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COMPANDING

**Prepared by: Engr. Jo-Ann C. Viñas
**

OBJECTIVES

**1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Digital
**

Communications

2. Review of Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)

3. Introduce the concept of companding

2. State the importance of companding

3. Discuss the two types of companding

4. Solve problems involving companding

PCM APPLICATIONS

**PCM is the most commonly used technique in digital
**

communications

1. Telephone System

2. Digital Audio Recording

3. CD Laser disks

4. Voice mail

5. Digital Video

ANALOG

“ANALOG means ‘similar’ or a ‘copy’.”

**“An Analog audio signal is an electronic copy of an original
**

audio signal as sound in nature, with a continually varying

signal.”

**“Analog copies of any original sound suffers some degree of
**

signal degradation, called generational loss, and signal strength

lessens and noise increases for each successive copy.”

DIGITAL

**“A digital recording is no more than a series of numbers, and
**

hence can be copied through an indefinite number of

generations without degradation. This implies that the life of a

digital recording can be truly indefinite, because even if the

medium (CD, DAT, etc) begins to decay physically, the sample

values can be copied to a new medium with no loss of

information.”

NOTE:

The established sampling rates for digital audio are:

**1. 32 kHz for broadcast digital audio
**

2. 44.1 kHz for CDs

3. 48 kHz for digital audiotape (DAT) and digital videotape

( mini-DV and DV)

4. 96 kHz or 192. 4 kHz for DVD-audio and BD-ROM (Blu

ray disc) audio

5. 2.8224 MHz for SACD (Super Audio CD) & DSD (Direct

Stream Digital)

ADVANTAGES OF DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS

**1. Digital communication is more rugged than analog
**

communication

2. The viability of regenerative repeaters

3. Digital hardware implementation is flexible

4. Digital signals can be coded

5. It is easier and more efficient to multiplex several

digital signals

REMOVAL OF NOISE AND DISTORTION FROM

DIGITAL SIGNAL

TYPICAL FOUR-LEVEL SIGNAL USING

1, 2, 3, & 4V

BINARY SIGNAL

REGENERATION OF DIGITAL SIGNAL

OPERATING WITH 1- AND 5V LEVELS

ANALOG SIGNAL AMPLIFIER STAGES ADD

NOISE AT EACH POINT WHILE INCREASING

SIGNAL AMPLITUDE, THUS REDUCING SNR

HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION IS FLEXIBLE

0 TO +1V ANALOG SIGNAL

2 BITS RESOLUTION

3 BITS RESOLUTION

DISADVANTAGE OF DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS

**1. Increased bandwidth of transmission
**

ADVANTAGES OF DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS

Audio compression is typically used for 3 reasons:

**1. To reduce the file size so that more audio may be
**

stored on a given media format (digital audio players, DVD-

video disc, Minidisc. Etc)

2. To reduce the file size so that files will download from a

Web site faster.

3. To reduce the data rate so that files will stream

(broadcast) over a network such as the Internet.

CRITERIA FOR SIGNAL ENCODING

**What determines how successful a receiver will be in
**

interpreting an incoming signal?

**1. Signal-to-Noise Ratio
**

2. Data Rate

3. Bandwidth

An increase in data rate increases bit error rate

An increase in SNR decreases bit error rate

An increase in bandwidth allows an increase in data rate

PULSE CODE MODULATION

**- is a method of modulating in which a continuous
**

analog wave is transmitted in an equivalent digital mode.

NOTE:

**“If a band-limited signal is sampled at regular intervals of
**

time and a a rate equal to or higher than twice the highest

significant signal frequency, then the sample contains all

the information of the original signal. The original signal

may then be reconstructed by use of a low-pass filter.”

PCM TRANSMIT BLOCKS

SAMPLING

SAMPLING QUANTIZING

QUANTIZING ENCODING

ENCODING

QUANTIZATION

**Changing from CONTINUOUS IN VALUE to DISCRETE IN
**

VALUE.

SAMPLING

**Changing from CONTINUOUS IN TIME to DISCRETE IN
**

TIME.

