FILARC welder guide

book No.1
PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire
and related types for high ten-
sile and creep resistant steels
Index page 1
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Welder Guide Book No. 1
FILARC PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire
and related types for high tensile
and creep resistant steels
A new generation of basic cored wires with excellent
welding characteristics for positional work
on high quality fabrication
FILARC welder guide
book No.1
PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire
and related types for high ten-
sile and creep resistant steels
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product page
Due to its policy of continual improvements
in its welding consumables, FILARC reserves
the right to change data in this guide without notice.
FILARC Welder Guide Books provide practical information on
the use of specific FILARC flux and metal-cored wires. The
contents will assist welders to apply correct welding parame-
ters and use the FILARC cored wire effectively, to achieve op-
timum productivity and avoid faults.
The information provided will be helpful to welders both quali-
fied or still to qualify for cored wire welding. There is also help-
ful information for welding engineers establishing appropriate
welding procedures, also training instructors and welding fore-
men.
Overall the guide will enhance results from the FILARC flux or
metal-cored wire(s) described.
FILARC PZ6125 is decribed in this guide, together with re-
lated types, listed below, having identical welding perfor-
mance. All types come in diameter size 1.0, 1.2 and 1.6mm
and are developed for use in Ar/CO
2
mixed gas.
Low alloyed types AWS A5.29 EN 758
FILARC PZ6125 E71T5-G T 42 6 1Ni B M 1 H5
High tensile types
FILARC PZ6145 E81T5-G T 50 5 Mn1Ni B M 1 H5
FILARC PZ6146 E91T5-K2 –
FILARC PZ6147 E101T5-K3 –
FILARC PZ6148 E111T5-K4 –
FILARC PZ6149 E121T5-G –
Creep resistant AWS A5. .. /
types DIN 8575
FILARC PZ6201 DIN: SGCrMo1 –
FILARC PZ6202 29:E71T5-A1 –
FILARC PZ6203 DIN: SGCrMo2 –
FILARC PZ6204 22:E502T-1 –
FILARC PZ6205 29:E81T5-B2 –
Introduction
FILARC PZ6125 represents a new generation of basic flux-
cored wires, with much improved weldability. PZ6125 yields
excellent mechanical properties, including satisfactory CTOD
values, both as-welded and stress relieved, with hydrogen
content dependably below 3ml /100g.
PZ6125 and related types provide good all-position weldabili-
ty, with useful tolerance in welding parameter setting; they are
far easier to use than conventional basic cored wires.
However, due to the new flux formulation, weldability has dis-
tinctive, but not difficult, characteristics.
This Guide Book provides all the information you need to en-
sure fully satisfactory use of these new basic cored wires.
Index
Correct use of equipment...........................................Page 2
Torch, liners and cable assembly ...........................................2
Wire drive unit.........................................................................2
Gas regulation ........................................................................2
Gas cup and contact tip combination....................................4
Correct stickout length...........................................................4
Gas cup sizes .........................................................................4
Power source facilities............................................................6
Welding parameter setting......................................................8
Choice of wire size ...............................................................10
Recommended average parameter setting..........................12
ASME and EN welding positions..........................................15
Welding advice .....................................................................16
Torch positions for positional welding..................................18
Weaving technique ...............................................................22
Grinding................................................................................24
Trouble shooting...................................................................26
Causes of weld defects........................................................27
1
FILARC welder guide
book No.1
PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire
and related types for high ten-
sile and creep resistant steels
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Correct use of equipment
FILARC PZ6125 and other cored wires will always perform
well when welding sets are used correctly and maintained ac-
cording to the maker’s instructions.
Following are some simple guidelines for preventive inspection
and maintenance. When carried out regularly, the most com-
mon causes of malfunctioning are avoided.
Torch, liners and cable assembly
Ensure that the contact tip has the right size and is mounted
tight. Ideally, contact tips are checked for wear upon wire
spool change and replaced when necessary.
Check gas cups for spatter built-up and clean if necessary. -im
peded gas flow from clogged cups may cause porosity.
Blowing-out the liner into the direction of wire delivery should
be a regularly recurring routine. Check liners for damage at
least weekly, and replace when necessary. Spiral steel liners
are recommended.
Check gas and water connections for leaks. When fitted, en-
sure water cooler is filled and pump operates satisfactorily.
