ALFABETUL ENGLEZESC

(The English Alphabet)
a/ei/
b/bi:/
c/ci:/
d/di:/
e/i:/
f/ef/
g/d3i:/
h/eitœ/
i/ai/
j/d3ei/
k/kei/
l/el/
m/em/
n/en/
o/ou/
p/pi:/
q/kju:/
r/a:/
s/es/
t/ti:/
u/ju:/
v/vi:/
w/¶d/blju:/
x/eks/
y/wai/
z/zed/

VERBUL(The Verb)
DEFINITIE(Definition).Verbul este partea de vorbire care exprima o actiune, o stare, un proces,
manifestarea sau modificarea unei insusiri, o atitudine, avand forme gramaticale caracteristice
determinate de aspect, diateza, mod, timp, persoana si numar, si indeplinind functia sintactica de predicat.
CLASIFICARE(Classification)
I. Din punctul de vedere al structurii morfologice exista verbe:
1. simple-e.g.:to go(a merge);
2. compuse-e.g.:to broadcast(a transmite),to side-track(a gara);
3.cu particula adverbiala-e.g.:to agree with(a fi de acord cu);
4.formate prin derivare
a)cu prefixe-e.g.: en-to enricle(a incercui); un-to unlock(a descuia); over-to overthrow(a rasturna); with-
to withdraw(a se retrage);
b) cu sufixe-e.g.:-en to deepen(a se adanci); -fy-to terify(a ingrozi); -ize-to caracterize(a caracteriza);
5. cu prepozitie obligatorie-e.g.:to listen to(a asculta);
6. locutiuni verbale-e.g.:to take care of(a avea grija de);
II.Din punctul de vedere al sensului lexical exista verbe:
1.predicative(formeaza singure predicat)e.g.:I saw you(Te-am vazut);
2.nepredicative:
a).verbele copulative(be, appear, seem, look, turn, become, get, grow, remain, stay, feel, keep,
prove)e.g.:He seems ill.(Pare bolnav);
b).verbele auxiliare(be, have, shall/should, will/would, may/might, can/could, do, let)e.g.:He was told a
lie.(I s-a spus o minciuna);
She was trying to sing.(Incerca sa cante);
c).verbele modale(can/could, must, may/might, shall/should, will/would, ought to, need, dare)e.g.:He
must see this play. (Trebuie sa vada aceasta piesa);
III.In limba engleza verbul are trei forme de baza:
1)Infinitivul(The Infinitive)-V1
2)Trecutul simplu(Past Tense)-V2
3)Participiul trecut(Past Participle)-V3
In functie de aceste trei forme, verbele se grupeaza in doua mari categorii:
1)verbe regulate(Regular Verbs)-formeaza Past Tense(V2) si Past Participle(V3) prin adaugarea
desinentei ±ed sau ±d la infinitivul scurt.
e.g.:Infinitive (V1) Past Tense(V2) Past Participle(V3)
to work worked worked(a munci)
2)verbe neregulate(Irregular Verbs)e.g.:to choose chose chosen(a alege).
In limba engleza, verbul are urmatoarele categorii gramaticale:aspect,diateza,mod,timp,numar si
persoana.
ASPECTUL(Aspect) reprezinta forma verbului prin care se exprima durata actiunii sau a starii.
In limba engleza exista trei aspecte:
I.1.Comun(The Indefinite Aspect)-actiunea este obisnuita-e.g.:He spoke to them(El le-a vorbit);
2.Continuu(The Continuous Aspect)-actiunea este in curs de desfasurare intr-un anumit moment:
e.g.: I am speaking now( Vorbesc acum);
II.1.Perfectiv(Perfective)-actiunea este terminata intr-un anumit moment(Perfect Simple)
e.g.:I had finished it(Terminasem);
2.Non-Perfectiv(Non-Perfective)-actiunea este inceputa anterior si este inca in desfasurare(Perfect
Continuous)
e.g.:I have been speaking for two hours.(Vorbesc de doua ore);
III.Frecventativ-creat cu ajutorul lui will/would,used to-.e.g.:They used to get up at six
o¶clock.(Obisnuiau sa se trezeasca la ora sase);
DIATEZA(Voice)
Diateza exprima o relatie de sens gramatical intre subiect si predicat.
I.Diateza activa(Active Voice)-arata ca actiunea este savarsita de subiectul gramatical.
e.g.:Birds of a feather flock together.(Prov.)Cine seamana se-aduna(Pasarile care au pene la fel
se-aduna la un loc);
II.Diateza Pasiva(Passive Voice)
Verbul´to be´/´to get´/´to become´ +Past Participle(V3)+Complementul de agent inclus de prepozitia
³by´.
e.g.The Proposal was supported by all those present.(Propunerea a fost sprijinita de catre toti cei
prezenti);
Mary sent the letter.(Mary a expediat scrisoarea)-diateza activa
The letter was sent by Mary.(Scrisoarea a fost expediata de catre Mary)-diateza pasiva
MODUL(Mood)
Arata felul in care vorbitorul considera actiunea din punctul de vedere al posibilitatii de indeplinire a ei in
realitate. In limba engleza exista:
1.MODURI PERSONAL-(pot forma predicatul unei propozitii):
a.Indicativ(The Indicative Mood)-actiunea este reala
b.Conditional(The Conditional)-actiunea este dorita sau conditionata
c.Subjonctiv(The Subjunctive)-actiunea este ireala sau presupusa
d.Imperativ( The Imperative)-actiunea este sugerata direct
2.MODURI NEPERSONALE
a.Infinitivul(The Infinitive)=to V
b.Gerundul(The Gerund)=V- ing
c.Participiul Prezent(Present Participle)=V-ing
d.Participiul Trecut(Past Participle)=V3
TIMPUL(Tense)
TIMPUL este categoria gramaticala care se refera la ordinea evenimentelor in timp, asa cum
este perceputa de vorbitor in momentul vorbirii.
In analiza timpului trebuie luate in consideratie trei elemente:a. momentul vorbirii
b. momentul savarsirii actiunii
c. axa sau momentul de referinta
In limba engleza exista urmatorul sistem de timpuri:
pe axa prezentului:Present, Present Perfect, Future
pe axa trecutului:Past Tense, Past Perfect, Future in the Past
pe axa viitorului:Near Future, Future Perfect,Future Simple
Future Simple
Present Near Future
Future Perfect then
Past Tense Future Present Perfect now Future /Axa viitorului
Past Perfect then in the Past /Axa Prezentului
Axa trecutului
NOW(acum)=the moment of speach(momentul vorbirii).Fata de acest moment, care constituie axa de
referinta a prezentului, evenimentele sunt:
anterioare- Present Perfect
simultane- Present
posterioare-Future
THEN(atunci)=un moment din trecut .Poate fi reprezentat de adverbe precum: yesterday, two days ago
,last week, etc. In raport cu acest moment anterior momentului vorbirii, si care da nastere axei de
referinta a trecutului, evenimentele sunt: anterioare-Past Perfe
simultane-Past Tens
posterioare-Future in the Past
In raport cu un anume eveniment posterior momentului vorbirii(THEN), pe axa viitorului,
evenimentele sunt: anterioare-Near Future, Future Perfect
simultane-Future Simple


LESSON 1
WHO AND WHAT ARE YOU ?
Good morning, everybody!
Who are you? I am Vistinia.
Who is he? He is Michael.
Who is she? She is Mrs. Brown.
Who are you? We are Mr. and Mrs. Brown.
Who are they? They are Mr. and Mrs. Smith.
What are you? I¶m a doctor.
What is he? He is an engineer.
What is she? She is a teacher.
What are you? We are doctors.
What are they? They are engineers.
What are you, Mrs. Smith? I am a woman, an economist.
You are an economist and I am a teacher.
What is Mr. Smith? He is a man, an engineer, he is not a journalist.
What is Mr. Brown? He is a lawyer.
What is Mrs. Brown? She is a lawyer, too.
They are both lawyers.
Miss Brown is a typist. She is an office-worker.
Isn¶t she a translator?
No, she isn¶t.
Is Miss Brown a student? Yes, she is. She¶s a very good student.
John is a boy. He is a schoolboy.
What is he like? He is short and fat.
Mary is a girl. She is a schoolgirl.
What is she like? She is tall and thin.
We are all students.
Are they also students? No, they aren¶t. They are engineers.
Are you an Englishman? No, I am not, I am a Romanian. I am a Romanian citizen.
How are you? I¶m fine. Thank you.

I. Answer the questions:
1.Who are you? 2.What are you? 3.Are you a man or a woman? 4. What is Mrs.
Brown? 5. What is Mr. Brown? 6.What is Mrs. Smith?7. Isn¶t she a typist? 8. What is Mr.
Smith? 9.Isn¶t he an architect?10. What is Miss Brown? 11. What is Mary? 12. What is
John?13.Who is a schoolboy? 14.What is John like? 15.Is Mary fat and short?16.What is she
like? 17.What are you all? 18.What am I? 19.Are you a Romanian?20.How are you?
II.Descriti-va in cateva cuvinte. Spuneti cine sunteti si cu ce va ocupati.
III. Traduceti in limba engleza:
1. Nu suntem noi cu totii studenti ? Da, suntem.
2. El este inginer sau economist ?
3. Cine esti tu ?
4. Ce esti tu ?
5. Esti economist sau medic?
6. Nu esti inginer?
7. Ei sunt elevi sau studenti?
8. Ei sunt, de asemenea, economisti ? Nu, nu sunt, ei sunt profesori.
9. Ce este domnul Smith, arhitect sau inginer ?
1 0. Domnisoara Brown este o studenta foarte buna .
11. Ea este dactilografa sau profesoara ?
12. Nu este Mary economista ? Nu, nu este; este eleva.
What is« Care este
« your profession? « profesia dv.?
«your occupation? « ocupatia dv.?
«your trade? « meseria dv.?
What kind of work do you do? Ce(fel de) munca prestati?
I am a teacher; I give lessons in English Literature Eu sunt profeor; predau lectii de literatura
at a languages school. engleza la o scoala de limbi straine.
I am a housewife; I look after my children, I do Eu sunt casnica; am grija de copiii mei, fac
the rooms and cook the meals of the day. curatenie si gatesc mesele zilei.
I do(a lot of)field-work; Im am up to my eyes in Eu fac(multa) munca de teren; sunt ocupat
work. pana peste cap.
I am a physician; I attend and cure the sick ones. Eu sunt medic; ingrijesc si vindec bolnavii.
I am a lawyer; I defend my clients. Eu sunt avocat; eu imi apar clientii.
I am still a student; I¶m studying to become a Eu sunt inca student; invat pentru a deveni
physicist. fizician.
What kind of work are you best fitted for? Pentru ce munca esti cel mai bine pregatit?
I possess the School-Leaving Certificate of the« Posed certificatul de absolvire al«
I have graduated Hyperion University where I Sunt absolvent al Universitatii Hyperion
took my degree in« unde am obtinut diploma in«
I want to apply for the job«That job suits me. Doresc sa ofertez pentru postul«Serviciul
acesta imi convine.
I have a good knowledge of« Am cunostinte bune in«
What prospects are there for me? Ce perspective am aici?
Have you got a full-time job or a part-time job? Aveti norma intreaga sau partiala?
What is your salary/wage? Ce salariu aveti?
Are you paid by the day/by the week/by the month? Sunteti platit cu ziua/cu saptamana/cu
luna?
What is your yearly income? Care este venitul dv. anual?
My salary/wage amounts to«a month but we Salariul meu se ridica la«pe luna dar
expect a wage-rise next autumn. asteptam majorarea salariilor la toamna.
***

GRAMMAR
INDICATIVUL PREZENT AL VERBULUI ¶¶TO BE¶¶
(The Present Indicative of the Verb 'to be'¶)
Verbul ´to be´ are trei forme:am, is, are
Afirmativ Negativ Interogativ

( Negativ)
I am I am not Am I (not) ?
You are You are not Are you (not) ?
He Is He Is not Is he (not) ?
She Is She Is not Is she (not) ?
It Is It Is not Is It (not) ?
We are We are not Are we (not) ?
You are You are not Are you (not) ?
They are They are not Are they (not) ?


I¶m,
you're,
I'm not,
you're not
Aren't you ?
isn't he?

he's, she's,
it's,
(you aren't),
he's not
Isn't she ?

we're,
you're
isn't it ?

they're (he isn't), she's not aren't we ?
Forme

(she Isn't), it's not aren't you ?
contrase

(it Isn't), we're not, aren't they ?

(we aren't), you're


not (you aren't),


they're not (they aren¶t)


in vorbire se folosesc de preferinta
formele contrase
Verbul ´to be´ si verbele modale formeaza negativul adaugand negatia not(n¶t):
I am not-I¶m not/I can not-I can¶t
1. Completati spatiile libere cu forma corespunzatoare a verbului 'to be´:
1. It« a book. 2. John and Jack students. 3. I a teacher. 4. She a housewife. 5.They engineers. 6.
Mr. Black an architect. 7. We economists. 8. You an engineer. 9.Mrs. Smith an economist. 10.
You office-workers.
2.Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la interogativ, negativ si interogativ - negativ :
1. I am a student. 2. Mrs. Black is a housewife. 3. He is tall. 4. You are a typist. 5. They
are schoolgirls. 6. We are students. 7. She is a Romanian.
3.Raspundeti la intrebari, conform modelului :
Model: Is he an economist, or a teacher?
He is an economist, he isn't a teacher.
1. Is she a typist or a housewife? 2. Am I an engineer or an architect? 3. Is he a schoolboy or a
student? 4. Are we economists or doctors? 5. Are you an office - worker or a schoolgirl? 6. Is he
tall or short? 7. Is she fat or thin? 8. Are you a Romanian or an Englishman? 9. Are you students
or teachers?
4.Puneti intrebari la urmatoarele propozitii si raspundeti, conform modelului: .
Model: He is a teacher.
Who is a teacher? He is.
1. She is a doctor. 2. We are economists. 3. They are engineers. 4. He is an architect. 5. Bob is a
schoolboy. 6. Miss Brown is a typist. 7. I am an economist. 8. You are a teacher.
ARTICOLUL NEHOTARAT
(The Infefinite Article)
Reguli Exemple
-se aseaza inaintea substantivului pe care a book-o carte
il determina ;

- are forma ,,a´ cand cuvantul care urmeaza a teacher - un profesor
incepe cu un sunet consonantic sau semivocalic ; a woman - o femeie
- are forma 'an' cand cuvantul care urmeaza an English book ± o carte de engleza
incepe cu un sunet vocalic ;
- are aceeasi forma indiferent de genul si
cazul substantivului pe care il determina ; a man - un barbat
a woman - o femeie
a book - o carte
-se intrebuinteaza inaintea substantivelor I am an engineer-Sunt inginer.
ce denumesc o profesie, nationalitatea sau I am a man.-Sunt barbat.
inaintea substantivelor ´man´,¶¶woman´,´child´.
1.Completati spatiile libere cu articole nehotarate:
1.This child was«great confort to her in her misfortune.2.Our leader has«strong will.3.A
coward is known to have «weak will.4.It is « great hardship to spend a night in winter in the
open.5.She seldom catches cold, but when she catches it, it is«bad cold.6.It was«unexpected
stroke of good luck.7.This is «unbearable illness.8.It is«pretty sight to see children playing.
2.Dati forma corecta a articolului nehotarat folosit cu urmatoarele substantive :
economist, student, typist. tourist, engineer, house, room, desk, Englishman, schoolgirl, bird,
office, boy, citizen, architect, classroom.
PRONUMELE PERSONALE
(Personal Pronouns)
Singular Plural
I. I We

II. You You
III.He ,She, It They
- Pronumele personal ,, I´ se scrie intotdeauna cu majuscula .
- Pronumele personal persoana a III-a sg. neutru ,,it´inlocuieste substantive ce denumesc
obiecte, animale si notiuni abstracte.
1.Inlocuiti substantivele subliniate cu pronumele personale corespunzatoare:
1. Mrs. Smith is an economist. 2. Bob is a schoolboy. 3. Mr. Black is a good engineer. 4. Miss
Brown is a typist. 5. Mary is a schoolgirl. 6. Jack and John are students. 7. Bob and I are
economists.
***
LESSON 2
WHAT IS THIS ?
Good afternoon, everybody !
What is this? This is a classroom. This classroom is large and bright.There are a lot of things
in this classroom : a table, many desks, a blackboard, a map, a picture and a lamp.
This is the door and that is the window. This door is closed and that window is open. This is
the table and that is the chair. This table is yellow and that chair is brown. This is the floor and
that is the ceiling.
These are the books and those are the exercise-books. These books are open,and those
exercise-books are shut. These are the pencils and those are the fountain-pens.
Is there a bookcase in the classroom? No, there isn¶t.
Isn¶t there a picture on the wall?Yes, there is.
There are many desks in the classroom.
Aren¶t there many English books on these desks? Yes, there are.
Are there many tables in the classroom? No, there aren¶t. There is only one.
I. Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1.Is this a classroom or an office? 2.What is there in the classroom? 3.Is the door
open? 4.Is the window closed?5.Is the table yellow or brown?6.Are there many desks in the
classroom?7.What are there on the desks?8.Is there a map on the wall?
II.Puneti colegului intrebari legate de lucrurile existente in clasa voastra.
III. Traduceti in limba engleza :
1. Aceasta.este o clasa mare si luminoasa . Sunt o multime de lucruri aici: o masa ,o tabla, multe
pupitre si scaune. Pe pupitre sa afla carti, caiete, creioane si stilouri. Cartile sunt deschise,
caietele sunt inchise. Pe pereti sunt doua tablouri si o harta . Usa este inchisa, fereastra este
deschisa . 2. Sunt multi studenti in clasa ? 3. Acela este plafonul sau podeaua? 4. Masa este
neagra sau maro? 5. Se afla o carte deschisa pe pupitrul acela? 6. In clasa se aflla numai o tabla.
***
GRAMMAR
ARTICOLUL HOTARAT
(The Definite Article)
Reguli Exemple
Articolul hotarat :
- se aseaza inaintea substantivului the table - masa
pe care i1 determina ;
-are aceeasi forma ,indiferent de genul, the man - barbatul
cazul si numarul substantivului pe care the woman - femeia
il determina;
-se articuleaza cu articol hotarat substantivele on the table - pe masa
precedate de o prepozitie. in the classroom ±in clasa
1.Traduceti in limba engleza:
1.Toti baietii sunt acolo. 2.Da-mi, te rog, sarea. 3.Familia este jos, la parter.4.Unde este
cartea?5.El este la biblioteca.6.Soarele rasare din est.
2.Completati spatiile libere cu articolul potrivit:
1.Do you play«piano?2.He doesn¶t like goose but he find«goose you have at your dinner
delicious.

CONSTRUCTIILE ''THERE IS', 'THERE ARE'
(There is, There are)
Afirmativ

Negativ Interogativ (Negativ)
there is

there is not is there (not)?
there are

there are not are there (not)?

Forme contrase There¶s not(there Isn¶t there?
isn't),(there¶re not)
There¶s,there're (there aren¶t) aren't there?
Aceste constructii se aseaza inaintea subiectului logic al propozitiei, pe care il
anticipeaza si cu care se acorda in numar.
Exemple:
There is a blackboard in the classroom.- Exista o tabla in clasa .
There are many desks in the classroom.-Exista multe pupitre in clasa .
1.Completati spatiile libere cu forme ale verbului µ¶to be¶¶:
1.There a lot of exercise - books on the desks. 2. There a blackboard in the classroom. 3. There a
lot of pictures on the walls. 4. There a table in the classroom. 5. There a lot of things in this
room. 6. There pens and pencils on the desks. 7. There . a map on the wall. 8. There a lot of
desks in the classroom. 9. There a fountain - pen on the desk. 10. There a lot of chairs in the
classroom.
2.Raspundeti la intrebari, conform modelului :
Model: Is there a bookcase in the classroom?
Yes, there is. No, there isn't.
Are there many desks in the classroom?
Yes, there are.
No, there aren't.
1. Is there a blackboard in the classroom? 2. Is there a book on the desk? 3. Are there many
students in the classroom? 4. Is there a picture on the wall? 5. Is there a table in the classroom? 6.
Are there many chairs in the classroom? 7. Are there pens and pencils on the desks? 8. Is there a
black fountain - pen on the table?
3.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari conform modelului :
Yes, it is.
No, it isn't. It's an office.
1. Is this a pen (fountain - pen)? 2. Is this the floor (ceiling)? 3. Is this a desk (table)? 4. Is this a
closed window (open window)? 5. Is this a book (exercise- book)? 6. Is this a red pencil (green
pencil)?
PRONUMELE SI ADJECTIVELE DEMONSTRATIVE
(Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives)
Pronumele Demonstrative Adjectivele Demonstrative
This is a door. - Aceasta este o
usa.
This door is open. ± Aceasta usa este

deschisa .
That is a window. - Aceea este o
That window is closed. - Fereastra
aceea este inchisa.
fereastra.

These are doors. - Acestea sunt
usi.
These doors are open. - Usile acestea

sunt deschise.
Those are windows. -- Acelea sunt
Those windows are closed.
Ferestrele acelea sunt inchise.
ferestre.

1.Traduceti in limba engleza:
1.Aceasta este o sufragerie.2.Acesta nu este un computer, este un casetofon.3.Acela este varul
meu.4.Este aceea verisoara voastra?5.Acestia sunt prietenii mei.6.Acestea nu sunt cunostintele
mele.7.Aceia sunt necunoscuti.8.Acelea nu sunt cartile mele
***
LESSON 3
THIS IS MY BOOK

Good evening, ladies and gentlemen !
Good evening, sir !
This is my book. I have a new Engish book.
Have you an exercise-book, too? Yes, I have.
You have a thick exercise-book. Your exercise-book is on your desk.
Have you a Romanian-English conversation guide-book? No, I haven¶t.
He has new gloves.His gloves are brown.
Has he new shoes, too? No, he hasn¶t.
Hasn¶t Mrs. Smith a new nice dress on? Yes, she has. Her dress is blue. Its colour is
blue.All the ladies in this room have nice dresses on.
This room has four walls. Its walls are white.
We all have wrist watches. They are our wrist watches.
Haven¶t you English-Romanian dictionaries? Yes, we have.
They are on those shelves.
Have those secretaries new computers? Yes, they have.
They haven¶t their English classes in the morning. They have their English classes in the
evening.

I.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1.Have you a new English book? Where is it ? And where is your exercise-book? 2. Has
she a Romanian- English conversation guide-book?3.What colour is her dress? Is it a nice
dress?4.Have you new shoes?5.Has he new gloves?6.Haven¶t we all wrist watches?7.Have they
English-Romanian dictionaries?8.Are their dictionaries on their desks?9.Have we our English
classes in the evening?
II.Imaginati-va un interviu cu cel mai bogat om din lume.
III. Traduceti in limba engleza :
1.Noi nu avem cu totii ghid de conversatie englez - roman. 2. Cartile si caietele lor sunt in
ghiozdane ? 3. Noi nu avem ore de engleza seara 4. Pantofii tai cei noi sunt negri sau
maro? 5. Studentii aceia nu au carti noi de engleza . 6. Clasa noastra are peretii albi ?
7.Aveti cu totii dictionare ? 8. Toti studentii din aceasta clasa au pe pupitre carti, caiete,
creioane si stilouri. 9. Ce culoare au manusile tale? 10. Caietele lor sunt pe pupitre sau in
ghiozdane?
***

GRAMMAR
INDICATIVUL PREZENT AL VERBULUI 'TO HAVE'
(The Present Indicative of the Verb 'to have¶¶)
Afirmativ Negativ Interogativ+(Negativ)

I have I have not Have I (not) ?


You have You have not Have you (not) ?


He has He has not Has he (not)?


She has She has not Has she (not) ?


It has It has not Has It (not)?


We have We have not Have we (not) ?


You have You have not Have you (not) ?


They have They have not Have they (not)?


I've,
you've,
I've not (I haven't),
Haven't I ?
haven't you ?

he's, she's, you've not (you hasn't he? hasn't she ?

It¶s
we've,
you've
haven't),
hasn't It ?
haven't we ?

they've he's not (he hasn't) ,
haven't you ?
haven't they?
Forme

she's not (she hasn't),

contrase

it's not (It hasn't)


we've not (we


haven't),


you've not (you


haven't),


they've not (they


haven't)

Verbul ´to have´, cand nu are sensul de Äa poseda´ ,formeaza negativul, interogativul si
interogativ-negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului ´to do´:
e.g:.I have a walk-Eu fac o plimbare
I don¶t have a walk-Eu nu fac o plimbare
Do you have a walk?-Faci o plimbare?
Don¶t you have a walk?-Nu faci o plimbare?
1.Completati spatiile libere cu forma corespunzatoare a verbului 'to have´ :
1. This room four white walls. 2. Those secretaries new computers. 3. That schoolboy a new
school bag. 4. Mrs. Smih a new smart dress. 5. your house four rooms ? 6. All the
students good English - Romanian dictionaries.
2.Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la interogativ, negativ, interogativ-negativ :
1. We have a new classroom. 2. They all have wrist watches. 3. The teacher has a red
pencil. 4. You all have conversation guide books. 5. Mary has new smart shoes. 6. All the
students have good dictionaries.
3. Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari, conform modelului :
Model: Have I a new English book ?
Yes, I have. No, I haven't.
1. Have all the students Romanian - English conversation guide books? 2. Have those school
boys new pencil - boxes? 3. Has Miss Brown a new wrist watch? 4: Have you many pencils? 5.
Has John a black fountain - pen?
PLURALUL SUBSTANTIVELOR
(The plural of Nouns)
Pluralul substantivelor se formeaza adaugand terminatia-s- la forma de singular.
A student-students
un student-studenti
Urmatoarele substantive formeaza pluralul adaugand terminatia ±es la forma de singular.
1. substantivele terminate in: - ch -sh, -s, -ss, -x. -zz:
watch - watches (ceas ± ceasuri); brush - brushes (perie ± perii); bus-buses (autobuz -autobuze );
dress - dresses (rochie ± rochii); box - boxes (cutie - cutii);
2. substantivele , terminate in -y precedat de consoana (y se transforma in i)
lady - ladies (doamna- doamne);dictionary - dictionaries (dictionar-dictionare); secretary -
secretaries (secretara- secretare);
N. B. Substantivele terminate in y precedat de vocala formeaza pluralul adaugand la forma de
singular termintia ± s iar y ramane neschimbat:
boy - boys(baiat ± baieti);day - days(zi - zile);
3. substantivele terminate in:-f.,-fe(f se transforma in v):
shelf- shelves (raft- rafturi)housewife -housewives (gospodina - gospodine);
4.Substantivele terminate in -o precedat de consoana:
potato -potatoes (cartof cartofi); tomato -tomatoes (rosie- rosii);
1.Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la plural:
1. This is a classroom. 2. Is that an office? 3. There is a blackboard in the classroom. 4. The
window isn't open. 5. That is the ceiling. 6. Is this a fountain - pen? 7. Is the door closed?
8. Isn't that classroom large? 9. Is there a picture on the wall? 10. There is a bookcase in
the classroom.
SUBSTANTIVE CU PLURAL NEREGULAT
(The Irregular Plural of Nouns)
Singular Plural
man - barbat men -barbati
woman - femeie women- femei
child - copil children - copii
foot - picior feet -picioare
tooth -dinte teeth - dinti
goose - gasca geese -gaste
mouse - soarece mice - soareci
die - zar dice - zaruri
1.Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la singular:
1.These men are our fellow workers.2.Those ladies are our secretaries.3.Our books are on the
shelves.4.Those children have many toys.5.Their dresses are very smart.6.They are
housewives.7.Those women are engineers.8.We have wrist watches.

DECLINAREA SUBSTANTIVELOR

Singular

Plural
N. Peter Petre,


Petru,


Peter

G. Peter's (ai, a, ai,


of Peter ale) lui


Petre etc.

D. (to) Peter lui Petre


etc.

Ac. Peter pe Petre


etc.

V. Peter! Petre!

N. a boy (un) baiat

boys baieti
G. a boy's, (al, a, ai, boys; (al, a, ai,

of a boy ale) unui of boys ale) baietilor

baiat

D. (to) a boy unui baiat (to) boys Baietilor
Ac. a boy (pe)un

boys Baieti

baiat

V. boy! baiete boys! Baieti!

Baiatule!

N. the boy baiatul the boys Baietii
G. the boy's (al, a ai,ale) the boys; (al, a, ai,

of the boy baiatului
of the
boys
ale) baietilor

D. (to) the boy baiatului (to) the
Baietilor

boys
Ac. the boy baiatul, pe the boys Baietii,pe baieti

baiat

V.

N. this table aceasta
these
tables
Aceste

masa

Mese
G. of this table (al, a, ai of these (al, a, ai,

ale) tables ale)

acestei

Acestor

mese

Mese
D. (to) this acestei (to) these Acestor

table mese tables Mese
Ac. this table aceasta
these
tables
Aceste

masa

Mese
V.

ADJECTIVELE POSESIVE
(Possessive Adjectives)

Singular Plural
I my Our
II your Your
III his,her,its Their
Reguli Exemple

Adjectivul posesiv

se aseaza intotdeauna inaintea
substan-
My book - cartea mea

tivului pe care il determina ; 929g64j

-are aceeasi forma, indiferent de
genul,
My son-fiul meu

cazul si numarul substantivului pe
care
My daughter - fiica mea

il determina ; 929g64j My watch - ceasul meu

N.B. Substantivele determinate de un My pencils - creioanele mele

adjectiv posesiv nu se articuleaza .
our house - casa noastra


1.Completati spatiile libere cu adjectivul posesiv corespunzator :
1. We have a lot of books on desks. They are books. 2. The secretary has a new computer.
computer is on desk. 3. Those students have good English - Romanian dictionaries. dictionaries
are on the shelves. 4. Jack has a blue pencil. pencil is in pencil- box. 5. Those ladies have new
dresses on. dresses are very smart. 6. That room has three windows. windows are open.
***
LESSON 4
THIS BOOK IS MINE
This is my book. It is mine.
That computer is yours,isn¶t it?Yes, it is. It is not hers.
They have two children : a son and a daughter, haven¶t they? Yes, they have. Those are
their balls. His is brown, hers is red.
Whose is this white car? It is ours, it is not theirs, but where is yours?
The Browns have a new T.V. set. It is their T.V.set. It is theirs, not yours.
I am a teacher, am I not? Yes, you are.
You are not at the office now, are you? No, I am not.
This child has a lot of toys, hasn¶t he ? Yes, he has.
The man over there is not our manager, is he ? No, he isn¶t.
Jack hasn¶t an English book, has he?No, he hasn¶t.
This woman is your colleague, isn¶t she? Yes, she is.
These men are your friends, aren¶t they?Yes, they are.
They are not very busy today, are they? No, the aren¶t, to be sure.
I. Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1.Whose is the book on your desk, is it mine or yours?2.But where is mine?3.Is that white
car yours?What colour is theirs?4.Have the Browns a new T.V.set? 5.Is the man over there our
manager?6.Are all the women in this room your colleagues?7.Are you at the office now?
II. Traduceti in limba engleza :
1. Aveti multi prieteni, nu-i asa ? 2. Unde sunt ei acum ? 3. Sunt la birou sau in clasa?
4.Masina aceea albastra este a lor, nu este a dumneavoastra, nu-i asa ? 5. Copiii au multe jucarii,
nu-i asa ? 6. Ale cui sunt toate aceste lucruri ? 7. In biroul nostru sunt doua femei si
trei barbati. 8. Al cui este stiloul acela rosu, al tau sau al ei ? 9. Unde sunt cartile si caietele
voastre ? Ale mele sunt pe pupitru. 10. Creionul acesta este al tau, nu-i asa?
***
GRAMMAR
PRONUMELE POSESIVE
(Possessive Pronouns)
Singular I. mine II.yours III.his, hers
Plural I.ours II.yours III.theirs
1.Completati spatiile libere cu pronume posesive :
1. This is my room. It is .2. That is your pencil. It is . 3.This is his fountain - pen. It
is .4. That¶s her typewriter. It is .5. This is our T.V. set. It is .6. That is your house.
It is « . 7. Those are their exercise - books. They are . 8. We have a red car. It is . 9.
She has a nice room. It is . are .1o. I have a new dress. It is . 11. You have a new car. It is.

