this weed difficult to Hand weeding rice growth but unfavorable to weed
eradicate. S. maritimus is most Hand weeding is effective in control- growth. This includes using well-
competitive from its early growth ling S. maritimus. The rice crop should adapted, high-yielding rice cultivars;
stages to 80 d after germination. The be kept weed-free for at least the first appropriate fertilizers; good manage-
S. maritimus-free period required in 4 wk. This makes several hand weed- ment; and crop rotation. Weed control
rice is the first 4 wk. ings necessary, because S. maritimus efficiency is improved by integrating
tubers germinate within 5 d after the use of herbicides and hand weed-
harrowing and grow rapidly. ing. The rotational crops used depend
on the region; maize, sorghum, and
soybean are becoming increasingly
important.

Difficult weeds 99
Paspalum distichum Echinochloa species Hand weeding
Hand weeding is effective if done
Paspalum distichum is a creeping peren- The genus Echinochloa, which includes repeatedly, to remove succeeding
nial grass found in lowland ricefields about 50 weed species, includes some flushes of weeds and weeds over-
(see page 22). Its underground growth of the most important rice weeds. The looked earlier due to their similarity to
system consists of adventitious roots most common are E. crus-galli, rice.
and rhizomes. It tends to resist con- E.glabrescens, E.oryzoides,
ventional weed control measures, E. pyramidalis, and E. colona. Herbicides
including the use of herbicides, but is E. crus-galli grows widely in both Several herbicides can selectively
sensitive to shading. temperate and tropical regions (see control Echinochloa spp. This include
page 16). Its world distribution ranges butachlor, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen,
Cultural control from 50° N to 40º S latitude. E. colona pendimethalin, thiobencarb, simetryn,
Thorough land preparation is one way (see page 33) occurs in tropical and molinate, propanil, chlomethoxynil,
of controlling P. distichum. Frequent subtropical regions. E. glabrescens is pretilachlor, and quinclorac. Preemer-
tillage reduces P. distichum problems. found in the Indian subcontinent, gence and early postemergence appli-
Cutting up rhizomes by tillage encour- Southeast Asia, China, and southern cations are most effective because the
ages dormant buds to sprout, deplet- Japan. E. pyramidalis is abundant in the weeds are most susceptible at the
ing the weeds food reserves. For long- floating rice areas of West Africa. seedling stage. Weed resistance to
term control, its rhizome must be E. crus-galli prefers moist conditions herbicides increases with age.
killed. and continues to grow when Butachlor applied preemergence
Because P. distichum is sensitive to submerged; E. colona ceases to grow inhibits the enzyme activity of
shade, closely spaced, vigorous rice when submerged. Echinochloa spp., delays radicle
plants offer better competition against Rice yield losses from season-long emergence, and inhibits emergence of
this weed than do widely spaced competition with Echinochloa spp. can the root and primary leaf. Selectivity
plants. be as high as 90%. Echinochloa spp. are for propanil depends on the different
troublesome in rice because their levels of the hydrolyzing enzyme,
Herbicides ecological requirements are similar: at which is high in rice but low in
P. distichum is resistant to many pre- early growth stages, they resemble Echinochloa spp.
emergence herbicides used on rice. It rice, and they accumulate considerable
is, however, susceptible to glyphosate amounts of nutrients, to the disadvan- Integrated control
applied at 2.0 kg ai/ha and moder- tage of rice. Moreover, these weeds Echinochloa spp. can be managed
ately susceptible to paraquat. A pre- compete with rice for light and effectively through an integrated
plant herbicide, such as glyphosate, moisture. approach. Because the weed is sensi-
used in combination with land prepa- Echinochloa spp. germinate earlier tive to shade, a vigorous rice stand
ration, improves control. Translocation than direct seeded rice. During the (achieved with high planting density
of glyphosate into the rhizomes is best first 3 wk of weed growth, profuse and high fertilizer application),
achieved when the glyphosate is emergence of new leaves and vegeta- combined with hand weeding or with
applied on actively growing tive growth of tillers and adventitious preemergence or early postemergence
P. distichum with maximum leaf area. roots occur. Echinochloa spp. produce herbicide, will lead to early rice
extremely large numbers of seeds, canopy closure. Late-germinating
Integrated control which ensure the weeds dispersal and Echinochloa spp. can be controlled by
Integration of cultural control and reestablishment. herbicides. A 10-20 cm water depth
herbicides will give good control of will generally suppress Echinochloa
P. distichum. Cultural control spp. weeds.
Crop rotation can effectively reduce
Echinochloa spp. populations.