Wire drive unit
Wire guide tubes must be as close to the rollers as possible to
prevent kinking of a cored wire. Proper alignment is essential
to avoid unnecessary friction. A substantial amount of fine
metallic swarf underneath the drive wheels indicates misalign-
ment (or excessively worn drive wheels).
Use drive wheels with a V-groove and, by preference, flat pres-
sure wheels. Check that the groove of the drive wheel is cor-
rectly selected for the wire diameter, and that the pressure wheel
is correctly tensioned. Too much pressure may flatten
the cored wire, giving increased wear of liner and contact tip.
Insufficient pressure may result in slip, causing erratic wire feed
and burn-back. Limit the use of knurled wheels to situations
where friction in the liner causes wheels with a V-groove to slip.
This is only likely to happen with long, extremely curved cable
assemblies, and/or with units with one set of rolls. Knurled
wheels cause increased wear of liner and contact tip. Test wire
delivery at the torch; this must be regular.
Gas regulation
Check that Ar/CO
2
(80/20) gas is used. Adjust the flow rate be-
tween 15 and 20 l /min to suit wire Ø and joint configuration.
Outdoors, use 20l. Make a short test run to assure no porosity
arises from incorrect gas flow.
Always check gas flow with a flow meter which fits on the nozzle,
to be sure that required gas flow is available.
2 3
Excessive space between wire guide tubes and rollers can
cause kinking of wire. Misalignment, also in the plane per-
pendicular to the one shown here, causes friction.
Inspect torch connec-
tions and clean liner
weekly.
Correct location of wire guide tubes. Minimal space between
guide tubes and rollers. Proper alignment is essential.
Check gas pressure
and flow rate.
Replace worn contact tip.
Exit to torch
Exit to torch
concentric hole worn hole
FILARC welder guide
book No.1
PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire
and related types for high ten-
sile and creep resistant steels
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Gas cup and contact tip combination
It is essential to mount the gas cup and contact tip at the right
distance relative to each other. The ideal 2mm distance is
shown right.
A larger distance increases stickout length, causing slag traps
and lack of fusion, mainly in narrow joints.
Correct stickout length
The stand-off, here and in other FILARC sales literature referred
to as stickout, is the distance between the tip of the contact tip
and the workpiece. It must be held constant at 10 to 15mm for
PZ6125 and related types in 1.0 and 1.2mm sizes and 15 to
20mm for 1.6mm size.
Correct, constant stickout length must be maintained, as far as
joint preparation will allow. Variations will cause arc voltage
and welding current to fluctuate and in turn adversely influence
droplet transfer.
Overlong stickout results in larger droplets, causing spatter, also
reducing gas protection, so bringing weld porosity.
Gas cup sizes
Various cup diameters must be available, to allow satisfactory
access to the joint, and maintain the stickout length recom-
mended above, according to wire size.
Small diameter gas cups are used for first layers only. Revert
to the standard gas cup diameter when access to the weld
joint allows this, so full gas protection can be assured.
Check gas flow after a change of gas cup size.
Trouble shooting
Porosity is normally the result of draught, the presence of con-
dense water, rust or paint on the plate material or an overlong
stickout length. Also insufficient gas flow, due to clogged gas
nozzles is a common cause. Check the above, if porosity oc-
curs.
Unstable arc or large droplets are a sign of excessive stickout,
possibly due to gas cup size not allowing suitable access to
the joint; replace gas cup with smaller size.
Also refer to the checklist of process faults and weld defects
as from page 26.
4 5
1
0
-
1
5
m
m
Ideal stickout length for 1.0
and 1.2mm wire sizes.
10-15m
m
>10-15m
m
Correct. Smaller gas cup
diameter for 1
st
layers of
joints with limited access.
Correct gas cup for
filling ensures good
gas protection and
correct stickout.
Incorrect. Too small gas cup
diameter for filling reduces
gas protection and brings
porosity.
Incorrect. Too large gas cup
diameter restricts access to
narrow joints, resulting in too
long stickout length.
± 2mm ± 10mm
Correct positioning
of contact tip.
Incorrect. Left: increased stickout caus-
es slag traps and fusion faults, mainlyin
narrow joints. Right: contact tip extends
beyond gas cup. Risk of insufficient
shielding gas protection.