INTREBARI DISJUNCTIVE
(Disjunctive Questions)
Reguli
In limba engleza, expresia 'nu-i asa´?nu este invariabila ca in limba romana, ea se
schimba in functie de verbul din prima propozitie.
a) Daca in prima propozitie verbul este afirmativ, expresia 'nu-i asa' din a doua propozitie,
este redata prin interogativ- negativul verbului din prima propozitie la acelsi timp si
persoana(forma
contrasa).
Daca subiectul primei propozitii este exprimat printr-un substantiv, acesta va fi inlocuit
cu pronumele corespunzator.
b) Daca in prima propozitie verbul este negativ, expresia 'nu-i asa?' este redata prin
interogativul verbului din prima propozitie.
Exemple:
You have a book, haven¶t you?
Ai o carte, nu-i asa?
John is an economist, isn¶t he?
Ion este economist, nu-i asa?
He hasn¶t many friends, has he?
El nu are multi prieteni, nu-i asa?
1.Adaugati intrebari disjunctive:
1.She has a new dress.2.They aren¶t at the office now.3.Your English book is on your desk.4.We
haven¶t our English classes in the evening.5.I am your teacher.6.You have a new T.V. set.7.She
is a doctor.8.He isn¶t an arhitect.9.You are in the classroom now.10.All the ladies have nice
dresses on.
***
LESSON 5
THIS IS MR. SMITH¶S CAR
Whose car is this? This is Mr. Smith¶s car.
Isn¶t it Mr. Brown¶s car? No, it isn¶t, it is Mr. Smith¶s.
What colour is Mr. Smith¶s car? His car is red. The colour of his car is red.
That is Mary¶s handbag, isn¶t it? It is not that girl¶s. It is not the handbag of that girl.
All the students¶fountain-pens are on treir desks.
The ladies¶ball point pens are in their handbags.
Have you got your own flat? Yes, we have. Our flat is modern and confortable. It has six
rooms. The rooms of our flat are large and bright.
Is that your flat? No,it isn¶t .It is the Smiths¶.Ours is next to it.
I¶ve got two children. The children¶s toys are in their room. The door of the children¶s
room is closed.
This man¶s name is Bill. That woman¶s name is Jane.
These men¶s exercise-books are open. Those women¶s exercise-books are open, too.

I. Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1.Whose car is that, is it yours or Mr. Smith¶s? 2.Have you got a car? 3.What colour is
it?4.Whose is the fountain-pen on your desk?5.Is this computer yours or that girl¶s? 6.Whose is
that handbag, is it Mary¶s or that girl¶s?7.Where are the students¶fountain-pens?8.Where are
those ladies¶ball point pens?9.How many rooms has your flat?10.Is the Smiths¶ flat next to ours?
II.Formulati scurte dialoguri folosind genitivul.
III.Traduceti in limba engleza :
1. Pe rafturile bilbliotecii din clasa noastra sunt o multime de dictionare.2. Fereastra
clasei
noastre este deschisa. 3. Computerul acela nu este al tau, este al secretarei, nu-i asa? 4. Toate
cartile si caietele studentilor sunt pe pupitrele lor. 5. Usa camerei copiilor esta inchisa. 6. A cui
este poseta aceea de pe masa, a doamnei Smith sau a doamnei Brown? 7.Peretii clasei noastre
sunt albi. 8. Apartamentul familiei Smith are trei camera, iar apartamemul familiei Brown are
sase camere.
***
GRAMMAR
GENITIVUL
Genitivul Prepozitional (analitic)
Reguli
1. Se reda cu ajutorul prepozitiei ,,of´,ordinea cuvintelor fiind :
- substantivul ce denumeste obiectul posedat (precedat de articol hotarat) - prepozitia of -
substantivul ce denumeste posesorul (precedat de articol hotarat):the pencils of the students-
creioanele studentilor
2. Se foloseste cand numele posesorului este exprimat prin :
a) substantive comune care denumesc fiinte :the book of the student-cartea studentului
b) substantive comune care denumesc obiecte:the walls of the room-peretii camerei
Genitivul Saxon(sintetic)
Reguli
1.Se reda prin 's (apostrof s) sau ¶(apostrof), ordinea cuvintelor fiind:
- substantivul ce denumeste posesorul,
- 's sau',
- substantivul ce denumeste obiectul posedat.
Bill¶s pencil-creionul lui Bill
Se adauga 's:
- dupa substantive la singular: Jack¶s book-cartea lui Jack
- dupa substantive cu plural neregulat la plural: the women¶s club-clubul femeilor
Se adauga ' dupa substantive la plural: the students¶ books-cartilor studentilor
2. Se foloseste cand numele posesorului este exprimat prin:
a) substantive proprii nume de fiinte:Nick¶s room-camera lui Nick
b) substantive comune care denumesc fiinte : oameni si animale :the boy¶s pencil-creionul
baiatului
c) substantive nume de tari:Romania¶s industry-industria Romaniei
N.B. Substantivul care denumeste posesorul :
-se articuleaza cu articol hotarat daca este un substantiv comun la singular sau la plural sau un
substantiv propriu la plural: the student¶s dictionary-dictionarul studentului
- nu primeste articol daca este un substantiv propriu la singular.Substantivul care denumeste
obiectul posedat nu se articuleaza in nici o situatie:John¶s pencil-creionul lui Ion.
1.Inlocuiti genitivul prepozitional cu cel saxon, unde este posibil:
1.She is the daughter of my friend.2.The colour of his car is red.3.The books of those students
are on their desks.4.The windows of the classroom are open.5.The name of that girl is
Mary.6.There are many pictures on the walls of our classrooms.7.He is the son of the man over
there.8.The name of my friend is John.9.The colour of my pen is black.10.The toys of those
children are on the table.
LESSON 6
WHOM CAN YOU SEE IN THIS PICTURE ?
Who is this man ? This man is Mr. Smith.
Whom can you see in picture number one ? In picture number one I can see Mr. Smith. I can see
him.
What is he like ? He is tall, young and handsome.
Who is that woman ? That woman is Mrs. Brown.
Whom can you see in picture number two ? In picture number two I can see Mrs. Brown. I can
see her.
What is she like ? She is thin and very beautiful indeed.
In picture number three we can see you studying in the library and in picture number four we can
see them in the park.
Whose is that exercise-book ? Whose exercise-book is it ? That is Mrs. Smith¶s exercise-book.
Give me her exercise-book, please !Give it to me !
To whom must you write this letter ? Who must you write this letter to ?
I must write this letter to him, not to her, to them, not to you.
Which of these students is your friend ? Which student is your friend ?
Which of these dictionaries is yours ? Which dictionary is yours ?
What writer is your favourite?
Don¶t ask us so many questions, please !
Lend him your dictionary, please !
Give them an answer to their question, please !
Ask me another question, please !
Give us an example, please !
I.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:

1.Whom can you see in picture number one? 2. What is Mr. Smith like? 3. Whom can you see in
picture number two? 4. What is Mrs. Brown like? 5. Whom can you see in picture number three?
6. Whom can you see in the park? 7. Whose is the exercise-book on your desk? 8. Is that Mrs.
Smith's exercise - book? 9. Who must you write a letter to? 10. Which of those students is an
economist? 11. To whom must you lend your dictionary?
II.Formulati intrebari folosind pronumele interogative what, whom, who, which
III. Traduceti in limba engleza:
1. Cine este barbatul din primul tablou? 2. Cum arata el? 3. In tabloul numarul doi o
vedem pe doamna Smith. 4. Trebuie sa-i scrii (ei) o scrisoare.5. Pe cine vedeti in tabloul numarul
trei? 6. Cui trebuie sa- i imprumutati aeeasta carte? 7. Ii vedem studiind in biblioteca8. Aratati-
mi clasa dumneavoastra, va rog. 9. Ale cui sunt cartile acelea de pe raft? 10.Care dintre copii este
fiul tau? 11. Imprumuta-i (lui) dictionarul tau, te rog. 12.Multumiti-le pentru carti. 13. Trebuie
sa-ti arat dictionarul meu cel nou. 14. Dati - ne un raspuns la intrebare, va rugam!
***
GRAMMAR
PRONUMELE PERSONALE IN CAZURILE DATIV SI ACUZATIV
(The Personal Pronouns in the Dative and Accusative Case)
Nominativ
Sg. I. I
II.You
III.He She It
Pl. I. We
II.You
III.They
Dativ
Sg.(to) me
(to) you
(to) him (to) her (to) it
Pl.(to) us
(to) you
(to) them
Acuzativ
Sg. Me
You
Him,her,it
Pl. Us
You
Them

Exemple
S. P. C.I. C.D.
I must give him my book. - Trebuie sa-i dau cartea mea.
S. P. C.D C.I.
I must give my book to him. -Trabuie sa- i dau cartea mea lui, nu altcuiva.
1.Inlocuiti pronumele personale in cazul Nominativ din paranteza cu pronume in
cazurile Dativ sau Acuzativ :

1. Write a letter to (she) ! 2. Lend (I) your dictionary ! 3 Ask (he) another question! 4. I can
see (they) in the classroom 5. Don't ask (we) so many questions!6. Give (they) an example,
please! 7. Give (we} an answer to our question! 8.Thank (you) for the fountain - pen ! 9.I can see
(you) studying in the library .10. Show (I) your car !

PRONUMELE SI ADJECTIVELE INTEROGATIVE
(Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives)
Reguli
1. Pentru persoane, se folosesc urmatoarele pronume si adjective interogative :
Exemple
a) N. who?
G. whose?
D. (to) whom?
Ac. Whom?
b) which? (implica selectia)
c) what?
2. Pentru animale si lucruri se folosesc urmatoarele pronume si adjective interogative :
a) what?
b) which? ( implica selectia) .

Exemple
Who is he? (pron.) -Cine este el?
Whose is that book? (pron.) -A cui este cartea aceasta?
Whose book is it?-A cui carte este?
To whom must you write a letter?(Pron)-Cui trebuie sa- i scrii o scrisoare?
What is he? (pron.) - Ce este el? What writer is your favourite? (adj.) Ce scriitor este favoritul
tau?
What is this? (pron.) - Ce este?
What can you see in this picture? (pron.) - Ce vedeti in acest tablou?
What dictionary is that on the shelf? (adj.).- Ce dictionar este acela de pe raft?
Which text must I read?(adj.)-Pe care dintre texte trebuie sa- l citesc?
1.Completati spatiile libere cu pronume interogative.Dati mai multe varinte acolo unde este
posibil:
1«.of these books is yours?2«.can you see in this picture?3«.is that book?4«.must you write
a letter to?5«is Mr.Smith,an economist or an arhitect?6«.is this man?7«.is he like?8«of these
men is your teacher?9.To «must you thank for it?10«.can you see studying in the library?
***

LESSON 7
EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES
On weekdays, John wakes up at a quarter to seven. He gets out of bed, opens the window
and does his morning exercises in front of the open window.
Next, he goes into the bathroom.He brushes his teeth, shaves himself and has a shower or
a bath. He brushes his teeth, shaves himself and has a shower or a bath.. Then he combs his hair
and goes to the dining-room to have breakfast. After breakfast, he puts on his overcoat and at
half past seven he leaves for his office.He gets to the office at ten to eight.
At half past four he goes home.After dinner, he has a short rest and then, if necessary, he
goes shopping.
In the evening they watch a film or an interesting programme on the T.V.,read something
or listen to music. Sometimes, especially on Sundays, they have guests or call on their friends,
go for a walk,to the cinema, to the theatre, to a concert or to the restaurant.
Generally, they go to bed at half past eleven.
I do my shopping in the department store on the groung floor of the block of flats I live in.
-What does your wife do after dinner?
She cooks, bakes a cake, sews or knits.
-What do you do before you go to bed?
Before I go to bed I take off my clothes, put on my pyjamas and switch off the light.Soon
I fall asleep. I sleep almost eight hours.
DIALOGUE
Helen:What is your daughter¶s daily programme?
George:My daughter, who is a schoolgirl, is back from school at one o¶clock.She has lunch, and
after a short rest, she does her homework for the next day.
Helen:But how does she spend her spare time?
George:She goes cycling, plays tennis, goes to the swimming pool or plays the piano.
Helen:Your son is a student,isn¶t he?
George:Yes, he is.
Helen:Is he very busy?
George:No, not very.Generally he has six classes a day.When he has no classes, he spends an
hour or two in the library, he goes for a walk in the park, plays a game of chess, football,
basketball or goes to the students¶club.
I. Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari :
1.What time does John wake up on weekdays? 2. Does he do his morning exercises every
day? 3. Where does he have his shower? 4. What does he do next? 5. Where does he have his
breakfast? 6. What does he do after breakfast? 7. What time does he leave for his office? 8. What
time is the programme at the office over? 9. What does he do when his programme is over? 10.
What do they do in the evening? 11. What do they do on Sundays?
II.Vorbiti despre programul vostru zilnic.
III.Traduceti in limba engleza:
1. Mergeti la birou in fiecare zi a saptamanii? 2. In general ajungem acasa la ora 5. De
obicei plec la birou la ora sapte si douazeci. 4. Nu mergem niciodata dupa cumparaturi
dimineata in zilele de lucru. 5. In fiecare dimineata luam micul dejun la ora sapte fara un sfert.
6. Seara ascultam muzica sau urmarim programul de televiziune. 7. Ana se duce la bazinul de
inot in fiecare duminica 8. Cate ore are el in fiecare zi? 9. Care este programul tau zilnic? 10. Noi
nu mergem la teatru in fiecare saptamana 11. Sunteti foarte ocupat saptamana aceasta? 12. De
obicei, dupa ce luam masa de seara, facem o plimbare in parc.
***
GRAMMAR
MODUL INDICATIV
TIMPUL PREZENT SIMPLU
(The Present Tense Simple)
Definitie:Prezentul Simplu desemneaza un eveniment care are loc intr-un interval de timp
nespecificat incluzand momentul vorbirii, sau o actiune care se repeta.
Formare:

Afirmativ Negativ Interogativ (- Negativ)


I write I do not write Do I (not) write?


You write You do not write Do you (not) write?


He writes He does not write Does he (not) write?


She writes She does not write Does she (not) write?


It writes It does not write Does it (not) write?


We write We do not write Do we (not) write?


You write You do not write Do you (not) write?


They write They do not write Do they (not) write?

Forme

I don't write, he doesn't Don't I write?, doesn't he
contrase

write, etc write? etc.

Afirmativ: subiect +infinitivul scurt al verbului(forma fara to)
S+tØV
Exceptie face persoana a treia singular(he,she,it) care adauga-(e)s e.g.:I give I watch
He gives He watches
Negativ: subiect+verbul auxiliar ´to do´+negatia´not´+tø V
S+do not(don¶t) + tØV
does not(doesn¶t)
Interogativ: Do/Does+S+infinitivul scurt al verbului
Verbele terminate in:-ss,-tt,-ch,-sh,-tch,-x,-z,-o adauga -es
Locul adverbului de timp:
SUBJECT ADV. of frequency PRINCIPAL VERB
The sun always rises in the East
Mr. Black occasionally goes to the cinema
His wife never accompanies him
We generally
have breakfast at
home
He sometimes goes to bed at ten
SUBJECT (auxiliary) ADV. of


VERB frequency

She can

never tell it
I am

seldom invited at her party
They must

do that again

never
You don't usually arrive late, do you?
You should always try to be punctual
She will occasionally offer her help
He has generally been a good boy
I wonder whether

they will ever improve.
MOD DE INTREBUINTARE(The uses):
Prezentul Simplu exprima:
I.actiuni obisnuite, repetate, care au loc intr-un interval de timp general sau specific, mentionate
prin adverbe sau locutiuni adverbiale precum: in the morning, at noon, in Spring, in April, on
Monday, every day etc., sau often, frequently, seldom, rarely, occasionally, sometimes, once a
week.
e.g.:I go to the University every day/I usually watch TV in the evening.
II.adevaruri general valabile-e.g.:Fish swim/The Sun rises in the East
Apare insotit de adverbe precum: always, ever, never, regularly
III.actiuni care sunt vazute ca avand loc in intregime in momentul vorbirii:
1.In exclamatii- e.g.: Here comes our teacher!
2.In comentarii sportive-e.g.:The goal-keeper misses the ball and one more goal is
scored.(Portarul nu prinde mingea si se inscrie un nou gol).
3.In demonstratii-e.g.:I now mix the butter with the cocoa.(Acum amestec untul cu cacao).
4.In indicatii de regie-e.g.:The outer door is opened and the office boy appears.
5.In anunturi si titluri de articole-e.g.:Postmen threaten strike!
Alte valori ale Prezentului Simplu:
I.Valoare de viitor pentru:
1.Exprimarea datei-e.g.:Tomorrow is the 11th of September.
2.Actiuni planificate-e.g.:We leave Bucharest at ten. We arrive in Targoviste at twelve.
3.Dupa when, till, until, before, after, as soon as, cand verbul din principala este la viitor
e.g.:I¶ll ring you up when I have time.
4.Dupa if ,unless, provided, in case, cand verbul din principala este la viitor sau la present
e.g.:If it rains I shall go there.
She won¶t pass the exam unless she works hard.
5.In limba vorbita
e.g.:She cames tomorrow.
II.Valoare de trecut:
1.Pentru vioiciunea povestirii -e.g.: One day the little boy goes to the woods.
2.Cu verbe: tell, hear, learn, write, pentru a sublinia efectul prezent al unei comunicari trecute
(in locul lui Present Perfect)
e.g.:I hear that He left for Cluj(Am auzit ca a plecat la Cluj);
3.Pentru introducerea unor citate:Shakespeare says:´«..´.
1.Translate into English:
1. Apa fierbe la 100 ÛC.
2. Oamenii care nu vad bine poarta ochelari.
3. Acum port ochelari de soare pentru ca soarele straluceste tare.
4. Cand imi este foame mananc ceva.
5. Tata merge la Bucuresti cel putin de doua ori pe luna.
6. Concertul incepe la sapte vinerea viitoare.
7. Scrie in ziar ca ploua dupa-amiaza.
8. Niciodata nu ma trezesc prea devreme.
9. Daca nu stai confortabil, aseaza-te pe fotoliul acela din colt.
10. Se cantareste din nou. Spera ca e mai slaba decat ieri.
11. Nu e niciodata bolnav. Il invidiez tare mult.
12. Cantareste aproape 70 de kg. Mananca prea mult.
13.Intotdeauna ne certam pentru acest lucru.
14. Ma intreb daca studiaza greaca la scoala.
15. Ori de cate ori o vad se plimba cu cineva.
16. Ma enerveaza . Mereu spune acelasi lucru.
17. Daca pui zahar in apa, se dizolva. Daca-l mesteci cu lingurita, se dizolva
mai repede.
18. Mereu isi imprumuta lucrurile si niciodata n-are ce pune pe el.
19. Cred ca mergi prea repede. Nu ma pot tine dupa tine.
20. Cui apartine citatul acesta? Cred ca apartine lui Shakespeare.
21. Vezi pasarea de acolo? Sta pe ramura aceea si canta.
22. Nu aud ce spui. Te rog vorbeste mai tare.
23. Imi place sa ascult muzica dar acum ma odihnesc si nu vreau sa ascult nimic.
24. Ce bei? Pare racoritor si placut.
25. Actiunea se petrece in Paris. Personajul locuieste intr-o casa eleganta.
Sotia lui nu lucreaza nicaieri. Isi petrece dupa-amiezele in compania prietenelor. Nu-si iubeste
sotul pe care-l considera inferior ei. Sotul, insa, o adora. Crede ca e sotia perfecta.
2.Translate into English:
1. Rar il vad la club, dar niciodata nu-l intreb de ce vine atat de rar.
2. Adesea ma gandesc la tine.
3. Nu e niciodata atent la ceea ce vorbim cand ne intalnim.
4. De ce facem totdeauna lucruri care nu ne plac?
5. Mi-o amintesc adesea, dar niciodata nu-i scriu.
6. De obicei luam masa in familie.
7. Ne viziteaza destul de frecvent dar niciodata nu sta mai mult de trei zile.
8. In general e baiat bun, dar cateodata se comporta foarte ciudat.
9. Mereu imi pune aceeasi intrebare prosteasca, dar rareori ii raspund.
10. Nu pot niciodata sa o intrec. Mereu e mai buna ca mine.

3.Formulati intrebari pentru fiecare enunt.
1. We go to bed at half past eleven. 2. In the afternoon I go shopping. 3. He spends one
or two hours in the library. 4. After dinner she has a rest.. 5. John does his morning exercises in
front of the open window. 5. He goes cycling every afternoon. 7. Usually, she plays the piano in
the evening.
4.Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la persoana a III-a singular :
1. I have breakfast in the dining - room. 2. We go to the cinema every week. 3. They leave for
the office at half past seven. 4. We wake up at seven o'clock sharp. 5. You go to bed at half past
ten. 6. In the evening we listen to music. 7. They go to the swimming - pool every Sunday. 8. In
the afternoon, I always have a short rest. 9. Every morning, at half past six, I do my morning
exercises.
5. Completati spatiile libere cu verbul corespunzator :
1.In the evening we the T.V. programme. 2. He doesn't his morning exercises every
day. 3. We to bed at half past ten. 4. He himself on a towel and dressed. 5. When
the programme « over, he « home. 6. After dinner we a short rest. 7. After breakfast he
«..on his overcoat and for his office. 8. Usually, she her homework in the afternoon.
9.On Sundays they « on their friends.
6.Dati raspunsuri scurte, , afirmative sau negative la urmatoarele tntrebari, conform
modelului:
Model: Do you go to the theatre every week?
Yes, we do. No, we don't.
1. Do you do your morning exercises every day?2.Does he wake up at seven o'clock
every morning? 3. Do they always have breakfast at home? 4. Do we go to the swimming-pool
every Sunday? 5. Does she have a rest in the afternoon? 6. Do they call on their friends every
Sunday? 7. Does he usually go to the students' club? 8. Do students have six classes every day?
9. Do you usually spend your spare time at home? 10. Does he go cycling every day?

PRONUMELE REFLEXIVE SI DE INTARIRE
(Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns)

Singular Plural
I. myself- insumi, insami ourselves - insine
II. yourself- insuti, insati yourselves -insiva
III. himself - insusi themselves - insisi,insele

herself - insasi


itself ± insusi,insasi


Exemple


Reguli


1.Pronumele reflexiv arata ca
actiunea exprimata de verb se
rasfrange asupra subiectului
She combs herself. - Ea se piaptana.

He dries himself on a towel. - El se
sterge cu prosopul


In limba vorbita, exista tendinta de a
folosi
In the morning she washes, dresses
and

verbe ca : to wash (a se spala), to
dress (a
combs. - Dimineata ea se spala, se
.
se imbraca) , to shave (a se rade), to
comb
imbraca si se piaptana.
(a sa pieptana) , etc. fara pronumele


reflexiv.


Precedat de prepozitia ¶¶by´,
pronumele
I can translate the text by myself. - Pot
reflexiv se traduce prin singur- (fara traduce singura textul.

ajutorul cuiva).


2. Pronumele de intarire accentueaza
sub-
I myself must go there. I must go there

stantivul sau pronumele pe care il myself. - Eu insami trebuie sa merg

insoteste. acolo.

Se aseaza sau imediat dupa cuvantul
pe care il insoteste

sau la sfarsitul propozitiei.

***
LESSON 8
WHAT ARE YOU DOING ?
1.It is Monday morning. We are in the classroom. We are having our English class. The
teacher is explaining a new grammar problem. He is teaching us The Present Tense Continuous
Aspect. He is writing some examples on the blackboard. What are we doing ? We are looking at
the sentences on the blackboard, listening to the teacher¶s explanations and taking notes. We are
writing down the sentences in our exercise-books .
2.A fellow-student who is late is opening the door. May I come in, please? Of course,you
may.What is he doing now?He is going to his seat. The student whose exercise-books are open
now, is Mr.B.
3.Are we sitting or standing? We are sitting. The young woman who is standing is
Mrs.A.What is she doing?She is reading.Is Mrs.A. reading the newspaper?No,she isn¶t.Mrs.A.is
reading a new text.Next, she is retelling it.We are talking about the text. The text about which
we are talking is very easy. Next, we are writing a report on it.
4.We are having a test in English. We are writing a dictation. The teacher is dictating the
text slowly, sentence by sentence.The man to whom we are handing in our exercise-books is our
teacher, who is correcting our tests.
DIALOGUE
Mary: What is the teacher doing?
John:He is calling the roll.Nobody is missing. We are all present.He is asking us questions and
we are answering them.
Mary:What is the lady doing?
John:She is opening the exercise-book. She is writing down the date.
Mary:What is Mr. Brown doing?
John:Mr. Brown is going towards the window.It is raining.
Mary:What is the gentleman in front of you doing?
John:He is translating a text from Romanian into English.
Mary:What is the lady on your left doing?
John:The lady on my left is describing a picture.
Mary:And what are your people at home doing?
John:Mother is cooking, father is gardening, my son is writing his homework, while my little
daughter, who is only four is playing with her toys.
I. Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari :
1. Where are we now? 2. What are we doing? 3. What is the teacher explaining? 4. What is he
writing on the blackboard? 5. Who is opening the door ? 6.Are we sitting or standing? 7. Who is
standing ?8. What is Mrs. A. reading? 9. What are we talking about? 10. To whom are we
handing in our tests? 11. Who is correcting them?
II.Formulati dialoguri folosind Present Tense Continuous.
III. Traduceti in limba engleza :
A. Stati in picioare sau stati jos, domnule Smith ?
S. Stau in picioare, nu stau jos.
A. Ce faceti, cititi ?
S. Nu, nu citesc. Scriu.
A. Ce scrieti ?
S. Scriu niste propozitii.
A. Cu ce scrieti?
S. Seriu cu o bucata de creta.
A. Cu ce scrie domnul Brown ?
S. El scrie cu stiloul.
A. Pe ce scrieti?
S. Scriu pe tabla.
A. Si domnul Brown scrie pe tabla?
S. Nu, el nu scrie pe tabla; el scrie pe o coala de hartie.
A. Cine serie pe tabla ?
S. Eu scriu.

***
GRAMMAR
TIMPUL PREZENT,ASPECTUL CONTINUU
(The Present Tense,Continuous Aspect)
Definitie.Prezentul continuu arata o actiune in curs de desfasurare in prezent.
Formation:prezentul verbului auxiliar´to be´+participiul prezent al verbului(V-ing) e.g.I am
singing now.(Eu cant acum).
Afirmativ:S+to be(prezent)+V-ing
Negativ:S+to be(prezent)+not+V-ing
Interogativ:To be(prezent)+S+V-ing?
To be- prezent
I am-I¶m
You are-you¶re
He is-He¶s;She is-She¶s;I tis-It¶s
We are-We¶re
They are-They¶re

Afirmativ

Negativ

Interogativ(Negativ)



I am writing

I am not writing Am I (not) writing?

you are writing You are not writing Are you (not) writing?

He is writing

He is not writing Is he (not) writing ?

She is writing

She is not writing Is she (not) writing ?

It is writing

It is not writing Is it (not) writing?

We are writing

We are not writing Are we (not) writing?

You are writing

you are not writing Are you (not) writing ?

They are writing

They are not writing Are they (not) writing?
Forme I'm writing

I'm not writing Aren't you writing ?
contrase you're writing

you're not (you aren't) Isn't he writing?

he's writing

writing,

Isn¶t she writing ?

She is writing

he's not (he isn't) writ- Isn't it writing ?

it's writing

ting, she's not (she isn't) Aren't we writing ?

we're writing

writing, it's not (it isn't) Aren't you writing?

you're writing

writing,

Aren't they writing?

they're writing

we're not (we aren't)


writing,



you're not (you aren't)


writing,


they're not (they aren't)


writing

MOD DE INTREBUINTARE(The uses):
Prezentul continuu exprima:
I.actiuni de durata, in desfasurare in momentul vorbirii.Apare insotit de adverbe precum:now,
just now, right now, at present, (at) this (very) moment:
e.g.Listen!He is singing now.(Asculta. El canta acum).
II.actiuni in desfasurare in momentul vorbirii, incluzand o perioada de timp mai indelungata:
e.g.:He is learning much better now.(El invata mult mai bine acum).
III.actiuni obisnuite prezentate in desfasurare in anumite circumstante:e.g.:I always take my
umbrella when it is raining.(Intotdeauna cand ploua,imi iau umbrela cu mine).
IV.actiuni care implica un proces, o dezvoltare, o evolutie:
e.g.:The baby is growing up.(Copilul creste).
V.actiuni limitate in contrast cu actiuni generale
e.g.:He is teaching Maths now, but he is an engineer by trade.(El preda matematica acum, dar de
profesie este inginer).
VI.actini neterminate in momentul vorbirii, cu verbe care implica un scop:
e.g.:He is doing his homework(El isi face temele).
VII.actiuni repetate in momentul vorbirii si care deranjeaza pe vorbitor.Apare insotit de adverbe
precume:always, forever, continually, all the time, nearly+adv.e.g.He is always
grumbling.(Bombane intr-una).
VIII.actiuni cu caracter temporar:e.g.:Ann is attending the University.Ana urmeaza cursurile
universitatii).
IX.actini apropiate, asteptate de vorbitor e.g.:My sweetheart is arriving today.(Logodnica mea
vine astazi).
X.actiuni viitoare planificate in prezent.e.g.:She is coming tonight(Ea vine deseara).
XI.in vorbirea familiara, pentru exprimarea mirarii e.g.Are you being ironical?(Dar de cand esti
asa ironic?).
1.Dati interogativul, negativul si interogativ - negativul urmatoarelor propozitii :
1. We are sitting. 2. Nick is opening the door. 3. Mary is reading a new text. 4. The students
are talking about the new text. 5. You are shutting the window. 6. They are writing a dictation. 7.
My little daughter is playing with her toys.
2.Completati spatiile libere cu verbul cerut de sens la timpul Prezentul Continuu :
1. The teacher «.a new grammar problem. 2. He some sentences on the blackboard. . We « to
him. 4. We at the blackboard.5. John««..the window. 6. You from ten to twenty. 7.I«.a text
from Romanian into English. 8. The students«. in the language laboratory. 9. They the
teacher's questions. 10. The teacher our tests.11. He the text sentence by sentence. 12. Nobody
today.
3.Use the correct tense:Present Simple or Continuous
Mr. Mulder is a Dutchman. He (live) just outside Amsterdam. Every morning he (ride) to
his work in a large factory in the city. He (enjoy) riding on his old bike along the canals. But
today is Saturday and so he (stay) at home. Mrs. Mulder (work) in a supermarket. She (go) to
work on Saturdays, too. She usually (get up) first and (cook) breakfast for the whole family. The
Mulders (have) two children, two boys, who (go) to school every day, except Saturday.
Today the children (not go) to school, they (stay) at home with their father. It is half past
eight and now they (have) breakfast. Their father is still in the bathroom. He (wash) and (get
dressed). He can hear the children in the kitchen. What a lot of noise they (make). Of course,
they (quarrel} again. He (wonder) what they (disagree) about this time. He quickly (put on) his
overalls he (have) a job to do in the garden - and (walk) quietly downstairs. When he (open) the
kitchen door the kids (eat) peacefully and they (talk) quite pleasantly to each other. When they
(see) their father, they just (smile).
4.Put the verb in brackets into either the Present Simple or the Present Continuous:
I. Why (you stare) at me? (I wear) the wrong clothes again?
2. Who (you think) is right, Tom or George?
3. (The Earth turn) round the Sun, or (the Sun turn) round the Earth?
4. (Pupils study) literature at school?
5. I (not like) the way she dresses.
6. Who (Sue talk) to? I (think not) that (be) her brother.
7. Which hotel (you stay) . .. in whenever you (come) here.
8. Mary (look) rather untidy. She (wear) those bloody jeans all the time.
9. Excuse me, (you wait) for the 49 bus?
10. What language (the Moroccans speak) ?
11. Flowers (smell) beautiful in spring.
12. I am busy. I (write) my homework. Please, come some other time.
13. I (know) he (tell) always good jokes.
14. What (you think) about flying saucers?
15. Whenever I (meet) her in the street she (wear) that funny dress.
16. He (always borrow) money from all his friends.
17. Whenever I (go) to him, he (ask) me the same question.
18. (You want) to take my dog for a walk in the park?
19. There is nobody at home. What (we do) now?
20. This naughty boy (always interrupt) me.
21. What (this word mean) ?
22. How much (that piece of meat weigh) ?
23. The price (not matter) if it is first quality.
24.The Sun (rise) in the East.
25. British people (drink) more and more coffee.
PRONUMELE RELATIVE
(Relative Pronouns)
Reguli
1. Pentru persoane se folosesc urmatoarele pronume relative:
a) N. who(care) The lady who is reading the new text is Mrs.A.
Doamna care citeste textul nou este Doamna A.
G. whose (al,a,ai,ale, carui/carei/caror) The man whose exercise-books are open is Nick.
Barbatul ale carui caiete sunt deschise acum este
Nick.
D. (to) whom (caruia, careia, carora) The man to whom we are handing in our exercise-
books is our teacher.
Barbatul caruia ii predam caietele este
profesorul nostru.
Ac. whom(pe cine, pe care) The young woman (whom) you can see standing is Mary.
Tanara doamna pe care o vedeti stand in picioare este
Maria.
b) that(restrictiv) The young man that is sitting is John.
Tanarul care sta jos este Ion.
2. Pentru animale si lucruri se folosesc urmatoarele pronume relative:
a) whose The book whose cover is blue is mine.
Cartea a carei coperta este albastra este a mea.
b) which The lesson which is on page 40 is very easy.
Lectia care se afla la pagina 40 este foarte usoara.
c)that The classroom (that) you can see in this picture is our
classrom
Clasa pe care o vedeti in acest tablou este clasa noastra.
LESSON 9
THE HOUSE I LIVE IN
I live in a flat of a three - storeyed house at the corner of a beautiful avenue. Our house is
made of brick. On top of the roof there are several chimneys and a T. V.serial.The house has
several storeys, that is the ground floor, the first floor,the second floor, the top floor with the
attics and the loft.
Below the ground floor is the basement were we have a ceilar.
The house has a front and a back entrance. There is a large garden all around our house.
In front of the house there is a lawn, shrubs and some flowerbeds,while at the back of the house
there are some fruit trees and a vegetable garden.
At one side of the house there is a garage.
When I come home, I open the gate, walk along the path to the front door and enter the
house.A staircase leads to the second floor where our flat is situated.