100 Weed control handbook
Wild rices Some of the wild rices are photo-
period sensitive. This influences their
Hand weeding
When crops are planted in rows, the
The important wild rices are Oryza growth duration, with later emerging wild rice between the rows can be
rufipogon Griff., O. nivara Sharma & plants taking less time. Wild rice stalks weeded out easily. In some areas, wild
Shastry, O. longistaminata A. Chev. & are generally weak, resulting in rice is eaten. This not only augments
Roehr., O. barthii A. Chev., O. punctata lodging not only of the weeds but also the food supply but also helps reduce
Kotschy ex Steud., and O. officinalis of the rice around them. the spread of the weed. Wild rice
Wall. ex Watt. These wild rices mostly shatters before cultivated rice
resemble cultivated rice O. sativa. They Cultural control matures, and grains of wild rice must
are adapted to the environment of Using clean rice seed, free of wild rice be harvested before they shatter. Its
cultivated rice, are competitive, and seeds, will prevent the introduction or growth for food should be discour-
have grains that are highly dormant reintroduction of wild rices to non- aged, however.
and shatter easily. infested areas. After rice harvest, fields The perennial rhizomatous deep
O. rufipogon is a problem in areas in should be managed to kill wild rice water wild rice O. longistaminata is
Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, seeds (e.g., straw burning). Early- controlled by underwater mowing of
Guyana, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, season cultivation and harrowing rhizomes twice during the growing
Surinam, Thailand, southern USA, stimulate red rice germination and season.
Venezuela, and West Indies. A peren- may allow the mechanical destruction
nial weed, its mature seed has a long of several flushes of wild rice growth Herbicides
dormancy, shatters easily, and has a before rice or rotational crops are Herbicides commonly used in rice do
pigmented aleurone layer. planted. not selectively control wild rice
O. nivara is an annual weed that High seeding rates of rice reduce because of the similar growth systems.
occurs in drainage ditches and shallow tillering of wild rice. When rice is Molinate at 1-2 kg ai/ha applied pre-
ponds. Its seeds are highly dormant seeded or transplanted in rows, it is planting and incorporated selectively
and shatter easily. easy to differentiate wild rice growing controls the annual wild rices. For best
O. longistaminata (synonym: Oryza between the rows. control, molinate should be combined
perennis Moench) is a serious weed in Crop rotation may reduce infesta- with continuous flooding. Preplanting
most of West Africa. As a rhizomatous tions of wild rices. Wild rice is easy to application of glyphosate at 2-3 kg
perennial grass, it propagates almost control in upland crops. The length of ai/ha also effectively controls wild
exclusively by vegetative multiplica- rotation depends on how severely the rices. For red rice control, thiobencarb
tion of rhizomes, which are produced field is infested with wild rice. Typical is surface-applied preplanting, just
prolifically. It thrives in medium to rotational crops for red rice in south- before bringing on the flood (Rice
deep parts of flooded ricefields and in ern USA are maize, grain sorghum, Journal 1988).
deep parts of poorly irrigated fields. It and soybean. Depending on the
is very competitive and can reduce rice rotational crop, herbicides commonly Integrated control
yields as much as 90%. used include propazine, alachlor, Wild rices are best controlled through
O. barthii is widely distributed in metolachlor, trifluralin, pendi- an integrated approach that includes
Africa. It is an annual weed that methalin, metribuzin, bentazon, and germination prevention, crop rotation,
closely resembles O. glaberrima. atrazine. water management, herbicides, and
Characteristics such as early maturity, Buried seeds of wild rice do not other cultural methods.
shattering before rice maturity, and germinate when the soil is flooded or
seed dormancy make it difficult to water-saturated. However, the peren-
control. nial wild rices O. longistaminata and
O. punctata and O. officinalis are O. rufipogon propagate through bud
both annual weeds. O. punctata is germination of stem cuttings or
native to Africa, O. officinalis origi- rhizomes under such conditions. Dry
nated in Asia. Both have small grains. seeding with delayed flooding results
in a much higher infestation of wild
rice than does seeding on a puddled
field and keeping the soil saturated.
Continuous flooding effectively
controls wild rice.

Difficult weeds 101
Cyperus rotundus Herbicides I. cylindrica produces extensive
Glyphosate applied preplanting is best rhizomes, which readily regenerate. It
C. rotundus, a perennial sedge, is a to control C. rotundus. Other herbicides has a high tillering capacity and
persistent, aggressive weed wherever that can be used are bentazon at 2.0- establishes quickly to cover a large
upland rice is grown. It has been 3.0 kg ai/ha and 2,4-D at 0.5 kg ai/ha area. Tillering is encouraged by
reported to infest fields in tropical applied postemergence, 3 wk after burning, cutting, or grazing.
areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin Amer- seeding. These selectively kill Apart from competing directly with
ica (see page 29). Under intensive C. rotundus, but control is temporary. upland rice for nutrients, moisture,
cultivation, it becomes a serious weed. and light, I. cylindrica limits upland
C. rotundus has an extensive under- Integrated control rice production by reducing the total
ground system of basal bulbs, roots, Management practices, such as apply- land area available for cropping; lands
rhizomes, and tubers, which permit ing adequate fertilizer after weed badly infested by the weed are
rapid and vigorous vegetative propa- control, optimum plant density, and abandoned.
gation. Buds in a tuber and tubers optimum time of planting to avoid
within a chain exhibit apical domi- drought, combined with hand Cultural control
nance. That apical dominance can be weeding or herbicides, will reduce Rhizomes of I. cylindrica are suscep-
broken during cultivation by severing C. rotundus and maximize upland rice tible to partial desiccation even in the
any tuber from the chain. This stimu- yields. wet season. Effective control is
lates dormant tubers to sprout. Combinations of tillage and obtained when the weed is frag-
C. rotundus germinates before, or chemical methods have proven more mented by plowing to depths of
simultaneously with, upland rice and effective in controlling C. rotundus 15-20 cm at the beginning of the dry
competes for nutrients and moisture, than tillage or herbicides alone. In an season, when the fragments have time
causing yield reductions as high as integrated control scheme, C. rotundus to dry before the onset of rain. This
50%. is allowed to grow as long as possible dry season plowing should be
(at least 3-4 wk) after plowing and repeated every year until I. cylindrica is
Cultural control harrowing have stimulated dormant controlled. Tractor-drawn implements
Adequate fertilizer, optimum plant buds to sprout. Then, systemic are needed for adequate plowing. The
density, and optimum time of planting herbicides, such as glyphosate, that economics of repeated plowing need
are good cultural practices for have no residual soil activity are to be examined.
managing C. rotundus. applied. Rice is planted within a week
without further land preparation. This Hand weeding
Hand weeding will provide season-long control of Hand weeding has to be done at
C. rotundus emerges with the rice crop C. rotundus and, if continued over frequent intervals for good control of
and outgrows it during the early several seasons, may eliminate the I.cylindrica.
growth stages. Because of the rapid weed altogether.
regeneration of C. rotundus, hand
weeding has to be done at frequent
intervals to effectively prevent the lmperata cylindrica
smothering of rice by the weed. Hand Imperata cylindrica, a perennial
weeding should continue until the rice rhizomatous grass, is a major weed in
canopy closes-whenshade will tropical Africa, Australia, South Asia,
suppress C. rotundus growth. South America, and the Pacific islands
(see page 35). It grows under a wide
range of ecological conditions ranging
from long dry spells to waterlogging.

