P. 1
Principles of Limit State Design

Principles of Limit State Design

|Views: 6,418|Likes:
Published by hitusp

More info:

Published by: hitusp on Nov 12, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





For the ULS design of steel-plated structures, the basic variables which characterize load
effects, material properties and geometric parameters should be identified first. Methodolo-
gies or simplified models for computing the load effects and the load-carrying capacities



must be established. Once the two models, i.e., for calculating both load effects and
ultimate strength, are obtained, the ULS function, G, can be given from Equation (1.1)
as a function of the basic variables x1,x2,...,xn, as follows:



When G≥0, the structure is considered to be the desired state. The models always
have uncertainties due to many reasons. The computation model is in fact a function of
random variables, namely

Ym =Y(x1,x2,...,xn)


where Ym =value computed by the model, Y =function of the model, xi =random

As long as the random variables are uncertain, the modeling function is not exact so
that Ym may always have some errors. This is typically due to lack of knowledge or
simplification in developing the model. The exact solution, Y0, of the problem may be
expressed by

Y0 =Y∗(x1,x2,...,xn,δ1,δ2,...,δm)


where δi =random variables related to the model uncertainties, Y∗ =exact function.
In Equation (1.25), the statistical properties of δi may normally be determined from
experiments or observations. For the ultimate strength model, the mean of δi can be
determined as the average value which correctly predicts the test results.
It is necessary to ensure that the structure has an adequate degree of reliability against
the ULS. Two types of design format are normally used, namely (ISO 2394 1998)

• the direct probabilistic design format
• the partial safety factor format.
While the latter format is typically used for normal design purposes, the former is
sometimes more relevant for specific design problems or for calibration of the partial
safety factors. The design condition of a structure in the partial safety factor format is
expressed as follows:

Cd−Dd = Ck





The actions are normally dynamic and varying in nature and may have the following
representative values (ISO 2394 1998):

• characteristic value;
• load combination value;
• frequent value; and
• quasi-permanent value.
The characteristic value of load effects is determined so that it may have a specified
probability being exceeded toward unfavorable values during the reference period. The
combination value is determined so that the probability that the load effects arising from
the load combination will be exceeded is approximately the same as that for a single



action. The frequent value is determined so that the total time which it will be exceeded
during the reference period is limited to a specified short period or the frequency of its
exceedance is limited to a specified small value. The quasi-permanent value is determined
so that the total time which it will be exceeded during the reference period is of the
magnitude of perhaps half the reference period.
The partial factors may depend on the design situation and the types of the limit states.
In most cases, while Dk is defined as the characteristic value noted above, γf is defined
taking into account the possibility of unfavorable deviations of the action values from the
representative values and the uncertainties in the model of load effects.
Similarly, while the characteristic value of Ck against the limit state is calculated using
more sophisticated models as presented in this book, γm is defined taking into account
the possibility of unfavorable deviations of material properties from the characteristic
(specified) values and the uncertainties in the conversion factors. γc may be determined
taking into account the possibility of unfavorable deviations of geometric parameters from
the characteristic (specified) values including the severity (importance) of variations, the
tolerance specifications and the control of the deviations, and the cumulative effect of a
simultaneous occurrence of several geometric deviations, the possibility of unfavorable
consequences of progressive collapse, and the uncertainties of the models as quantified
by deviations from measurements or benchmark calculations.


Afanasieff, L. (1975). Corrosion mechanisms, corrosion defense and wastage. Chapter 16 in Ship
Structural Design Concepts.
Cornell Maritime Press, Cambridge, MA.
AISC (1993). Manual of steel construction: load and resistance factor design specification for
structural steel buildings
. American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago.
AISI (1974). The variation of product analysis and tensile properties – carbon steel plates and wide
flange shapes
. American Iron and Steel Institute, New York.
Antoniou, A.C. (1980). On the maximum deflection of plating in newly built ships. Journal of Ship
, 24(1): 31–39.
Brockenbrough, R.L. (1983). Structural steel design and construction. Chapter 9 in Standard Hand-
book for Civil Engineers
. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Brockenbrough, R.L. (1991). Material properties. Chapter 1.2 in Constructional Steel Design, An
International Guide
. Elsevier Applied Science, London and New York.
Brockenbrough, R.L. & Johnston, B.G. (1981). USSsteeldesignmanual. USC Corp., Pittsburgh, PA.
BS 5950 (1985). The structural use of steelwork in building. Part 8. British Standards Institu-

tion, London.

Callister, W.D. (1997). Materials science and engineering, Fourth Edition. John Wiley & Sons,

New York.

Carlsen, C.A. & Czujko, J. (1978). The specification of post-welding distortion tolerance for stiff-
ened plates in compression. The Structural Engineer, 56A(5): 133–141.
Cheng, J.J.R., Elwi, A.E., Grodin, G.Y. & Kulak, G.L. (1996). Material testing and residual stress
measurements in a stiffened steel plate. In Strength and Stability of Stiffened Plate Components.
Ship Structure Committee, SSC-399, Washington, DC.
ECCS (1982). European recommendations for the fire safety of steel structures. ECCS Technical
Committee 3, European Convention for Constructional Steelwork.
ENV 1993-1-1 (1992). Eurocode 3: design of steel structures, part 1.1 general rules and rules for
. British Standards Institution, London.
ENV 1993-1-2 (1992). Eurocode 3: design of steel structures, part 1.2 fire resistance. British
Standards Institution, London.
Faulkner, D. (1975). A review of effective plating for use in the analysis of stiffened plating in
bending and compression. Journal of Ship Research, 19(1): 1–17.



Fricke, W., Berge, S., Brennan, F., Cui, W., Josefson, L., Kierkegaard, H., Kihl, D., Koval, M.,
Mikkola, T.P., Parmentier, G., Toyosada, M. & Yoon, J.H. (2000). Fatigue and fracture. Report
of Technical Committee III.2, Proceedings of the 14th International Ship and Offshore Structures
Congress, Nagasaki, Japan
. Elsevier, Amsterdam, I: 323–392.
Galambos, T.V. (1988). Guide to stability design criteria for metal structures. John Wiley & Sons,

New York.

Hart, D.K., Rutherford, S.E. & Wickham, A.H.S. (1985). Structural reliability analysis of stiffened
panels. RINA Transactions, 128: 293–310.
IMO (1995). Guidelines for the selection, application and maintenance of corrosion prevention
systems of dedicated seawater ballast tanks
. Resolution A.798(19), International Maritime Orga-
nization, London.
ISO 2394 (1998). General principles on reliability for structures, Second Edition. International
Organization for Standardization, Geneva.
Ivanov, L.D. (1986). Statistical evaluation of the ship’s hull cross-section geometrical characteristics
as a function of her age. International Shipbuilding Progress, 387: 198–203.
Kmiecik, M. (1970). The load carrying capacity of axially loaded longitudinally stiffened plates
having initial deformation. Ship Research Institute, Technical Report No. R80, Trondheim.
Kmiecik, M., Jastrzebski, T. & Kuzniar, J. (1995). Statistics of ship plating distortions. Marine
, 8: 119–132.
Lawson, R.M. (1992). Fire resistance and protection of structural steelwork. Chapter 7.3 in Con-
structional Steel Design, An International Guide
. Elsevier Applied Science, London.
Løseth, R., Sekkeseter, G. & Valsg˚ard, S. (1994). Economics of high tensile steel in ship hulls.
Marine Structures, 7(1): 31–50.
Masaoka, K. (1996). Development and application of an efficient ultimate strength analysis method
for ship structures. Dr. Eng. Dissertation, Osaka University, Osaka, (in Japanese).
Masubuchi, K. (1980). Analysis of welded structures. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Melchers, R.E. (1999). Corrosion uncertainty modeling for steel structures. Journal of Construc-
tional Steel Research
, 52: 3–19.
Melchers, R.E. & Ahammed, M. (1994). Nonlinear modeling of corrosion of steel in marine envi-
ronments. Research Report No. 106.09.1994, Department of Civil, Surveying and Environmental
Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Australia.
Nethercot, D.A. (2001). Limit states design of structural steelwork, Third Edition based on Revised
BS 5950: Part 1, 2000 Amendment. Spon Press, London.
NK (1995). Guidance for corrosion protection system of hull structures for water ballast tanks and
cargo oil tanks
, 2nd Revision. Nippon Kaiji Kyokai, Tokyo.
NTS (1998). Design of steel structures, N-004. Norwegian Technology Standards Institution, Oslo.
Paik, J.K. & Park, Y.I. (1998). A probabilistic corrosion rate estimation model for longitudinal
strength members of tanker structures. Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea, 35(2):
83–93 (in Korean).
Paik, J.K. & Pedersen, P.T. (1996). A simplified method for predicting the ultimate compressive
strength of ship panels. International Shipbuilding Progress, 43: 139–157.
Paik, J.K., Kim, S.K. & Lee, S.K. (1998). Probabilistic corrosion rate estimation model for longi-
tudinal strength members of bulk carriers. Ocean Engineering, 25(10): 837–860.
Schumacher, M. (ed.) (1979). Seawater corrosion handbook. Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge,

New Jersey.

Smith, C.S., Davidson, P.C., Chapman, J.C. & Dowling, P.J. (1988). Strength and stiffness of ships’
plating under in-plane compression and tension. RINA Transactions, 130: 277–296.
TSCF (2000). Guidelines for ballast tank coating systems and edge preparation. Tanker Structure
Cooperative Forum, Presented at the TSCF Shipbuilders Meeting in Tokyo, Japan, October.
Ueda, Y. (1999). Computational welding mechanics (a volume of selected papers in the commem-
oration of the retirement from Osaka University)
. Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka
University, Osaka, Japan, March.
Yamamoto, N. & Ikegami, K. (1998). A study on the degradation of coating and corrosion of ship’s
hull based on the probabilistic approach. Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering,
120: 121–128.

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->