DIALOGUE
Mary:Where do you live?
George: I live at 33, Roma Street.
Mary: Have you got a flat there? .
George: Yes, we have. We've recently got a flat there.
Mary: Have you already moved into your new flat ?
George: Yes, we have.
Mary: Is your flat in a house or in a block of flats?
George: It's in a house.
Mary: Is it a many- storeyed house?
George: It's a three - storeyed house.
Mary: What floor do you live on?
George: I live on the second floor.
Mary: Do you grow any vegetables in your garden?
George: Of course, we do. We have a vegetable garden at the back of our
house.
Mary: Where do you keep your car ?
George: We keep the car in a garage which is at one side of the house.
Mary: You've got all modern conveniences in your house, haven't you?
George: Yes, we've got electricity, gas, central heating, runnig water and a telephone.
I. Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1. Where do you live? 2. Is your house a many - storeyed one? 3. What is the house
made of? 4. What can you see on top of its roof? 5. What is there in the basement? 6. How many
entrances has the house? 7. What is there all around the house? 8. What can you see in front of
the house? 9. What is there at its back? 10. Where do you keep your car? 11. On what floor is
your flat situated? 12.What are the modern conveniences in your house?
II.Vorbiti despre casa in care ati dori sa locuiti.
III. Traduceti in limba engleza :
1. Tocmai ne-am mutat intr -o casa noua . 2. Apartamentul in care locuim se afla la
parterul unei case cu trei etaje. 3. Tinem masina intr-un garaj care se afla in spatele
casei. 4. Nu am locuit niciodata intr -un bloc. 5. El a intrat deja in casa ? 6. Ai fost
vreodata la Londra? 7. Tocmai mi-am scris temele. 8. Mi-a placut intotdeauna sa
calatoresc. 9. Casa in care locuiti are multe etaje? 10. Ati vorbit adesea despre el? 11.
Cine a deschis fereastra? 12. Ei nu cultiva legume in gradina din fata casei,. cultiva
flori. 13. Nu am putut niciodata sa-i raspund la aceasta intrebare. 14. Vi s-a permis
vreodata sa intrati in camera aceea? 15. Nu a trebuit niciodata sa scriem toate
exercitiile.
***
GRAMMAR
PREZENTUL PERFECT SIMPLU
( Present Perfect Simple)
Definitie-Present Perfect Simple desemneaza un eveniment vazut ca anterior momentului
vorbirii, fara a fi precizat in timp.e.g.:I¶ve seen a movie(Am vazut un film)
Formare:auxiliarul Ä´to have´la prezent+participiul trecut(V3).
Afirmativ:S+have/has+V3
Negativ:S+haven¶t/hasn¶t+V3
Interogativ:Have/Has+S+V3?

Afirmativ Negativ Interogativ (-Negativ)

I have written I have not written Have I (not) written?

You have written You have not written Have you (not) written?

He has written He has not written Has he (not) written?

She has written She has not written Has she (not) written?

It has written It has not written Has it (not) written?

We have written We have not written Have we (not) written?

You have written You have not written Have you (not) written?

They have written They have not written Have they (not) written?

Forme I've written, he's I've not (I haven't) Haven't I written?
contrase written, etc. written, he's not hasn't he written?

(he hasn't) etc.

written, etc.

Mod de intrebuintare(the uses).Present Perfect simple arata:
I.o actiune care a avut loc intr-o perioada nedeterminata din trecut.Apare insotit de adverbe sau
locutiuni adverbiale precum:today, this morning/afternoon/ evening/week, month, year.e.g.:It has
rained a lot this month(A plouat mult luna aceasta) sau I¶ve met him today(L-am intalnit astazi)
II.actiuni incepute in trecut si incheiate recent+adverbe si loc. adv. precum:just, already, yet,
lately, recently, so far, until now, up to now, still.e.g.:He has just come.(Tocmai a sosit)
III.actiuni caracteristice repetate in treecut prezent si poate si in viitor+adv sau loc. adv.
precum:often always, never, sometimes:e.g.He has often performed in public(A interpretat
adesea in public);He has never smoked(El nu a fumat niciodata);Have you ever been abroad?(Ai
fost vreodata in strainatate?)
IV.actiuni incepute in trecut, care continua in prezent si eventual si in viitor+since(de, de la, din)
si for(de).Since arata momentul inceperii actiunii iar for, durata ei:e.g.He has studied English
since2001.(Studiaza engleza din 2001);She has stayed at home for a week(A stat acasa o
saptamana)
V. actiune trecuta al carui efect se vede in prezent:e.g.:It has rained(A plouat)
Alte valori:
I.Apare in locul viitorului anterior pentru a arata o actiune anterioara celei din principala, cand
verbul acesteia este la viitor:
a.in subordonate introduse prin when, as soon as, afer, before,till, until e.g.:He will send us a
telegram as soon as he has got there(Ne va trimite o telegrama de-ndata ce va ajunge acolo)
b.in conditionale introduse de if, unless, cand verbul din principala este la prezent sau la viitor
e.g.:He will leave earlier if he has finished work(va pleca mai devreme daca va termina lucrul)


1.Adaugati intrebari disjunctive propozitiior date in exercitiul anterior.
d) what What are we learning here is very interesting.
Ceea ce invatam aici este foarte interesant
Pronumele relativ in cazul Dativ si Acuzativ poate fi omis.
The book (that) I am reading is Mary's.
Cartea pe care o citesc(in momantul de fata}este a Mariei.
Daca pronumele relativ este precedat de o prepozitie, pronumele relativ este omis iar
prepozitia se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiei si se accentueaza.
The text about which we are going to talk is very easy.
Textul despre care urmeaza sa vorbim este foarte usor.
The man to whom we are handing in our exercise -books to is our teacher.
Barbatul caruia ii predam caietele este profesorul nostru.
2.Completati spatiile libere cu pronumele relativ corespunzator ; omiteti apoi pronumele
relativ unde este posibil :
1. The student« is late is my friend. 2. The young lady you can typing is a typist.
3. The text about«we are talking is very easy. 4. The person to«..explanations we are
listening is our teacher. 5. The room . you can see in picture number one is our
classroom.5. The young lady is shutting the door is a secretary. 7. The man about«we
are talking is an architect. 8. The boy to «.she is speaking is John.

LESSON 10
JOHN'S FLAT
John, a good friend of mine, has recently moved into a new flat.
Here we are in the hall of a new, modem -looking, nine - storeyed block of flats.
As the flat he lives in is on the fifth floor, we get into the lift which takes us up to the
fifth
floor. There are two doors on the landing. John leads the way to the door on the right and
unlocks it without having to knock at the door or ring the bell. The entrance door opens into the
hall where there is a hall stand and a looking- glass.
Then, John shows me into his study room where I meet his wife. The main piece of
furniture here is the bookcase. In this room there is also a writing desk with a computer and a
desk lamp on it, two armchairs and a sofa. While John's wife is preparing coffee and some
sandwiches for us, John shows me round the flat. We enter a large room which is both a living -
room and a dining - room. Here I can see an oval table with six chairs round it, a sideboard, a
dumb waiter and a china cabinet, a settee, several armchairs and a low table, a T.V. and a radio
set.

In the bedroom there is a bed, two night tables with reading lamps on them, a chest of
drawers, a wardrobe and a dressing table with a looking glass.
Next to the bedroom is the nursery, a small but cosy room, 3 m long by 3.5 m wide.
In all the rooms there are carpets on the parquet floors,curtains at the windows, pictures
on the walls, lamps hanging from the ceiling.
Between the bedroom and the nursery there is a bathroom, and on the other side of a
corridor there are a kitchen and a pantry.
DIALOGUE
Bob: I like your flat very much. How long have you been living in this flat?
John : We have been living here for three months. What about you?
Bob: We've recently bought a new flat. It's very nice and comfortable too.
John : Is your flat large?
Bob: Yes, it's quite large and there is a lot of housework to do.
John : I hope you help your wife with the housework, don't you?
Bob: Of course, I do. Today, for instance, we have been cleaning the house together all day
long.
John : But tell me, please, is all the furniture in your flat new?
Bob: Yes, we've recently bought almost all the furniture in our flat, but we haven't yet bought
all the furniture for my son's room. Call on us, one day.
John: Thank you very much for your kind invitation.
I. Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1. Who is John? 2. Where has John recently moved? 3. Where is the flat he lives in
situated? 4. What is there in the hall of his flat? 5. Which is the first room I see? 6.
Whom do I meet? 7. What furniture is there in John's study - room? 8. What is the
furniture in the other rooms in John's flat? 9. How long has John been living in this flat?
10. Have they recently bought the furniture in their flat?
II.Vorbiti despre casa voastra.
III. Traduceti in limba engleza:
1. Iata-ne in apartamentul nostru cel nou, situat la etajul al cincilea al unui bloc nou si
modern. 2. Apartamentul este mare si luminos, cu patru camere spatioase, baie si bucatarie.
3. Am cumparat recent aproape toata mobila. 4. Dar tu, de cat timp locuiesti in aceasta casa ?
Locuiesc aici din anul 1975, adica de cand sunt in Bucuresti. 5. Sunt economist din anul 1972. 6.
Ei discuta despre filmul acela de zece minute. 7. A tradus deja textul, ce urmeaza sa faca acum?
8. De cat timp plaua ? Ploua de doua zile. 9. Ploaia nu s-a oprit inca. 10. De cat timp asculta ea
muzica in camera de alaturi?11. Care dintre studenti a predat deja testete? 12. Nu i-a placut
niciodata sa citeasca. 13. Ati luat deja micul dejun? 14. Locuim in Bucuresti de trei ani. 15. Ati
facut vreodata exercitii in laboratorul lingvistic?
***
GRAMMAR

TIMPUL 'PRESENT PERFECT´,ASPECTUL CONTINUU
(The Present Perfect Tense, Continuous Aspect)
Definitie:Prezentul Perfect continuu arata o actiune in curs de desfasurare in trecut, include
momentul vorbirii si poate continua si in viitor.
Formare: prezentul perfect al verbululi auxiliar ôto be´(to have la prezent +been)+participiul
prezent(V-ing)
Afirmativ:S+Have/has+been+V-ing
Negativ:S+haven¶t/hasn¶t+V-ing
Interogativ:Have/Has+S+been+V-ing?
Afirmativ Negativ Interogativ(-Negativ)
I have been writing I have not been writing Have I (not) been writing?

You have been writing You have not been
Have you (not) been
wrtting?

writing


He has been writing. He has not been
Has he (not) been
writing?

writing


She has been writing She has not been
Has she (not) been
writing?

writing


It has been writing It has not been writing Has it (not) been writing?
,


We have been writing We have not been
Have we (not) been
writing?

. writing


You have been writing You have not been
Have you (not) been
writing?

writing


They have been writing They have not
Have they (not) been
writing?

been
writing




Forme I¶ve been writing, I've not (I haven't) been Haven't I been writing?,

contrase he's been writing,etc. writing, he's not (he hasn't he been writing?

hasn't) been writing, etc. etc.
Mod de intrebuintare(the uses)
I.actiune inceputa in trecut, care continua in prezent:e.g.:I¶ve been waiting for him since nine.(Il
astept de la noua)
II.actiuni repetate intr-o perioada care include momentul vorbirii+for si since
e.g.:He has been working for a few hours.(Lucreaza de cateva ore);He has been playing tennis
since 1999(Joaca tenis din 1999)
III.actiune inceputa in trecut care continua in momentul vorbirii+all day (long), all morning, all
afernoon e.g.:He has been sleeping all morning.
IV.actiune repetata, care exprima un repros:e.g.:How often have I been telling you this?(De cate
ori sa-ti spun asta?)
Present Perfect Continuous raspunde la intrebarile(For)how long?, Since when?
Diferente dintre Past Tense si Present Perfect
I.Diferenta consta in axa pe care se plaseaza vorbitorul:axa prezentului pentru Present Perfect si
axa trecutului pentru Past Tense, si in natura evenimentului descris:nedefinit(Present Perfect) si
definit, unic(Past Tense)e.g.I¶ve seen Mary; I saw her yesterday.
II.Present Perfect apare insotit de adverbe care descriu o perioada de timp deschisa,
nelimitata:today, this week, this yeare.g.:I¶ve been to the theatre this week.
Past Tense apare insotit de adverbe ce arata o perioda inchisa, terminata:e.g.:I went there last
week.
III.Present Perfect se foloseste cu valoare de Past Tense pentru o actiune savarsita in trecut,
terminata recent. Apare insotit de just, already si yet:e.g.He has just come.
IV. Se foloseste Past Tense pentru actiuni trecute si ai caror autori nu mai exista:Mihai Eminescu
wrote many poems si Presesnt Perfect pentru aciuni trecute ai caror autori mai exista:My friend
has written several books(She is alive)sau:e.g.Did you see this exhibition?(The exhibition is
closed now) si Have you seen this exhibition?(the exhibition is still open)
V. Adverbele today, this week«, recently, pot fi folosite si la Past Tense cand se refera la o
perioada incheiata si la o actiune definita:e.g.I¶ve been to the dentist this morning(It¶s ll a.m.)si I
was to the dentist(It¶s l6 a.m.)
VI.Cand Ä´since´ indica momentul initial al actiunii este folosit cu Past Tense:e.g.He has stayed
at home since he fell ill.Cand cele doua actiuni sunt concomitente se foloseste Present
Perfect:e.g.:I haven¶t seen him since I¶ve been here.
V. Se foloseste Present Perfect in locul lui Past Tense cand actiunea este terminata recent:e.g.:He
has come
LESSON11
PROFESSIONS AND TRADES
To earn their living, people have to work.
The occupation which require a special training and learning are called professions.
The members of the learned professions are all brain workers.

'

The medical profession, for example, includes physicians, surgeons, pharmaceutical
chemists, dentists, oculists, nurses, etc. The profession of law comprises lawyers. Economists are
specialists in economic problems, accountants keep records. Journalists write articles in
newspapers. The teaching profession includes schoolmasters, teachers, lecturers, professors. The
engineering profession has many branches: civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.
The occupations which require skilled work with the hands are called trades.
The building of a house for example means employing bricklayers, carpenters,
joiners,plumbers, electricians, painters, glaziers, locksmiths.
Factories employ welders, weavers, blacksmiths.
Agriculture needs farmers.
There are also transport workers, people engaged in making and repairing things,
people engaged in trade: tradesmen, merchants and shop assistants.
Office workers, typists and secretaries are employed by office and banks.
WHAT DO NAMES MEAN?
Nick: Let me ask you a question. Why are we named Carpenter? Our teacher says many names
come from occupations. This means that one of our ancestors was a carpenter.
Father: That's right.
Nick : So, Joe Shepherd's ancestors were shepherds, weren't they?
Father: They probably were.
Nick: What about Smith or Cooper?
Father: These names come from occupations, too. A smith was a man whose job was to work in
metal, while a cooper's job was to make barrels.
Nick: But when were these names chosen?
Father: I think it was about the year 1100, that is almost nine hundred years ago.
Nick: That's why modern occupations aren't used for names. You never hear a name like
Electrician, because there weren't any electricians when family names were chosen. I think it's
interesting to have a name like ours, that shows what our ancestors were.
I.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1. What do you call the occupations which require a special training and learning? 2.
Whom does the medical profession include? 3. What are economists specialized in? 4. What do
accountants do? 5. What do journalists do? 6. Whom does the teaching profession include? 7.
What are the branches of the engineering profession? 8. What do you mean by trades? 9. Whom
do offices and banks employ? 10. Who are those engaged in trade?
II.Vorbiti despre profesii si meserii
III.Traduceti in limba engleza :
1. Profesiile necesita o pregatire speciala . 2. Meserille necesita munca manuala calificata. 3.
Zidarii, zugravii, geamgii, dulgherii, electricienii, instalatorii, tamplarii, toti lucreaza impreuna
pentru a construi o casa. 4. Economistii sunt specialisti in probleme economice. 5. Birourile
angajeaza functionari, dactilografe si secretare. 6. Muncitorii agricoli lucreaza in agricultura. 7.
Cind aveai 18 ani erai studenta ,nu ±i asa? 8. Anul trecut ei nu erau inca economisti, erau
studenti.
***
GRAMMAR
TlMPUL TRECUT AL VERBULUI 'T0 BE'
(The Past Tense of the Verb 'to be')


Afirmativ Negativ Interogativ (-Negativ)

I was I was not Was I (not)?


You were You were not Were you (not)?


He was He was not Was he (not)?


She was She was not Was she (not)?


It was It was not was it (not)?


We were We were not Were we (not)?


You were You were not Were you (not)?


They were They were not Were they (not)?

Forme

I wasn't, you weren't, Wasn't I?, weren't
contrase

etc. you ?

1.Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la timpul trecut :
1. I am a student. 2. We are in the classroom 3. Isn't he an economist? 4. She is a typist. 5. They
aren't students. 6. Is he a teacher? 7. Are they at home? 8. Am I not at the office?
LESSON 12
MY JOB
Sometimes we say that someone we know is 'a square peg in a round hole'. This means that
the person we are talking about is not suited for the job he is doing. He may be an accoutant
who
wants to be an actor, or he may be an engineer who enjoys painting; for one reason or another
he
may not do the kind of work he wants to ; consequently, he does not do his work with pleasure,
sometimes he does not do it properly and he can't find any satisfaction in the result of his work.
Choosing the right career is very important. Most of us spend a lot of time at our jobs.
That is why we must try to find out what our aptitudes are and how we can use them.
As for me, I am an economist at the IMPEX Company. I like my job very much, I work
with pleasure and that meams a high satisfaction for me.
I . ,-. i'i.
I. Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1.What do we mean by saying that somebody is¶¶a square peg in a round hole'? 2.
Why is it very important to choose the right career? 3. What are you? 4. Do you like your
job? 5. Are you very busy at the office? 6. Do you go through the mail every day? 7. How
long does it take you to do it? 8. Who types the letters you draw up? 9. Do you often
attend business talks? 10. What foreign languages can you speak?
II.Vorbiti despre activitatea voastra.
III.Traduceti in limba engleza:
1.Anul trecut nu aveam ore de engleza.2.Nu am avut timp sa-mi fac traducerea.3.El nu
participa niciodata la tratativele comerciale.4.Directorul i-a dictat deja secretarei raspunsul la
scrisoare.5. Secretara a scris raspunsul la scrisoare.6.Am lasat toate scrisorile la secretara pentru
ca directorul sa le semneze.7.A condus clientii staini prin tara ca sa viziteze fabricile noastre.
AT THE OFFICE
Dick: Are you very busy at the office?
Jack : Of course, I am. Yesterday, for example,I had a lot of things to do. In the morning, I had to
look through the mail and answer some business letters and telegrams, then «.
Dik : Does it take you long to do it?
Jack : No, it doesn't. Generally that takes me about an hour.
Dick : Do you type your letters yourself?
Jack: No, I don't. I dictate the answers to a shorthand typist who then types them. Then, I take the
letters together with some other papers to the manager's office, for the manager to sign them. If
the manager is engaged or is out, attending a conference or a meeting, I leave the papers with his
secretary. Or, sometimes, I have to see the manager to ask him for further instructions.
Dick: Do you ever attend business talks?
Jack: I certainly do. I receive visitors who come to discuss business matters. I attend business
talks, interviews and conferences, settle questions and make arrangements with them, speak over
the telephone to various clients or take them about the country, to visit our factories.
Dick: Who makes your translations?
Jack: I read a lot in English and German, specialized newspapers and magazines, so I am already
able to make some translations. Besides, when necessary, I also draw up reports,
in Romanian,of course. ***
GRAMMAR
TIMPUL TRECUT AL VERBULUI ,,T0 HAVE'
(The Past Tense of the Verb 'TO HAVE´)

Afirmativ I had
You had
He had
She,he, It had
We had
You had
They had
Forme contrase: I'd, you'd,he'd, etc.
Negativ
I had not
You had not
He had not
She had not
It had not
We had not
You had not
They had not
Interogativ
Had I ?
Had you ?
Had he ?
Had she ?
Had it ?
Had we ?
Had you ?
Had they ?
1.Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la timpul trecut:
1.They have their brekfast at eight o¶clock every morning.2.She has a rest every afternoon.3.You
have a nice dress on.4.She has a shower every morning.5.I have drown up the report myself.6.He
can translate this article into English.
LESSON 13
VISITING A FARM
Last year, we spent part of our summer holidays in the country. The village where my
parents live is situated at a certain distance from the railway station. Leaving the station,
we walked through the fields belonging to some large farms.The lands were under wheat and
maize. On both sides of the road, there were orchards with apple- ,pear- and cherry -trees.
My parents¶ house, built some years ago, is surrounded by a very large garden. At the
back of the house, there is a kitchen garden, where they grow all the vegetables they need:
tomatoes, cabbages, beans, carrots and potatoes. There is also a back yard where one can see
hens, cocks, chickens, geese and pigs.
One day, we visited some large farms. As we were interested in stock breeding, we went
to the pasture land, where we saw a big herd of cows, oxen and calves and a flock of sheep and
lambs grazing.
.
DIALOGUE
Farmen : What do you think about our farm?
Ann: I think it is really a modern farm ; but how can you obtain such high yields per hectare?
Farmer: Thanks to the advanced methods of scientific farming we use.
John :Is your farm specialized in field husbandry only?
Farmer: No, it is not. It is specializing in dairy farming as well.
Mary: Do you breed poultry, too?
Farmer: Of course, we do. The number of poultry is increasing, and we are going to extend
the farm next year.

I.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1.Where did we spend our summer holidays last year? 2. Where is the village where my
parents live situated? 3. What did we see when leaving the station? 4. What were the lands
under? 5. What did we see on both sides of the road? 6. What is my parents' house surrounded
by? 7. What is there at the back of the house? 8. What do my parents grow in their kitchen
garden? 9. What did we see on the pasture land belonging to the farm? 10. How can the farmers
obtain such high yields per hectare? 11. Are they specialized in field husbandry only?12. Do they
breed poultry, too?
II.Descrieti o vizita la ferma.
III. Traduceti in limba engleza:1.In fiecare an imi petrec vacanta de vara la tara, in satul in care
locuiesc parintii mei.2.Satul este asezat departe de gara.3.Acum cativa ani, parintii mei si-au
construit o casa noua.4.In gradina din spatele casei cultiva tot felul de legume:rosii, morcovi,
varza, fasole.5.Pe pajistea de langa ferma erau vaci,boi, vitei, oi si miei.6.Datorita metodelor
avansate de cultivare a pamantului pe care le folosesc,taranii obtin productii mari la
hectar.7.Ferma noastra este specializata atat in cultivarea solului, cat si in cresterea animalelor.
***
GRAMMAR
TRECUTUL SIMPLU(PRETERITUL)
Past Tense Simple
Definitie
Trecutul simplu exprima actiuni sau stari trecute care nu au legatura cu prezentul.
Formare
La verbele regulate forma de Past Tense(V2) coincide cu cea de Past Participle(V3) si are
ca marca terminatia ±ed:e.g.work worked worked
La verbele neregulate exista trei forme:V,V2,V3:go, went, gone
Interogativul si negativul se formeaza cu ajutorul verdului ´to do´la Past Tense-did
Afirmativ:S+V2(ed)
Negativ:S+did not(didn¶t)+V1
Interogativ:Did+S+V1?

Afirmativ Negativ Interogativ (-Negativ)

I wrote I did not write Did I (not) write?

You wrote You did not write Did you (not) write?

He wrote He did not write Did he (not) write?

She wrote She did not write Did she (not) write?

It wrote It did not write Did it (not) write?

We wrote We did not write Did we (not) write?

You wrote You did not write Did you (not) write?

They wrote They did not write Did they (not) write?
Forme

I didn't write, you
Didn't I write?, didn't
you
contrase

didn't write, he didn't write?
didn't he
write?

write, etc. etc.

Mod de intrebuintare(The uses):
Trecutul Simplu exprima:
I.o actiune(stare) savarsita si incheiata intr-un moment din trecut.Momentul poate fi:
-precizat prin adverb de timp: yesterday, two days ago,last week, in l977:
e.g.I went there last night(Am fost acolo aseara.)
-precizat ca rezultat al unei intrebari si a unui raspuns:
e.g.A.´Have you seen this film?´B.´Yes, I have.I saw it last year.´(-Ai vazut acest film? Da. L-
am vazut anul trecut.)
-dedus din context:I met him here.(L-am intalnit aici.)
II.o actiune repetata in trecut.Este echivalentul lui would+to V sau used to(obisnuia sa), si
se traduce prin imperfect.
e.g.I often visited him.(Il vizitam adesea.)
III.Alte valori ale trecutului simplu:
1.Prezent-pentru a exprima o rugaminte politicosa, dupa verbe precum:wish,want, wonder, like,
intend.
e.g. I wondered if you could lend me this book.(Ma intrebam daca ati putea sa-mi imprumuti
aceasta carte.)
2.Prezent-in vorbirea indirecta daca verbul din principala este la trecut:
e.g.He told me he was ill.(Mi-a spus ca este bolnav.)
3.Past perfect-pentru actiuni succesive din trecut in propozitii introduse de when, after:
e.g.He sang after he finished his homework.(El a cantat dupa ce si-a terminat temele.)
4.Viitor-in circumstantiale de timp, daca verbul din principale este la trecut
:e.g.He told me he would help me when he had time.(Mi-a spus ca ma va ajuta cand va avea
timp.)
Trecutul simplu se traduce prin:
a.perfect compus:e.g.: I met her yesterday.(Am intalnit-o ieri.)
b. perfect simplu:e.g.:´I can¶t stay any longer´,he said.(Nu mai pot sta,zise el.)
c.imperfect:e.g.:She was in the front room.(Era in camera din fata.)
d.prezent:e.g.:She told me she was in a hurry.(Mi-a spus ca se grabeste.)
e.viitor:e.g.:She said she would go home when she finished school.(A zis ca va merge acasa
cand va termina scoala.)

1.Completati spatiile libere cu verbul cerut de sens:
1.In the kitchen garden my parents all kinds of vegetables 2. Last year we«.. no part of
our summer holidays in the country. 3. One day we the farm. 4. The farmers high yields per
hectare. 5.They grow all the vegetables they . 6. My parents « in a new house. 7. Cows, oxen,
calves, sheep and lambs on the pasture land. 8. The fields to the farm.

2.Inlocuiti infinitivul din paranteza cu timpul trecut, aspectul comun :
1. One day we (to visit) a farm. 2. Then we (to go) to the pasture land. 3. This moming he (to
leave) for his office at half past seven. 4. Last year they (not to grow) any vegetables in their
garden. 5. Two years ago we (to spend) our summer holidays in the mountains. 6. They (to build)
their new house two years ago. 7. The farmer (to tell) us about the advanced methods of
scientific farming they used. 8. This morning I (not to take) breakfast at 7 o'clock as usual. 9.
They (to get) high yields per hectare. 10. Several years ago we (to breed ) poultry, too.
3.Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la interogativ, negativ si interogativ-negativ :
1. Last year we spent our summer holidays in the country. 2. I knew him very well. 3. Several
days ago I bought a new dress. 4. I met him in the street. 5. He showed me round their new flat.
6. They moved into their new house two months ago.
4.Puneti intrebari la urmatoarele propozitii, conform modelului:
Model: Last summer we visited a farm.
When did you visit a farm?
1. Last night we went to the theatre. 2. I met him yesterday.3. He rang the bell some minutes
ago.
4. The teacher explained us this grammar problem last week. 5. We talked about it some days
ago.
6. I wrote him a letter the day before yesterday. 7. Last Sunday, he helped his wife with the
housework. 8. This morning the Sun rose at six o'clock. 9. Some years ago he worked in a farm.
10. My parents retired on a pension several years ago.
5.Completati spatiile libere cu timpul trecut al verbului 'to be', la forma corespunzatoare:
1. There no students in the classroom two hours ago. 2. One of our ancestors
carpenter. 3. His ancestors shepherds, they? 4. Where you yesterday? 5. There any electricians
when family names chosen. 6. He not a student last year. 7. you at
home the day before yesterday, at 10 o'clock? 8. Our name shows what our ancestors«..
9. I very busy two weeks ago. 10. These names chosen about the year 1100. 11.
they very happy to hear that? 12. It on the 26
th
of May, three years ago.
6.Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la timpul trecut :
1. They have their breakfast at eight o'clock every morning. 2. She has a rest every afternoon. 3.
You have a nice dress on. 4. She has a shower every morning. 5. Usually, they have lunch at the
canteen. 6. We have a walk every evening.
7.Puneti intrebari la urmatoarele propozitii :
1. Undergrounds run under the ground. 2. During rush hours, a lot of people go to and come from
their work. 3. Steam trains were very dirty. 4. Today, the system of London passenger transport
covers an area of about 2,000 sq. miles. 5. There are vacant seats on top. 6. The people standing
at the door are getting off next stop. 7. We got to Oxford Street by underground.8. Every
morning, we must take a bus to the centre of the city. 9. At some stations, passengers can change
to a different underground line. 19. Passengers may cross the street when the green light is on.
LESSON 14
SIGHTSEEING
Mr. Smith, a trade representative, came to Washington on business for his company. It
was his first visit to Washington, so, whenever he had some spare time, he tried to see as much
as possible.
The first morning, after breakfast, he took a walk along Massachusetts Avenue, a broad
street with fine buildings and trees on both sides, where most of the embassies are situated. He
had no time to see any places of interest that morning, as he had an appointment with Mr. Wilson
the manager of the trade firm his company was doing business with. When their business talk
was over, Mr. Wilson invited Mr. Smith to have lunch with him, and then he took him in his car,
round the city, for a sightseeing tour.
First, they drove past three of the five universities in Washington, then, they went to see
some famous monuments named for great American presidents: the Washington Monument, the
Jefferson Memorial and the Lincoln Memorial.
They also visited famous buildings such as the National Gallery of Art, the Supreme
Court and the Capitol and drove through the business section of the city.
One day, Mr. Smith visited the White House, where he saw paintings and statues of
former presidents and many pieces of furniture from the time when the White House was built.
Another interesting place Mr. Smith visited, was the Smithsonian Institution, showing a
wide range of exhibits, from the oldest to the most modern: coins, old clothes, soldiers' uniforms
and weapons, bicycles, cars, airplanes and the latest rockets. He also saw the Pentagon, the
famous building with five sides,one of the largest office buildings in the world.
Another place worth seeing in Washington is the Library of Congress, the largest library
in the United States. On his last day in Washington, Mr. Smith visited Mount Vernon, the home
of George Washington, a beautiful old house situated on a hill looking over the Potomac River. It
is a museum now, exhibiting furniture, clothes and tools used during the time Washington lived
in.
DIALOGUE
Jane: Why is the name of the capital of the United States followed by the letters D. C.?
Fred: Because Washington is situated in the District of Columbia, so named in honour of
Columbus, the man who discovered America.
Jane: People say it is difficult to lose your way in Washington.
Fred: That¶s right. The city is very well designed. The streets that go east and west are named
for letters of the alphabet, while those that go north and south are numbered .
Jane: I'm particularly interested in the monuments to the great American presidents. What do
they look like?
Fred: The monuments to Jefferson and Lincoln are beautiful statues, while the Washington
Monument looks like a pyramid.
Jane: If you have visited the Smithsonian Institution, it means you have also seen the
airplane Lindbergh flew by, across the Atlantic Ocean, in 1927.
Fred: Yes, I have. It is a small plane with only one engine. And besides, the clothes he was
wearing, and all the things he was having with him in the plane, during the flight, are also
exhibited.
I.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1.What did Mr. Smith go to Washington for? 2. Was that his first visit to the capital of the
United States? 3. What did he do whenever he had some spare time? 4. What does
Massachusetts Avenue look like? 5. Why didn't Mr.Smith visit any places of interest the first
morning? 6. What did Mr. Smith do when the business talk was over? 7. What are the places
of interest in Washington he visited? 8. What does the Smithsonian Institution exhibit? 9.
What is Mount Vernon? 10. What do the monuments to the presidents of the United States
look like? 11. Why is it difficult to lose your way in Washington?
II.Vorbiti despre Washington si apoi despre orasul vostru.
III.Traduceti in limba engleza:
1.Ieri pe vremea acesta me duceam spre birou.2.In timp ce noi invatam, ei isi scriau
temele.3.Ce facea Ana in timp ce Maria lua micul dejun?4.Unde va duceati ieri cand v-am
intalnit?5.Ce faceati ieri pe la ora patru?6.Cu cine vorbeai la telefon cand am intrat in
camera?7.Cand am ajuns acasa, Tom tocmai ii arata prietenului lui apartamentul nostru cel
nou.8.Ori de cate ori am putin timp liber, vizitez un muzeu.9.In muzeul de la Mount Vernon
putem vedea un numar mare de exponate:mobila, haine,unelte folosite in vremea cand traia
Washington.10.Districtul Columbia si-a primit numele de la Columb, cel care a descoperit
America.
***
GRAMMAR
PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
(Trecutul continuu)
Definitie
Trecutul continuu arata o actiune sau stare in curs de desfasurare in trecut.
Mod de formare(The way of formation) :verbul ´to be´ la Past Tense+participiul
prezent(forma in ±ing)e.g.I was singing(Cantam.)
Afirmativ:S+To be (trecut)+V-ing
Negativ:S+to be(trecut) +not+V-ing
wasn¶t/weren¶t
Interogativ:to be(trecut)+S+V-ng?
Was/were


Negativ


Afirmativ Interogativ (-Negativ)


I was writing I was not writing Was I (not) writing?