102 Weed control handbook
Herbicides Cultural control
For effective control of I. cylindrica, a Rotate upland rice with broadleaf
herbicide that is translocated to the crops in which R. conchinchinensis is
underground rhizomes to destroy all easy to control. This prevents buildup
viable buds is best. Application of of the weed.
glyphosate preplanting gives good
control. A mixture of glufosinate at Hand weeding
1.0 kg ai/ha and imazapyr at Two to three well-timed hand weed-
0.25 kg ai/ha has been reported to give ings of R. cochinchinensis will give
better and more lasting control than maximum rice yield.
glyphosate in plantation crops. Both
should be applied to actively growing Herbicides
plants with mature leaves. Glyphosate Many residual herbicides that control
has no residual activity. R. cochinchinensis are not selective in
rice. Pendimethalin at 1.5-2.0 kg ai/ha
Integrated control is the best herbicide for control in
A combination of cultural and herbi- upland rice. Pendimethalin will not
cide methods will effectively control control weeds that have germinated
I. cylindrica. before herbicide application.

Rottboellia Integrated control
R. cochinchinensis is shade-intolerant
cochinchinensis and susceptible to competition by the
Rottboellia cochinchinensis is an annual rice crop. Use of N fertilizer; high rice
grass that reproduces by seeds. It is plant density; and tall, fast-growing
very competitive in upland rice (see rice cultivars will give early canopy
page 36) because it grows taller than closure and suppress weed emergence.
the rice and completely shades it. Crop rotation combined with herbi-
Complete rice yield loss is common. cides and hand roguing reduces weed
Although R. cochinchinensis prefers populations and gives maximum rice
moist, well-drained soil, it possesses yields.
considerable drought tolerance. It
cannot tolerate submergence.
R. cochinchinensis has increased in im-
portance because it is tolerant of many
herbicides. Most rice herbicides that
selectively control this weed do not
have long enough persistence to
prevent succeeding flushes from
germinating.

Difficult weeds 103
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IRRI-InternationalRice Research Institute Great Britain. 380 p. A world compendium. British Crop
(1989) Annual report for 1988. Los Oudejans J H (1982) Agro-pesticides: Their Protection Council, ed. The Lavenham
Baños, Philippines. management and application. United Press Ltd., Lavenham, Sutfolk, Great
Kranz J, Schmutterer H, Koch W (1977) Nations Economic and Social Commis- Britain. 1081 p.
Diseases, pests and weeds in tropical sion for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Yaron B, Gerstl Z, Spencer W F (1985)
crops. Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin and Thailand. 205 p. Behavior of herbicides in irrigated soils.
Hamburg. 666 p. Patterson D T (1985) Comparative eco- Pages 121-212 in Advances in soil
Matthews G A (1979) Pesticide application physiology of weeds. Pages 101-132 in science. Vol. 3. B. A. Stewart, ed.
methods. London. Longman. Weed physiology: reproduction and Springer-Verlag, New York, USA.
ecophysiology. S. O. Duke, ed. CRC
Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida.

References 105
Appendices

A. Useful conversions

Weights
1 gram = 0.03527 ounces
1 ounce = 28.4 grams
1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds
1 pound = 454 grams (0.454 kilogram)
1 metric ton = 2,204.6 pounds (1,000 kilograms)

Area
1 acre = 4,840 sq yards = 43,560 sq feet = 0.405 hectare = 4,050 sq meters
1 hectare = 2.41 acres

Volume
1 gallon (Imperial) = 4.546 liters
1 gallon (Imperial) = 1.2 U.S. gallons
1 gallon (U.S.) = 3.785 liters
1 fluid ounce = 28.4 milliliters
1 liter = 0.22 gallons = 1.76 pints

Measurements
1 inch = 2.54 centimeters
1 foot = 0.305 meter
1 yard = 0.914 meter
1 mile = 1.609 kilometers
1 centimeter = 0.394 inch
1 meter = 3.281 feet
1 meter = 1.094 yards
1 kilometer = 0.621 mile
1 kilopascal (kpa) = 0.145 pound per square inch (psi)

Quick conversions
1 liter/hectare = 0.089 gallon/acre
1 kilogram/hectare = 0.892 pound/acre
1 kilogram/liter = 8.33 pounds/gallon

B. Conversion table for liquid formulations

Desired Percent concentration of active ingredient in formulation
active
ingredients 100 90 80 75 70 60 50 40 30 25 20
(in kg/ha) (liters of formulation needed to spray 1 ha)

1.0 1.0 1.11 1.25 1.33 1.45 1.66 2.0 2.5 3.33 4.0 5.0
1.5 1.5 1.66 1.87 2.0 2.18 2.49 3.0 3.75 5.0 6.0 7.5
2.0 2.0 2.22 2.5 2.66 2.9 3.32 4.0a 5.0 6.60 8.0 10.0
2.5 2.5 2.78 3.13 3.33 3.63 4.15 5.0 6.25 8.33 10.0 12.5
3.0 3.0 3.33 3.75 4.0 4.35 4.98 6.0 7.5 9.99 12.0 15.0
3.5 3.5 3.89 4.38 4.66 5.08 5.81 7.0 8.75 11.66 14.0 17.5
4.0 4.0 4.44 5.0 5.32 5.80 6.64 8.0 10.0 13.32 16.0 20.0
4.5 4.5 5.0 5.63 6.0 6.53 7.5 9.0 11.25 15.0 18.0 22.5
5.0 5.0 5.55 6.25 6.67 7.14 8.33 10.0 12.5 16.67 20.0 25.0
5.5 5.5 6.11 6.88 7.32 8.0 9.13 11.0 13.75 18.32 22.0 27.5
6.0 6.0 6.66 7.5 7.98 8.7 7.96 12.0 15.0 10.0 24.0 30.0
a For example, to apply 2.0 kg ai/ha using a formulation containing 50% active ingredient, use 4.0 liters of the formulated product.