FILARC welder guide
book No.1
PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire
and related types for high ten-
sile and creep resistant steels
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Power source facilities
Power source rating must be suitable for the basic cored wire
size at 60% duty cycle. These should have selectable choke
settings; automatic chokes are not recommended. Power
sources fall into the following categories for setting welding
parameters (arc voltage, wire feed speed/welding current,
choke setting).
• Manual selection, with or without Voltage and Ampère me-
ters.
• Pre-programmed with variable selection of wire feed speed.
Available programs for flux-cored wires may not necessari-
ly suit FILARC PZ6125 and related wires. Test these care-
fully, and if not fully satisfactory check with equipment sup-
plier for program revisions.
• Programmable, select the parameters recommended for
FILARC PZ6125 in preference to any already installed pro-
gram(s) for flux-cored wires.
Polarity –negative
It is essential to weld FILARC PZ6125 and related types on
–negative polarity, to avoid slag inclusions and lack of fusion,
also to obtain deeper penetration, especially when welding in
position.
Choke setting
A welder often has a preference for a particular setting, so will
adjust this until arriving at what is considered to be satisfactory.
Due to the variety of welding equipment available, it is imprac-
tical to define the exact setting. However, a minimum choke
value is best suited for FILARC PZ6125, in all positions.
Advice
Start with a minimum value and adjust the arc voltage and wire
feed speed to recommended values, and trim these for
smoothest weldability in the welding position required. Only if
spatter is excessive, use the next higher choke setting.
6 7
+ –
Use negative polarity for
PZ6125 and related types
(straight polarity).
Choke setting values may be indicated by various symbols.
Typical examples are shown here.
minimum
minimum
minimum
–1 –2 –3
A B C
A B C
Recommended setting
for PZ6125 and related
types.
maximum
maximum
maximum
– polarity
FILARC welder guide
book No.1
PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire
and related types for high ten-
sile and creep resistant steels
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Welding parameter setting
Arc voltage is related to welding current, which is established
by the wire feed speed adjustment on the wire drive unit.
Note, the arc voltage setting for FILARC PZ6125 is higher than
usually required for normal basic cored wires.
Advice
After selecting the minimum choke value, set the recommend-
ed arc voltage (V) and wire feed settings/current values, see
following pages for examples.
Test weldability in the required welding position. Power sour-
ces fitted with voltage and current meters allow settings to be
monitored.
Correct parameter setting will bring the arc over the weld pool,
delivering either a smooth, fine droplet transfer at lower wire
feed speeds, or spray arc at higher speeds.
Too short or long arcs can arise from incorrect setting of para-
meters for the welding position. To obtain correct results:
• adjust the wire feed speed slightly.
If the arc length remains unsatisfactory, or weldability un-
smooth,
• adjust arc voltage in steps of 1 or 2V.
Results may be further improved by slight adjustment of wire
feed speed/welding current.
In case of continuing difficulty, especially at lower arc volt-
age/welding currents, use a higher choke value and repeat the
above adjustments.
Note, irregular wire feeding due to incorrect wire drive roller ad-
justment, a damaged torch cable liner, or a worn contact tip
can cause difficulties. Check these if weldability fluctuates; ad-
justment of welding parameters will not overcome these
equipment faults.
Arc Voltage and Welding Current Meters
Usually fitted to power sources, these are helpful for training or
monitoring purposes. They are not a substitute for correct ad-
justment of welding parameters to suit the best combination of
wire size and welding position.
8 9
Correct arc length.
Arc is just over weldpool,
with smooth droplets or
spray arc.
Arc length too short.
Stubbing. Wire dips into
weldpool, caused by
too high a wire speed
or too low an arc voltage.
Arc length too long.
Wire speed too low, or arc
voltage too high.
FILARC welder guide
book No.1
PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire
and related types for high ten-
sile and creep resistant steels
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Choice of wire size
FILARC PZ6125 and related types are all available in 1.0, 1.2
and 1.6mm diameters, so allowing optimal productivity for var-
ious combinations of plate thicknesses and welding positions.
The chart opposite shows recommended use.
The 1.2mm size is recommended for general all-positional use.
Diameter 1.6mm is a more productive choice when the major-
ity of welding takes place in the downhand position.