You were writing You were not writing
Were you (not)
writing?

He was writing He was not writing Was he (not) writing?


She was writing She was not writing Was she (not) writing?


It was writing It was not writing Was it (not) writing?


We were writing We were not writing Were we (not) writing?


You were writing You were not writing
Were you (not)
writing?

They were
writing
They were not writing
Were they (not)
writing?

Forme

I wasn't writing, you
Wasn't I
writing?weren't
contrase

weren't writing,he you writing?, wasn't he


wasn't writing. etc. writing? etc.

Mod de intrebuintare(The uses):
Trecutul continuu arata:
I.o actiune in desfasurare intr-un moment din trecut, amintit in momentul vorbirii.Apare insostit
de adverbe sau locutiuni adverbiale precum:at seven o¶clock yesterday(ieri pe vremea
aceasta),(at ) this time last week(saptamana trecuta pe vremea aceasta), yesterday afternoon(ieri
dupa-amiaza), between eight and ten/from seven to eleven yesterday( ieri intre opt si zece/de la
sapte la unsprezece)e.g.:I was walking at this time last week.(Saptamna trecuta pe vremea asta
ma plimbam).
II.o actiune in desfasurare intrerupta de o actiune momentana(in propozitii introduse de when si
while/cand si in timp ce)e.g.he came when I was eating(Mancam cand a intrat)
III.actiuni paralele in desfasurare in trecut:She was singing while I was washing(Ea canta in timp
ce eu spalam)
IV.actiuni repetate in trecut, deranjante pentru vorbitor.Apare cu adverbe precum:always,
forever, continually, all the time:He was always interrupting us(El ne intrerupea mereu)
Alte valori:
I.Apare in locul prezentului continuu cand verbul din principale este la trecut:e.g.:He said he was
sleeping(A spus ca doarme)
II.In locul viitorului cand verbul din principala este la Past Tense:e.g.:They said they were
leaving the next morning(Au spus ca vor pleca ziua urmatoare)
1.Inlocuiti infinitivul din paranteza cu timpul trecut, aspectul continuu:
1. I(to watch) the T.V. programme when John came in. 2. While we (to study) in the
library, they (to play) tennis. 3. While he (to have a rest), she (to cook) in the kitchen. 4.
While he (to work) in the garden, she (to do) her morning exercises. 5. While he (to
watch)
the match on T.V., she (to read) a book. 6. While the manager (to attend) a meeting,
the typist (type) some letters. 7. John (to read) the newspaper, when somebody knocked
at the door. 8. Yesterday morning, at 8 o'clock, he (to have} breakfast. 9. They (to
listen}to
music when suddenly they heard a noise in the next room.10.It(to rain)this morning,when
we left for the office.
2.Dati interogativul, negativul si interogativ - negativul urmatoarelor propozitii:
1. This time last year we were travelling about the country.2. This time yesterday he
was going on a sightseeing tour. 3. They were having lunch together yesterday at twelve
o'clock. 4. Two days ago, at three o'clock, we were visiting the museum. 5. They were
having a walk this time last night. 6. He was driving to Brasov this time last Monday.
3.Schimbati urmatoarele propozitii, conform modelului :
Model: This time yesterday he was translating an article.
This time yesterday he had been translating an article for half an hour.
1. This time yesterday we were getting about the city. 2. This time yesterday they were travelling
by motor coach. 3. This time yesterday she was practising in the language laboratory. 4. This
time yesterday he was playing chess. 5. This time yesterday Mary was doing her morning
exercises. 6. This time yesterday mother was cooking. 7. This time yesterday you were doing
your shopping. 8. This time yesterday they were visiting a museum. 9. This time yesterday John
was working in the garden. 10. This time yesterday our manager was attending a conference.
4.Inlocuiti infinitivul din paranteza cu timpul trecut, aspectul comun sau continuu :
1. What you (to do) this time yesterday? You (to study) or (to have a rest)? 2. When I (to come)
home, my son (to play) chess with his friend, Tom. 3. When we (to get) to the swimming pool,
the Sun (to shine). 4. When we (to leave) the office, the typist still (to type) a report. 5.
Yesterday, when I (to go shopping), I met my bets friend, Nick. 6. When she (to enter) the room,
he just (to shut) the window. 7. When I (to come back) from the office, my daughter (to play)
with her dolls. 8. They (to buy) a new car last year. 9. They (to build) a new house this time last
year. 10. Where you (to go) at 5 o'clock yesterday, when I (to meet) you?
5.Inlocuiti infinitivul din paranteza cu timpurile Present Perfect sau Past Tense:
1. We (not to attend) any English classes last year. 2. She (to write) already all her homework. 3.
He (to receive) just two letters. 4.I (not to speak) to the manager this morning. 5. We (to learn)
English for several months 6. They (to move) recently into a new flat. 7. Last month the Smith's
(to buy) a new car. 8. She (to type) a report since 8 o'clock in the morning. 9. We (to have a
walk) last night. 10. Today he (to come back) from the office at 6 o'clock. 11. I (not to like) her
new dress. 12. He (to have breakfast) already.
LESSON15
PASSENGER TRANSPORT
Today, the system of London passenger transport covers an area of about 2,000 sq.miles
(about 25 miles in all directions from Charing Cross, the centre of London ), passengers getting
about the city by buses, motor coaches, taxi cabs, surface trains and underground trains. The first
undergrounds were steam trains, not very different from other English trains. The difference was
that they ran under the ground, thus avoiding the city above, overcrowded especially during the
morning and late afternoon rush hours, when a lot of people go to and come from their work.

Thus, undergrounds could get from one place to another faster than if they ran above the
ground because there were no buses, trams, cars, taxi cabs or pedestrians to get in their way.
Beside,there were no traffic lights, no crossroads, no pedestrians crossings, shortly, there were no
reasons for the underground to slow down or stop except for stations. There was no need to wait
for the green light to be on, for the vehicles coming from the left to pass, for the pedestrians to
cross the road. But steam trains were very dirty, so they had to be replaced by electric ones,
which were also faster than the steam ones. Now, the word ¶¶Underground´ across a large circle
shows you where the stations are. At every underground station there are maps of all the
underground lines in London, so it is easy to see how to get to the place you want to go to. At
some stations, one can change to a different underground line. To change trains, passengers have
to go to another level by escalators
or lifts. Passengers can get their tickets at booking offices, while for short journeys, tickets
can be obtained from automatic machines.
DIALOGUE
Ann : Excuse me, Sir, which bus must we take to Oxford Street?
Policeman:Take bus number x.
Ann : Can we get to Oxfort Street by underground, too?
Policeman: Yes, you can, but it takes you less time to get there by bus.Hurry up, the bus
is coming.
Ann : Thank you very much. (Ann and Mary are running, but they don't catch the bus).
Ann : What a pity we've missed the bus.
Mary: There's another bus coming.(They get on the bus)
Ann: Does this bus run to Oxford Street?
Conductor: Yes, it does. Hold on tight ! Plenty of seats on top.Fares, please !
Mary: Let's go upstairs. There are vacant seats there.
Conductor: Any more fares?
Mary: Yes, please.
Conductor: Where to?
Mary: Two to the city centre please.
Ann : The next stop is ours. I think it's about time to move up to the front. I don't like elbowing
my way to the exit at the last moment. Are the people standing at the door getting off next
stop?
Mary :Everybody gets off. The bus doesn't run any farther.

I.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1.What area does the system of London passenger transport cover? 2. By what
vehicles do passengers get about the city? 3. Were the first London undergrounds
different from other English trains? 4. What do we mean by rush hours? 5. Why is it
possible for undergrounds to get from one place to another very fast? 6. Why were steam
trains replaced by electric ones? 7. What does the word 'Underground' across a large
circle indicate? 8. What do the maps in the underground stations show? 9. What must
passengers do to change trains? 10. Where do passengers get their tickets from?
II.Vorbiti despre transportul prin oras.
III.Traduceti in limba engleza:
1.O asteptasem in fata cinematografului timp de un sfert de ora cand,in sfarsit, a
venit.2.Am locuit la Cluj timp de doi ani inainte de a ne muta la Bucuresti.3.Ieri pe vremea
aceasta, Ana batea la masina de o ora..4.Calatorisem prin tara timp de doua saptamani cand i-am
intalnit.5.Cand am ajuns acasa mi-a aratat traducerea pe care o facea de la ora cinci.6.Ne
plimbam de o jumatate de ora prin parc, cand i-am intalnit pe prietenii nostri.7.A predat franceza
timp de un an inainte de a incepe sa predea engleza.8.Puteti sa-mi spuneti care este drumul cel
mai scurt pana la hotelul Bucuresti?9.Mergeti tot inainte si apoi luati-o pe prima strada la
dreapta.Hotelul este cladirea mare din fata dumneavoastra.10.Unde este statia de autobuz cea
mai apropiata pentru Piata Universitatii?11.Imi pare rau dar nu stiu, intrebati un alt
trecator.12.Nick i-a spus turistului ca a luat- o pe un drum gresit.13.L-am intrebat daca a vizitat
deja acest muzeu.14.Mi-a spus ca tocmai s-a intors de la birou.15.Credeam ca ati plecat
deja.16.Dupa ce a luat masa de pranz, s-a odihnit putin.17.I-am spus ca nu am mai vazut-o pe
Maria de doua saptamani.18.Citeam de doua ore o carte foarte interesanta, cand a venit
Maria.19.Sciam o scrisoare de catva timp cand, deodata,a sunat soneria.20.Ieri pe vremea acesta
faceam curatenie in casa de doua ore.21.Pietonii pot traversa numai cand semaforul arata
verde.22.Calatoresc cu metroul in special in timpul orelor de varf,cand autobuzele si tramvaiele
sunt supraaglomerate.23.Daca pierdem autobuzul sau daca nu putem sa ne urcam,trebuie sa
steptam altul.24.Ei iau bilete pentru metrou de la casa de bilete sau de la masini automate.25.La
intersectii,vehiculele trebuie sa reduca viteza.26.Coboram la statia urmatoare, nu-i asa?
** *
GRAMMAR
MAI MULT CA PERFECTUL SIMPLU
((Past Perfect Simple)
Definitie:
Mai mult ca perfectul simplu desemneaza o actiune inceputa si terminata intr-un moment
anterior altui moment din trecut sau a altei actiuni trecute care este amintit in momentul vorbirii.
Mod de formare(The way of formation):verbul ´to have ´la Past Tense(had)+Participiul
Trect(V3)
e.g.:I had finished the book before you came.
Afirmativ:S+had+V3
Negativ:S+had not+V3
hadn¶t
Interogativ:Had+S+V3?


Afirmativ

Negativ Interogativ (-Negativ)


I had writen


I had not writen Had I (not) written?

you had writen. You had not writen Had you (not) written?

He had writen

He had not writen Had he (not) written?
She had writen She had not writen Had she (not) written?

It had writen It had not writen Had it (not) written?

We had writen

We had not writen Had we (not) written?

You had writen

You had not writen Had you (not) written?

They had writen

They had not writen Had they (not) written?


Forme

I hadn't written, Hadn't ,I written?
contrase

you hadn't written, hadn't you written?

etc. etc.
Mod de intrebuintare(The uses)
I.Actiune trecuta incheiata inaintea unui moment trecut marcat prin locutiuni adverbiale de timp:
by the end of the week,by two o¶clock,by that time,by Sunday,by last week«.e.g.:I had
finished my lessons by ten o¶clock yesterday.
II.Actiune trecuta incheiata inaintea altei actiuni trecute:e.g.Mother had already cooked the
dinner by the time father arrived home.
III.Actiune trecuta,incheiata imediat inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute:
Just-He had just left when we got there(Tocmai plecase cand am ajuns acolo.)
Already.-We had already seen that movie when we went to Bucharest.
Yet-In propozitiile interogative si negative,ocupand ultimul loc.
By the time we got there he hadn¶t got up yet.
Hardly-They had hardly entered the house when the rain started sau
Hardly had they entered ««««««««««««««
Scarcely-I had scarcely washed the dishes when you came
Barely-You had barely finished the work when he rang me up.
No sooner««than-He had no sooner smoked a cigarette than he lit another.
No sooner had he«««
When ±The train had left when we reached the station
After-The students went on holiday after they had taken the exams.
Until/till-They didn¶t go holiday till/untill they had finished school.
LESSON 16
ON WEATHER
'Everybody talks about the weather, but nobody does anything about it' says the
American writer Mark Twain. . .
It is true that everybody talks about weather, which is the most common subject of
conversation. 'Isn't it a nice day?', 'I think it's going to rain ', are usual ways of starting a
conversation.
Great Britain has an insular and temperate climate. Summers are cooler and winters
milder than in our country. Autumns are foggy. In spring, especially in April, the wether is very
changeable.

Here is an example of what a spring day in Great Britain may be : It is dawn. The Sun is
just rising. A cool breeze is blowing from the south - east, but there are no clouds in the blue
sky. The Sun slowly rises higher and changes from red to yellow and soon it becomes very
bright. Gradually, the breeze becomes a wind. Clouds appear in the sky. At noon the sky is
overcast with black clouds. It lightens and thunders. Large rain drops begin to fall. It is a heavy
shower. But soon, the bright Sun shines out again and we can see the rainbow in the blue sky.
The air is fresh after the rain. The Sun sets in the west and the sky is red and gold. This beautiful
sunset promises a fine day tomorrow.
DIALOGUE
A:What's the weather like in your country?
B: It's very humid. It rains nine months out of the year.
A: My country is arid. We have very little rain and much drought. But when it rains, we have
terrible thunderstorms and sometimes hurricanes.
B: In my country, the temperature is generally mild, except in winter, when, for a few months,
it becomes very cold.

A : My country is hot during the day and just a little cooler at nignt, all the year long.
B : I understand you never have snowstorms.
A: That's right. We have dust storms in early spring and late autumn. It never gets cold
enough to snow.
I.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1. Do people often talk about weather? 2. Are summers in Great Britain cooler or warmer
than in our country? 3. What about winters? 4. What is the weather like in autumn? 5. When is
the weather very changeable? 6. Where does the Sun rise? 7. Where does it set? 8. Which is the
hottest season of the year? 9. What's the weather like today? 10. Is the sky overcast? 11.Is it
raining or snowing? 12. Is the Sun shining in the blue sky? 13. Is it hot or cold? 14.Is the wind
blowing?
II.Compuneti scurte dialoguri despre vreme.
III. Traduceti in limba engleza :
1. Primavara este anotimpul cel mai frumos al anului, dar vremea este foarte
schimbatoare; ploua destul de des. 2. Aproape in fiecare dupa amiaza cerul este acoperit 3. In
unele tari, unde clima este foarte umeda , ploua noua luni pe an. 4. In alte tari, unde clima este
secetoasa, ploua foarte rar, dar cand ploua sunt furtuni puternice si uragane. 5. La munte, verile
sunt mai racoroase decat in celelalte regiuni. 6. Astazi este o zi mai insorita decat ieri; nu sunt
deloc nori pe cer. 7. Dupa ploaie, aerul este intotdeauna foarte proaspat. 8.In sudul tarii clima
este mai blanda decat in celelalte regiuni. 9. Care este cea mai frumoasa zona a tarii voastre? 10.
Anul acesta avem o vara mai lunga si mai calduroasa decat anul trecut.
***
GRAMMAR
MAI MULT CA PERFECTUL CONTINUU
(PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS)
Definitie:
Mai mult ca perfectul continuu arata o actiune vazuta in curs de desfasurare pana intr-un anumit
moment din trecut si continuand si in acel moment.
Momentul poate fi marcat prin locutiuni:this time yesterday,this time last month.
Mod de formare.(The way of formation):Mai mult ca perfectul auxiliarului Äto be´(had
been)+participiul prezent(V-ing)
Afirmativ:S+had been+V-ing
Negativ:S+had not+been+V-ing
hadn¶t
Interogativ:Had+S+been+V-ing?


Afirmativ Negativ Interogativ (-Negativ)


I had been writing I had not been writing
Had I (not) been
writing?

You had been writing
You had not been
writing
Had you (not) been
writing ?


He had been writing
He had not been
writing
Had he (not) been
writing?


She had been writing
She had not been
writing
Had she (not) been
writing?


It had been writing
It had not been
writing
Had it (not) been writing?

We had been writing
We had not been
writing
Had we (not) been
writing?


You had been writing
You had not been
writing
Had you (not) been
writing?





They had been writing They had not been
Had they (not) been
writing?

writing



Forme I'd been writing, you'd I hadn't been writing, Hadn't I been writing?,
contrase been writing, etc.
you hadn't been
writing,etc.
hadn't you been writing?

Mod de intrebuintare(The uses):
I.Actiune trecuta inceputa inaintea altei actiuni trecute si continuand pana la ea.Apare insotit de
for+since.
e.g.:When/by the time the alarm clock rang he had been sleeping for ten hours.
II.Actiune inceputa in trecut,in desfasurare inintea unui moment din trecut sau a altei actiuni
trecute si putand continua si dupa aceea.Apare insotit de :since nine o¶clock,all day(long),all
morning,all afternoon,all the time.
e.g.:They had been travelling all day long when they reached there.
III.Actiune frecvent repetata inaintea unui moment din trecut
e.g.:When we went to Paris he had been studying French for two years.
IV.Actiune terminata cu putin inaintea altei actiuni trecute pe care o determina.
e.g.:The grass was wet because it had been raining(Iarba era uda fiindca plouase)
Alte valori in vorbirea indirecta:
1.Present Perfect Continuous:I `ve been waiting ±he said he had been waiting
2.Past Tense:It was raining then-he said it had been raining then.
GRADELE DE COMPARATIE ALE ADJECTIVULUI
(Comparison of Adjectives)

Pozitiv

Compara-

Super1ativ


tiv


superio-
ritate
egalitate inferioritate relativ

absolut

Compara-
tia
long longer as long as not so the longest very long
sintetica

than

long as of


easy easier as easy as not so the easiest
very
easy

than

easy as of


narrow
narro-
wer
as narrow not so the narr-
very
narrow


than as narrow as owest of


clever cleverer as clever not so the

very
clever
noble
than as clever as cleverest of

nobler as noble not so the noblest
very
noble

than as noble as of

Compara- interesting
more
inte-
as inte-
less
interesting
the most very

tia

resting resting as

interesting resting

analitica

than

than of


Reguli
I.In functie de numarul de silabe din care sunt formate adjectivele, acestea se pot compara
in doua feluri :
1. Comparatia sintetica
- Comparativul de superioritate si superlativul relativ se formeaza adaugand la adjectivul la
gradul pozitiv sufixele -er, si -est, respectiv ; short, shorter, the shortest
- Comparativul de egalitate se formeaza din adjectivul la gradul pozitiv, precedat si urmat de
conjunctia as: as short as
- Comparativul de inferioritate se formeaza din adjectivul la gradul pozitiv, precedat de not so si
urmat de as: not so short as
- Superlativul absolut se formeaza din adjectivu la gradul pozitiv, precedat de adverbele very
(foarte), terribly (teribil de), extremely (extrem de) etc.: very short
Formeaza gradele de comparatie dupa aceste reguli :
a) adjectivele monosilabice : mild, milder, the mildest
b) adjectivele bisilabice terminate in :
-y:easy,easier, the easiest
-ow:narrow,narrower, the narrowest
-er:clever, cleverer, the cleverest
-ble : noble,nobler, the noblest
Cand se adauga sufixele -er, -est, -adjectivele terminate in Äe´ pierd acest Äe´ final :
large, larger, the largest
- adjectivele monosilabice terminate intr -0 consoana precedata de o singura vocala scurta
dubleaza consoana finala:
big, bigger, the biggest
-la adjectivele terminate in -y, precedat de o consoana , y se transforma in i :
easy, easier, the easiest
- la adjectivele terminate in y precedat de o vocala -y ramane neschimbat:
gay, gayer, the gayest
2. Comparatia analitica
- Comparativul de superioritate si superlativul relativ se formeaza din adjectivul la gradul pozitiv
precedat de adverbele more si the most :
beautiful, more beautiful, the most beautiful
- Comparativul de egalitate si superlativul absolut se formeaza urmand regulile aplicabile la
comparatia sintetica :
as beautiful as, very beautiful
-Comparativul de inferioritate se formeaza din adjectivul la gradul pozitiv precedat de
adverbul less:less beautiful
Acest tip de comparatie se aplica la adjectivele plurisilabice.

1.Dati gradele de comparatie ale urmatoarelor adjective:
early, cool, hot, short, cold, small, wide, young, heavy, mild, bright, large, clever, dark, happy,
big, difficult, fat, strong, merry, low, high, new, interesting, weak, tall, narrow, thin, long, sad,
yellow, beautiful.
2.Inlocuiti adjectivul dat in paranteza la gradul pozitiv cu gradul de comparatie corespunzator.
Dati mai multe variante acolo unde este posibil :
1. Which is (cold) season of the year? 2. Our house is (big) yours. 3. This is (bright) room in our
house. 4. Who is (fat), Mary or Ann? 5. John is (handsome) Nick. 6. Nick is (tall) man in our
family. 7. Which is (rainy) season of the year? 8. Jane is (beautiful) Mary. 9. This exercise is
(easy) that one. 10. Today the weather is (fine) yesterday. 11. In Great Britain winters are (mild)
and summers are (cool) in our country. 12. Tom is (young) in our family. 13. This is (interesting)
book I have ever read. 14. Which is (droughty) region in our country? 15. Who is (short) the
three girls? 16. Which is the region with (low) temperatures in our country?
LESSON 17
OUR WEEK - END
From Monday till Saturday we are busy working or studying, but on week -ends we
generally relax and enjoy ourselves. There are various ways of spending our spare
time,depending on our individual interests.
As for us, when the weather is fine, we usually spend our week - ends out of town. We go
for a hike,boating or swimming.We also enjoy going to the country for a picnic lunch,which is
in fact popular with most of us.
Last week - end for example, together with some friends of ours, we decided to go to the
woods and have our picnic by the river.

We got up very early, prepared a picnic lunch, got the car ready,took the fishing rods and
drove off. We got to the woods and chose for our picnic a really beautiful picnic shady place
under an oak - tree. It was quite a pleasure to breathe the fresh air of the country. We spread a
blanket on the grass and sat down to have our lunch as we already felt hungry. The fresh air
made everything taste very good. Then, the children were happy to change into their bathing
suits and have a swim in the cool water of the river. The ladies picked flowers, berries and
mushrooms, lay in the sun - rays and had a nice chat while walking about the wood. The men
fished all the afternoon long without catching anything at all. When the ladies were back, they
were surprised to see a camp fire already burning. When we were about to leave, it started
raining and we took shelter until the rain stopped.
When it got dark, we drove back home.
DIALOGUE
Nick : What shall we do this week - end?
Mother : There are many things we can do, but we have to talk father about it. I'm afraid he
wants to stay at home.
Nick:If father wants to stay at home, then I'll go to see a football match.
Mother:Well, maybe your father will agree to our going to the country this week - end.
Nick:I'll bathe and lie in the Sun.
Mother:Bathe in this weather? You'll catch cold, if you do.
Nick:No, I shan't. I'm sure many boys will bathe. .
Mother:There are other pleasant things we can do there. We shall take a long walk in the
wood, pick berries and mushrooms, we shall go boating, fishing in the river full of trout, we
shall pitch a tent or we shall make a fire and cook on it, we shall stay by the fire and have a lot
of fun.
Nick:No, mother. If I may not swim, I'll stay in town and watch a football match.
Mother:Let's wait , then. We'll decide on it, when he comes.
I.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1.Are we very busy all the week long? 2. When do we generally relax? 3. What
does the way we spend our spare time depend on? 4. Where do we generally spend our
week - ends? 5. Where did we spend our last week - end? 6. When did we get up that
morning? 7. Where did we drive to? 8. What did we do when we got to the woods? 9. Did
we enjoy our lunch? 10.What did the children do? 11. What did the ladies do? 12. Did
the men catch any fish? 13. When did we drive back home?
II.Vorbiti despre modul in care va petreceti sfarsitul de saptamana.
III.Traduceti in limba engleza:
1.Unde va veti petrece week-end-ul urmator?2.Cand vei putea sa-mi raspunzi la
intrebare?3.Daca vremea va fi frumoasa, duminica ne vom duce la munte.4.Dupa ce
ploaia se va opri, vom face o plimbare cu barca.5.Cand se va intuneca, vom face un foc
de tabara.6.Vom pleca dupa ce vom lua micul dejun.7.Cand se va intoarce George, vom
discuta despre acesta.8.Cand va trebui sa predam toate lucrarile?9.Ne vom plimba prin
padure, daca nu va ploua.10.Daca nu va fi ocupat,cred ca va fi de acord sa petrecem acest
sfarsit de saptamana impreuna, la tara.11.Vom face plaja, daca va fi destul de
cald.12.Cand vom ajunge in padure, ne vom odihni.
***
GRAMMAR
VIITORUL SIMPLU
(Future Tense Simple)
Definitie:
Viitorul simplu desemneaza actiuni sau stari posterioare momentului vorbirii
Mod de formare(The way of formation):S+shall/will+toV(shall-pers I sg. si pl. si will-
pers.a II-a si a III-a sg. si pl.)
In engleza americana apare will la toate persoanele.In limba vorbita se prefera formele
contrase:shall/will devin ¶ll
Verbele modale sunt inlocuite de formele lor de prezent sau de inlocuitorii lor:to be able to, have
to.
Afirmativ:S+shall/will+infinitivul scurt al verbului
Negativ:shall/will+not+infinitivul scurt al verbului
shan¶t/won¶t
Interogativ:Shall/will+S+infinitivul scurt al verbului

Afirmativ

Negativ Interogativ (-Negativ)

I shall write

I shall not write Shall I (not) write?

You will write

You will not write Will you (not) write?

He will write

He will not write Will he (not) write?

She will write

She will not write Will she (not) write?

It will write

It will not write Will it (not) write?

We shall write

We shall not write Shall we (not) write?

You will write

You will not write Will you (not) write?

They will write

They will not write Will they (not) write?
Forme I'll write, you'll write, I shan't write, you Shan't I write?, won't you
contrase he'll write, etc

won't write, he won't write?, won't he write?,

write, etc. etc.
Mod de intrebuintare(The uses)
I.actiune care are loc intr-un moment viitor, moment marcat de adverbe:tomorrow, the day after
tomorrow, next week/month/year/Spring/Monday.e.g.:I¶ll leave for London tomorrow.
II.actiune presupusa de vorbitor ca putand avea loc in viitor dupa verbe precum:think, belive,
hope, expect,doubt, wonder, suppose, assume, be sure, be afraid:e.g.:I hope the weather will
change.
III.In completive directe dupa when, if, wheather, how:I don¶t know if/wheather I¶ll go there
Nu se foloseste in temporale introduse de when, until/till, before,as soon as sau dupa
conditionale introduse de if, unless:e.g.:I¶ll wait until she comes back(prezent)sau They will
spend this week here if the weather is fine
Se foloseste Present Perfect in locul viitorului daca actiunea din secundara este ulterioara celei
din principala:
We shall leave only after we have prepared everything (Vom pleca numai dupa ce vom fi
pregatit totul)
Nuante modale:
Verbul ôwill´folosit la persoana I sg. si pl. Este verb modal si exprima intentia sau
hotararea de a savarsi o actiune.e.g.:I will go there(Sunt hotarat sa ma duc acolo)
Verbul Ä´shall´folosit la persoana aIIa si aIIIa sg. si pl. este verb modal si exprima un
ordin, o amenintare, o promisiune.e.g.:You shall go there(Trebuie sa te duci acolo)sau You shall
have the book back the day after tomorrow(Iti promit sa-ti inapoiez cartea poimaine)
1.Dati interogativul, negativul,si interogativ - negativul urmatoarelor propozitii :
1.I'll go to see a football match. 2. Father wants to spend the next week- end at home .
3.We enjoy going to the country for a picnic lunch. 4. On week - ends, we relax and enjoy
ourselves. 5. We shall go fishing in the river full of trout. 6. We usually spend our week -ends
out of town. 7. They will take a long walk in the wood.
2.Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la viitor:
1. We spend our week- ends in the country. 2. They don't enjoy themselves when they go to the
cinema. 3. We are busy working or studying. 4. There are many things we can do there. 5. We
must take the fishing rods. 6. They don't feel hungry. 7. We stay in town all the summer long.
COMPARATIA NEREGULATA A ADJECTIVELOR
(The Irregular Comparison of Adjectives)
Pozitiv Comparativ Superlativ

good (bun) better (mai bun) the best (cel mai

bun)


bad (rau) worse (mai rau, mai bolnav) the worst (cel mai
ill (bolnav)

rau, cel mai bolnav)
much (mult) more the most (cel mai
many (multi,
(mai mult,mai multi, mai
multe)
mult, cei mai multi,cele
multe)

mai multe)


little (putin) less(mai putin) the least(cel mai

putin)

old (vechi,batran) older(mai vechi, mai batran) the oldest (cel

mai vechi, cel mai
batran)

older (folosit numai the eldest (folosit

atributiv) (mai in virsta ,
mai batran,
numai atributiv) (cel
mai in

referitor la persoane din varsta,

aceeasi familie)
referitor la persoane
din

aceeasi familie)
far(departat)
farther (mai
departat,celalalt)

further (mai departat) the farthest (cel

mai departat)


the furthest(cel mai
departat)
late (tarziu)
near (apropiat)
later{mai tarziu)
nearer (mai apropiat)

the latest(cel mai
tarziu)
the nearest(cel mai
apropiat)


1.Dati gradele de comparatie ale urmatoarelor adjective.Alcatuiti propozitii.
old, fat, good, near, bad, much, late, ill, little, many.
2.Folositi cuvintele date in paranteza la gradul de comparatie corespunzator;dati mai multe
variante unde este posibil.
1.Many hopes to get(thin).2.Robert is five years(old) than I am.3.He is (old) of us.4.Richard is
(good) at sports than Mary is.5.My wife is four years(young)than I am.6.My son is (good)
sportsman in the family.7.Elisabeth is (young)of us.8.My house is(far) from the center of the city
than yours.9.Today I have (much) spare time than yesterday.10.My (old) brother is an engineer.
LESSON 18
POSTAL SERVICES
Nowadays, we can hardly imagine life without postal services, telephone and telegraph.
We go to the Post Office quite often, to send letters, telegrams, parcels, books, to deposit
or withdraw money, to cash money orders, to get or renew our licence for the radio or T.V. set,
to subscribe to various newspapers, to buy postage stamp, postcards or picture postcards.
In the main hall of every Post Office, there are a lot of counters, offering people a wide
range of such services.
After I have written my letter, I put it into an envelope. Then, I write the addressee's and
the sender's names and addresses on the envelope and stick a stamp in its right - hand top corner.
I post letters, postcards or picture postcards at the Post Office or, if they are already stamped, I
drop them into a pillar box.
I send a letter of a particular value by Registered Post, and in this case the clerk hands
me a receipt.
If the addressee prefers to pick up his mail in person, I send the letter to the Post Restante.
When I want my letter to reach the addressee sooner, I send it by airmail.
To send a telegram, I either go to the Post Office, or dictate it over the telephone. The
amount of money I have to pay depends on the number of words the message contains,
on the distance my telegram is sent to, on the type of telegram.
I send money by a money order.
Whenever I want to send a parcel, I go to the Parcel counter. I fill in a form mentioning
the sender's and the addressee's names and addresses, the weight and the value of the
parcel.
I deposit or withdraw money at the Savings Bank counter.
There is another counter where I pay my rent, my bills for gas, electricity, telephone and
other services.
DIALOGUE
Customer: I want to send a telegram. Where can I get a message form?
Clerk : You find telegram forms over there; fill one up in ink writing the addressee's name and
address in block capitals, the message, your signature and then hand it in at the next counter.
Customer: Will the telegram reach the addressee tonight?
Clerk : Will you send it ordinary, urgent or express?
Customer: I'll send it urgent.
Clerk : Then, your telegram will reach the addressee in four hours.
Customer: That's all right.
«««««
Customer (handing the telegram form over to the clark) : Here is my telegram.
Clerk: I'm afraid you'll have to rewrite it. I cannot decipher your hand writing.
Customer : I'm sorry, I¶ll try to write more legibly.
Clerk : While you are rewriting the telegram,I¶ll be attending to another customer.
Customer (handing the telegram form over) : Is it better now?
Clerk: Yes, it's much better. Here is your receipt.
I.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1. Do you often go to the Post Office?2. What are the services offered by the Post Office? 3.
How do we post letters, postcards and picture postcards? 4. When do we send letters by
Registered Post? 5. When do we send letters to the Post Restante? 6. When do we send letters by
airmail? 7. How can we send telegrams? 8. How do we send money? 9. What must we do if we
want to send parcels? 1 0.What must we mention on the form we fill in? 11. Where do we
deposit or withdraw money?
II.Scrieti o scrisoare prietenului vostru si trimiteti-o,explicand fiecare lucru pe care l-ati facut in
acest scop.
III.Traduceti in limba engleza:
1.In timp ce eu voi incasa banii de pe mandatul postal, Maria va completa un formular de
telegrama.2.In timp ce functionarul va scrie chitanta pentru scrisoarea recomandata,eu imi voi
plati chiria.3.In timp ce Ninu va scrie adresele pe plicuri,eu voi lipi timbrele.4.Ce vei face maine
pe vremea aceasta?5.Nick nu va veni cu noi la cinematograf deoarece maine intre 3 si 5 va
urmari meciul de fotbal.6.Nu-l mai asteptati;el nu poate veni cu noi, deoarece toata dupa amiaza
va juca sah.7.Daca vom lua acest tren, vom calatori toata noaptea.8.Cand vom ajunge acasa,
Maria si Tudor vor lucra in gradina.9.Vom face plaja toata dimineata, daca vremea va fi
frumoasa.10.Daca voi gasi cartea la biblioteca, maine voi studia toata ziua.
***
GRAMMAR
VIITORUL CONTINUU
(The Future Continuous Tense)
Definitie:
Viitorul continuu exprima actiuni vazute in curs de desfasurare intr-un anumit moment din viitor
Mod de formare(The way of formation):viitorul auxiliarului Ä´to be´+Participiul
Prezent(V-ing)
Afirmativ:S+shall/will+be+V-ing
Negativ:S+shall/will+not+be+V-ing
shan¶t/won¶t
Interogativ:Shall/Will+S+be+V-ing?