CODING

**Code value of sample into 1s and 0s.
**

PCM PARAMETERS

**1. Number of Levels or Codewords (M)
**

2. Bandwidth (Data Rate) (BW)

3. Dynamic Range (DR)

4. Resolution (Res)

5. Coding Efficiency (η )

6. Quantization Error (Qe)

7. Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio (SQR)

PCM PARAMETERS

1. Number of Levels or Codewords (M)

M = 2n

where:

M = # of levels, symbols or codewords

n = # of PCM bits used (sign bit excluded)

= # of bits per sample

PCM PARAMETERS

2. Bandwidth (Data Rate)

BW = nfs = fb

where:

fs = sampling rate in Hz

fb = bit rate in bps

PCM PARAMETERS

3. Dynamic Range

Vmax

DR = 2n - 1 DR =

Vmin

where:

Vmax = maximum input voltage

Vmin = minimum input voltage

DYNAMIC RANGE OF ANALOG

SIGNAL

EXAMPLE

**What is the dynamic range of an 8-bit linear sign magnitude
**

PCM spectrum whose maximum decode voltage at the

receiver is 1.27 Vp? (ECE BOARD EXAM NOV 2002)

PCM PARAMETERS

4. Resolution

Resolution = VLSB

where:

VLSB = voltage of the least significant bit

EXAMPLE

**Determine the resolution for an 8-bit linear sign-magnitude
**

PCM for a maximum decode voltage of 2.55Vp.

(ECE BOARD EXAM NOV 2002)

PCM PARAMETERS

5. Coding Efficiency (η )

β min

η = X 100

β max

where:

β min = Min # of bits (including the sign bit)

β max= Actual # of bits (including the sign bit)

PCM PARAMETERS

6. Quantization Error

VMIN Resolution

Qe = Qe =

2 2

PCM PARAMETERS

7. Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio

V

SQR = 10.79 dB + 20 logS

q

PCM PARAMETERS

**A. Ideal Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio
**

a. In unitless

S = 3M2 S 3 2n

= (2 )

N N 2

b. In dB

S MOST

= 6.02n + 1.76 USED...

N dB

EXAMPLE

**Determine the signal-to-quantization noise ratio in dB, if an
**

audio signal with a bandwidth of 3.2 kHz is converted to

PCM signal by sampling at 8 kilo samples/sec and with a

data rate of 64 kbps.

CODING

-Practical PCM systems use 7- and 8-level binary code, or

**27 = 128 quantum steps
**

28 = 256 quantum steps

LINEAR QUANTIZATION - SIGNAL AMPLITUDE

VERSUS QUANTIZATION VALUE

NOTE:

**-Two methods are used to reduce the quantum steps to
**

128 or 256 without sacrificing fidelity.

**1. Use nonuniform quantizing performed in the coding
**

process.

2. Use companding prior to quantizing

LINEAR VERSUS NON LINEAR PCM

CODES

NON-LINEAR STEP QUANTIZING

COMPANDING

- the process of compressing and then expanding

**- with companded system, the higher amplitude analog
**

signals are compressed (amplified less than the lower-

amplitude signals) prior to transmission and then

expanded) amplified more than the lower amplitude

signals in the receiver).

BASIC COMPANDING PROCESS

2 TYPES OF COMPANDING

1. Analog Companding

a. µ - Law

b. A - Law

2. Digital Companding

PCM SYSTEM WITH ANALOG

COMPANDING

2 TYPES OF COMPANDING

A - Law µ - Law

**iginally defined by the Comite -European
**

defined by the T1 Standards Committee

e Postes et Telecommunicationsthe (CEPT)

USA

**are recognized by the telephony section of the International Telecommu
**

(ITU-T), the supreme international standards organization for telephony

**- is probably the most wide spread
**

- is dominant in the world’s largest syste

internationally in North America

**acteristics allow small signals to be processed as accurately as large si
**

produce much improved signal to noise ratio SNR.”

**A-law produces slightly better SNR
**

- while

for the µ-law has less noise on an id

small signals channel

µ-LAW COMPANDING

**Vmax ln(1 + µ{Vin /Vmax })
**

Vout =

ln(1 + µ)

Where:

Vmax = maximum uncompressed analog input amplitude (volts)

Vin = amplitude of the input signal at particular instant of time (volts)

µ = parameter used to define the amount of compression(unitless)

Vout = compressed output amplitude (volts)

µ-LAW CHARACTERISTIC

EXAMPLE

For a compressor with a µ = 255, determine:

**a) The voltage gain for the following relative values of
**

Vin shown in the table below:

EXAMPLE

**b) The compressed output voltage for a maximum
**

input voltage of 4V.

**c) Input and output dynamic ranges and compression
**

in dB.

µ-LAW CHARACTERISTIC

Where:

V = Output Voltage

Vr = Reference Voltage

c = Chord Number

s = Step Number

A-LAW COMPANDING

**In Europe, the ITU-T has established A-law companding to
**

be used to approximate true logarithmic companding

**AVin /Vmax Vin 1
**

Vout = Vmax 0≤ ≤

1 + lnA Vmax A

**1 + ln(AVin /Vmax ) 1 Vin
**

Vout = Vmax ≤ ≤ 1

1 + lnA A Vmax

DIGITALLY COMPOUNDED PCM

SYSTEM

µ-255 COMPRESSION CHARACTERISTIC

**- µ-law companding is a system that divides the analog
**

signal range into fifteen segments each eventually encoded into

eight-bit digital value.

13 SEGMENT SCALE

µ-255 COMPRESSION CHARACTERISTIC

PCM QUANTIZATION LEVELS - CHORDS &

STEPS

QUANTIZATION ERROR - RECOVERED STEP LEVELS DO

NOT MATCH PAM LEVELS

LINEAR QUANTIZATION - ANOTHER VIEW

LOGARITHMIC QUANTIZATION - ANOTHER

VIEW

8-BIT COMPRESSED CODE FORMAT

µ-255 ENCODING TABLE

µ-255 DECODING TABLE

PROCESS OF DIGITAL COMPRESSION

**Digitally, the 12-bit values are encoded into 8-bit
**

compressed code as follows:

**1. Retain the sign bit as the first bit of the 8-bit code.
**

2. Count the number of zeros until the occurrence of the first 1 bit.

Subtract the zero count from 7. This is the segment number.

3. The first occurrence of 1 is assumed during the expanding

process, so it is set aside during compression.

4. Copy the next four bits (ABCD) into the 8-bit compressed code.

EXAMPLE

**Code the 12-bit code 100001011010 into an 8-bit
**

compressed µ-law code.

EXAMPLE

**Determine the 12-bit linear code, the eight-bit compressed
**

code, the decoded 12-bit code, the quantization error, and

the compression error for a resolution of 0.01 V and analog

sample voltages of

(a) + 0.053 V

(b) -0.318 V

(c) +10.234 V

PROCESS OF DIGITAL EXPANSION

Expanding back digitally, reverses the process:

**1. Retain the sign bit.
**

2. Take the segment number, subtract from 7 and add

that many 0s.

3. Make the next bit a 1.

4. The next bits are ABCD values.

5. Add a 1 and sufficient 0s to complete the 12-bit value.

QUANTIZATION ERROR

**-error is error due to rounding off the sample voltage in
**

the encoder to the closest PCM.

COMPRESSION ERROR

**-error caused by forcing the truncated bit to a 1 in the
**

receiver.

DIGITAL COMPRESSION ERROR

**The magnitude of the compression error is not the same for all samples.
**

However, the maximum percentage is the same in each segment (other than

segments 0 and 1, where there is no compression error)

**12-bit encoded voltage - 12-bit decoded voltage
**

% error = X 100

12-bit decoded voltage

CODEC

**A single integrated chip that performs the encoding and
**

decoding process of PCM.

EXAMPLE

**Expand the compressed code of the above example.
**

SEATWORK

**For the following values of μ, Vmax, and Vin, determine the
**

compressor gain:

SEATWORK

**For the following 12-bit linear PCM codes, determine the
**

eight-bit compressed code to which they would be

converted:

a. 100011110010

b. 000001000000

c. 000111111000

d. 111111110010

e. 000000100000

SEATWORK

**For the following 8-bit compressed codes,determine the
**

expanded 12-bit code.

a. 11001010

b. 00010010

c. 10101010

d. 01010101

e. 11110000

f. 11011011

SEATWORK

**A 12-bit linear sign-magnitude PCM code is digitally
**

compressed into 8 bits. For a resolution of 0.016 V,

determine the following quantities for the indicated input

voltages:

a. 12-bit linear PCM code

b. eight-bit compressed code

c. decoded 12-bit code

d. decoded voltage

For Vin = -6.592 V, +12.992 V, -3.36 V

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