Although it is not recommended by FILARC, the 1.2mm size is
also an option when fabricators wish to weld root passes with-
out ceramic weld metal support.
The 1.0mm size is advantageous for pipe work and tubular
constructions with minimal 10-12mm wall thickness and mini-
mal 4inch diameter, bringing excellent control of the weld pool
in the 3 to 9 o'clock positions.
Use with ceramic backing
High quality root runs can be deposited economically when
using ceramic weld metal support. Both the 1.2mm as well as
the 1.6mm size are very suited. Consult the special FILARC
brochure on ceramic backing materials.
The 1.6mm size is very productive for root passes in the 1G
and 2G positions. The thick root pass layer allows filling at
higher welding currents.
Chart recommendationsare for average situations. There will
be exceptions for plate size, application area, etc. where the
versatility of PZ6125 will still provide excellent results.
For additional advice contact your FILARC welding engineer or
nearest sales office.
A guide to ASME and EN welding positions is given on page 15.
Wire Ø 1.0mm 1.2mm 1.6mm
Welding Suitability for average application
position
Root 1G/PA not recomm. on backing on backing
Fill 1G/PA not recomm. yes yes
Root 2G/PC not recomm. on backing on backing
Fill 2G/PC not recomm. yes yes
Root 3G/PF not recomm. on backing not recomm.
Fill 3G/PF yes yes not recomm.
Root 4G/PE not recomm. not recomm. not recomm.
Fill 4G/PE yes yes
1
not recomm.
Root 5G/PF not recomm. not recomm. not recomm.
Fill 5G/PF yes possible
1
not recomm.
Root 6G
HL045 not recomm. not recomm. not recomm.
Fill 6G
HL045 yes possible
1
not recomm.
– 1F/PA possible
2
yes yes
– 2F/PB possible
2
yes yes
– 3F/PF not recomm. yes not recomm.
– 4F/PD not recomm. yes not recomm.
1
For thicknesses below 20mm, 1.0mm size is recommended
2
1.2 or 1.6mm sizes will improve productivity.
10 11
FILARC welder guide
book No.1
PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire
and related types for high ten-
sile and creep resistant steels
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Recommended average
parameter settings
FILARC PZ6125, 1.0mm Ø, negative (–) polarity.
1G/PA Not recommended. Diameters 1.2 and 1.6mm are
best suited.
FILARC PZ6125, 1.2mm Ø, negative (–) polarity.
12 13
3G/PF Root : not recommended
Fill : 140-160A/8.5-9.8m/min
18-21V
4G/PE Root : not recommended
Fill : 130-150A/7.8-9.2m/min
18-19V
5G/PF Root : not recommended
Fill : 130-160A/7.8-9.8m/min
18-19V
6G/HL045 Root : not recommended
Fill : 140-150A/8.5-9.2m/min
18-20V
2G/PC Not recommended. Diameters 1.2 and 1.6mm are
best suited.
3F/4F/PF/PD Fill : not recommended
1G/PA Root*: 180-230A/8.0-11.0m/min
22-28V (spray arc)
Fill : 240-320A/12.5-19.0m/min
28-34V
3G/PF Root*: 150-180A/6.5-8.0m/min
19-22V (spray arc)
Fill : 180-200A/8.0-9.5m/min
22-25V
4G/PE Root : not recommended
Fill : 130-150A/4.0-6.5m/min
18-19V
2G/PC Root*: 170-230A/7.0-11.0m/min
21-28V (spray arc)
Fill : 190-280A/9.0-16.0m/min
23-33V
5G+6G/H-L000+H-L045 Root : not recommended
Fill : 130-180A/4.0-8.0m/min
18-22V
*One-sided root pass on ceramic backing (round groove)
1F/2F/PA/PB 3F/4F/PF/PD
240-320A/
12.5-19.0m/min
28-34V
3F: 180-200A/
8.0-9.5m/min
22-25V
4F: 160-230A/
6.5-11.0m/min/18-28V
FILARC welder guide
book No.1
PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire
and related types for high ten-
sile and creep resistant steels
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FILARC PZ6125, 1.6mm Ø, negative (–) polarity. Generally
used for plate thickness of 20mm and higher.
Also used with ceramic backing for plate thicknesses down to
16mm.