Afirmativ Negativ

Interogativ( Negativ)

I shall be writing I shall not be writing

Shall I (not) be writing?

You will be writing
You will not be
writing
Will you (not) be
writing?

He will be writing
He will not be
writing
Will he (not) be writing?

She will be writing
She will not be
writing
Will she (not) be
writing?

It will be writing It will not be writing

Will it (not) be writing?

We shall be writing
We shall not be
writing
Shall we (not) be
writing?

You will be writing
You will not be
writing
Will you (not) be
writing?
They will be writing
They will not be
writing
Will they (not) be
writing?

Forme
I'll be writing,you¶ll
be
I shan't be writing,

Shan't I be writing?
contrase
writing, he'll be
writing,
You won't be writing,
Won¶t you be writing
won't he be writing?,etc.

etc.
He won't be writing,
etc.
Mod de intrebuintare(The uses):
I.actiune in desfasurare intr-un moment viitor marcat de locutiuni adverbiale:at (about)ten
o¶clock, this time tomorow,/next Monday/next week/next month/next year, all the week through,
from one to threee.g.:He will be travelling to Cluj this time next Monday
II.actiune in curs de desfasurare in viitor intrerupta de o alta actiune momentana(Prezent) in
temporale introduse de when:e.g.:When we get there they will be waiting for us
III.doua actiuni simultane in curs de desfasurare in viitor:e.g.:While the teacher is explaining the
lesson we will be taking notes
IV.actiune neutra, obisnuita in desfasurarea normal a evenimentelor viitoaree.g.:He will be
passing the library on his way home
V.actiune viitoare stabilita antrerior:What will you be doing tomorrow evening(in locul
prezentului continuu)-What are you doing«?
VI.presupunere referitoare la o actiune prezenta e.g.:They will be wondering what has happened
to you(S-or fi intreband ce ti s-a intamplat)
VII.cu verbe care implica atingerea unui scop, o actiune neincheiata:She will be having her piano
lesson when you come.
1.Completati urmatoarele propozitii:
1.We fill in a form when«2.We got to the Saving Bank counter when«3.We send a letter by Registered
Post when«4.Senders are given receipts when«5.We send a letter by airmail when«6.Before dropping
a letter into the pillar box we must«7.In the right-hand top corner of the envelope we must«8. Since I
cannot decipher your handwriting you must«
2.Dati interogativul, negativul si interogativ-negativul urmatoarelor propozitii:
1.This time tomorrow I shall be going to the Post office.2.We will be studying in the library from one to
three.3.This time next year we shall be having our holiday.4.I shall be driving to Constanta this time next
Tuesday.5.He will be drawing up a report all day tomorrow.6.They will be travelling about the country all
the week through.7.I shall be visiting the museum at 3 o¶clock tomorrow.
3.Dati interogativul, negativul si interogativ - negativul urmatoarelor propozitii :
1. This time tomorrow I shall be going to the Post Office. 2. He will be studying in the library
from one to three. 3. This time next year we shall be having our holidays. 4. I shall be driving to
Constanta this time next Tuesday. 5. He will be drawing up a report all day tomorrow. 6. They
will be travelling about the country all the week through. 7.I shall be visiting the museum at 3
o'clock tomorrow.
4.Schimbati urmatoarele propozitii astfel incat sa exprime o actiune viitoare :
1. My friend was watching the T.V. programme, when I came in. 2. She was reading a book,
when I knocked at the door. 3. It was raining, when we left for the cinema. 4. They were working
on the field, when we reached the village. 5. John was listening to music when I came back
home. 6. Mary was going to the Post Office, when I met her.
LESSON 19
Are Computers Our Friends or Enemies?
No one would deny that the computer has increased people's working capacity, as well
as their intellectual abilities. With its help people can do more and better things in a shorter
period of time. However, there is an alarming body of opinion that says that prolonged exposure
to the computer screen can cause physical and mental disorder. On the one hand, some people
consider the computer as a friend but on the other hand it is considered a deadly enemy.
People who believe that the computer has a positive impact on their lives mention first
of all the ioy and pleasure they have in working with it. They say they can work for hours on
end without getting tired or bored. In addition to this, they feel calmer and more relaxed when
typing on the computer than when writing on a typewriter or using a pen. They are no longer
stressed by the thought of correcting mistakes because they are easily correctable. What is
more, they say they feel confident and empowered by the computer as it helps them to keep
things under control. For example, just by pressing the right key they can get an immediate
response and so influence their own work and that of other people. The computer gives full
satisfaction and makes them feel proud and pleased with themselves when they see that the
result of their work is neat and accurate. For all these reasons, they say they feel enriched and
see the computer as a reliable and helpful friend.
On the other hand, there is an increasing number of people who think that the
computer has a harmful effect on their health and general well-being. To begin with they all
mention the increased stress and disturbances to vision when exposed for long periods to the
computer screen. As well as this, they consider that certain physical ailments, such as
constipation and backache, are caused by long hours spent in sedentary inactivity and a
crouching position over the keyboard. In addition to this, they also talk about a general sense of
fatigue and depression which comes from general inactivity. Another thing many people
complain about is an itching face. It seems that this is due to the electrostatic field created by
the video screen which attracts dust from the atmosphere and irritates exposed skin. To sum up,
they think their health is in danger and view the computer as a potential enemy rather than as a
trusty friend.
Personally, I think the computer is a useful and necessary tool in the world we live in.
While it may be true that, used unwisely, it is a potential threat to our health and well-being, it is
also true that it usually brings more benefits than problems to our lives. One of its major
disadvantages is its ability to dominate us, but one of its great advantages is that it can be used to
serve our interests. All in all, I think the computer should be viewed as a friend rather than an
enemy. As the saying goes, 'A computer is a good servant but a bad master'; it is up to us to use it
wisely.
I.Formulati 10 intrebari refritoare la text.
II. Read the essay again. Does the writer:
1. give arguments for an opinion?
2.give arguments against an opinion? or
3.give arguments for and against an opinion?
4.Which side of the argument does the writer believe in?
5. Which side do you believe in?
Look at the advertisement and say which of the things advertised you can use now and which
you'll be able to use in the future.
The World's Magnificent Inventions!

CD ROM: Would you like to have instant access to the best games or your favourite pop
group's music? All you need is a CD ROM! It'll call up the Encyclopaedia Britannica faster than
you count to twenty! In a few years you'll be able to afford one in your own home.
VIRTUAL REALITY: Hurry off now to get the first VR goggles and data gloves fresh on
the computer market! What do you do with them? You'll experience things which exist only on a
computer programme! For example, you'll play tennis with Steffi Graf or join Mika Hakinnen on
Formula 1!


E-MAIL: Just click the 'mouse' and your PC will display electronic mail! Write a letter to your
friend in America and he will get it as quickly as you can wink an eye! Your friend from New
Zealand will write about and send the latest events in his school to your e-mail address:
julia_HYPERION mailto: richards@mail.dnttm.ro

THE INTERNET: Would you like to know the latest news in the Book of Records? By the
time you have finished dreaming about it, your PC will have logged into the Book of Records.
What you have to do is surf the Web to find the information you will have logged into the Book
of Records. What you have to do is surf the Web to find the information you want
VIDEOPHONE: Wouldn't it be nice to see the face of the people you're talking to over
the phone? With the videophone you'll be able to see the caller's perfect image. What if you don't
want to be seen? Just close the lens cover!
INTERACTIVE TV: It'll give access to more than 500 TV channels! You'll be connected to
a video library. You don't like the ending of the film? You can create your own version!

So you see, technology will put the world at your fingertips!
***
GRAMMAR
VIITORUL PERFECT SIMPLU
(Fufure Perfect Simple)
Definitie:
Viitorul perfect simplu exprima o actiune sau stare care va avea loc inaintea unui alt moment din
viitor sau inaintea unei actiuni viitoare
Formare:S+shall/will+viitorul simplu al verbului ôto have´+Participiul trecut(V3)
Afirmativ:S+shall/will+have+V3
Negativ:S+shall/will +not+have+V3
Shan¶t/won¶t
Interogativ:Shall/Will+S+have+V3?
Mod de intrebuintare(uses):
I.Actiune viitoare incheiata inaintea unui moment din viitor indicat de adverbe si loc. adv. :by
tomorrow,/Monday/next«/by ten o¶clock/this time next week, in a week¶s time/in a month¶s
time/in a year¶s time
e.g.:By seven o¶clock I shall have finished work.
II.actiune viitoare inceputa inaintea unui anumit moment din viitor si care continua inca in acel
moment
By the end of year they wiil have played football for three months(Pana la sfarstul anului se vor
implini trei luni de cand joaca fotbal)
III.actiune viitoare care va avea loc inaintea altei actiuni viitoare+when/by the time-e.g.When/by
the time we reach the station the train will have left.
IV.probabilitatea unei actiuni sau stari terminate in trecut sau viitore.g.:I shall have read this
story somewhere (Probabil ca am citit povestea asta pe undeva)

VIITORUL PERFECT CONTINUU
(Future Perfect Continuous)
Definitie:
Viitorul perfect continuu arata o actiune in curs de desfasurare inaintea unui anumit moment din
viitor si putand continua si dupa aceea.
Forma:viitorul perfectr al auxiliarului Ä´to be´(shall/will+have+been)+Participiul Prezent(V-
ing)
Afirmativ:S+shall/will+have+been+V-ing
Negativ:S+shall/will+have+not+been+V-ing
Shan¶t/won¶t
Interogativ:Shall/Will+S+have+been+V-ing?
Se traduce cu prezumtivul
Mod de intrebuintare(uses):Apare insotit de prepozitiile:sice si for:
When she arrives here the film will have been runing since seven/for half an hour
LESSON 20
THE INTERNET AND THE INFORMATION REVOLUTION
The internet is a source of information that is accessible through a computer. It consists
of millions of pages of data about every possible subject. Twenty-five million people surf the
internet every day. The internet is already the biggest source of information on the planet. It will
soon be the main source of material for students and teachers of many different subjects.
To acces the internet, you need a service provider, a company which can bring the
internet to your computer screen.Then you can acces the information via your telephone line.
But how do you find specific information that you need?
If you have the website address of a company or service that you want, you simply type it
and you arrive automatically the page you want.
If you haven¶t got a particular website address, there are several directories or search
engines which can help you,such as Alta Vista, Yahoo or Infoseek. There are then two ways to
find information - directories and key-word searches.Directories arrange contents by subject, like
the Yellow Pages of a telephone directory. Most search engines have their own subject headings.
Read them and decide where you want to go for more information.
Or you can do a key-word search. For example, if you want to find out about studying
English in England, type in the key words- 'Studying_English_in_England' (don't forget the
quotation marks and underscores). The screen will then Show you the websise pages where you
can find the information you need.
FINDING OUT MORE ABOUT SURFING THE INTERNET
If you have internet access at your school, check the help page of your internet server.
You will find some 'tips' accessing information.
People who use the internet regularly can usually help you. Before your next English
lesson, talk to someone who knows something about the internet, a friend, relative or a friend of
your family. Come to the next class with an internet tip!
Tell the rest of the class about any websites you have visited.
Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
What exactly is the internet?
What kind of information can you find?
How do you access it?
***
GRAMMAR
ALTE MIJLOACE DE EXPRIMARE A VIITORULUI
(Other ways of expressing futurity)
I.VIITORUL APROPIAT(Going-to-Future)
Definitie:
Viitorul apropiat exprima actiuni sau stari care vor avea loc intr-un moment sau interval de timp
viitor nu prea indepartat de prezent.Se traduce cu :am de gand sa, intentionez sa, sunt pe cale de
a, urmeaza sa sau voi«
Forma:be going to la prezent+infinitivul scurt
Uses:
I.actiune viitoare foarte apropiata de momentul vorbirii:She¶s going to turn the radio on(Are de
gand sa«)
II.actiune intentionata de autor in prezent:he is going to give a party next Sunday
III.actiune viitoare datorata unor circumstante prezente:You aren¶t worm enough.You are going
to catch a cold.
IV.actiune viitoare neutra-in limbaj colocvial(in locul viitorului simplu)I¶m going to phone you
II.TO BE TO+infinitivul scurt al verbului- exprima un aranjament sau un ordin:She is
going to give a lecture tomorrow(Urmeaza sa tina o prelegere maine)sau You are to be back in
time(Trebuie sa te intorci la timp)
III.TO BE ON THE POINT OF+V-ing
TO BE ABOUT TO+infinitivul scurt al verbului
Exprima actiuni care vor avea loc in viitorul imediat
She is about to burst into tears/She is on the point of bursting into tears.
Going-to-Future, To be to+toV si to be on the point of+gerund pot fi intrebuintate si la trecut in
vorbirea indirecta cand verbul din principala este la trecut:e.g.:I knew he was going to meet her
that day (Stiam ca el urma s-o intalneasca in acea zi) .
1.Completati urmatoarele propozitii:
1. When we were about to leave, . 2. When he was about to pitch the tent, ««. 3. When we
were about to make a fire, . 4. When they were about to sit down and have lunch, . 5. When the
children were about to change into their bathing suits, 6. When he was about to have a swim in
the cool water of the river, . 7. When we were about to drive off, « .
LESSON 21
TELEPHONING
The possibility offered by a home telephone of settling different questions without
leaving our home, makes it a great convenience.
Still, sometimes, we have to use public telephones. When I ring somebody up from a telephone
booth, I pick up the receiver and drop a coin into the slot. When I hear the signal, I dial the
number. If the line is engaged, I hang up the receiver and the coin is returned. If the line is free, I
can speak. The time - limit for a telephone booth is three minutes.
For long - distance calls, I usually go to the Telephone Office. I pick up the receiver, and
when the white light is on, I drop a coin into the slot. I hear the signal and I dial the prefix of the
town, followed by the number. If I exceed the time - limit, the red light is on, and if I don't
drop another coin, I am disconnected.
If I am at home, I give the operator the number I need, calling out each figure of the
telephone number separately. For zero I read /ou/. If the first or the last two figures are the
same,I use the word double'.
Sometimes, if I don't want to pay for a long - distance call, I ask the operator to make the
call collect.
When I don't know somebody's telephone number, I either look it up in the telephone
directory or ring up Inquiries. If my phone is out of order, I ring up the telephone repair
service,to have it fixed.

DIALOGUE
Mr. Smith (to his secretary) : Will you please get me through to Bristol? I promised I should
ring up Mr. Brown at two o'clock.
Secretary: Oh, Mr. Brown, I remember. You told me he was a very reliable partner with whom
Mrs.Black & Co. had been doing business for many years.
Mr. Smith: That's right. Unfortunately, fast time I rang him up, while we were speaking, we were
cut off several times. Here is his telephone number: Bristol 23 -42, extension 4.
Secretary: Hello, is that Trunks?
Voice : I'm afraid, you've got the wrong number.
Secretary: Oh, I'm sorry.
(The secretary dials the number of the Exchange again).
Operator: Trunks, station 6.
Secretary: This is London Central 42 - 12.
Operator: What number, please?
Secretary: I want to speak to Bristol 23 - 42. How long will it take to put me through?
Operator: Is it an ordinary call or an urgent one? The lines are quite busy just now.
Secretary: Urgent, please.
Operator: All right, I'll give you a ring in a moment.
(Some minutes later, the telephone rings)
Operator: Is that London Central 42 -12?
Secretary:Yes,it is.
Operator: Your urgent call to Bristol. Hold the line, please. You are through.
Secretary: Will you give me extension 4, please?
Operator: Just a moment.
Voice : Mr. Brown's office.
Mr. Smith: This is Mr. Smith speaking. Can I speak to Mr. Brown, please?
Voice: Just a moment, please. You are through. (to Mr. Brown). You are wanted on the phone,
Sir.
Mr.Brown: Hello.
Mr. Smith: Smith speaking. Good afternoon, Mr.Brown.
Mr. Brown: Good afternoon, Mr. Smith.
Mr. Smith: Last week, I rang you up several times, but I couldn't get at you. First, I had a wrong
connection, then the Exchange said there was something wrong on the line. (They are talking
about business matters, when suddenly the operator breaks in).
Operator: The three minutes are up.
Mr. Smith: Well, I hope to see you again soon, Mr. Brown. Good -bye.
Mr. Brown: Good bye, Mr. Smith.
I.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1.Why is a home telephone a great convenience? 2. When do we use public telephones?
3. What do we do when we ring somebody up from a telephone booth? 4. What do we do if the
line is engaged? 5. Is there a time - limit for a telephone talk from a telephone booth? 6. What
happens when the time - limit is over? 7. Must we go to the Telephone Office for long - distance
calls? 8. How do we call out the figures of the telephone number? 9. When do we ask the
operator to make the call collect? 10. What do we do when we don't know somebody's telephone
number? 11. What do we do when our phone is out of order?
II.Imaginati-va o convorbire telefonica.
III.Traduceti in limba engleza:
1.Mi-a spus ca nu-i stie numarul de telefon si ca va trebui sa il cute in cartea de
telefon.2.Centralista m-a intrebat cu ce interior sa-mi faca legatura.3.Mi-a promis ca-mi va
telefona cat de curand.4.Functionara de la telefoane mi-a spus ca am depasit cele 3 minute pentru
care am platit.5.Ne-a spus ca domnul Smith este un partener pe care te poti baza.6.Nu am vazut
cand s-a aprins becul rosu.7.Nu stiam ca faceti comert cu aceasta firma de atatia ani.8.De ce nu
ne-ati spus ca ati dat telefon cu taxa inversa?9.Maria nu mi-a spus ca ai un alt numar de
telefon.10.Nu stiam ca se va intrerupe convorbirea,daca nu voi introduce o alta moneda.
***
GRAMMAR
VIITORUL IN TRECUT
(Future in the Past)
Definitie:
Viitorul in trecut arata o actiune vazuta ca posterioara unui anumit moment din trecut
Forma:S+auxiliarul should(trecutul auxiliarului shall)si would(Will)+infinitivul scut
Afirmativ:S+should/would+infinitivul scurt al verbului
Negativ:S+should/would+not +infinitivul scurt al verbului
shouldn¶t/wouldn¶t
Interogativ:Should/would+S+infinitivul scurt al verbului


Afirmativ

Negativ

Interogativ (-Negativ)




I should write

I should not write Should I (not) write?


You would
write
You would not write
Would you (not)
write?

He would write

He would not write Would he (not) write?


She would
write
She would not write Would she (not) write?


It would write

It would not write Would it (not) write?


We should write

We should not write
Should we (not)
write?

You would
write
You would not write Would you (not) write?


They would
write
They would not write
Would they (not)
write?
Forme
contrase
I'd write,
you'd write,
I shouldn't write, Shouldn't I write?,


he'd write, etc.

You wouldn't write,

wouldn't you write?,


He wouldn't write, etc. wouldn't he write?etc.

Coincide cu forma de conditional prezent.Se intrebuinteaza in subordonate cand verbul din
principala este la un timp trecut:e.g.:She would come here.In propozirtiile independente are
valoare conditionala(Ar trece pe aici).

Inlocuiti infinitivul din paranteze cu timpul corespunzator :
1. I promised (to ring up) Mr. Brown at two o¶clock.2. You told me he (to be) a very reliable
partner with whom Mrs. Black & -Co. (to do) business for many years. 3. The Exchange said
there (to be) something wrong on the line. 4. John told me his telephone (to be) out of order for
some days. 5. I didn't know when I (to have) my telephone fixed. 6. He asked me if I (to have) a
home telephone. 7. I asked him what his telephone number (to be). 8.Why didn't you tell me you
(not to ring up) him. 9. I asked him if he (to be back) late .I promised I (to ring up) her again
later.
CORESPONDENTA TIMPURILOR
(The Sequence of Tenses)
Reguli(rules):
1.Un timp prezent din principala poate fi insotit de orice timp:I¶m sure he had left earlier/he
left/he has left/he will leave.
2.Un timp trecut(Past Tense sau Past Perfect)din principala este insotit de un alt timp in
secundara:
a)Pentru simultaneitate:Past Tense+Past Tense:I was sure he was there.
b)Pentru anterioritate:Past Tense+Past Perfect:I was sure he had been there.
c)Pentru ideea de viitor in trecut:Past Tense+Future in the Past:I was sure he would come.
3.viitorul din principala sau regenta este insotit de:
a)Prezent pentru simultaneitate:I will go there when I have time.
b)Present Perfect pentru anterioritate:I will go there when I have finished my work.
4.Conditionalul Prezent cere Past Tense pentru simultaneitate:I should go there if you came with
me
5.Conditionalul Trecut cere Past Perfect:We should have left at seven if it had not rained
6.In propozitiile finale se foloseste may cand in principala este prezent sau viitor sau imperativ:
I will start earlier(so)that he may still meet me there
7.In propozitiile finale se foloseste might sau should daca verbul din principala este la Past Tense
negativ:She hit the jam lest Mary should find and eat it.
1.Inlocuiti infinitivul din paranteza cu timpul corespunzator : .
1. I promised I (to ring up) Mr. Brown at two o¶clock. 2. You told me he (to be) a very
reliable partner with whom Mrs. Black & Co. (to do) business for many years. 3. The Exchange
said there (to be) something wrong on the line. 4. John told me his tefephone (to be) out of order
for some days. 5. I didn't know when I (to have) my telephone fixed. 6. He asked me if I (to
have) a home telephone. 7. I asked him what his telephone number (to be). 8. Why didn't you tell
me you (not to ring up) him. 9. I asked him if he (to be back) late. 10.I promised I (to ring up)
her again later.
CUPRINS
1.Alfabetul englezesc«««p.2 Lectia 12«««««48
Verbul-generalitati««««p.2 To have-trecut«««.49
Lesson 1««««««««p.5 Lesson 13«««««.50
To be-indicativ prezent««.p.8 Trecutul simplu«««51
Articolul nehotarat««««p.8 Lesson 14«««««.54
Pronumele personale«««.p.9 Trecutul continuu««55
Lesson 2««««««««p.10 Lesson 15«««««58
Articolul hotarat«««««p.10 Mai mult ca perfectul simplu«60
There¶s/there¶re«««««.p.11 Lesson 16««««««.62
Pronumele si adjective Mai mult ca perfectul continuu..63
Demonstrative«««««..p.12 Gradele de comparatie ale adj«.65
Lesson 3««««««««p.13 Lesson 17««««««««..67
To have-prezent simplu««p.14 Viitorul simplu««««««.68
Pluralul substantivelor««..p.15 Comparatia neregulata a adjectivelor..70
Substantive cu plural Lesson18««««««..72
Neregulat«««««««..p.16 Viitorul continuu«««73
Declinarea substantivelor«.p.16 Lesson19«««««..76
Adjective posesive««««p.17 Vitorul perfect simplu«..78
Lesson 4««««««««p.19 Lesson20««««««««79
Pronume personale««««p.19 Alte mijloace de exprimare a viitorului..80
Intrebari disjunctive«««..p.20 Lesson21«««««««81
Lesson5««««««««.p.21 Viitorul in trecut««««83
Genitivul«««««««p.22 Corespondenta timpurilor««84
Lesson6««««««««..p.23
Pronume personale««««.p.24
Pronume si adjective
Interogative«««««««.p.25
Lesson7«««««««««p.26
Modul Indicativ
Prezentul simplu«««««..p.27
Pronume reflexive si de intarire..p.31
Lesson8«««««««««.p.32
Prezentul continuu«««««p.33
Pronume relative««««««p.36
Lesson9«««««««««..p.37
Prezentul perfect simplu«««p.38
Lesson10«««««««««.p.41
Prezentul perfect continuu««.p.42
Diferente dintre Past Tense si Present
Perfect
Lesson11««««««««p.45
To be-past Tense«««««.p.46
UNIVERSITATEA HYPERION
CURS DE LIMBA ENGLEZA
ANUL II

PROFESOR
LOREDANA
PADURE
BUCURESTI
2003
LESSON 1
CAN YOU SPEAK ENGLISH ?
Can you speak English, Mr.A ? Yes, I can, but only a little.
Can¶t you read lesson number two ? Yes, I can.
Open your book to page 6 and read, please ! Now, turn to page 7 and go on ! Close your book
and come to the blackboard. Take the chalk and write, please !
Can you write all the words ? No, I can¶t.
Open your books and translate the text, please !
Can you count from one to ten ? No, I cannot.
May I? Of course you may, Mr. B. Count, please !
One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten.
Thank you ! Mr. A., repeat, please! Now, go back to your seat. Sit down !
Go from the door to the window, Mr. C !
May I open the window ? Yes, you may.
May I take your book ?No, please don¶t. I still need it.
May I use your computer ? Yes, you may.
Thank you very much.
May I smoke in this room ? No, you must not. This is a classroom.
May I take your pen ? No, you may not.
Must we write all the exercises ? Yes, you must.
Must we learn lesson nr. 9, too? No, you needn¶t.
Don¶t be late !
Don¶t speak Romanian during the English classes !
I. Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari :
1Can you speak English? 2. Can you write the new words? 3. Can all the students translate the
text? 4. Can you count from one to ten ? 5.May I take your exercise book ? 6. May he use your
computer? 7. Must we repeat all the texts? 8. Must we translate lesson number 7? 9. Must I close
the window? 10. Must we speak English during our English classes?
II.Formulati dialoguri in care sa folositi verbele modale.
III. Traduceti in limba engleza :
1. Putem citi, serie si traduce toate cuvintele din acest text. 2. Acum inchideti cartea si
veniti
la tabla, va rog ! 3. Pot sa iau dictionarul tau? Nu, am inca nevoie de el. 4. Trebuie sa repetam
toate lectiile ? Nu, nu este nevoie, repetati numai lectia numarul opt. 5. Pot sa deschid fereastra ?
Desigur, puteti. 6. Nu stiu (pot) sa citesc acest cuvant. 7. Luati creta si scrieti cuvintele noi pe
tabla, va rog !8. Pot sa ma duc la loc ?9. Pot sa stau jos ? 10. Stiti (puteti) sa numarati de la unu
la zece ? 11. Nu inchideti cartea, cititi lectia, va rog! 12. Acum cititi toate cuvintele! 13. Nu
intarziati, va rog! 14. Avem voie sa fumam in aceasta camera? Nu, nu este voie.15. Nu repetati
toate textele din carte! ***

GRAMMAR
VERBE MODALE
(Modal Verbs)
Shall,Should
Shall - trebuie - se foloseste destul de rar cu acest sens in engleza contempoana, spre deosebire
de perioadele mai indepartate ale istoriei acestei limbi.
It is a mind E un cuget
that shall remain a care trebuie sa
poison where it is. ramana in chip de otrava acolo unde este.
Exprima ideea de 'necesitate' sau 'obligatie' diminuata si se traduce, de obicei, prin 'sa', shall se
intalneste in propozitiile interogative si interogativ-negative:
Shall I give you the report?
Sa va dau dvs. referatul?
In schimb should- ar trebui, s-ar cuveni, ar fi bine, ar fi cazul, se intrebuinteaza destul de
frecvent (dar nu ca preterit, ci ca prezent conditional al lui shall). El exprima obligatia, mai cu
seama obligatia morala sau sociala, recomandarea, sfatul, necesitatea interna:
You should remember this.
You should have remembered this.
We should go and see the play.
Ar trebui sa nu uiti asta.
Ar fi trebuit sa nu uiti asta.
Ar fi trebuit sa mergem sa vedem piesa.
Will, Would
Will are mai multe intelesuri modale, din care cel mai important este acela de vointa, do-
rinta, intentia de a face ceva, hotarare, astfel: you will vrei, doresti, poftesti, intentionezi, mai ales
in propozitii interogative si interogativ-negative:
Will you show me the Vrei/Esti bun sa-mi
way? arati drumul?
What will you eat? Ce vrei sa mananci?
Won't you be a teacher? Nu vrei sa te faci profesor?
De asemenea:
Let them do what they will. Sa faca ce vor/doresc.
(I) Would voiam etc., poate fi preteritul lui will, folosit mai ales in propozitii negative:
He wouldn't come. Nu voia/N-a vrut sa vina.
sau conditionalul prezent al aceluiasi verb, traducandu-se prin 'as vrea' , fie prin 'vreau' etc.:
Wouldn't you give us a lift ? N-ati vrea sa ne dati o mana de ajutor?
Would you hold on a moment? Vrei sa astepti o clipa (la aparat)?

