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Principles of Limit State Design|Views: 6,418|Likes: 59

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For the ULS design of steel-plated structures, the basic variables which characterize load

effects, material properties and geometric parameters should be identiﬁed ﬁrst. Methodolo-

gies or simpliﬁed models for computing the load effects and the load-carrying capacities

42

ULS DESIGN OF STEEL-PLATED STRUCTURES

must be established. Once the two models, i.e., for calculating both load effects and

ultimate strength, are obtained, the ULS function, G, can be given from Equation (1.1)

as a function of the basic variables x1,x2,...,xn, as follows:

G(x1,x2,...,xn)=0

(1.23)

When G≥0, the structure is considered to be the desired state. The models always

have uncertainties due to many reasons. The computation model is in fact a function of

random variables, namely

Ym =Y(x1,x2,...,xn)

(1.24)

where Ym =value computed by the model, Y =function of the model, xi =random

variables.

As long as the random variables are uncertain, the modeling function is not exact so

that Ym may always have some errors. This is typically due to lack of knowledge or

simpliﬁcation in developing the model. The exact solution, Y0, of the problem may be

expressed by

Y0 =Y∗(x1,x2,...,xn,δ1,δ2,...,δm)

(1.25)

where δi =random variables related to the model uncertainties, Y∗ =exact function.

In Equation (1.25), the statistical properties of δi may normally be determined from

experiments or observations. For the ultimate strength model, the mean of δi can be

determined as the average value which correctly predicts the test results.

It is necessary to ensure that the structure has an adequate degree of reliability against

the ULS. Two types of design format are normally used, namely (ISO 2394 1998)

• the direct probabilistic design format

• the partial safety factor format.

While the latter format is typically used for normal design purposes, the former is

sometimes more relevant for speciﬁc design problems or for calibration of the partial

safety factors. The design condition of a structure in the partial safety factor format is

expressed as follows:

Cd−Dd = Ck

γmγc

−γ0

Dki(Fki,γfi)≥0

(1.26)

The actions are normally dynamic and varying in nature and may have the following

representative values (ISO 2394 1998):

• characteristic value;

• load combination value;

• frequent value; and

• quasi-permanent value.

The characteristic value of load effects is determined so that it may have a speciﬁed

probability being exceeded toward unfavorable values during the reference period. The

combination value is determined so that the probability that the load effects arising from

the load combination will be exceeded is approximately the same as that for a single

PRINCIPLES OF LIMIT STATE DESIGN

43

action. The frequent value is determined so that the total time which it will be exceeded

during the reference period is limited to a speciﬁed short period or the frequency of its

exceedance is limited to a speciﬁed small value. The quasi-permanent value is determined

so that the total time which it will be exceeded during the reference period is of the

magnitude of perhaps half the reference period.

The partial factors may depend on the design situation and the types of the limit states.

In most cases, while Dk is deﬁned as the characteristic value noted above, γf is deﬁned

taking into account the possibility of unfavorable deviations of the action values from the

representative values and the uncertainties in the model of load effects.

Similarly, while the characteristic value of Ck against the limit state is calculated using

more sophisticated models as presented in this book, γm is deﬁned taking into account

the possibility of unfavorable deviations of material properties from the characteristic

(speciﬁed) values and the uncertainties in the conversion factors. γc may be determined

taking into account the possibility of unfavorable deviations of geometric parameters from

the characteristic (speciﬁed) values including the severity (importance) of variations, the

tolerance speciﬁcations and the control of the deviations, and the cumulative effect of a

simultaneous occurrence of several geometric deviations, the possibility of unfavorable

consequences of progressive collapse, and the uncertainties of the models as quantiﬁed

by deviations from measurements or benchmark calculations.

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