With ceramic backing
ASME and EN Welding Positions
14 15
1G/PA Root*: 220-260A/4.0-5.0m/min
26-28V (spray arc)
Fill : 220-380A/4.5-12.0m/min
27-36V
2G/PC Root*: 200-240A/3.5-4.5m/min
24-26V (spray arc)
Fill : 240-270A/4.5-5.5m/min
26-30V
1F/PA Fill : 240-380A/4.5-12.0m/min
27-36V
Plate thickness ≥ 20mm
2F/PB Fill : 240-320A/4.5-8.0m/min
30-35V
*One-sided root pass on ceramic backing (round groove)
1G /PA 2G /PC
3G ↑↓/PF & PG 4G /PE
5G ↑↓/PF & PG-H-L000 6G ↑↓/H-L045
1F/PA 2F/PB
3F ↑↓/PF & PG 4F/PD
FILARC welder guide
book No.1
PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire
and related types for high ten-
sile and creep resistant steels
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Welding advice
Following pages provide advice on welding techniques for typ-
ical applications, followed by troubleshooting for typical faults.
Welding characteristics
FILARC PZ6125 has distinctive, but not difficult welding cha-
racteristics. These differ from conventional basic cored wires,
by way of:
• Higher arc voltage with smoother droplet transfer.
• Semi-spray arc operation aids positional work.
• Greater tolerance for arc voltage/welding current setting.
• Warmer, more fluid weldpool for higher penetration.
• Flatter weld beads.
• Less risk of fusion faults and slag traps.
• Less slag.
• Grinding requirements considerably reduced.
These impressive advantages, including welder comfort, will
bring improved results when the welding guidelines are cor-
rectly followed. Some training is obviously needed to gain fa-
miliarity with the welding characteristics of the PZ6125, also to
avoid using methods associated with rutile cored wires, or con-
ventional basic types where colder weld pools and short arc
dip transfer lead to less favourable weldability.
Positive penetration
To ensure positive penetration, and so avoid the most common
cause of weld defects:
Always try to weld backhand
This ensures good penetration and prevents slag running
ahead of the weldpool. See figure A.
Forehand welding can deliver a reasonable appearance, but
penetration is often poor, due to the slag running ahead of the
weldpool. There is also the chance of overflowing the weld-
pool, causing slag traps and lack of fusion, see figure B.
Correct torch angleis 70-90° as shown figure A. At lower an-
gles, see figure C, insufficient penetration and lack of fusion
can be expected.
16 17
Figure B
Forehand welding (pushing). Risk of insufficient penetration,
lack of fusion and slag traps.
Figure A
Correct backhand welding (trailing) with torch at 70-90°.
Figure C
Backhand welding with too small a torch angle, causing insuf-
ficient penetration and lack of fusion.
direction of travel
direction of travel
direction of travel
70-90°
FILARC welder guide
book No.1
PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire
and related types for high ten-
sile and creep resistant steels
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Torch positions for
positional welding
PZ6125 and related types are well suited for all-position weld-
ing. Following are typical situations where correct torch posi-
tioning plays an important role in avoiding weld defects.
2G/PC
Torch position depends on plate thickness and bevel angle of
the joint. If the torch positions shown cannot be used, it is rec-
ommended that the bevel angle is enlarged.
Always maintain the torch angle of 70-90° relative to the weld
bead and direction of travel as advised on page 17.
Maintain a steady travel speed to achieve a regular bead thick-
ness, without sagging.
See page 22 for guidance on weaving.
18
19
B. Second layer, using flatter bead.
A. Root pass.
Without backing: grind opposite side.
With backing: use round ceramic. Avoid overthick bead.
30°
45°
Avoid sagging
Slag traps and fusion faults arise from sagging (rollover), typi-
cally caused by:
• Wrong travel speed.
• Incorrect torch angle.
• Too high welding current.
• Wrong weld bead sequence.
Sagging requires grinding to
eliminate weld defects. This
can be avoided by keeping
weld beads as flat as possible
as shown by the diagrams, so
reducing repair rates and un-
productive grinding. wrong right
Weaving advice is given on page 22.
C. Third layer builds up
weld thickness.
D. Fourth layer creates
favourable angle for
following pass.
E. Fifth layer. Note how
layers are always
built up from bottom
side of joint as weld
thickness increases.