Must
Must trebuie, este necesar, este cazul, este o forma de prezent. Foarte rar, mai ales in
texte mai vechi, se intalneste si ca preterit in propozitii principale; mult mai frecvent, ca preterit
in propozitii secundare:
You must give in. Trebuie sa cedezi.
He said that I must wait. Spunea ca trebuie sa astept.
(must e preterit aici pentru ca dupa un preterit in principala - said - se foloseste preteritul si nu
prezentul).
Must exprima indeosebi necesitatea sau obligatia pe care o are cineva de a face ceva ca
urmare a unor imprejurari din afara:
If you want to find G. Daca vrei sa-l gasesti
at home, you must pe G. acasa, trebuie sa
arrive before ten. vii inainte de zeee.
He must observe the Trebuie sa respecte
rules. regulile (nu se poate
altfel, este o obligatie).
Forma negativa must not si mustn't nu este voie, nu e permis, exprima interdictia,
adeseori ca raspuns la may? este voie?
'May I open the Pot sa deschid
window?' fereastra?
'No, you mustn't, it's Nu, n-o deschide/nu
lightening.' trebuie s-o deschizi,
nu-ti dau voie s-o deschizi etc. fulgera.
Raspunsul negativ la o propozitie interogativa in care este folosit verbul must este needn't nu
trebuie, nu e voie, nu este cazul:
'Must I re-write the Trebuie sa transcriu
whole text'!' tot textul?
- 'No, you needn't'. Nu, nu trebuie/nu e nevoie/nu e cazul.
Ca verb exprimand necesitatea, must se inlocuieste la toate timpurile la care nu se poate
conjuga prin to have to a trebui sa, ori, cu un sens mai accentuat prin to be obliged (to) a fi
obligat/silit (sa), to be forced (to) a fi fortat/silit (sa), to be compelled (to) a fi constrans/silit (sa)
etc.:
He will have to pay Va trebui sa plateasca
for it. pentru asta.
I didn't have to buy N-a trebuit sa cumpar
any tickets. nici un fel de bilete.
Must poate exprima si ideea de probabilitate sau 'necesitate logica', traducandu-se prin
'probabil ca', 'trebuie sa':
He must be very sorry about what happened.
Probabil ca-i pare foarte rau de cele petrecute. Trebuie sa-i para foarte rau de cele petrecute.
Atunci cand este urmat de un infinitiv perfect, must nu exprima necesitatea sau obligatia,
ci numai probabilitatea (in trecut):
He almost cried when he left out; Iesind, aproape ca plangea; trebuie sa se
He must have felt very much fi simtit foarte ofensat.
offended.
To Have (to), Had (to)
To Have (to) a trebui (sa), a avea (sa/de) se foloseste in special pentru a inlocui verbul
must la formele la care acesta nu poatce fi conjugal [had (to) este preteritul lui to have (to)], dar
si la prezent, in locul lui must, de care se deosebeste prin aceea ca obligatia sau necesitatea ex-
terna pe care o exprima nu reprezinta neaparat si punctul de vedere al vorbitorului:
I'll have to speak to Va trebui sa vorbesc
her. cu ea. (inlocuieste pe
must)
Did you have to do all A trebuit sa faci toata
the work by yourself? treaba singur? (inlocuieste pe must)


I have to go now. Trebuie sa plec acum (nu am incotro, asta e situatia;
in ceea ce ma priveste as mai ramane).
Forma de prezent perfect (to) have got si (to) has got este un sinonim al prezentului have
(to), folosit in limba engleza vorbita:
I've got to do it. Trebuie s-o fac.
To Be (to), Was (to) si Were (to)
To be (to) a urma (sa), a trebui (sa), are forme de preterit (was (to) si were (to)) si arata ca
actiunea este determinata in conformitate cu un plan sau un program stabilit mai inainte:
He is to present the report on Monday.
Urmeaza(conform celor stabilite),ca el sa prezinte raportul luni.
Ought (to)
Ought (to) s-ar cuveni (sa), ar fi de datoria (sa), s-ar cadea (sa), ar trebui (sa) este sino-
nim cu should, dar e mai accentuat, are valoare de conditional, si poate fi urmat atat de infinitivul
nedefinit (prezent) cat si de cel perfect:
You ought to Ar trebui sa-ti ceri
apologize. iertare.
You ought to have Ar fi trebuit sa-ti
apologized. ceri iertare.
Need
Need, forma de prezent, se foloseste numai in propozitiile interogative, negative si intero-
gativ-negative si are sensul de 'este nevoie', 'este cazul', 'trebuie', 'este necesar':
Need I repeat that? E nevoie/trebuie sa repet asta?

You needn't ask him. Nu e nevoie/cazul/ trebuie sa-l intrebi (pe el).
La intrebarile cu need, raspunsul afirmativ se formeaza cu must, iar cel negativ cu needn't:
'Need I repeat that?' - E nevoie/trebuie sa repet asta?
'Yes, you must.' - Da, trebuie.
'No, you needn't - Nu, nu e nevoie/nu trebuie.
Can, Could
Can, forma de prezent urmata de infinitivul nedefinit sau cel perfect, are mai multe sen-
suri modale, dintre care unul dintre cele mai frecvente este sensul de 'pot sa', 'sunt in stare sa/de
a', 'sunt capabil sa', 'am posibilitatea sa/de a¶¶.
I don't think I can Nu cred ca-l pot convinge.
persuade him.
He cannot (can't)/walk Nu poate merge pe
so far. jos atat de departe.
M. cannot (can't)have done such a thing.
Nu se poate ca M. sa fi facut asa ceva. M. nu e capabil de asa ceva.
La timpurile la care nu poate fi conjugat, can se inlocuieste prin to be able (to) a fi in
stare (sa), a putea (sa):
He had not been able Nu putuse veni la timp
to come in time.
I hope you'll be able Sper ca-i vei putea
to change his attitude. schimba atitudinea.
LESSON 2
SHAPES, COLOURS AND MATERIALS
Rooms may be bright or dark, large or small.
Houses may be big or small, high or low, new or old.
Persons may be young or old, strong or weak, fat or thin, tall or short.
Mountains may be high or low, young or old.
Streets may be long or short, wide or narrow.
Windows may be wide or narrow, open or shut.
Books may be open or shut, good or bad, thick or thin.
Tables may be round, oval, square or rectangular.
An exercise may be easy or difficult.
We are always present, we are never absent. We are always early, we are never late.
Thay may be merry or sad, happy or unhappy.
WHAT COLOUR IS IT ?
What colour is the door ? The door is white, It is not grey. The ceiling is also white and the floor
is yellow.
What colour are the walls of this room ? The walls of this room are light green.
Is that pencil red or dark blue ? That pencil is red, it isn¶t dark blue.
This table is brown, it is not green.
The grass is green, the sky is blue, the blackboard is black.

WHAT IS THIS TABLE MADE OF ?
What is this table made of ?This table is made of wood. It isn¶t made of steel.
What may watches be made of ? Watches may be made of gold, silver, nickel, steel or
aluminium..
What is your watch made of ? My watch is made of silver, it isn¶t made of gold.
What is her handbag made of ? Her handbag is made of leather, it is not made of plastic material.
What are books made of ? Books are made of paper.
Is your dress made of silk, cotton or wool ? My dress is made of wool. It isn¶t made of silk.
Those houses are made of brick and stone. They are not made of concrete.
Plates and cups are made of china.
What are the soles of your shoes made of ? The soles of my shoes are made of rubber.
I. Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari :

1. What shape is our classroom? 2. Is it a bright or a dark room?3. What colour is the
table in our classroom?4.What is it made of? 5. What shape is it? 6: Are the windows of our
classroom wide or narrow? 7. What colour is the blackboard? 8. What colour are the walls of our
classroom? 9. Is this exercise easy or difficult? 10. Are you always early? 11. What may watches
be made of? 12. What are books made of? 13. What may houses be made of? 14. What is your
handbag made of? 15. What are plates and cups made of ?
II.Vorbiti despre forme si culori.
III.Traduceti in limba engleza :
1. Ce forma are camera ta, este dreptunghiulara sau patrata? 2. Lectia acaasta este usoara
, nu este grea, nu-i asa? 3. Poti sa raspunzi intotdeauna la intrebarile profesorului? 4. Cartile
noastre de engleza sunt groase, nu sunt subtiri. 5. Casa ta esta din piatra sau din caramida? 6. Din
ce sunt facute cartile si caietele noastre?7. Rochia ei cea noua de matase este foarte frumoasa si
eleganta .8. Sunt cateva cesti de portelan pe masa. 9. Suntem intotdeauna prezenti, nu lipsim
niciodata . 10. A cui este poseta aceea maro inchis?
***
GRAMMAR
Prepozitia
(The Preposition)

Daca, in mod normal,o propozitie interogativa incepe cu un pronume interogativ precedat
de o prepozitie, in limba vorbita, prepozitia trece la sfarsitul propozitiei si se accentueaza.
Of what are things made?-What are things made of?(Din ce sunt facute lucrurile?)
To whom must you write a letter?-Whom must you write a letter to?(Cui trebuie sa-i scrii
o scrisoare?)
PREPOZITIILE SPATIALE
(Space Prepositions)
acroos,from, to, up,down, over, under, with, through, into, round, before, on behind, out,
in between, out of, against, by
1.Completati spatiile libere cu prepozitii corespunzatoare:
1.There is a picture «the wall.2«.the drawers there are some sheets«paper.3.Come ..the
classroom, please!4.Look«the blackboard!5.Go«the desk«the blackboard.6«.door there are
bookshelves«books and dictionaries«them.
LESSON 3
OUR CLASSROOM
Now we are in the classroom.Behind the teacher¶s desk there is a blackboard and in
front of it there are ten tables and a lot of chairs.
On the teacher¶s desk there is an English book and a piece of chalk. In the drawers there
are sheets of paper and some ink. Under the teacher¶s desk there is a paper basket.
On the wall opposite the windows there is a map.
There are three lamps over the tables.
In the left-hand corner of the room there is a bookcase. Between the door and the
bookcase there are bookshelves with books and dictionaries on them. On the bookshelf near the
door there are books and on the book-shelf on its right, a little below it, you can see some
dictionaries. Above these bookshelves, on the wall there is a picture. Next to the door there is a
peg. Through the window we can see the street.There are many people in the street. Next door to
our classroom is our library.
-Mr. A,stand up, please ! Come to the blackboard ! Now you are at the blackboard. Take
the chalk and write the word ´book´ on the blackboard, please ! Thank you ! Go back to your
seat !
-Mr.B, go to the door, please ! Open the door ! Go out into the passage !
Come in, please ! Come into the classroom !Now you are in the classroom. Sit down, please !
Look at the blackboard ! Read the word on the blackboard, please ! Thank you !
-Mr.C, take that book and give it to me! Take it from me and put it into your bag ! Take
it
out of your bag and put it in the middle of the table ! Thank you !
-Mr. D, take this map from the table and put it up on the wall ! Now, take it down from
the wall and put it in front of us ! Show us the map, please !
-Mr. E,put on your overcoat ! Now, take it off, please ! Thank you !
And now, let¶s do the exercises.
I.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1.Where are we now? 2. What is there behind the teacher's desk?3.What is there in front of
the teacher's desk? 4. What is there on the teacher's desk? 5. What is there under the teacher's
desk? 6. What is there in the drawers? 7. What is there on the wall opposite the windows? 8.
What is there in the left -hand corner of the classroom? 9. What is there between the door and
the bookcase? 10. What can you see on the bookshelves? 11. What can you see above the
bookshelves? 12. What can you see next to the door? 13. What can you see through the window?
14. What is there next door to our classroom?
II.Formulati dialoguri folosindu-va de prepozitiile spatiale.
III. Traduceti in limba engleza :
1. Ia cartea de la el si da- mi -o mie, te rog ! 2. Acum pune cartea in geanta ta !3. Nu
inchideti cartile, cititi mai departe, va rog ! 4. Intrati in clasa, va rog ! 5. Scoateti cartile si
caietele din genti si puneti-le pe pupitre, va rog ! 6. Dati ± i lui cartea mea ! 7. Biblioteca este
langa tabla sau langa usa? 8. In sertarele biroului meu sunt creioane, caiete, coli de hartie, creta
si cerneala 9. Deasupra meselor sunt trei lustre. 10. Ce puteti vedea prin fereastra deschisa? 11.
Intre usa si biblioteca sunt doua rafturi cu carti. 12. Tabla se afla in spatele mesei.13.Pupitrele
studentilor sunt in fata mesei profesorului. 14. Harta sa afla pe perete, vizavi de ferestre.15.
Deasupra bibliotecii se afla un tablou.
***
LESSON 4
THE TIME
There are one thousand years in a millennium, one hundred years in a century, ten years
in a decade and 365 or 366 days in a year.
A year has 12 months or 52 weeks. The names of the months of the year are of Latin
origin: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October,
November and December. A month has 30 or 31 days. February has 28 days in a ordinary year
and 29 days in a leap year.
There are four weeks in a month, fourteen days and nights in a fortnight and seven days
in a week:six week (working)days and a holiday.The names of the days of the week are of
English(Saxon)origin:Sunday,Monday,Tuesday,Wednesday,Thursday,Friday and Saturday.
The day before today is yesterday and the day before yesterday is called the day before
yesterday.The day after today is tomorrow and the day after tomorrow is called the day after
tomorrow.
A day has 24 hours.The moments of the day
are:morning,noon(midday),afternoon,evening,midnight and night.
There are two twelve hour periods in a day.They are:a.m.(Latin ante meridiem,or in the
morning),and p.m.(Latin post meridiem,or in the afternoon).
We can tell the time by a clock or a watch.
An hour has 60 minutes and a minute has 60 seconds.There are 30 minutes in half an
hour and 15 minutes in a quarter of an hour.
DIALOGUE
Ann:Look at the clocks in the pictures! Can you tell me the time, please?
Bob:Of course,I can:It is five(minutes)past three.It is ten( minutes) past four.It is twenty-
five(minutes)past six.It is twenty-five(minutes)to seven.It is a quarter to nine.It is ten o¶clock
sharp.
Ann:Have you got a watch?
Bob:Yes,I have.
Ann:What time is it by your watch?
Bob:By my watch it is twenty-five to two,but my watch is wrong.
Ann:Is your watch fast or slow?
Bob:My watch is five minutes fast.
Ann:So, the right time is half past one.What day is it today?(What¶s the date today)?
Bob:Today it is 15th of November,19« .It¶s November the 15th,19« .
Ann:When is your birthday?
Bob:It¶s on the 7 th of May.
Ann:What¶s today(What day is it)?
Bob:It¶s Friday.Today is Friday.
Ann:When have you got your English classes?
Bob:We¶ve got our English classes on Monday,Wednesday and Friday at 8 o¶clock in the
morning.
I. Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari :

1. How many years are there in a century? 2. How many days are there in a year? 3.How
many months are there in a year? 4.How many weeks are there in a month?5. How many
days are there in a month? 6. How many days are there in a week? 7. What are the
months of the year? 8. What are the days of the week? 9. Which is the first day of the
week? 10. Which is the fifth month of the year? 11. Which month is November?
12..What time is it? 13. Is your watch right or wrong? 14. What day is it today? 15. What
date is it? 16. When is your birthday?
II.Vorbiti despre tim p si diviziunile lui.
III.Traduceti in limba engleza:
1. Avem ore de engleza marti, joi si sambata dimineata de la ora 7 la ora 9. 2. Sunt 7 zile
intr ± o saptamana, 4 saptamani intr - o luna, 12 luni intr - un an, 10 ani intr - un deceniu, 100 de
ani intr -un secol si 1000 de ani intr -un mileniu. 3. Suntem in secolul al XX - lea. 4. Ce data este
astazi? 5. Puteti sa-mi spuneti cat este ceasul, va rog? 6. Ceasul meu ramane in urma cu zece
minute. 7. Numele zilelor saptamanii sunt de origine saxona, iar numele lunitor anului sunt de
origine latina. 8. Care este a zecea luna a anului, dar a treia? 9. Care esta a saptea zi a
saptamanii, dar a patra?1 0. In anii bisecti februarie are 29 de zile. 11. O ora are 60 de minute si
un minut are 60 de secunde. 12. Intr -o jumatate de ora sunt 30 de minute, iar intr -un stert de ora
sunt numai 15 minute.
***
GRAMMAR
NUMERALUL
(The Numeral)
Numerale cardinale
a. Formare
- numeralele intre 13 si 19 se formeaza cu ajutorul sufixului ±teen:six-sixteen
- numeralele 20, 30, 40 90 se formeaza cu ajutorul sufixului -ty ;nine-ninety
- prezinta particularitati ortografice urmatoarele numerale:
- intre zeci si unitati se pune liniuta:twenty-one
- intre sute si zeci sau intre sute si unitati se foloseste conjunctia 'and': four hundred and
twenty-five(425)
- numeralele 'hundred', 'thousand' si 'million' nu se folosesc la plural dupa un numeral cardinal:
four thousand five hundred and thirty-one(4,531)
- punctul care se foloseste in limba romana pentru a separa cifrele este inlocuit de virgula.
b. Intrebuintare
- pentru a exprima ora 3:20 - It's twenty (minutes) past three - este ora trei si douazeci de minute
- pentru a exprima anii 1984-nineteen hundred and eighty -four sau, in limba vorbita, se
prefera forma nineteen eighty ±four.
Numerale ordinale
a. Formare
- se formeaza adaugand sufjxut-th la numeralul cardinal corespunzator(cu exceptia numeralelor
1, 2, 3) ;four-the fourth
- prezinta particularitati ortografice urmatoarele numerale:
- la numeralele terminate tn -ty, -y se transforma in ie si adauga ±th; twenty-the twentieth
- numeralul ordinal este precedat de articolul hotarat¶the¶ the first;the second
-- in cazul numeralelor compuse numai ultima cifra este un numeral ordinal
235th-the two hundred and thirty-fifth
b. intrebuintare
-pentru a exprima data : Today it is the first of January 1984-Astazi este 1 ianuarie 1984.
Numerale cardinale
1 one
2 two
3 three
4 four
5 five
6 six
7 seven
8 eight
9 nine
10 ten
11 eleven
12 twelve
13 thirteen
14 fourteen
15 fifteen
16 sixteen
17 seventeen
18 eighteen
19 nineteen
20.twenty
21.twenty-one
30.thirty
40.forty
50.fifty
60.sixty
70.seventy
80. eighty
90. ninety
100 a (one) hundred
101 a (one) hundred and one
125 a (one) hundred and twenty ± five
200 two hundred
300 three hundred
500 five hundred
733 seven hundred and thirty three
1,000 a (one) thousand
1,005 a (one) thousand and five
3,246 three thousand two hundred and forty -six
10,000 ten thousand
67,384 sixty - seven thousand three hundred and eighty-four
584,267 five hundred and eighty four thousand two hundred and sixty seven
Numerale ordinale
the first
the second
the third
the fourth
the fifth
the sixth
the seventh
the eighth
the ninth
the tenth
the eleventh
the twelfth
the thirteenth
the fourteenth
the fifteenth
the sixteenth
the seventeenth
the eighteenth
the nineteenth
the twentieth
thetwenty-first
the thirtieth
,the fortieth
the fiftieth
the sixtieth
the seventieth
the eightieth
the ninetieth
the hundredth
the hundred and first
the hundred and twenty ±fifth
the two hundredth
the three hundredth
the five hundredth
the seven hundred and thirty - third
the thousandth.
the thousand and fifth
the three thousand two hundred and forty-sixth
the ten thousandth
the sixty ± seven thousand three hundred and eighty - fourth
the five hundred and eighty - four thousand two hundred and sixty-seventh.
the millionth
LESSON 5
MEALS
Meals in England differ from meals in other countries.
Breakfast, which is served at about 8 o¶clock in the morning is a substantial meal,
consisting of fruit juice, porridge or corn flakes with milk and sugar, ham and eggs or a slice of
meat or ham, tea or coffee and bread and butter with marmalade or jam.
The usual time for lunch is one o¶clock.As people have no time to get home for this meal,
they take it at a cafe near the office or at a canteen.
While in this country the midday meal is the main meal of the day, consisting of several
courses, in England, lunch is a frugal meal.For lunch, they generally have sandwiches,
hamburgers or sausages, or meat, poultry or fish and a salad, followed by a cup of black coffee.
They have tea, the third meal of the day, at 5 o¶clock. The English like their tea strong,
with milk.With their tea they may have bread and butter with jam and cakes.
In England, the main meal of the day is dinner, which is served at about 7 o¶clock,when
all the members of the family are back home.
The first course is a soup.For the main course they may have some fish, poultry or
vegetables. Next comes a fruit pie, a pudding or fruit salad,cheese and biscuits followed by black
or white coffee.
When the midday meal is the main meal of the day, it is called dinner and the evening
meal is called supper.For supper, the English generally have a cup of tea with some sandwiches
or sometimes an omelette, ham, sausages, bacon and eggs and fruit.
DIALOGUE
A. May I offer you another cup of tea?
B. Yes, thank you, it's very kind of you.
A. Have another slice of ham, please!
B. With pleasure, thank you.
A. Help yourself to some more apple pie, please!
B. Thank you. I'm very fond of apple pie.
A. Have another helping, please !
B. Yes, thank you, it's very kind of you.
A. Pass me the salt, please!
B. Here you are!
A. May I help you to some more coffee?
B. No, thank you, not any more.
I. Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari :
1. What time is breakfast served in England? 2. Is it a frugal meal? 3. What does it consist
of? 4. What do you have for breakfast?5.What is the usual time for lunch? 6. Do the
English have lunch at home? 7. Where do they usually have lunch? 8. What do they
have for lunch? 9.What is the third meal of the day? 10. What time do they have tea?
11. What do they generally have with their tea? 12. Which is the main meal of the day in
England? 13. What does it consist of? 14. Is dinner always the evening meal? 15. What
do the English have for supper?
II.Vorbiti despre programul vostru de masa.
III.Traduceti in limba engleza:
1.Pot sa va mai servesc cu niste ceai ?Da, multumesc,sunteti foarte amabila.2.Mai
serviti-va cu o portie, va rog.3.Nu este nimeni in sufragerie.4. Oricine poate sa studieze in
biblioteca.5.Fiecare trebuie sa-si scrie temele singur.6.Este vreun student absent astazi?7.Mai
serviti-va cu niste supa, va rog.8.Poti vedea case noi pretutindeni in acest oras.9.Trebuie sa fie
cineva acasa.10.Nimeni nu-ti poate da un raspuns la aceasta intrebare.11.Nu este nici o bucata de
creta la tabla.12.Ghidul de conversatie trebuie sa fie pe undeva pe aici prin biblioteca.13.Nu este
nimic in sertar.14.Pot sa ma servesc cu niste cafea?15.Poti sa te servesti cu orice de pe masa.

***
GRAMMAR
PRONUMELE SI ADJECTIVELE NEHOTARATE
(Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives)
Propozitii afirmative
(+)
Propozitii interogative (?)
Propozitii
negative (-)
some- ceva, any - ceva , niste, cativa, no - nici un,
nici o, nici
niste, cativa, cateva,
unii,
cateva, unii, unele si compusii sai
un fel de, deloc
si compusii sai
unele si compusii sai

any - orice, oricare some - ceva, niste, cativa,
any- nici un,
nici o, nici un
si compusii sai cateva si compusii sai
fel de si
compusii sai
Compusii lui 'some', 'any', 'no' si ¶¶every'

body

one thing

where

some somebody

someone something

somewhere


undeva(+,?)

cineva (+,?) cineva (+,?) ceva(+,?)

any anybody

anyone anything anywhere


cineva(?) ceva (?), nimic


cineva(?),

nimeni (-), (-)orice (+)

undeva(?),
nicaieri,
(-)
oriunde(+)


nimeni (-),

oricine (+)

nicaieri(-)


oricine (+)

oriunde (+)

no nobody

no one nothing nowhere


nimic (-)


nimeni (-)

nimeni (-)

nicaieri (-)

every everybody

everyone everything

everywhere


totul


fiecare, toti,
fiecare, toti,
toata
pretutindeni


toata lumea lumea

Reguli
1.Some si compusii sai se folosesc :
- in propozitii afirmative ;
There is some coffee in the cup (adj.neh).-Este niste cafea in ceasca.
-in propozitii interogative cand se asteapta un raspuns afirmativ (cand cerem sau oferim ceva si
dorim ca raspunsul sa fie afirmativ).
Can you lend me some books? (adj.. nehot). - Poti sa - mi imprumuti niste carti?
May I help you to some coffee? (adj. nehot). - Pot sa va servesc cu niste cafea?
Can you tell me something about it? (pron. nehot.) - Imi puteti spune ceva in legatura cu aceasta?
2. Any si compusii sai se folosesc:
- In propozitii interogative in locul lui some;
Is there any coffee in the cup? (adj. nehot) - Este ceva cafea in ceasca?
Are there any dictionaries on the table? (adj. nehat) - Se afla niste dictionare pe masa?
Are any of those students your friends? (pron. nehot.) - Sunt vreunii dintre studentii aceia
prietenii vostri?
Is anybody at home? (pron. nehot.)-Este cineva acasa?
-In propozitii negative cand verbul este la forma negativa ;
There isn't any coffee in the cup. (adj. nehot). - Nu este deloc cafea in ceasca.
There aren't any dictionaries on the table (adj. nehot). - Nu se afla nici un fel de dictionare pe
masa.
There isn't anybody in the room. (pron. nehot.) - Nu se afla nimeni in camera.
There isn't anything on the table (pron. nehot). ± Nu se afla nimic pe masa.
-In propozitii afirmative (cu sensul de oricine, oricare, orice, oriunde).
Any student can answer this question (adj. nehot). - Oricare student poate raspunde la aceasta
intrebare.
Any of these dictionaries is good for you (pron. nehot). - Oricare dintre aceste dictionare este bun
pentru tine.
You may have anything on the table. (pron. nehot.). - Poti lua orice de pe masa.
LESSON 6
OUR FAMILY
My name is Richard, but I am generally called Dick. My surname is Smith and I am forty
years old. I am an economist. My family consists of four members: my wife, my daughter, my
son and myself.
My wife, Helen Smith, is a teacher. She is 36 years of age, four years younger than I. She
is tall,thin,black - haired and blue - eyed. She is a pretty woman indeed.
Michael, our son, is a schoolboy. He is a tall young man of about16 with a handsome
face, brown hair and large dark - brown eyes.
Mary, our daughter, is about 10. She is plump and short for her age, but she practises
swimming and she hopes to get thinner. Michael is better at sports than she is. In fact, he is the
best sportsman in the family.
My parents, my wife's parents -in -law, father-in -law and mother-in-law, have already
retired on a pension. They are very fond of their daughter-in- law and of their grandchildren -
grandson and granddaughter who often go to see them.

I have a brother and a sister.My brother, Robert, is the oldest of us. He is 5 years older
than I am. Robert is a mechanical engineer. Margaret, his wife, my sister - in - law, is an
accountant. Their son and daughters are my nephew and nieces. I am their uncle, my wife is their
aunt and our children are their cousins. Robert is the son - in - law of Margaret's parents
My sister, whose name is Elisabeth, is the youngest of us. She is a student. She has been
engaged to a young architect for one year. He is her fiance, my future brother- in -law. They are
going to get married quite soon.
My father's brother, uncle Tom, has never got married. He is a bachelor. Uncle Fred,a
widower for several years, is now married to aunt Jane. His second wife is very kind to her
stepchildren.
Aunt Emily, who has never had a husband, is a spinster.
DIALOGUE
Peter: How many persons are there in your family?
George: There are five of us in our family.
Peter: Are you the youngest one?
George: No, I'm not. My sister Jane is the youngest, while my brother James is older than both of
us.
Peter: How old is he?
George: James is going to be thirty on Sunday.
Peter: Do you live together?
George: Yes, we do and we get on very well.
. Peter: Who looks after the house and does the cooking?
George: Mother does. Of course, my sister and my sister - in -law help her. But what about
you?
Peter: I have been married for two years.
George: Have you got any children?
Peter: Yes, we've got a fine little girl. Her name is Ann.
I.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1.What is Richard Smith? 2. How old is he? 3. How many members does his family consist of?
4. What is his wife's name? 5. What does she look like? 6. Who is Michael? 7. Is Mary tall and
thin? 8. Does she practise any sports, and why? 9. Who is better at sports, Michael or Mary? 10.
Do Richard Smith's parents still work? 11. Has Richard Smith any brothers or sisters? 12. What
is his brother? 13. What is Robert's wife? 14. Have they got any children? 15. Whom is Elisabeth
engaged to?
II.Vorbiti despre familia voastra.

III.Traduceti in limba engleza :
1. Din cati membri este formata familia voastra ? 2. Parintii Mariei nu s-au
pensionat inca. 3. Cumnatul Anei este contabil, nu ±i asa ? 4. De cat timp este logodita sora ta ?
Cati ani are varul Anei? 6. Nepotul tau este elev sau student? 7. El este tot atat de inalt ca si
fratele lui. 8. Ea practica inotul de doi ani. 9. Cine este cel mai bun sportiv dintre voi? Te impaci
bine cu fratii si surorile tale? 11. Cine are grija de casa? 12. Ne ducem adesea sa ne vizitam
bunicii, care locuiesc in alt oras.13. Intotdeauna el da raspunsuri mai bune decat mine la toate
intrebarile profesorului. 14. El este mai tanar sau mai in varsta decat tine? 15. Cine urmeaza ? 16.
Ce este fratele tau cel mai mare? 17. Cu cati ani este el mai in varsta decat tine? 18. De fapt cati
ani are?