Appendices 107
B. Conversion table for granular formulations

Desired Percent concentration of active ingredient in formulation
active
ingredients 20 15 10 7.5 5 4 3 2 1
(in kg/ha) (kg of formulation required to spray 1 ha)

0.5 2.5 3.33 5.0 6.67 10.0 12.5 16.67 25.0 50.0
1.0 5.0 6.67 10.0 13.3 20.0 25.0 33.3 50.0 100.0
1.5 7.5 10.0 15.0 20.0 30.0 37.5 50.0 75.0 150.0
2.0 10.0 13.3 20.0 26.6 40.0a 50 66.7 100.0 200.0
2.5 12.5 16.6 25.0 33.3 50 62.5 83.3 125.0 250.0
3.0 15.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 60 75.0 100.0 150.0 300.0
3.5 17.5 23.3 35.0 46.6 70 87.5 116.7 175.0 350.0
4.0 20.0 26.6 40.0 53.3 80 100.0 133.3 200.0 400.0
4.5 22.5 30.0 45.0 60.0 90 112.5 150.0 225.0 450.0
5.0 25.0 33.3 50.0 66.6 100 125.0 166.7 250.0 500.0
5.5 27.5 36.3 55.0 73.3 110 137.5 183.3 275.0 550.0
6.0 30.0 40.0 60.0 80 120 150.0 200.0 300.0 600.0
a For example, to apply 2.0 kg ai/ha using granules containing 5% active ingredient, use 40 kg offormulated product.

C. Common and chemical names of herbicides
Chemical names of herbicides vary, depending on the standard adopted. The common standards are
CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS (CA) and International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). When
possible. this handbook used CA (which is also followed by the Weed Science Society of America).

Common name Chemical name

Bentazon 3-(1-methylethyl)-(l H)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3 H)-one 2,2-dioxide
Bensulfuron (methyl 2-[[(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl) aminocarbonyl]
aminosulfonylmethyl] benzoate)
Bifenox methyl 5-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-2-nitrobenzoate
Butachlor N-(buthoxymethyl)-2-chloro- N-(2,6-diethylphenyl) acetamide
Butralin 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-N-(1-methyl propyl)-2, 6-dinitrobenzenamine
Chlometoxynil 2,4-dichlorphenyl 3-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl-ether
Cinmethylin exo-1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-2-[(2-methylphenyl)
methoxy]-7-oxabicyclo [2.2.1] heptane
2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid
Dimethametryn 2-(1,2-dimethylpropylamino)-4-ethylamino-6-methylthio- 1,3,5-triazlne
Fenoxaprop (±)-2-[4-[(6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyl)oxy]phenoxy] propanoic acid
Fluorodifen 4-nitrophenyl 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl ether
Glufosinate DL-homoalanin-4-yl (methyl)phosphinic acid
Glyphosate N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine
MCPA (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) acetic acid
Molinate S-ethyl hexahydro-1 H-azepine-1-carbothioate
Oxadiazon 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy) phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-
1,3,4-oxadiazon-2 (3H )-one
Oxyfluorfen 2-chIoro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene
Paraquat 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium ion
Pendimethalin N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine
Piperophos S-2-methyl-1-piperidylcarbonylmethyl 0,0 -di-n-propyl
phosphorodithioate
Pretilachlor a-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N-(2-propoxyethyl) acetanilide
Propanil N-(3,4-dichlorophenyI) propanamide
Quinclorac 3,7-dichlor-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid
Simetryn 4,6-bisethylamino-2-methylthio-1,3,5-triazine
Tiocarbazil S-benzyl N,N-di-sec-butylthiocarbamate
Thiobencarb S[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]diethylcarbamothioate

108 Weed control handbook
D. Common names, trade names, and original manufacturers of herbicides.

Year Original
Common name Trade names
introduced manufacturer

Bensulfuron Londax 1984 DuPont
Bentazon Basagran 1970 BASF
Bifenox Modown 1970 Rhone-Poulenc
Butachlor Machete, Butanex, 1969 Monsanto
Lambast, Pillarsete
Butralin Amex, Tamex 1971 Union Carbide
Chlomethoxynil Ekkusugoni 1972 Nihon Nohyaku Co.
Cinmethylin Cinch, Argold 1982 DuPont
2,4-D Aqua Kleen, Demise, 1942 Amchem Products
Esteron, Weed-B-Gon, Inc.
Weedone
Dimethametryn + piperophos Avirosan 1969 Ciba-Geigy
Fenoxaprop Whip 1982 Hoechst-Roussel
Fluorodifen Preforan 1968 Ciba-Geigy
Glyphosate Roundup, Rodeo, 1971 Monsanto
Shackle, Spason
MCPA Agroxone, Agritox, 1945 ICI
Zelan, Chiptox,
Frasan, Vacate
Molinate Ordram, Arrosolo 1964 Stauffer
Oxadiazon Ronstar 1969 Rhone-Poulenc
Oxyfluorfen Goal, Koltar 1974 Rohm & Haas
Paraquat Gramoxone, Paracol, 1958 ICI
Cekuquat, Scythe,
Sweep
Pendimethalin Prowl, Herbadox, 1972 American
Gogosan, Stomp Cyanamid
Piperophos Rilof 1969 Ciba-Geigy
Pretilachlor Sofit, Rifit. Solnet 1982 Ciba-Geigy
Propanil Stam F-34, Surcopur, 1953 Rohm & Haas
Riselect, Dipram,
Stampede
Quinclorac Facet 1984 BASF
Thiobencarb Saturn, Tamariz, 1965 Kumiai Chemical
Bolero. Siacarb, Industry, Chevron
Saturno Chemical

Appendices 109
Index

A yield less due to weeds, 1 hand weeding, 97, 98
Absorption of herbicide, 50, 52, 62, 63 Brown spot, 2 herbicides, 97, 98
Acanthospermum hispidum, 66 Bulinus spp., 2 land preparation, 96
Acetolactase synthase, 70 Burning, 44 N application timing, 43
Acid equivalents, 60 Butachlor, 49, 55, 59, 62, 65, 66, 67, 69, 71, 72, 73, planting method, 96
Active ingredient, 53, 55, 61 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 93, 94, 96, plant population, 96
Adjuvant, 53 97,100 weed control in, 95-98
Adsorption of herbicide, 51 Butanex, 55 weed problems, 95
Aeschynomene aspera, 98 Butralin, 66, 67, 68, 77, 78, 79, 80, 86, 87, 88, 89, 93, Density of planting, 43
Aeschynomene virginica, 66, 80 94, 96, 97 Detoxification, 50
Africa, 42, 78, 83, 87, 91, 92, 95, 100, 101, 102 Bypiridiliums, 68 Dicotyledons, 8
Ageratum conyzoides L., 3, 27, 66, 91 Diffusion of herbicides, 50
Aizoaceae, 25 C Digitaria adscendens, 2
Alachlor, 101 C3 plants, 3 Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., 2, 32, 66
Allelopathy, 2 drought tolerance, 4 Digitaria spp., 3
Alternanthera sessilis, 66 C4 plants, 3 Dimethametryn, 66, 67, 70, 75, 78, 79, 84, 85, 86,
Aman, 83 drought tolerance, 4 93, 95, 96, 97
Amaranthaceae, 26 Cambodia, 11, 12, 23, 25, 26, 29, 31, 34, 35, 37, 38, Dinitroanilines, 68
Amaranthus spinosus L., 26, 66, 91 39, 95 Diphenyl ethers, 68
Amaranthus spp., 3,4 Cameroon, 35 Direct seeded rice
Ammania coccinea, 66 Carbamate, 50 herbicide relativity in, 50
Angola, 28, 31 Carboxylic esters, 52 N application timing, 43
Anilides, 65 Carp, 62, 67, 70, 71 on dry soil, for weed control, 78-79, 88
Annual weeds, 1, 65 Catfish, 68, 71 cultivar, 79, 88
herbicide effects on, 50 Ceratophyllum demersum, 2 fertilizer, 88
life cycles, 5 Chamysyce hirta (L.) Millsp., 30 hand weeding, 77, 79, 88
Antidotes, 49, 78, 86, 88 Chile, 31 herbicides, 79, 88
Aphelenchoides oryzae, 2 China, 18,100 herbicide use, 77, 88
Applicators for herbicides Chlomethoxynil, 66, 67, 71 land preparation, 78, 88
hydraulic, 56 Chlometoxyfen, see Chlomethoxynil planting method, 79, 88
granular, 56 Cinmethylin, 66, 67, 71 water management, 79, 88
nonpressurized, 55-56 Cochliobolus miyabeanus, 2 weed problems, 78, 87
pressurized, 55-56 Colombia, 19, 21, 27, 32, 101 on puddled soil, for weed control, 76, 85-86
Aquatic weeds, 2 Commelinaceae, 7, 28 cultivar, 76, 86
drainage effect on, 44 Commelina benghalensis, 4, 5, 8, 28, 66 fertilizer, 76, 86
Argentina, 9, 26, 29, 31, 33, 35 Competition hand weeding, 77, 87
Aryl acylamidase, 50, 67 between rice and weeds, 3-4 herbicides, 77, 87
Asia, 18, 42, 73, 76, 80, 83, 87, 92, 99, 100, 102 critical period, 4 herbicide use, 77, 78, 86
Asteraceae, 9, 27 Compositae, 9 land preparation, 76, 86
Atrazine, 101 Contact herbicides, 49 planting method, 76, 86
Australia, 10, 20, 22, 25, 26, 27, 42, 73, 78, 80, 102 water requirement, 59 plant population, 76, 86
Azolla, 45 Content of herbicides, 55 water management, 76, 86
Continuous rice, 1 weed problems, 76, 85
B Controlled-droplet applicator, 55, 56-57, 59 yield loss due to weeds, 1
Bacterial leaf blight, 2 Convolvulaceae, 39 Diseases, 2
Bangladesh, 9, 11, 12, 16, 19, 20, 23, 26, 28, 29, 30, Crop rotation, 1, 42 Dominican Republic, 19
38, 76, 83, 85, 87, 95, 101 Cultivar, 76, 79, 84, 86, 88, 91, 96 Drill seeded rice, 73, 83
Bensulfuron, 66, 67, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 78, 84, 85, 99 Cultural practices, 2 deep drilling seeds, 43
Bentazon, 51, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 71, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., 3, 5, 31, 41, 66 hand weeding in, 77
81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 93, 94, 96, 97, 99, Cyperaceae, 7, 10-13, 29 N application timing, 43
101,102 Cyperus difformis L., 3, 10, 66, 73, 83, 85, 87 residual herbicide application in, 51
Bhutan, 83 Cyperus esculentus, 66 yield loss due to weeds, 1
Bidens pilosa, 66 Cyperus iria L., 2, 11, 66, 73, 83, 85 Drought, stress symptoms, 3
Bifenox, 66, 67, 68, 69, 75, 78, 86, 93, 94, 97 Cyperus rotundus L., 3, 5, 7, 29, 66, 102 effects on crop growth, 4, 42
Biological control, 45 2,4-D, 49, 51, 60, 63, 66, 67, 69, 75, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, effects on herbicide activity, 50
Brachiara mutica, 66 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 93, 94, 97, 99, 102
Brachiara spp., 3 E
Brazil, 11, 12, 15, 16, 19, 20, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, D Echinochloa colona (L.) Link, 2, 4, 8, 33, 66, 100
37, 38, 91, 92, 101 Dactyloctenium aegyptium, 66 Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv., 2, 8, 16, 49, 50,
Broadcast seeded rice, 73, 83 Deepwater rice, 96 66, 73, 80, 81, 85, 87, 100
hand weeding in, 77, cultivar, 96 Echinochloa crus-galli ssp. crus-galli var. crus-galli,
optimum seeding rate, 43 fertilizer, 96 16