10°
45°
10°
FILARC welder guide
book No.1
PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire
and related types for high ten-
sile and creep resistant steels
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Torch positions, continued
3G↑/3F↑/PF
Note the torch positions shown below for root run and filling
layers.
Joint bevelling must allow good access to the root area. If nec-
essary use a narrower gas cup.
4G/PE
Use basic electrode or TIG-welding for root pass. Use FILARC
PZ6125 and related types for filling.
Figures A and B give ideal torch positioning.
20 21
A. Root pass
B. Filling layers
Weaving advice is given on page 22.
10°
10°
2F/PB
Figures A and B show the ideal torch positioning, using the
backhand method recommended.
Trouble shooting
Figures C and D show possible undercut and sagging faults,
and possible causes.
C D
C Undercut:
• Welding current too high.
• Arc voltage too high.
• Travel speed too high.
• Arc too close to vertical plane.
• Torch angle (φ) too small.
D Sagging:
• Welding current too high.
• Arc voltage too high.
• Torch angle (φ) too big.
• Layer too thick.
A
80-90°
B
90°
φ φ
A B
70 - 90°
45°
ceramic backing
FILARC welder guide
book No.1
PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire
and related types for high ten-
sile and creep resistant steels
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Weaving technique
Use of correct weaving, in conjunction with the torch positions
described on previous pages, will avoid weld defects and re-
duce grinding requirements.
1G/PA Position
Restrict weaving width; try to weld stringer beads as far as
possible. For K joints, shown, restricted weaving and correct
torch position are important.
The arc must point into the corner between plate material and
weld as illustrated below.
3G/PF Position
Correct weaving technique is very important when welding
PZ6125 in the 3G position. Incorrect weaving can lead to weld
defects.
Apply a little weaving; stop at the plate edges for approx. 2
seconds to allow weld metal to solidify. Always ensure satis-
factory side plate wetting, as shown figure A.
A. Correct
• Weave width 1.5-2.0cm.
• Use an upward triangle
towards the joint centre.
• Remain approximately
2 seconds at the plate
edges.
• Assure good side plate
wetting.
B. Incorrect
• Weave width correct
but wrong technique.
• Downward triangle
causes convex weld
with risk of slag traps
and fusion faults.
C. Incorrect
• Insufficient weaving,
giving a convex weld,
slag traps and fusion
faults.
22 23
A. Correct
• Apply stringer beads as far
as possible.
• Correct torch position.
• Weave as little as possible.
• Backhand welding.
B. Incorrect
• Excessive weaving.
• Wrong torch position.
• Forehand welding.
2G/PC Position
A. Correct
• Torch pointed onto plate.
• Correct weaving width.
• Good wetting onto plate
edges and weld.
B. Incorrect
• Torch not pointed onto
plate.
• Excessive weaving.
FILARC welder guide
book No.1
PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire
and related types for high ten-
sile and creep resistant steels
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Grinding
Grinding requirements for PZ6125 welds are not excessive
when the recommended welding techniques are applied.
Avoid overgrinding, this can cause defects.
Also do not create sharp edges, leading to slag traps and lack
of fusion when filling.
Remove only the most obvious irregularities, like sagging,
starts, stops and undercut, always leaving smooth bead con-
tours.
A Correct. B Incorrect.
Sealing runs
Grind before welding, as shown figure D, to create a smooth,
slightly concave groove, giving easy access for the welding
torch.
24 25
C Always grind starts and stops.
D Correct.
E Incorrect.
Grinding wheel
pushed into root,
bringing deep
groove.
The narrow joint
is almost inac-
cessible to the
torch.
FILARC welder guide
book No.1
PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire
and related types for high ten-
sile and creep resistant steels
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Trouble shooting/process faults
Although good equipment maintenance and proper welder
training will help preventing process faults and weld defects,
they can never be avoided completely. In such cases, under-
standing of the most common causes will lead the welder to
quickly solving the problem encountered.
Listed below are the most common process faults and their
likely causes. For faults that result from incorrect setting or
wrong welding techniques, we refer to previous chapters
where correct handling of FILARC PZ6125 and related types is
described in detail. Weld defects and their origins are dis-
cussed on next pages.