Tv advertisments are they the real thing?
In TV advertisements, every family has two children and everyone lives in a house with a
garden. Everyone has got a car and a mobile phone. When they drive their cars, the roads are
empty.
Everyone has got a job. No one is unemployed. Everyone works in a high-tech office which is
full of shiny new computers. No one works in a factory.Everyone takes a holiday on a beach in
an exotic country. They fly there in comfortable planes with lots of smiling stewardesses, good
food and lots of space for their feet.
Every house has a huge kitchen. Someone (usually a woman) prepares delicious meals.
She's a very busy woman, of course, so she buys food that she can prepare quickly. Children
smile and get excited when their meals arrive.
When children are ill, their parents take them to smiling doctors in white coats. The doctors
always have lots of time to talk. They never look tired or overworked.
1.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1.Does the text remind you of any television advertisements in your country?
2.Are your TV advertisements similar or completely different?
3.Do TV advertisement show¶s real life?Is it a problem if they don¶t show real life?
Joke
A little boy is standing at the door of a flat in a big house in High Street. He wants to
ring
the bell, but it is too high up from him.
'What do you want?' asks a fat gentleman coming downstairs.
´I want to ring the bell, but it is too high and I am not tall enough', answers the boy.
'All right', says the man, and he rings the bell.
'Now run ! Hurry up' exclaims the boy and runs away.
The schoolmaster is standing with his back to the fireplace on a winter morning and is
given advice to the pupils.
Think before you speak. Count fifty before you say something important and a
hundred, if it is very important'.
The lips of the pupils move quickly for some time and then they all shout together:
'Ninety ± nine, one hundred! Your coat is on fire, sir !'
1.Formulati 10 intrebari referitoare la text si raspundeti la aceste intrebari.
LESSON 7
A FORGETFUL TOURIST
Once, a tourist arrived in Paris. It was his first visit there. When he arrived at the railway
station, he at once asked the porter to show him the way to the nearest post office. There, he sent
a telegram to his wife, in which he informed her that he had arrived safely. In this telegram, he
told her the address of the hotel where he intended to stay.
Then, he went to the hotel, left his luggage there and went for a walk. As it was his first
visit to the French capital, he was very much interested to see the streets, museums and shops of
this beautiful city, and spent the greater part of the day in this way.
After he had taken his dinner at a small restaurant, he went to a theatre, where he saw an
interesting play. He was highly pleased with his first day in Paris, but felt rather tired.
When he decided to go back to his hotel, he found that he had forgotten the name and
the address of the hotel.
Who could help the poor man? Suddenly, he remembered that he had sent a telegram
to his wife.
So, at a late hour, his wife received the following telegram, 'Please, send me the address
of my hotel at once !¶¶
I.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:

1.Where did the tourist arrive?2.Had he visited Paris before?3.What did he ask
the porter?4.Why did the tourist go to the post office?5.What did he inform his wife of,
by that telegram?6.How did he spend his first day in Paris?7.What did he do in the
evening?8.Where did he have dinner?9.Did he go staight to the hotel after
dinner?10.What did he decide to do when he felt tired?11.What did he find out when he
wanted to go back to his holtel?12.How did he finally get the name and adress of the
hotel?
II.Povestiti colegului o gluma.
III.Traduceti in limba engleza:
1.Cand a vrut sa se intoarca la hotel, si-a dat seama ca a uitat numele si adresa
hotelului.2.Deoarece nu mai fusese la Paris niciodata,vroia sa vada toate lucrurile care
merita sa fie vizitate in acest oras.3.Mi-a spus ca se va duce la posta ca sa-i trimita sotiei
sale o telegrama.4.Nu stiam ca voi fi atat de ocupat zilele acestea.5.Le-am spus ca voi
pleca in excursie sambata la pranz.6.Mi-a spus ca muncit toata sambata,ca este obosit
acum,si vrea sa se odihneasca.7.Am crezut ca va veti petrece week-end-ul la tara, asa
dupa cum ne-ati spus.8.I-a scris sotiei ca a ajuns cu bine la Paris.9.Hamalul i-a explicat
care este drumul cel mai scurt pana la posta.10.Dupa ce a vazut o piesa foarte interesanta
de teatru, deoarece era cam tarziu,s-a hotarat sa se intoarca la hotel.11.L-am intrebat cand
imi va inapoia cartea.12.Mi-a raspuns ca nu a terminat-o inca de citit
.
LESSON 8
MONEY
Much to the inconvenience of international trade and traffic, the decimal system, upon
which all European and several other nations have based their monetary system, had not been
adopted in Great Britain and Ireland until February 15 th , 1971. Thus, beginning with the D.Day
(Decimal Day), a system dating back to Anglo- Saxon times, was replaced by a new one.
The unit of English coinage is the pound sterling, which is worth 1 00 new pennies (100
p.)
The symbol £,which is always placed before the figures indicating the amount, stands
for the Latin 'libra¶¶. The abbreviation 'p¶¶ is written after the coresponding figures.
The Bank of England issues banknotes for £ 1, £ 5 and £ 10. There are three bronze
coins: the 1/2p (halfpenny), the one and two new penny and two cupro-nickel coins: the
five and ten new penny. Then, there is the 50 p. coin.
The unit of currency in the United States of America is the dollar ($). The name 'dollar'
itself is not American. It stems from the German Thaler, which is an abbreviation of
Joachimsthaler -the designation of silver coins formely made in Joachimsthal, a small town in
Bohemia.
The U.S. Government issue notes for $1 ; 2; 5; 10; 20; 50; 100; 500; 10,000. One
dollar ($1) is worth 100 cents (100 c). The coins are: the cent, the nickel (5 c), the dime
(10 c), the quarter (25 c ) and the half-dollar (50 c). The cent is colloquially called a penny.
One-cent coins are made of bronze, five-cent coins of nickel.
Dimes, quarters and half-dollars are made of silver. The dollar may be either a paper
bill or a silver coin.
There are several ways of reading amounts of American money exceeding one dollar. For
example, $1.80 c can be read 'one eighty', 'a dollar eighty,' 'a (one) dollar and eighty cents', $
1.25 c is read 'one dollar and a quarter ', and $ 1.50 c is read one dollar and a half.
I. Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari :
1.When was the decimal system adopted in Great Britain and Ireland? 2. What is the unit
of English coinage?3.How many new pennies are there in a pound sterling? 4. What does the
symbol stand for? 5. Where is it placed? 6. What does the abbreviation 'p¶¶ stand for? 7.
Where is it placed? 8. What banknotes does the Bank of England issue? 9. What are the
bronze and cupro-nickel coins? 10. What is the unit of currency in the United States of
America? 11. What is the origin of the word¶¶dollar'? 12. What are the banknotes issued by the
U.S. Government? 13 How many cents are there in a dollar? 14. What are the coins in use in
the United States?
II.Vorbiti despre sistemul monetar in Anglia, Statele Unite si in Romania.
III. Traduceti in limba engleza, si apoi transformati in vorbire directa:
1. Domnul Smith a spus : 'Voi schimba banii la Banca maine dimineata¶¶. 2. Functionarul i-a
spus domnului Smith; 'Nu am pentru moment cecuri de calatorie´. 3. Clientul i-a spus
functionarului : 'Am nevoie de zece timbre de cincisprezece centi'. 4. Turistul i-a spus
functionarului: 'Vreau sa schimb un cec in valoare de 50 de lire in bani gheata'. 5. El ne-a spus:
'Nu am vizitat niciodata un muzeu atat de interesant'. 6. Functionarul ne-a spus : 'Va trebui sa
asteptati putin'. 7. Domnul Smith i-a spus sotiei sale : 'Biroul de Schimb este inchis ; va trebui sa
mergem la Banca'. 8. Ion mi-a spus : 'Nu i-am vazut astazi deloc'. 9. Turistii ne-au spus: 'Am
sosit astazi in Bucuresti'. 10. I-am spus Mariei: 'Ii cunoastem de zece ani ; sunt cei mai buni
prieteni ai nostri'. 11. George mi- a spus : 'Lucrez la aceasta intreprindere de comert exterior de
doi ani'. 12. Ghidul le-a spus turistilor : 'Va voi da toate informatiile necesare in legatura cu
aceasta, maine'. 13. M-a intrebat : 'Iti place sa citesti?'. 14. I-am raspuns : 'Da, imi place foarte
mult. Am citit deja trei carti englezesti usoare'. 15.L-am intrebat: 'Ce ai de gand sa faci acum?'
16. M-a intrebat : 'De cand inveti engleza?' 17. Am intrebat-o : 'Le- ai spus totul despre aceasta?'.
18. Am intrebat :'Vremea se va schimba sau nu?' 19. L-am intrebat : 'Iti place sa joci baschet? '
20. Am intrebat-o: 'Stii sa inoti sau nu?' 21.I- am intrebat: 'Cum va veti petrece week-end-ul
?'.22. L-am intrebat: 'Va duceti adesea la teatru?'. 23. Am intrebat-o: 'Cand ti-ai cumparat
rochia?' 24.L-am intrebat: 'Vei merge cu noi sau nu?' 25. Le-am spus: 'Nu deschideti fereastra va
rog!'. 26. Mi-a spus : 'Nu citi atat de repede!'.27.I-am spus: 'Du-te acasa imediat''.28.I-am spus :
'Vino sa ma vezi imediat ce vei avea putin timp liber!'. 29. I-am spus : 'Inchide usa,te rog!¶¶
VORBIREA DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA
(Direct and Indirect speech)
Trecand din vorbirea directa in vorbirea indirecta, apar unele modificari:
I.Propozitii enuntiative
a) Verbul¶¶to say' din propozitia principala urmat de un complement indirect, se inlocuieste cu
verbul¶¶to tell¶¶
b) Verbul 'to say' din propozitia principala ramane neschimb daca nu este urmat de un
complement indirect;
c) propozitia secundara se introduce prin conjuctia 'that', care poate fi omisa ;
d) Timpul verbului din propozitia secundara depinde de timpul verbului din propozitia
principala,
in conformitate cu regulile corespondentei timpurilor;
e) Daca verbul din propozitia principala este la un timp trecut, pronumele, adjectivele
si adverbele se inlocuiesc dupa cum urmeaza : thisthat ; thesethose ; todaytha tday; yesterdaythe
day before; tomorrow..the next day ; agobefore; next weekthe next week; herethere ; nowthen.
Vorbirea Directa
a) He said to the clerk, 'I need six fifteen-cent stamps. '
b) He said, 'I want to change some money'.
c) He says, 'We are all economists'.
d)She said, 'I want to buy some stamps'.
The tourist said to us, ¶¶I have changed my money into pounds sterling'.
Vorbirea Indirecta
a)He told the clerk (that) he needed six fifteen-cent stamps. - I-a spus functionarului ca are
nevoie de sase timbre de 15 centi.
b)He said (that) he wanted to change some money. - A spus ca vrea sa schimbe niste bani.
c)He says (that) they are all economists.-El spune ca sunt cu totii economisti.
d) She said (that) she wanted to buy some stamps. - A spus ca vrea sa cumpere niste timbre.
The tourist told us that he had changed his money into pounds sterling. - Turistul ne-a spus ca si-
a schimbat banii in lire sterline.
II. Propozitii interogative
a) Verbul 'to say' din propozitia principala se inlocuieste cu verbele : to ask (a intreba),
to inquire (a se interesa), to wonder (a sa intreba), to want to know (a vrea sa stie),etc.;
b) Propozitia secundara se introduce prin conjunctiile : if (daca), whether (daca da sau nu) etc.,
in cazul intrebarilor generale, si prin conjunctiile when (cand), where (unde), how (cum).,in
cazul intrebarilor speciale;
c) Daca verbul propozitiei principale este la un timp trecut, verbul propozitiei secundare , se
foloseste la timpul impus de regulile corespondentei timpurilor iar pronumele, adjectivele si
adverbele se inlocuiesc ca si in cazul propozitiilor enuntiative.

Vorbirea Directa

Vorbirea Indirecta

a) He said, 'How much does this
parcel
He asked me how much that parcel
weigh?

weighed. - M-a intrebat cat cantareste

coletul acela .

b) He said, 'How tall are
you?´
He wanted to know how tall I was. -
Voia

sa stie ce inaltime am.

c) He said, 'Who won the quarter
mile
He inquired who had won the quarter
mile
race?'

race. - S-a interesat cine a castigat
cursa.

disputata pe un stert de mila.

He said, 'Will you go to the
department
He asked me if I should go to the
depart-
store tomorrow?'

ment store the next day. - M-a intrebat

daca ma voi duce la magazinul
universal

a daua zi.


III. Propozitii imperative
a) Verbul 'to say' din propozitia principala se inlocuieste cu verbele to tell (a spune ceva
cuiva), to order (a ordona), to command (a comanda), to ask (a cere), to beg (a ruga), to advise (a
sfatui)etc.;
b) Verbul la imperativ din propozitia secundara se inlocuieste in vorbirea indirecta cu
infinitivul lung.
Vorbirea Directa Vorbirea Indirecta
a) He said, 'Measure this room,
please!'
He asked me to measure that room. -

Mi-a cerut sa masor camera aceea
b) He said, 'Don't sell at this price !¶ He asked me not to sell at that price. -

Mi-a cerut sa nu vand la pretul acela.
He said, 'Don't exeeed the speed
limit!'
He advised me not to exceed the speed

Limit. - M-a sfatuit sa nu depasesc
limita

de viteza
LESSON 9
DOING ONE'S SHOPPING

I live in a new residential district in Bucharest. As in all the other new districts in our
capital, there are a lot of shops here : a chemist's, a boot store, a stationer's, a bookshop,
a draper's, a tobacconist¶s, a haberdasher¶s and shop selling: sports articles, earthen- ware;
chinaware and glassware, electrical appliances, furniture, toys, as a wide range of foodstuffs.
As for me, I prefer to do my shopping at the modern two- storeyed department store round
the corner. Here you can find almost everything you need : ready-made clothes,
knitwear, footwear, fabrics, furniture, carpets, chinaware, bicycles and what not.
There is also a big restaurant, a snack-bar and a confectioner's here.
Whenever I go to the department store to buy something, on my way to the department
selling the item I need, I stop in front of various counters, to have a look at the items on display.
All these counters, haberdashery, hosiery, perfumery, leatherware, household
utensils, to mention only some of them, are always well-stocked with a great variety of goods.
All the items for sale are exhibited on the counters, shelves and rails, so that they can
be easily seen by the customers who walk round and choose what they need.
I. Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1. Are there many shops in the residential district you live in? 2. What are these shops?3. Where
do you prefer to do your shopping? 4. Is there a department store in your district? 5. What can you find at
the department store? 6. Mention the various counters in a modern department store. 7. Where are the
items exhibited? 8. Do you smoke? 9.What items can you buy there?
II.Vorbiti despre magazine si despre articolele pe care le puteti cumpara.
III.Traduceti in limba engleza:
1.Mi s-a spus ca la acest magazin universal sa gaseste o varietate mai mare de articole
dacat in alte magazine.2.Pana dupa amiaza,se vor vinde multe din lucrurile expuse.3.Aceasta
problema tocmai a fost mentionata.4.Ni se vor mai arata si alte confectii, daca vom mai
astepta.5.Toate raioanele sunt in permanenta bine aprovizionate.6.Dictionarele s-au vandut intr-
o singura zi.7.Pe rafturi erau expuse o multime de marfuri.8.Au fost alesi numai cei mai buni
studenti.9.Aceste marfuri pot fi adesea vazute in orice magazin universal.10.Mi s-a recomandat
aceasta firma de cosmetice.11.Vi se vor da si alte informatii folositoare.12.I se va trimite acasa
mobila pe care a cumparat-o.
LESSON 10
BUYING FOODSTUFFS
I always prefer to do my shopping at the self-service shop, rather than wander
from one shop to another, from the baker's to the grocer's, from the grocer's to the confectioner's,
then to the greengrocer's, to get to the butcher's at last.
Going to a self-service shop,you can find in one and the same store, almost everything you
need in the line of foodstuffs. The wide range of goods to be found here are displayed in various
counters.
A very crowded counter is the dry groceries one, where people can find tinned vegetables,
fruit, meat and fish, as well as Italian pastes, cereals,flour,sugar,oil, tomato juice
and paste,salt,rice,jams,fruit juice,etc.
The bakery counter is always well-stocked with fresh, white and brown bread,rolls,
biscuits and cakes.
At the dairy counte,customers can buy milk,butter, cheese, margarine, yoghurt and eggs.
The confectionery counter displays sweets, tea, coffee vanilla essence,
chocolate. etc.
If we want to buy soft or alcoholic drinks, we go to the counter selling mineral water,
dry and sweet wines, brandy, plum brandy, champagne, beer and liqueurs.

There is also a delicatessen counter, where we can find ham, bacon,sausages, smoked
meat, smoked poultry and ready -to- serve meats.
We buy meat at the butcher's meat counter, poultry at the poulty counter and fresh, salted,
smoked or frozen fish, as well as fish delicacies, at the fish counter. .
Whenever I go to the self-service shop, I am attracted by the great variety of fruits and
vegetables on display at the greengrocery counter. Here, according to the season, you can find
potatoes, tomatoes, peas, beans, cabbages, onion, as well as fruits: apple, pears, peaches, grapes,
cherries, plums,strawberries,lemon, oranges, bananas, ete.
AT THE GREENGROCER'S
Customer : Good morning. .
Greengrocer: Good morning, madam. What can I do for you?
Customer : What early vegetables have you got today?
Greengrocer: We've just received hothouse tomatoes, lettuce, cucumbers and green
peppers. Just look how fresh and beautiful they are!
Customer: That's all right. The tomatoes and the lettuce do look fresh. I think I haven¶t got
any more tomatoes left at home, so let me have 2 pounds of tomatoes, but pick only big, and
ripe ones, please. Some of them are small and rather green, but see to it that they are not
spoiled, however.
Greengrocer: What next, please? What about these radishes?
Customer: No, thank you. They look withered and so do the cucumbers. I'd rather buy 2
pounds of green peppers, 3 bunches of carrots and 2 heads of cauliflower.
Greengrocer: I'm sorry, madam.I have no carrots at the moment. All sold out. Any fruit? . A
fresh consignment has just arrived.
Customer: No, thank you. That's all for today.
I.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1.Do you often go shopping? 2. Where do you usually buy foodstuffs? 3. Why do
people prefer to do their shopping at the self-service shop? 4. What are the various
counters in a self- service shop? 5. What foodstuffs can you find at the dry groceries
counter? 6. What can customers buy at the bakery counter? 7. What are the dairy products
you can find at the dairy counter? 8. What foodstuffs does the confectionery counter
display? 9.What drinks can you find at the self-service shop? 10. What can you buy at the
delicatessen counter? 11. What kinds of fish can you find at the fish counter? 12. What
vegetables and fruits does the greengrocery counter exhibit?
II.Descrieti un magazin cu autoservire pentru produse alimentare.
III.Traduceti in limba engleza:
1.Cand intra in magazinul cu autoservire,clientilor li se inmaneaza un cos.2.Marfurile
sunt expuse pe rafturi.3.Pastele fainoase se vand la raionul de langa noi.4.Unde se vinde
painea?5.Este vreun raion de brutarie in acest magazin?6.Ai grija ca unele dintre rosii sa
nu fie stricate, sunt prea coapte.7.As cumpara mai degraba niste salata verde;pare
proaspata.8.Nu cumparati deloc fructe astazi?Tocmai ne-a sosit un transport.9.Cred ca nu
mai am deloc fructe acasa, asa ca vreau sa cumpar niste cirese.10.Magazinul cu auto-
servire din cartierul nostru este intotdeauna aprovizionat cu o gama larga de articole.
***
GRAMMAR
DIATEZA PASIVA
REGULI DE TRECERE DE LA DIATEZA ACTIVA LA DIATEZA PASIVA
(Rules for Changing from Active into Passive Voice)
Spre deosebire de limba romana, in limba engleza nu numai verbele urmate de complement
direct si indirect ci si cele urmate de complement prepozitional pot fi trecute la diateza pasiva.
Pentru a trece o propozitie din diateza activa in diateza pasiva, se fac urmatoarele
modificari:
- Complementul (direct, indirect sau prepozitional) din propozitia activa devine subject in
propozitia pasiva iar subiectul propozitiei active devine complement de agent in propozitia
pasiva (introdus prin prepozitia 'by´,complement ce poate fi omis ;
- Verbul din propozitia activa se trace la diateza pasiva, pastrandu-se timpul neschimbat;
predicatul se acorda in numar si persoana cu noul subiect; .
- Unei propozitii cu doua complemente directe sau cu un complement direct si unul
indirect ii corespund doua propozitii pasive.
Diateza activa
We buy bread at the baker's.- Cumparam piine de la brutarie.
The confectionery counter displays sweets. -Raionul de dulciuri expune dulciuri.
The shop assistant handed the customer a basket. - Vanzatoarea i-a inmanat clientului un cos.
We have often referred to this problem.- Ne-am referit adesea la aceasta problema.
Diateza pasiva
Bread is bought at the baker's. ± Painea se cumpara de la brutarie.
Sweets are displayed at the confectionery counter. - Dulciurile sunt expuse la raionul de dulciuri.
The customer was handed a basket by the shop assistant. - Clientului i s-a inmanat un cos de
catre vanzatoare.
A basket was handed to the customer by the shop assistant. - Un cos i-a fost inmanat clientului
de catre vanzatoare.
This problem has often been referred to. - S-a facut adeseori referire la aceasta problema.
(Passive Voice)
Diateza activa arata ca actiunea este implinita de subiectul gramatical
e.g.:The boy is reading.
Diateza pasiva arata ca subiectul gramatical sufera actiunea indeplinita de altcineva, de catre
subiectuil logic(complementul de agent).
Formare:timpurile verbului Äto be´/get/become+Participiul Trecut(V3)
Prezent:I¶m seen; He¶s seen ;We¶re seen;
Past:I was seen
Present Perfect:I have been seen
Past Perfect:I had been seen
Future:I shall be seen
Future Perfect:I shall have been seen
Present Tense Continuous:I am being seen
Past Tense Continuous:I was being seen
Uses:1.cand subiectul real este greu de stabilit:It was discovered many years ago
2.cand se evita mentionarea subiectului real:certain difficulties have been created in our
group
3.identitatea subiectului este neimportanta:The enterprise has been restored to its full
capacity
4. se subliniaza actiunea nu subiectul ei:Your work will certainly be appreciated
5.accentul cade pe subiectul gramatical:You have been taught many things by your teacher
6.cand accentul cade pe subiectul real:The prize was won by John-It was John who won the
prize.
1.Dati interogativul, negativul si interogativ-negativul urmatoarelor propozitii :
The goods exhibited will be sold this afternoon. 2. I have been recommended this book. 3. We
had been asked a lot of questions before you came. 4. These cars are sold by the engineers. 5.She
was sent any flowers on her birthday. 6. The department store can be seen from the corner of the
street. 7. The books were exhibited at a counter, in front of the bookshop.
2.Inlocuiti infinitivul din paranteze cu timpul corespunzator la diateza pasiva :
1 .These goods (to sell) at the department store round the corner. 2. Customers (to offer) a wide
range of goods. 3. As we entered the house we (to meet) by Jane. 4. The letter(to sign) by the
manager after it (to type) by the typist. 5. When I sent the parcel I(to hand) a receipt. 6. New
blocks of flats (to build) in our district next year. 7. This museum always (to visit) by many
tourists. 8. The meeting (to hold) yesterday. 9. These paintings (to exhibit) in the Art Museum in
our city. 10. All the mistakes made by the students (to correct) by the teacher after the test papers
(to hand over).
LESSON 11
WE ARE DINING OUT
There are various places where we can eat when we are in town: cafes, tea rooms,
refreshment rooms, snack bars, lunch rooms, grill rooms, canteens, restaurants, etc.
After we have finished our shopping, for example, we may go to a cafe to have a coffee,
a tea,a cake, an ice cream or some pastries. At the cafe, we can also have breakfast.
We can have a bite: a sandwich, a soft drink, or a coffee at the refreshment room.
Sometimes,when we are in a hurry, we have lunch at a self- service restaurant; here,
there is no waiter and we get the dishes ourselves.
Those preferring dairy products, vegetables and fruit can have their meals at a
vegetarian restaurant.
Many people have lunch at the canteen.

Last Saturday, my wife and I went to a restaurant for dinner.. We were met by the head
waiter, who showed us to the table we had reserved beforehand. We sat down and we were
handed the bill-of-fare. We studied it,and ordered an hors d'oeuvre, meat with vegetables, coffee
and wine. The waiter set plates, glasses, forks, knives and tea-spoons on the table. When we
finished eating, the waiter cleared the table. Then, he made out the bill we settled it and left the
restaurant. It was a nice evening, we had a good time listening to music, dancing and talking.
The true-born Englishman never thinks of making the restaurant, cafe or public house
(pub) the center of his social life. He rarely spends more than half-an-hour over his lunch (which
he usually takes at a lunch room near his office), over a cup of coffee or tea (in a cafe or tea
room) or over a glass of ale (which he takes in a pub). When his business hours are over, he goes
home, has his family dinner and usually stays at home, for the English are a home-loving people.
The saying ¶¶No place like home ¶¶ is to be heard quite often.
If an Englishman wants to spend a few hours with his friends, he either asks them to
come to his place, or to meet him at his club. The typical English club is either a restaurant or a
combination of a cafe restaurant and hotel.
DIALOGUE
Mr. Smith: Is this table engaged, please?
Waiter: Yes, it is. It has already been reserved.
Mr. Smith: Then, let's take the table over there.
Mrs.Smith: Let's have a full course. I'm terribly hungry.
Mr. Smith: So am I, and I am thirsty, too.
Mrs. Smith: Then,let's have iced orange juice, first. And what do they have for the first
course?
Mr. Smith: For the first course there is a great variety of appetizers: caviare, herring,
seafood cocktail, shrimps, and tomato juice.
Mrs. Smith: I should take a seafood cocktail.
Mr. Smith (to the waiter) : A seafood cocktail and shrimps, please. Now, what would you
recommend for the second course, waiter?
Waiter: Well, you may choose from among trout, mackerel, sturgeon and soup.
Mr. Smith: Trout and fried sturgeon, please.
Waiter: Very well, sir. What would you like for the main course? We have grilled pork chops.
liver, beefsteak, lamb, fried chicken and our roast beef, which is excellent. Will you try it?
Mrs. Smith : We'll have one roast beef well-done and one underdone with chips, peas, lettuce
and tomatoes. As for dessert I¶ll have vanilla ice cream and coffee.
Mr. Smith: And what shall we drink?
Mrs.Smith: Oh, mineral water for me. What about you?
Mr. Smith: I think I'll have some dry white wine.
Waiter: Very well, sir.
I. Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1. What are the various places where we can eat when we are in town? 2. What can we
have at a cafe? 3. When do we have lunch at a self-service restaurant? 4. What can we eat at a
vegetarian restaurant? 5. Why do many people have lunch at the canteen? 6. Must we always
reserve a table at the restaurant beforehand? 7. Who shows us to our table when we enter the
restaurant? 8. What are we handed? 9. What does the waiter set on the table?10. What does the
waiter do after we have finished eating? 11. What must we do before leaving the restaurant? 12.
Do Englishmen spend a lot of time in restaurants, cafes and pubs? 13. What does an Englishman
do when his business hours are over? 14.What does the saying 'No place like home' mean?
II.Vorbiti despre diferitele posibilitati de a lua masa in oras.
III.Traduceti in limba engleza:
1.As vrea sa luam masa de seara la restaurant,ce zici?2.Ar fi fost mai bine sa comandam
prajituri, in loc de inghetata.3.L-am fi invitat sa ia masa in oras,cu noi,dar nu era acasa cand i-am
telefonat.4.As vrea sa achit nota chiar acum, sa poate?5.Cred ca ar fi mai bine sa luam masa de
pranz la restaurantul cu autoservire,este mult mai rapid.6.As comanda si niste vin.7.Ne-am fi dus
la bufet, dar era inchis la ora aceea..8.Am fi comandat si un aperitiv, dar nu aveau nimic care sa
ne placa.9.Ne-am fi rezervat o masa telefonic, dar nu eram siguri daca ne vom duce la restaurant
in seara aceea.10.Ar fi venit sa ne vada,dar era prea ocupat.11.Ti-as imprumuta cartea , dar nu
este a mea.12.Ar fi facut un tur al orasului,dar erau prea obositi.13.I-am fi pus si alte intrebari,
dar se grabea sa plece.14.As face o plimbare cu barca, vii si tu?
***
GRAMMAR
MODUL CONDITIONAL
(Conditional Mood)
Modul conditional exprima o actiune a carei realizare depinde de implinirea unei
conditii:
e.g.:He would buy a car if he had money.
Conditionalul are doua timpuri:
I.Prezent-a)simplu(the Conditional Present)
Definitie:actiune care se poate realiza in prezent in cazul implinirii unei conditii:
e.g.:He would phone her if he found her phone number.
Forma:auxiliarul should/would+toV
In engleza britanica would+inf.scurt-valoare modala-vointa, dorinta
b)continuu
Def.actiune sau stare in desfasurare in momentul vorbirii in cazul indeplnirii unei conditii
e.g.:If he were here he would be telling us jokes
Forma:aux.shall/should+infinitivul continuu(Be+V-ing)
II.Trecut a)simplu(Past Conditional)
Definitie:actiune care s-ar fi putut realiza in trecut in cazul indeplinirii unei conditii
e.g.:They would have come in time if they had taken a taxi
Forma:aux. Shall/would+infinitiv perfect(have+V3)
b)continuu
Definitie:actiune in curs de desfasurare in trecut in cazul indeplinirii unei conditii
Forma:aux.should/would+infinitiv perfectal verbului to be(have been)+participil prezent(V-ing)
e.g.:She would have been singing this time last Sunday if she had taken part in the
festival(serbare)
1.Dati interogativul, negativul si interogativ-negativul urmatoarelor propozitii :
1. I should go for a walk tonight. 2. He would buy that dictionary. 3. She would like to
have dinner at a restaurant. 4. We should like to listen to music. 5. You would like to
have
a bite at a snack bar. 6. They would have liked to spend their holidays at the sea-side.
2.Inlocuiti infinitivul din paranteza cu timpul corespunzator :
1. I (to buy) the blouse, if it (to match) my brown skirt. 2. She (to try on) the dress, if it
(to be) her size. 3. I (to wear) my new dress tonight, if I (to go) to the theatre.4. The skirt
(to be altered), if it (to be) too tight. 5. He (to buy) the shirt, if they (to have) it in his
size. 6.
The skirt (to fit) her perfectly, if it (to be) a little wider. 7. If they (to get in) a fresh
consignment of overcoats, she (can) find her size, too. 8. We (to go) swimming tomorrow, if it
(to be), warm enough. 9. You (to make) fewer mistakes if you (to be) more attentive. 10. He (to
speak) English much better, if he (to study) more. 11. If it (to rain) this afternoon, I (not to go)
anywhere. 12. If the weather (to be) fine, we (to spend) this week-end in the country.
LESSON 12
CLOTHING
Have you noticed that men and women have very different opinions about clothing? Mr.
Smith, for example, has probably been wearing the same clothes for several years and
intends to wear them for several more. He is very glad if his clothes last for a long time. He only
needs a few shirts, several suits, a sports coat, several pairs of trousers, a rain coat and an
overcoat. From time to time he buys a shirt, a pair of socks, some underwear or a new tie, and
Mr. Smith thinks he's got enough clothes.
He thinks his wife has got a lot of clothes, too. She's got a wide selection of dresses,
blouses,jackets, tight and wide skirts, evening gowns, two-piece suits, dressing gowns, a rain
coat, a light overcoat, a heavy overcoat, a fur overcoat, but whenever they plan to go out for the
evening, she says she has nothing to wear. Mr. Smith often asks her about all the things in the
wardrobe, but he knows before hand what the answer will be : one dress is out of style, another
one is too small or too short, and the third one just doesn't appeal to her any more. Sometimes,
Mr. Smith can persuade his wife that something from her wardrobe looks good on her, but she
insists on buying a new dress and new shoes.
Mr. Smith talks a lot, but in fact he likes his wife to look attractive, when they go to the
theatre or to a party.
AT THE LADIES' READY-MADE CLOTHES DEPARTMENT
Shop-assistant: May I help you, madam?
Customer: I'd like to buy a blouse to match a smart, brown, velvet skirt.
Shop-assistant: Silk or cotton?
Customer: I'd rather have silk. I want to wear it at a party.
Shop-assistant: What's your size?
Customer: 42, please.
Shop-assistant: How do you like this pretty green one? The colour suits you perfectly and
it is the latest fashion this year. It has a modern cut and it's pure silk.
Customer: Yes, but it has short sleeves. I'd like a long sleeved blouse, if you have one.
Shop-assistant: Will you have a look at this yellow blouse? It must be just your size.
Customer: No, thank you. I like the style, but yellow doesn't suit me at all. I should have bought
such a blouse, if you had had it in green.
Shop-assistant : We are expecting a fresh consignment, so drop in again by the end of
the week.