110 Weed control handbook
Echinochloa crus-galli ssp. crus-galli var. praticola, Harvesting, effects of weeds, 2 in direct seeded rice, 77, 78, 86, 88
16 statements in labels, 55 in transplanted rice, 75, 84
Echinochloa crus-galli ssp. hispidula var. austro- Hazards of herbicide use, 62 in upland rice, 94
japonensis, 16 as indicated in labels, 55 in water seeded rice, 82
Echinochloa crus-galli ssp. hispidula var. hispidula, Herbicide, 45, 49-63, 65-71, 75, 84 principles of, 49-63
16 absorption, 50, 52, 62, 63 protective clothing, 62
Echinochloa crus-galli P.B. var. kasaharae Ohwi, 8 adsorption, 51 safety, 62
Echinochloa glabrescens Munro ex Hook.f., 18, 66, antidote for, 49, 78, 86, 88 Humic acids, 52
100 application timing, 50 Hydraulic applicator, 55-56
Echinochloa oryzoides (Ard) Fritsch, 5 applicators, 55, 56, 57
Echinochloa phyllopogon, 5 behavior in soil, 51 I
Echinochloa pyramidalis, 95, 100 brand names, 54 Imazapyr, 103
Echinochloa spp., 3, 83, 85, 100 calibration, 62 Imperata cylindrica (L.)Raeuschel, 3, 5, 35, 39, 41,
Echinochloa stagnina, 95, 98 chemical names, 54-55 66, 91, 102
Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk., 9, 66 classification, 65-72 India, 9, 11, 16, 19, 23, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34,
Eclipta erecta L., 9 contact, 49, 58, 59 35, 37, 38, 39, 76, 80, 83, 84, 95, 101
Eclipta prostrata (L.), 9 container disposal, 63 Indica rices, 70, 72
Egypt, 33, 73 dosage, 49, 55, 59-61 Indonesia, 9, 11, 12, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27,
Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, 3, 8, 66, 38, 98 evaporation of, 52 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 83, 87, 95,
Eleocharis acicularis, 66 for deepwater and floating rice, 97, 98 101
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., 3, 4, 34, 66 for direct seeded rice, 77, 79, 87, 88 Insects, 2
El Salvador, 21, 26 for transplanted rice, 75, 84 Isoleucine, 70
Emulsifiable concentrate, 53 for upland rice, 94 Integrated crop management, 47
Emulsifier, 53 for water seeded rice, 82 Integrated pest management, 46
Endothal, 81, 82 granular, 62 Integrated weed management, 44, 46-47
Euphorbiaceae, 30 leaching, 51 economics, 47
Euphorbia hirta, 30, 66 lethal dose (LD50), 62 of C. rotundus, 102
Euphorbia pilulifera L., 30 loss, 51-52 of I. cylindrica, 102
Europe, 42, 73, 78, 80, 99 manufacturer of, 55 of P. distichum, 100
Evaporation, of herbicide, 52 mixing, 59, 61, 62 of R. cochichinensis, 103
mixtures, 65 of S. maritimus, 99
F nonselective, 49, 50, 51 of wild rices, 101
Fenclorim, 49, 73 persistence, 52 International Standardization Organization (ISO),
Fenoxaprop, 66, 67, 71, 99 photodegradation, 52 54-55
Fertilization, 43 properties, 52-54 International Union of Pure and Applied
Fertilizer, 74, 76, 82, 84, 86, 88, 91, 96 residual, 51, 52, 58 Chemistry (IUPAC), 54
Fiji, 19, 35 rotations, 65 Ipomoea aquatica Forssk., 66, 95, 97
Fimbristylis littoralis Gaud., 12 runoff, 52 Ipomoea reptans (L.) Poir., 39
Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl, 2, 12, 66, 83, 85, 87 safe handling of, 62 Ipomoea spp., 3
Floating rice, weed control in, 95-98 selection of, 61 Iraq, 33
Also see Deepwater rice selective, 49, 50, 51 Irrigated rice,
Flowables, 53 spraying, 61 best N application timing, 43
Flourodifen, 66, 67, 69, 93, 94, 96, 97 storage, 63 classification, 73
Formulation of herbicides, 47, 53, 55 systemic, 49, 50, 51, 58 yield loss due to weeds, 1
France, 9, 10, 13, 14, 16, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, tolerance, 72 herbicide behavior in soil, 51
34, 35, 36, 37, 38 trade or brand name, 54-55 weed control in, 73-82
translocated, 49, 58 Irrigation, drainage and overflow, 52
G uptake, 50 herbicide effectiveness, 51, 52
Ghana, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 35, 36, 37 volatilization, 52 Iron, 92
Glufosinate, 103 weeds controlled, 66 Ischaemum rugosum Salisb., 2, 19, 44, 66
Glyphosate 49, 50, 66, 67, 69, 97, 101, 102, 103 Herbicide activity Ivory Coast, 35
Gogorantja, 87 depth of, 52
Goldfish, 70 effects of relative humidity, 52 J
Granular herbicide, 53 soil factors, 51-52 Japan, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 18, 21, 22, 100
application, 62 soil moisture, 52 Japonica rices, 52, 70, 72
applicators, 55, 56 temperature, 52 Jussiaea suffruticosa L., 15
Growth stages, wind, 52
effect on herbicide selectivity, 50 in plants and soil, 50 K
for herbicide application, 50, 65, 77, 80, 81, 85, Herbicide drift, 63 Kenya, 35
87, 89, 93, 97 Herbicide formulation, 49, 53, 55 Kharif, 83
Guyana, 101 Herbicide label, 54-55 Knapsack sprayer, 55, 56-57
Herbicide selectivity, 49-50, 51 Korea, 10, 11, 12, 16, 18, 23
H physical factors, 49
Hand pulling, see Hand weeding biological factors, 50 L
Hand weeding, 2, 44, 82, loss of, 54 Labels for herbicide, 59, 60
in deepwater and floating rice, 97, 98 postemergence, 51 Lambast, 55
in direct seeded rice, 77, 79, 87, 88 Herbicide toxicity, 55, 62 Land preparation, 73
in drill seeded rice, 77 Herbicide use, mechanical, 73
in transplanted rice, 75, 84, advantages, 45 to control weeds, 41
in upland rice, 93 directions, 54, 55 in direct seeded rice, 76, 78, 86, 88
in water seeded rice, 82 disadvantages, 45 in transplanted rice, 73, 84
labor for, 45 field techniques, 60-62 in water seeded rice, 81
in deepwater and floating rice, 96 in upland rice, 91

Index 111
in deepwater and floating rice, 96 Oryza rufipogon Griff., 1,101 classification, 83
in dryland, 42 Oryza sativa L., 1,101 distribution, 87
in wetland, 42 Oxadiazon, 66, 67, 71, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 84, 85, 86, time of seeding, 42
limited, 42 87, 88, 89, 93, 94, 96, 97, 100 yield loss due to weeds, 1
Latin America, 42, 83, 91, 92, 102 Oxisols, 92 weed control in, 83-89
Leaching of herbicides, 51, 53 Oxyflourfen, 49, 66, 67, 69, 75, 77, 78, 84, 85, 86, 87, Rainbow trout, 67, 68, 69, 71
Leersia hexandra Sw., 2, 20, 66 88, 89, 93, 94, 97, 100 Rats, 68, 69, 70,71
Leptochloa chinensis (L.)Nees., 3, 21, 66, 87 Red rice, 2,80,101
Leptochlou spp., 2, 80 P Residual herbicide, 52
Light, Pacific Islands, 102 nozzle type for, 61,58
for rice growth, 3 Pakistan, 9, 11, 24, 29, 31, 37, 73 Rice
rice-weed competition, 3 Paraquat, 49, 50, 62, 66, 67, 68 diseases, 2
penetration, 43 Partition coefficient, 53 drought tolerance, 4
Lodging, Paspalum paspalodes (Michx)Scribn., 22 growth requirements, 3
Lowland rice weeds, 9-24, 42 Paspalum distichum L., 2, 7, 22, 41, 66, 67, 100 herbicide tolerance, 72
Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven, 15, 66 Pendimethalin, 66, 67, 68, 72, 73, 75, 78, 79, 80, 84, modern varieties, 42
85, 86, 88, 89, 93, 94, 97, 100, 101, 103 mutation, 3
M Perennial weeds, 1 susceptibility to herbicide, 50, 72
Machete, 55, 59, 62 effect of herbicide, 50 similarities with weeds, 4, 5
Madagascar, 35 reproduction, 5 traditional varieties, 42
Malaysia, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 27, under limited tillage, 42 wild species of, 2
29, 30, 33, 34, 37, 38, 80, 91, 101 Persistence of herbicide, 52 Rice culture classification, 7
Mali, 95 Peru, 9, 13, 16, 19, 32, 39, 91 effect on weed flora, 1
Manufacturer of herbicides, 55 Pest, Rice dwarf, 2
Marsileaceae, 14 Phenoxy acetic acids, 69,72 Rice grassy stunt virus, 2
Marsilea crenata Presl., 14 Philippines, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, Rice maja blanca, 2
Marsilea minuta L., 14, 66 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 Rice mimics, 5,44
Mauritius, 28, 31, 35, 37 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 43, 83, 85, Rice production cost, 1
MCPA, 50, 63, 66, 67, 69, 71, 72, 75, 77, 78, 80, 81, 91,92 Rice stripe, 2
82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 93, 94, 96, 97 Phloem, 50 Rice tungro virus, 2
Mechanical transplanters, Phosphoms, 3, 4, 43-44, 92 Rice-weed competition, 2
Mechanical weeding, 44 Photodegradatio of herbicide, 52 critical periods, 4
Meloidogyne, 2 Photosynthesis, 3 factors, 3-3
Metolachlor, 101 C3 pathway, 3,4 in direct seeded flooded rice, 77
Metribuzine, 101 C4 pathway, 3,4 factors, 3-4
Mexico, 9, 25, 26, 29, 30, 34, 37 Physalis angulata, 66, 67 Rice yellow dwarf, 2
Mimics of rice, 5,44 Phytotoxicity, 52, 68 Rottboellia exaltata L.f., 36
Minimum tillage, Pictograms, 55 Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.)W.D. Clayton,
Molinate, 66, 67, 68, 70, 71, 75, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, Piperophos, 66, 67, 69, 71, 72, 75, 78, 79, 84, 85, 86, 3,4,36,66,67,91,103
100,101 93, 94, 96, 97, 98 Runoff of herbicide, 52
Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.f.)Presl, 2, 3, 23, 66, Pistia stratiotes, 95
73,83,85,95 Placement of herbicide, 49 S
Monocotyledons, 7 Plant height, advantages of, 4, 42 Safety,
Myanmar, 9, 12, 19, 20, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 37, 38, 83, Planting method, 42, 74, 76, 79, 86, 88, 91, 96 Samoa, 28
95 Plant population, 74, 76, 81, 84, 86, 91, 96 Scirpus maritimus L., 13, 66, 67, 71, 73, 83, 87, 99
Poaceae, 16-22, 31-36 Scirpus spp., 85, 95
N Poisoning, 63 Seed, dispersal, 4-5
Nematodes, 2 Polycyclic alkanoic acids, 71 dormancy, 5
Nicaragua, 32 Pontederiaceae, 7, 23, 38 growth, 3
Niger, Portulacaceae, 37 longevity,
Nigeria, 10, 25, 26, 27, 30, 34, 35, 37, 95 Portulaca oleracea L., 37, 66, 67,91 production, 4-5
Nilapurvata lugens, 2 Postemergence herbicides, 51, 65 Seeding, methods for rice, 7
Nitrogen, 3, 4, 74, 76, 84, 86, 88 Potamogetonaceae, 7 rate, 79
recommended timing of application, 43 Potassium, 3, 4, 43, 92 timing, 42
Nontilled rice fields, 92 Preemergence herbicides, 51, 65, 76 Selectivity of herbicide, 49-50, 51, 54
effect on weed flora, 1 Preplanting herbicides, 50 Senegal, 29
Nozzles, 56, 57, 58, 61, 63 Pressure chamber, 57 Sequential application, 65
Nurseries, 84 Pretilachlor, 49, 50, 66, 67, 73, 78, 85, 86, 88, 100 Sesbania aculeata, 84, 98
Nutrient uptake, 3, 4, 43, 44 Prevention of weed introduction, 41 Sesbania exaltata, 80
Nymphae stellata, 66 Propanil, 49, 51, 52, 66, 67, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77, Sesbania sp., 95
Nymphula depunctalis, 2 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 93, 94, 97, Setaria glauca, 66, 67
96, 99, 100 Setaria viridis, 2
O Propazine, 101 Shading, 3
Onagraceae, 15 Protective clothing, 62-63 effect on rice growth, 4
Organophosphorus compounds, 69 Sierra Leone, 10
insecticides, 50 Q Signal words, 55
Oryza barthii A.Chev., 1, 2, 67, 95, 98, 101 Quality, Simetryn, 52, 70, 100
Oryza glaberrima, 1, 101 Quinclorac, 66, 67, 72, 73, 75, 78, 84, 86, 88, l00c Slash and burn, 91
Oryza longistaminata A.Chev. & Roehr., 1, 2, 41, Soil, effect on C 3 -C4 competition, 3
67,95,97,98,101 R herbicide activity,
Oryza nivara Sharma & Shastry, 1, 101 Radiation from ultraviolet, 52 moisture, 51, 52
Oryza officinalis Wall. ex Watt., 101 Rainfed rice pH,
Oryza punctata Kotschy ex Steud., 101 N application timing, residual herbicide activity,

112 Weed control handbook
Sorghum bicolor, 3 Triopus cancriformis, 4.5 mechanical interron, 79
South America, 87 Triopus granaris, 45 Weeds,
Spacing, dense planting, 74, 76 Triopus longicaudatus, 45 annual, 1, 5
optimum for rice plants, 43 as alternate host, 2
Spain, 36 U as ancestors of cultivated rice, 1
Sphenocleaceae, 24 Uganda, 34 aquatic, 2
Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn., 83, 85, 24, 66, 67 Ultisols, 92 C3 , 3, 44
Sprayer, Upland rice, C4, 3
Birky, 56 C4 weeds, 91 characteristics, 4
calibration of, 58 cultivar, 91 competitiveness, 4
care of, 61 fertilizer, 91 computer codes, 8
leaks, 62 handweeding, 42, 93 definition, 1
nozzles, 63 herbicide behavior in soil, 51 dispersal, 4-5
pressure, 58 herbicide use, 94 drought tolerance, 4
Spraying, 61, 84 land preparation, 91 effects, 1
Stale seedbed, 79, 88, 92 N application timing, 43 on grain quality, 2
Sri Lanka, 9, 16, 19, 27, 29, 33, 34, 76, 80, 85 plant population, 91 on grain yield, 1, 3-4
Sudan, 9, 31, 33 planting methods, 91 on harvesting, 2
Sugarcane, 2 weed competiton, 91 growth, 4
Sulfonylureas, 70 weed control in, 91-94 habitat, 8
Sulfur, 92 weeds in, 25-37, 42 in deep water rice, 95, 38-39
Surinam, 20, 101 weed problems, 91 in lowland rice, 9-24, 42
Symbols, 55 USA, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, in upland rice, 25-37
Systemic herbicides, 49, 50, 51 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, life cycles, 7
nozzle type for, 58 42, 73, 78, 80, 99, 101 morphology, 7
USSR, 80 origin, 1
T perennial, 1, 5, 16
Tadpole shimp, 45 V reproduction, 4-5
Tank-mix, 65 Valine, 70 seeds, 4-5
Tanzania, 35 Vapor pressure, 53 similarities with rice, 4, 5
Temperature effect of temperature, 53 Weed-rice competition
effect on herbicide activity, 50 Variety, critical periods, 4
effect of vapor pressure, 53 tolerance to herbicide, 72 factors, 3-4
Thailand, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, herbicide susceptibility, in upland rice, 91
25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 80, 83, modern rice, 42 Weed control, 41-47
95, 101, selection for weed control, 42 biological methods, 45
Thiobencarb, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77, 78, traditional rice, 42 chemical methods, 45
79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 93, 94, 96, 97, Venezuela, 20, 32, 101 cultivar methods, 41, 46
98, 100, 101 Verbesina alba, 9 direct methods, 46-47
Thiocarbamates, 52, 53, 70 Verbesina prostrata L., 9 economics of, 1, 46
Tillage, 41 Vietnam, 9, 20, 21, 23, 24, 30, 31, 37, 38, 83, 95 in deepwater and floating rice, 95-98
dryland, 42 Virus in rice, 2 indirect methods, 46-47
effect on weed flora, 41 Volatilization of herbicide, 52 in irrigated rice, 73-82
limited, 42 in rainfed lowland rice, 83-89
wetland, 42 W in upland rice, 91-94
Timing, Walking speed, 58, 59, 61 manual methods, 44
of herbicide application, 50, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, Water nursery,
82, 85, 87, 89, 93, 97 depth effects on rice type, 84 planning for, 41
of rice seeding, 42 factor in rice-weed comp., 4 social aspect, 2
Toxicity of herbicide, 55, 62, 67-72 for mixing herbicides, 59, 61 Weed population, 1
Translocated herbicides, 49, 50, 52 for rice growth, 3 Weed problems, 73, 76, 78, 80, 83, 85, 87, 80, 91, 95
nozzle type for, 58 increasing depth, 44, 95 West lndies, 101
Transplanted rice, 73, 83 Water management, 1, 44, 74, 76, 79, 81, 84, 86, 88 Wet seeded rice, N application timing, 43
application timing, 43 Water seeded rice, 73, 80 Wettable powder, 53
cultivar, 84 fertilizer, 82 mixing, 61
fertilizer, 74, 84 hand weeding, 82 White tip, 2
handweeding, 75, 84 herbicides, 82 Wild rices, 1, 5, 101
herbicides, 75,84 herbicide use, 82
herbicide selectivity in, 50 land preparation, 81 X
herbicide use, 75, 84 N application timing, 43 Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae, 2
land preparation, 73, 84 plant population, 81 Xylem, 50
nurseries, 84 water management, 81
planting methods, 74 weed problems, 80 Y
plant population, 74, 84 yield loss due to weeds, 1 Yield loss, due to weeds, 1
stand establishment, 73 Water solubility, 53, 67-72
water management in, 74, 84 Water soluble concentrate, 53 Z
weed problems, 73, 83 Water uptake, 4 Zambia, 27, 28, 31, 33, 34, 36, 37,
Transplanting, manual optimum spraying, 43 Weeders, 45, 74, 75, 88 Zimbabwe, 26, 34, 35, 36
yield loss due to weeds, 1 Weeding, Zinc, 43, 92
Trianthema monogyna L., 25 by machine, 44, 45
Trianthema portulacastrum, 4, 25, 66, 67, 91 hand tools for, 44
Triazines, 50, 70 labor requirements, 44

Index 113