Process faults Likely causes
1. wire stubbing - parameter settings
2. wire burn-back - wire reel brake too tight
- parameter settings
- damaged/worn contact tip
- burn-back time too long
3. spatter - parameter settings
- wrong shielding gas/gas flow rate
too high, too low or irregular
- irregular wire feed
- worn contact tip
- paint, rust or dirt in joint area
4. irregular wire feed/ - roll pressure too low
unstable arc/wire jam - damaged/worn contact tip
- wrong contact tip size
- overheated contact tip
- damaged/worn/bent liner
- dirty or rusty wire/wire kinks
- misalignment of rolls and
guide tubes/worn rolls
- wire reel brake too tight
- wire crossed on reel
(brake too loose)
- irregular gas flow
Trouble shooting/weld defects
Lack of fusion defects. There are several types of lack of fu-
sion defects, but all share the same feature that weld metal and
parent metal have not fused at one or more places.
Below, typical forms of lack of fusion are shown in a V-butt
weld. They can equally occur in other butt-weld types. Also
shown is a typical defect in fillet welds, where the weld metal
fails to fuse with, normally, the standing leg.
26 27
cold lap
lack of interrun fusion
lack of side wall fusion
lack of root fusion
lack of fusion
Possible causes Remedies
General
• travel speed too high - reduce travel speed/allow
more dwell time at edges
• wrong parameter setting - adjust parameters
• forehand welding - backhand welding, 70-90°
torch angle
Lack of root fusion
• root gap too small - enlarge gap
Fillet: lack of fusion at standing leg
• torch too much pointed at - change torch orientation
horizontal leg
FILARC welder guide
book No.1
PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire
and related types for high ten-
sile and creep resistant steels
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Lack of weld penetration
Lack of penetration occurs when the weld metal fails to extend
into the complete root of a joint. Shown below are three typi-
cal cases.
Possible causes Remedies
General
• welding current too low - increase wire feed/arc voltage
• arc voltage too high - reduce arc voltage
• travel speed too high - reduce travel speed
• travel speed too low - increase travel speed; avoid
slag running ahead of weld pool
• forehand welding - backhand welding
• torch angle too small - use 70-90° torch angle; aim
the arc at the leading edge of
the pool
Butt welds
• root gap too small/ - increase gap/reduce face
face too big
• joint included angle - increase angle
Slag inclusions
Slag inclusions occur when molten slag is not allowed to es-
cape to the surface of the weld pool, when the weld pool over-
rides slag running ahead of it, or when slag remainders at the
toe of beads are not sufficiently remolten.
Possible causes Remedies
• welding current too low - increase wire feed/arc voltage
• travel speed too low - increase travel speed; avoid
slag running ahead of weld pool
• forehand welding - backhand welding
• torch angle too small - use 70-90° torch angle; keep
slag behind arc
• convex beads - increase arc voltage
• too much weaving - reduce travel speed; when
possible use split-weave
technique, otherwise reduce
weaving width.
Avoid thick layers.
Porosity.
Possible causes Remedies
• draught/wind - close doors or windows/
place wind screens
• paint, grease or dirt - clean plates
in the weld area
• gas cup clogged - clean/replace
• gas cup distorted - replace
• gas cup too small - replace with one suiting the
or too big joint geometry
• gas flow too high - adjust flow rate
or too low
• gas leaks in system - check by blocking gas cup;
aspirate air continued gas flow indicates
leaks
• water leaks in cooled guns - check connections
• gas cup to workpiece - check positioning of contact tip
distance too long relative to gas cup;
readjust parameters
Undercutting
Undercutting is generally caused by an excessive welding cur-
rent or arc voltage, or may be the result of a too high travel
speed. To avoid this, lower wire feed speed and/or travel
speed until satisfactory bead appearance is obtained. If un-
dercutting appears at one leg of a fillet weld, the torch position
may be wrong; try increasing the angle between torch and op-
posite leg.
28 29
Examples of lack of root penetration
FILARC welder guide
book No.1
PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire
and related types for high ten-
sile and creep resistant steels
Previous page
Next page
Back to index page 1
Back to catalogue
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Tel : +32 2 726 84 00
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For countries not listed here:
FILARC Lastechniek B.V.
International Division
Utrecht, The Netherlands
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P.O. Box 8086
NL-3503 RB Utrecht
The Netherlands
Tel : +31302485911
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Printed in The Netherlands
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Member of The Esab Group

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