AT THE MEN'S READY-MADE CLOTHES DEPARTMENT
Salesman: What can I do for you, Sir?
Customer: I'd like to buy a tight, single-breasted suit in grey, please.
Salesman: What size do you wear?
Customer: 50.
Salesman: Kindly step into the fitting-room and try one on.
(In the fittingroom) .
Salesman: How do you like it, Sir? Look, it's excellently cut and the material wears well, too.
Customer: I'm afraid it isn't quite what I want. I'd like something of a better quality, and besides
it doesn't look good on me, it doesn't fit me very well: it's a little tight in the waist and too long in
the sleeves, while the trousers are too wide and short.
Salesman: That can be altered free of charge by our tailor shop.
Customer: Haven't you got anything else in grey of a higher quality to show me?
Salesman: I'm afraid. I haven't got anything else in your size at the moment, but we might get in
some more suits in a few days.
I.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1.Why do we say that men and women have different opinions about clothing?2.Is
Mr.Smith glad if his clothes last for a long time?3.What does Mr.Smith buy from time to
time?4.Does he think he¶s got enogh clothes?5.What clothes has Mrs.Smith got?6.What does
Mrs. Smith say when they plan to go out for the evening?7.What does she think about the clothes
in her wardrobe?8.What does Mr. Smith try to persuade his wife?9.Does Mr.Smith like his wife
to look attractive when they go to the theatre or to a party?
II.Construiti scurte dialoguri intre vanzatori si clienti.
III. Traduceti in limba engleza:
1.Ce ai fi cumparat, daca magazinul ar fi fost deschis?2.Nu as fi purtat aceasta rochie,
daca ar fi fost demodata.3.Si-ar cumpara si o camasa, daca ar gasi vreuna care sa se asorteze cu
pantalonii sai cei noi.4.Daca se va duce la petrecere, isi va pune o rochie de seara.5.Domnul
Smith ar fi foarte bucuros,daca ar purta aceleasi haine multi ani.6.Doamna Smith ar fi vrut sa-si
cumpere si o poseta care sa se asorteze cu pantofii cei noi.7.Daca culoarea i-ar fi venit bine,as fi
sfatuit-o sa-si cumpere rochia aceea.8.Daca voi avea timp, dupa amiaza ma voi duce dupa
cumparaturi.9.Daca as fi stiut si raspunsul la ultima intrebare,as fi primit o nata mai
mare.10.Daca se vor duce la teatru,isi vor rezerva locurile cu catva timp inainte.11.Daca as fi
stiut dinainte parerea ta, nu ti-as mai fi telefonat.
***
GRAMMAR
´IF CONDITIONAL´
(If Conditional) if
principala secundara
conditionala
I.Viitor(shall/will+V1 prezent(S+toV-+(e)s
Shan¶t/won¶t+V1
S+don¶t/doesn¶t+V1
Shall/will+S+V1?) Do/Does+S+V1?)
e.g.:I¶ll go I have time
II.Conditional Prezent Past Tense
(S+would/should+V1 ( S+ed/V2
S+shouldn¶t/wouldn¶t+V1 S+didn¶t+V1
Should/would+S+V1) Did+S+V1?)
e.g.:I would/should go I had time
III.Conditional Trecut Past Perfect
S+would/should+have+V3 (S+had+V3
S+wouldn¶t/shouldn¶t+have+V3 S+hadn¶t+V3
Would/should+S+have+V3? Had+S+V3?)
I would have gone I had had time


1.Continuati urmatoarele propozitii :
1. I should buy this dress, if .2. He would wear his new suit, if .3. They will go to the cinema,
if«..4. She would have answered his letter, if .5. You would type the letter yourself, if«..
6. I should have translated the article, if«« 7. Tonight we shall dine out, if . 8. She
would go to the greengrocer's, if . 9. We should have known English grammar much better,
if««. 10.I should read this book, if«11. You would get to your office earlier,
if . 12. They would have gone to the swimming pool, if.
LESSON 13
THE EARLY DAYS OF THE TELEPHONE
by Jerome K. Jerome
I think the telephone is really a useful thing. You want to see a man who lives near your
house. You can put on your hat and go round to his house in five minutes. But you look at the
telephone. You think it is better to ring him up before you go. You ring up many times, but you
get no answer. Then, you try once more to telephone and this time you get an answer. You
shout:
'Why don't you answer? I have rang twenty times in the last half hour. I pay a large sum
for the telephone and cannot get any answer when I ring. Why is it? ' You have finished. Now
you wait for the answer. And at last it comes from very, very far away:
'What -what do you say? I cannot hear what you say.'
'I say I have rung twenty times and I cannot get any answer. I shall write about it to the
Company,'
'You want what? Don't stand so near. I cannot hear what you say. What number?'
'I don't ask any number. I say, why don't you answer when I ring?'
'Eight hundred and what?'
You cannot repeat your question once more, so you say you want number four-five
seven-six.
'Four-nine-seven-six?' says the girl.
'No, four-five-seven-six'.
'Did you say seven-six or six-seven?'
'Six-seven-no ! I say seven-six, no-wait a minute. I don't know what I want now .'
'Well, you must know, ' says the young lady. 'I cannot wait here all the morning.'
So, you find the number in the book again, repeat it and at last she tells you that you are
connected. Then you stand waiting for some minutes.
'Are you there?' you cry many times, and then-oh, how glad you are !you hear a voice
answering:
'Yes. what is it?'
'Oh ! Are you four-five-seven-six?'
'What?'
'Are you four-five-seven-six, Williamson?'
'What? Who are you?'
'Eight-one-nine, Jones.'
'Bones?'
'No, Jones. Are you four-five-seven-six?'
'Yes, what is it?'
Is Mr. Williamson at home?'
¶¶Will I what?-Who are you?
'Jones ! Is Mr. Williamson at home?'
'Who?'
'Williamson. Will-I-am-son.'
'You are the son of what? I cannot hear what you say.'
Finally, he understands that you wish to know if Williamson is at home, and he says-so
at least you hear-¶¶Will be at home all the morning,'
So you take your hat and go to his house.
'I have come to see Mr. Williamson, 'you say.
'Very sorry, Sir, is the answer, 'but he is not at home.¶¶
'Not at home? But just now you said to me over the telephone: 'He will be at home all
the morning.¶¶
'No, it was :'He will not be at home all the morning.¶¶
You go back to your room, sit down in front of the telephone and look at it. What can
you do? Nothing.

I.Formulati 10 intrebari referitoare la text si raspundeti
.
II.Imaginati-va o convorbire telefonica in secolul viitor.
III.Traduceti in limba engleza:
1.Daca ai veni la ora 7, cu siguranta ca ne-ai gasi acasa.2.Da cand il cunosti?3.Ce vei face
saptamana viitoare pe vremea aceasta?4.Unde ti-ai petrecut week-endul trecut?5.Te-as fi asteptat
daca as fi fost sigura ca vei veni.6.Ploua de trei ore.7.Unde te duceai ieri cand te-am
intalnit?8.Daca voi avea timp deseara voi termina cartea pe care o citesc de o saptamana.9.De ce
nu mi-ai spus ca ti s-a schimbat numarul de telefon?10.Daca ti-as fi stiut noul numar de
telefon,ti-as fi telefonat.11.De obicei facem vizite dupa amiaza, in zilele de lucru.12.Nu facem
niciodata o vizita fara a da un telefon in prealabil.13.Trebuie sa facem tot posibilul sa fim
intotdeauna punctuali.14.Un domn nu se va aseza niciodata inainte ca doamna pe care o insoteste
sa ia loc.15.Cand plecati de la petrecere nu trebuie sa uitati sa-i multumiti gazdei pentru
ospitalitate.16.Trebuie intotdeauna sa evitati sa vorbiti prea mult.17.Daca cunoastem doua
persoane care nu se cunosc intre ele,este de datoria noastra sa le facem cunostinta.18.Trebuie sa
va ingrijiti ca oaspetii dumneavoastra sa aiba tot ceea ce au nevoie in tot timpul petrecerii.19.Se
ajuta ca sa-si termine mai repede lucrarile.20.In timp ce lucreaza, invata unul de la altul.21.Cand
s-au despartit si-au spus la revedere.22.Isi scriau scrisori in fiecare saptamana.
***
GRAMMAR
MODUL IMPERATIV
(The Imperative Mood)
Definitie:
Modul Imperativ exprima un ordin, o porunca, un indemn, o rugaminte
Come in!(Intra!)
Este reprezentat prin persoana a doua singular si plural+inf.scurt
Afirmativ:Learn!+inf.scurt
Negativ:Do+not+inf.scurt!=Don¶t learn!
Pentru celelalte persoane:aux.´´to let´+pronumele sau substantivul in Acuztiv+inf
scurt
Afirmativ:Let+Acc(Pron/Sust)+inf.scurt. Let me learn!
Neg:Do+not+let+Acc(pron/subst)+inf.scurt
Do not let me learn!Let me not learn!
MODUL IMPERATIV(The Imperative Mood)
Modul imperativ exprima un ordin, o porunca, un indemn, o rugaminte.
In limba engleza, modul imperativ este reprezentat prin persoana aII-a singular si plural.Ca
forma este identic cu infinitivul scurt al verbului.Apare, de obicei, neansotit de subiect.

Afirmativ:2nd pers.sg.,pl.-inf.scurt :e.g.:Learn!(Invata!Invatati!)


Negativ :Do+Not+inf.scurt sauDon¶t+inf.scurt:e.g.:Do not learn!Don¶t learn!(Nu
invata!Nu invatati!)

Pentru celelalte persoane se intrebuinteaza verbul auxiliar to let+un pronume sau substantiv in
Acuzativ+infinitivul scurt

Afirmativ:Let+Acc.(pron sau subst.)+inf.scurt



1. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la negativ:
1. Translate the new text, please ! 2. Open your books, please! 3. Come to the blackboard, please
! 4. Count from one to ten, please ! 5. Write the new words in your exercise books, please ! 6.
Close the window, please ! 7. Read lesson number 9, please ! 8. Go back to your seat, please ! 9.
Repeat all the texts, please !1o. Take my book, please !
LESSON 14
ARE COMPUTERS OUR FRIENDS OR ENEMIES?
Before 1940 dictionaries said that a ´computer is a person who computes, that is, who
adds, subtracts, multiplies and divides'. After 1940 human computers were gradually replaced by
gigantic machines, called 'electronic computers'.
A computer is nowadays more of a 'machine that thinks'. Computers are used so much in
different activities that knowing nothing about them makes life very difficult.
The main part is a box called the system unit. If the system unit is tall, it's called a tower.
If the system unit is wide, it's called a desktop unit.
Several cables come out of the system unit. One is called the power cord and feeds power
to the computer. One cable goes to the keyboard. To send a message to the computer, you type
the message on the keyboard. One cable goes to the monitor which is a device that looks like a
TV. The computer displays the messages on the monitor screen.
One cable goes to the mouse which is a device about the size of a pack of cards. By
pressing the mouse's left button you can manipulate an object on the monitor screen. One cable
goes to the printer which prints on paper.
A computer includes three main parts. The part that 'thinks' is called the processor. The
part that 'remembers' the computer's 'thoughts' is called the memory. Without memory a
computer is as useless as a person who says: 'I had a great idea but I can't remember it.' The part
that 'communicates' those 'thoughts' is called the in/out system, or the input/output system,
because it passes information into and out of the computer. Without it the computer is as useless
as a person who says: 'I had a great idea but I won't tell you.'
The machinery inside a computer is called hardware. The programmes that control a computer
are the software.
I.Formulati 10 intrebari referitoare la text.
II. Read the text about computers and fmd out:
1 what each part of the computer is used for;
2 what the difference is between:
a) processor and memory;
b)input system and output system;
c) hardware and software.

LESSON 15
MY BODY'S PERSONAL COMPUTER
Have you ever thought that a human being is the owner of the best personal computer in
the world and that you are carrying it with you wherever you are? Scientists have been studying
the brain for a long time and they still have more questions than answers. Their opinions differ
but they all agree that the human brain is a marvellous and fascinating thing.
One thing that makes the brain so special is its amazing complexity like that of a
computer. No other part of our body can perform as many functions as the brain can. It controls
the body, stores data in the form of memories, and creates: thoughts, dreams, ideas, emotions,
and moods. While we are asleep the brain makes sure that the internal organs (i.e. the liver, kid-
neys, heart, etc.) continue to work. So, the brain works non-stop, day and night, all our lives.
Another fascinating thing about the brain is its perfect structure. It consists of a mass of
soft grey matter (10 billion nerve cells) inside the head and is divided into two hemispheres
which are connected by the corpus callosum. The two halves can operate quite independently of
one another and have developed areas of specialisation and different abilities. The Left Brain
controls: logic, language, reasoning, facts, numbers, and the movements of the right-hand side of
the body. The Right Brain controls: emotion, music, images and imagination, dreams, rhythm,
colour, day-dreaming, face recognition, and the movements of the left-hand side of the body. For
most people the left hemisphere is more powerful than the right one. That is why 91 % of people
are right-handed. In creative artists (painters, writers, etc.) the right hemisphere is more
dominant. These distinctions are not rigid as each side, to a certain extent, can perform functions
which we normally associate with the other side.
Last but not least, scientists are still marvelling at our brain's high potential. Their
findings indicate that the brain can take 10 new bits of information every second for an entire
lifetime and still be not more than half full. Tony Buzan and Terence Dixon published the results
of their research in a book called The Evolving Brain., In the book, they tell us that if the brain is
used properly, we continue to learn more and more the older we get, although it is perfectly true
that we tend to absorb more information when we are young.
III.Read the text and say which side of the brain is dominant in the activities below:
1 Operating a computer 4 Bending your left leg
2 Working out mathematical problems 5 Moving your right thumb
3 Making up stories 6 Recognising faces
***
GRAMMAR
MODUL SUBJONCTIV
(The Subjunctive Mood)
Definitie:Modul Subjonctiv arata o actiune sau stare ipotetica, realizabila sau nu.
e.g.:It¶s essential that they should prepare for the text
Subjonctiv:
1.Sintetic
a).prezent(Present Subjunctive)
Definitie:actiune sau stare posibila, realizabila care nu contrazice realitatea.
e.g.:It¶s necessary that she be at the office.
Forma:S+inf.scurt I/You/he/she/it/we/they be
b)-trecut simplu(Past Subjunctive)
Definitie:actiuni sau stari contrare realitatii
Forma:Past TenseV2(exceptie verbul to be care este were la toate persoanele)
I wish he were more careful(As dori sa fie mai atent).
-trecut continuu:actiune contara realitatii, in desfasurare in momentul vorbirii
Forma were+V-ing
e.g.:I wish he were speaking louder(As dori sa vorbeasca mai tare).
c).perfect(Subjunctive PastII)
Definitie:actiune ireala,contrara unei realitati trecute.
e.g.:I wish I had seen that film(As dori sa fi vazut acel film).
Forma:had+V3
e.g.:If he had known the trhth he would have acted differently
2.Analitic
Definitie:exprima actiuni sau stari ipotetice(indoiala, presupunere, conditie, concesie,
scop)e.g.:She spoke louder so that everybody might hear her
Forma:verb modal+toV sau infinitiv perfect(have+V3)
I ask(sa intreb), I asked(sa intreb), I had asked(sa fi intrebat)
LESSON 16
Grin and bear it!
I.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
a) Which are your five favourite types of film?
b) How do you choose films you see or watch?

If you like fantasy-comedies, then Multiplicity is definitely the film for you. It is a
Columbia Pictures production, directed by Harold Ramis and with Michael Keaton as the leading
actor.
The film is set in the USA and tells the amusing story of a businessman, Doug Kinney,
who tries cloning as a solution to the problems of stress in modern life. It all starts when Doug
figures out that he does not have the time or energy to come to terms with his demanding job and
family life. Dr Owen Leeds, Doug's friend, advises him to have his personality split and cloned.
In the beginning Doug rejects this strange idea, but afterwards he thinks it a tempting
solution to his problems. In the end, after much hesitation, he accepts that three clones should
be made, reproducing his appearance and three different sides of his personality. The first clone
multiplies the child in him and is supposed to play with his kids. The second one reproduces the
genius in him and is to work at his office. The third clone represents the loving husband in him
and has to make his wife happy.
Things go well at first, but not for long. To his great surprise and our amusement, bitter
humour, he finds out that none of his clones has obeyed his orders and that he has become a
stranger to his wife and children.
Multiplicity is a film which makes you think and laugh at the same time, with plenty of
surprise and suspense. It is well acted and superbly directed. It has a theme relevant to the
modern world: cloning, and a meaningful message: the dangers of playing God. I strongly
recommend this box-office success to you.
II.Formulati 10 intrebari referitoare la text.
LESSON 17
An Alternative Cinderella
by Maeve Binchy


ONCE UPON A TIME there were three sisters who lived with their widowed father.
The two eldest ran a beauty parlour. They were both interested in finding a rich husband. The
youngest daughter, whose name was Cinderella, looked after the house. Cinderella did not mind
too much as she was doing a correspondence course in accountancy and marketing.
Around that time the newspapers were full of stories about a big party that was going to
be held at the palace. It was said that the prince, a real playboy, wanted to find a wife and settle
down. From the moment they heard about the ball, the two eldest sisters spent days and days
trying to make themselves look beautiful. As for Cinderella, she didn't have the slightest interest
in going to the ball. What really appealed to her was how to get some money to start her own
business. So she decided to enter a competition in a woman's magazine because it offered some
good cash prizes.
One morning, while she was doing some work for her accountancy course, there was a
knock at the door. She opened it and saw an extraordinary woman standing there with a
ridiculous-looking tiara on her head. The woman, who called herself Fairy Godmother or FG for
short, told Cinderella that she'd won first prize, a charm course, in the magazine competition
she'd entered. In return for the prize she would have to dress up in lots of fine clothes and be
driven to the palace where she'd spend the night at the ball and be photographed for the woman's
magazine.
The big day arrived and a shiny Rolls Royce came to pick her up. The man from the car
hire firm said he was only on duty until midnight. Moments later a woman arrived bringing a
fur coat and a diamond necklace which would be Cinderella's just for the evening. When she
turned up at the palace, the king told her about his financial problems. Cinderella suggested
lots of ways of making money: reorganising the kitchens, opening the palace to the public and
so on.
By this time it had turned midnight. The car hire man drove away and the woman came to
collect her fur coat and necklace. The prince, who by this time was hopelessly drunk, took one
look at Cinderella and asked her to dance. She kicked off her glass slippers, which were killing
her, and joined him on the dance floor. Soon afterwards, she left the palace and hitch-hiked
home.
The following day, the newspapers were full of the big story about the prince who had
fallen for a beautiful and mysterious woman who had disappeared. Her glass slippers, which she
had left behind, were the only clues that would lead him to her. Cinderella saw quite a bit of the
prince because she started work at the palace as financial adviser. In no time at all the palace was
making a profit again. Naturally, Cinderella refused to marry the prince but she did help him cut
down on his drinking and involved him in useful social work in the community. They lived
happily ever after.
I.Read the story again. Find features of this example of a fairy tale. Discuss:
- the way the story begins and ends;
- the use of real and/or imaginary characters;
- a problem solved by the hero/heroine;
- the fight between good and evil.
II.Formulati 10 intrebari referitoare la text.
LESSON 18
AT THE AIRPORT
When a man is tired of London he is tired of life,, for there is in London all that life can afford. (Dr.
Sarnuel Johnson)
1. How do people travel from the Continent to the UK?
2. Do you think the tunnel under the Channel is preferable to other ways of getting to Great
Britain? Give reasons. 3. What could be the advantages and disadvantages of travelling to Great
Britain by plane?
Reorder the sentences below to show what passengers do in an airport before boarding a plane.
The picture under the text will help you.
A. At the Check-in Counter passengers receive a boarding pass which allows them to get on the
plane.
B. While waiting in the Departure Lounge passengers can visit the Duty-Free Shops where they
can buy goods at a cheaper price or they can have refreshments in the bar.
C. When entering the Departure Lounge all passengers have to go through the Security Check,
where their hand luggage is also checked.
D. After being given the boarding pass, all passengers show their passports for Passport Control.
E. Passengers wait in the Departure Lounge for their flight to be announced.
F. When arriving at the airport, passengers usually take a trolley to carry their luggage to the
Check-in Counter to have their bags weighed and taken to the plane.
G. When they hear the announcement for their flight, passengers proceed to the Gate to board the
plane.
Raspundeti la urmatarele intrebari:
1. How do people travel from the Continent to the UK?
2. Do you think the tunnel under the Channel is preferable to other ways of getting to Great
Britain? Give reasons. 3. What could be the advantages and disadvantages of travelling to Great
Britain by plane?
Copy the grid and fill in the right letter:
/ 1 / 2 / 3 / 4 / 5/ 6 / 7 /

Porter, take this suitcase and meet me at the weighing-in desk.
I must have my luggage inspected, weighed and labelled/tagget . I am on the passenger list for
flight No. II .Make haste. The plane is about 10 take off.The pilot has already started all four
engines.The announcer invites the passengers to board the plane.
ON THE PLANE
Miss/Stewardess/Hostess
will you show me to my seat?
will you come up to me and (help me) adjust my safely-belt?
The plane begins.
to taxi along the runway«
to pick up speed. «
«to climb quickly.
«to gain height«
We are in the air.
I can still see the people who have come to see us off.
They are looking upwards.
waving their hands.
fluttering their handkerchiefs.
What altitude are we flying at?
We must be to 2 000 metres already.
Why are we not up any higher?
We are approaching the summit of a range of mountains.
There comes the stewardess. Lunch is being served.
She looks very smart in her uniform.
I say please, what am I to do if I feel sick?
Why, don't you feel well? No, not that much. I am just a bit nervous. You know,it's the first time
I'm flying.
In case of need you¶ll find a paper bag right in front of your seat.
Have a drink! Just a few drops of this May I smoke in here? Smoking is forbidden only while the
plane is on the ground.
the plane is taking oft.
Look out of the window. What looks like..
an oval plate is the stadium of the city.
a tiny boat is in reality quite a big steamer.
It is more and more difficult to distinguish things under us.
We are entering a cloud. We are flying through clouds. We are now above the clouds.
The whole view is blotted out.
The clouds are breaking. Below us and through the gaps we again have a wonderful view.
What speed are we flying at?
It doesn't seem to be going any pace at all.
It seems a trifle monotonous to me.
We are now flying a speed of over 1 000 km per hour.
I cannot hear the noise of the engines.
This is a soundproof cabin.
I cannot see the propellers. This is a turbojet plane. We are beginning to descend.
The highroads, the steeples of the churches, the roofs of the houses are coming into view.
The pilot
steers eastward towards
brings the plane down so low that we wonder it does not touch the treetops.
The plane is landing.
The plane is circling over the airfield.
The pilot makes a perfect landing. The steps are driven up. The passengers begin to alight.
Did you enjoy travelling by air?Have you been airsick? Did you hit any air-pockets? No, nothing
of the kind.
Only once
we ran into an air-pocket and the plane began rocking a little.
the plane was delayed on account of a heavy storm.
Have you ever travelled by plane?
Air travel is nowadays as seif as travelling by train.
The cost of a ticket is about the same as the first-class railway fare.
LESSON 19
Pictures from the USA: The Grand Canyon
All of us have read stories and seen pictures of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River,
but they don't help us to understand what this region is really like. It is as if we tried to
understand music just from reading about it.
No scene can equal the Grand Canyon, because there, for a million and a half years, the
great river has been cutting through the mountain rocks.
The most impressive part of the Canyon lies within an area of 105 square miles (273
square kilometers) included in the Grand Canyon National Park.
You must accept donkeys to explore the abyss. Riding these patient little beasts you start
to descend the trail towards the Colorado River, five thousand feet below. The weather is cold at
the rim. Now, half-way down it is warm and it becomes warmer and warmer until at the bottom
it is hot. You would like to go for a swim and cool off but river roars past with its charge of
rocks and sand and mud.
And this rushing flood is only three hundred feet wide. In it a swimmer will be crushed to
death. And yet people have navigated this angry river from end to end in tough little boats,
struggling down in the muddy fload. The first and most famous conqueror of this river is Major
Powell, and the date of his exploit is 1869. This Canyon must have fascinated him as he wanted
to explore every inch of it.
Though he had only one arm, having lost the other in the Civil War he resolved to launch a
boat in the headwaters of the river, and travelled down the entire length of the Canyon.
Everybody tried to persuade not to go. The Indians even said that the river disappeared
completely at times into underground chanels. But Powell was deaf to all warnings. With three
boats and nine men he pushed off from the sore, far to the north, in the state of Wyoming,
hundreds of miles above the Canyon, on what was to be a truly heroic adventure.
For ninety days this brave little fleet floated through whirpools, waterfalls, carried by the
wild and merciless current. The threat of disaster was always there, and the roar of the water
never ceased. Several times the boats were overturned. The men with all their equipment and all
their food supplies, remained watersoaked for days on end. A hundred times these men escaped
from what seemed certain death. But there was no turning back any longer.

Unfortunately three of the men accompanying Major Powell were not so strong-willed as
their companions and after twelve weeks of constant battle to keep alive they came to the end of
their strength and courage.
They announced that they were going to leave and that they would try to climb the mile-
high cliffs and take their chances of reaching the desert above, rather than continue down toward
sure death. Major, Powell let them go and watched them crawling up the Canyon wall until they
disappeared.
The three men with desperate efforts actually reached the top but this happiness was
brought to a terrible end. Indians, distrusting white men, and believing that these were only three
more who had come to rob them seized the exhaused men and put them to death.
And, the very day they died, Major Powell and the other six courageous men were
suddenly shot out of the south entrance of the Canyon into the quiet waters of the lower river.
1.Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:
1. Where do the most impressive parts of the Canyon lie?
2. How can we reach the Colorado River?
3. Who was the first conqueror of this dangerous river?
4.How did he organize his expedition down the Colorado River?
5. What hardships did they meet with while floating on the River?
6. Were all of them as strong-willed as Major Powell was?
7. What happened to the three men?
***

CONJUGAREA SIMPLA A UNUI VERB REGULAT (SIMPLE
CONJUGATION OF A REGULAR VERB)
TO ASK (A INTREBA)
DlATEZA ACTIVA (ACTIVE VOICE)
INFINITIV (INFINITIVE)
Prezent (Present) Perfect(perfect)
to ask (a intreba) to have asked (a fi intrebat)

PARTICIPIU (PARTICIPLE)
Prezent (Present) Trecut (Past) Perfect (Perfect)
asking (intreband) asked (intrebat) having asked (Intreband)
MODUL INDICA TIV (INDICATIVE MOOD)
Prezent (Present) Trecut (Past Tense)
I ask (intreb) I asked (intrebam, intrebai, am intrebat)
you ask you asked
he/ she/ it asks he/ she/ it asked
we ask we asked
you ask you asked
they ask they asked
Prezent perfect. (Present Perfect)
I have asked (am intrebat)
you have asked
he/ she/ it has asked
we have asked
you have asked
they have asked
Viitor (Future)
I shall ask (voi intreba)
you will ask
he/ she/ it will ask
we shall ask
you will ask
they will ask
Viitorul in trecut
(Future in the Past)
I should ask (voi intreba)
you would ask
he/ she/ it would ask
we should ask
Mai mult-ca-pertect
(Past Perfect)
I had asked (intrebasem)
you had asked
he/ she/ it had asked
we had asked
you had asked
they had asked
Viitor perfect (Future Perfect)
I shall have asked (voi fi intrebat)
you will have asked
he/ she/ it will have asked
we shall have asked
you will have asked
they will have asked
Viitorul perfect al trecutului (Future Perfect in the Past)
I should have asked (voi fi intrebat)
you would have asked
he/ she/ it would have asked
we should ask
you would ask
we should have asked
you would have asked
they would ask
MODUL SUBJONCTIV (SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD)
they would have asked
I ask (sa intreb) I asked (sa intreb) I had asked
you ask you asked you had asked
he/ she/ it ask he/ she/ it asked he/ she/ it had asked
we ask we asked we had asked
you ask you asked you had asked
they ask they asked they had asked we.


MODUL CONDITIONAL(CONDITIONAL MOOD)
Prezent (Present) Perfect (Perfect)
I should ask (a intreba) . I should have asked (a fi intrebat)
you would ask you would have asked
he/ she/ it would ask he/ she/ it would have asked
we should ask we should have'asked
you would ask you would have asked
they would ask they would have asked
MODUL IMPERATIV (IMPERATIVE MOOD)
Persoana a II-a sg. si pl. ask! (tntreaba! Intrebati!)
DIATEZA PASIVA (PASSIVE VOICE)
INFINITIV (INFINITIVE)

.
Prezent (Present)
to be asked (a fi intrebat)
Perfect{Perfect
to have been asked (a fi fost intrebat )


PARTICIPIU PARTICIPLE
Prezent( (Present) Trecut (Past)
being asked(fiind intrebat) asked(intrebat)

Perfect( (Perfect)
having been asked
MODUL INDICATIV (INDICATIVE MOOD)
Prezent (Present) Trecut (Past Tense)
I am asked (sunt intrebat) I was asked (eram ,fusei, fui, am fost)
intrebat)
you were asked you were asked
he! She/it was asked he/she/it asked
we were asked we were asked
you were asked you were asked
they were asked they were asked
Prezent perfect (Present Perfect)
I have been asked (am fost intrebat)
you have been asked
he/ she/ it has been asked
we have been asked
you have been asked
they have been asked
Viitor (Future)
I shall be asked (voi fi intrebat)
you will be asked
we shall be asked
he/ she/ it will be asked we shall be asked
you will be asked
they will. be asked
Viitorut in trecut
(Future in the Past)
I should be asked (voi fi intrebat)
you would be asked
he/ she/ it would be asked
we should be asked
you would be asked
they would be asked
Mai muft-ca-perfect (Past Perfect)
I had been asked (fusesem intrebat)
you had been asked
he/ she/ it had been asked
we had been asked
you had been asked
they had been asked
Viitor perfect (Future Perfect)
I shall have been asked (voi fi fost intrebat)
you will have been asked
he/ she/ it will have been asked
we shall have been asked
you will have been asked
they will have been asked
Viitorut perfect at trecututui
(Future Perfect in the Past)
I should have been asked (voi fi fost intrebat)
you would have been asked
he/ she/ it would have been asked
we should have been asked
you would have been asked
they would have been asked
MODUL SUBJONCTIV (SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD)
I be asked (sa fiu intrebat) I were asked(sa fiu intrebat) I had been asked (sa fi fost
you be asked you were asked intrebat)
he/she/it be asked he/she/it were asked you had been asked
we be asked we were asked he/she/it had been asked
you be asked you were asked we had been asked
they be asked they were asked you had been asked
they had been asked
MODUL CONDITIONAL (CONDITIONAL MOOD)
Prezent (Present)
I should be asked (as fi intrebat)
you would be asked
he/she/it would be asked
we should be asked
you would be asked
they would be asked
Perfect (Perfect) .
I should have been asked (as fi fost intrebat)
you would have been asked
he/she/it would have been asked
we would have been asked
you would have been asked
they would have been asked
MODUL IMPERATIV (IMPERATIVE MOOD)
Persoana a II-a sg. Persoana a II-a pl.
be asked! (fi intrebat!) be asked! (fiti intrebati!)
CONJUGAREA CONTINUA A UNUI VERB REGULAT
(CONTINUOUS CONJUGATION OF A REGULAR VERB)
TO ASK (A INTREBA)
DIATEZA ACTIVA (ACTIVE VOICE)
INFINITIV (INFINITIVE)
Prezent (Present)
I am asking (a intreba)
Perfect (Perfect)
to have been asking (a fi intrebat)
MODUL INDICATIV (INIDICATIVE MOOD)
Prezent (Present) Trecut (Past Tense)
I am asking (lntreb) I was asking (lntrebam)
you are asking you were asking
he/ She/ it is asking he/she/it was asking
we are asking we were asking
you are asking you were asking
they are asking they were asking
Prezent perfect (Present Perfect)
I have been asking (intreb)
you have been asking
he/She/ it has been asking
we have been asking
you have been asking
They have been asking
Trecut perfect (Past Perfect)
I had been asking (lntrebam)
you had been asking
he/ she/it had been asking
we had been asking
you had been asking
they had been asking
Viitor perfect (Future Perfect)
I shall have been asking (voi fi intrebat)
you will have been asking
he/she/ it will have been asking
we shall have been asking
you will have been asking
they will have been asking
Viitor (Future)
I shall be asking (voi intreba)
you will be asking
he! She/ it will be saking
we shall be asking
you will be asking
they will be asking
Viitorul in trecut
(Future in the Past)
I should be asking (voi intreba)
you would be asking
he/ She/ it would be asking
we should be asking
you would be asking
they would be asking
Viitorul perfect at trecututui
(Future Perfect in the Past)
I should have been asking (voi Ii intrebat)
you would have been asking
he/ She/ it would have been asking
we should have been asking
you would have been asking
they would have been asking
MODUL SUBJONCTIV
(SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD)
I be asking (sa intreb) I were asking (sa intreb) I had been asking (sa fi
intrebat)
you be asking you were asking you had been asking
he/she/it be asking he/she/it were asking he/she/it had been asking
we be asking we were asking we had been asking
you be asking you were asking you had been asking
they be asking they were asking they had been asking
MODUL CONDITIONAL (CONDITIONAL MOOD)
Prezent (Present) Perfect (Perfect)
I should be asking (as intreba) I should have been asking (as fi intrebat)
you would be asking you would have been asking
he/she/it would be asking he/she/it would have been asking
we should be asking we should have been asking
you would be asking you would have been asking
they would be asking they would have been asking
MODUL IMPERATIV (IMPERATIVE MOOD)
be asking! (intreaba!)
DIATEZA PASIVA (PASSIVE VOICE)
MODUL INDICATlV (INDICATIVE MOOD)
Prezent (Present) Trecut (Past Tense)
I am being asked (sunt intrebat) I was being asked (eram intrebat)
you are being asked you were being asked
he/she/it is being asked he/she/it was being asked
we are being asked we were being asked
you are being asked you were being asked
they are being asked they were being asked
MODUL SUBJONCTIV (SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD)
I were being asked (sa fiu intrebat)
you were being asked
he/she/it were being asked
we were being asked
you were being asked
they were being asked
LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS
INFINITIVE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE
To be was been -a fi
To beat beat beaten -a bate, a invinge
To become became become -a deveni
To blow blew blown -a bate
To bet bet bet -a paria
To break broke broken -a (se) sparge, a rupe
To bring brought brought -a aduce
To build built built a construi
To buy bought bought -a cumpara
To catch caught caught -a prinde
To choose chose chosen -a alege
To come came come -a veni
To cost cost cost -a costa
To cut cut cut -a taia
To do did done -a face
To drink drank drunk -a bea
To drive drove driven -a conduce
To eat ate eaten -a manca
To feel felt felt -a simti
To find found found - a afla
To forget forgot forgotten - a uita
To give gave given -a da
To go went gone - a merge
To have had had - a avea
To know knew known -a sti, a cunoaste
To learn learnt/learned learnt/learned -a invata
To leave left left -a parasi
To make made made -a face
To meet met met -a intalni
To read read read -a citi
To say said said -a spune
To see saw seen -a vedea
To send sent sent - a trimite
To sleep slept slept - a dormi
To tell told told - a spune

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful