AC Motor

As in the DC
motor case, a
current is
passed
through the
coil,
generating a
torque on the
coil. Since
the current is
alternating,
the motor
will run
smoothly
only at the
frequency of
the sine
wave. It is
called a
synchronous
motor. More
common is
the induction
motor, where
electric
current is
induced in
the rotating
coils rather
than supplied
to them
directly.
One of the drawac!s of this !ind of AC motor is
the high current which must flow through the
rotating contacts. Spar!ing and heating at those
contacts can waste energy and shorten the lifetime
of the motor. In common AC motors the magnetic
field is produced y an electromagnet powered y
the same AC voltage as the motor coil. "he coils
which produce the magnetic field are sometimes
referred to as the #stator#, while the coils and the
solid core which rotates is called the #armature#. In
an AC motor the magnetic field is sinusoidally
varying, \$ust as the current in the coil varies.
%ow does a
motor wor!&
AC
'enerator
'enerator and
Motor
DC
Motor

%yper(hysics))))) *lectricity and
Magnetism
R
Nave
'o +ac!
AC Generator
"he turning of a coil in a magnetic field produces motional emfs in oth sides of the
coil which add. Since the component of the velocity perpendicular to the magnetic
field changes sinusoidally with the rotation, the generated voltage is sinusoidal or AC.
"his process can e descried in terms of ,araday-s law when you see that the rotation
of the coil continually changes the magnetic flu. through the coil and therefore
generates a voltage.
/oltage generation detail AC Motor 'enerator and Motor DC Motor

Generator and Motor
A hand0cran!ed generator can e used to generate voltage to turn a motor. "his is an e.ample of energy conversion from
mechanical to electrical energy and then ac! to mechanical energy.
As the motor is turning, it also acts as a generator and generates a #ac!
emf#. +y 1en2-s law, the emf generated y the motor coil will oppose the
change that created it. If the motor is not driving a load, then the generated
ac! emf will almost alance the input voltage and very little current will
flow in the coil of the motor. +ut if the motor is driving a heavy load, the
ac! emf will e less and more current will flow in the motor coil and that
electric power eing used is converted to the mechanical power to drive
Demonstration AC Motor AC 'enerator DC Motor
Inde.
DC Circuits
Electrical machine
An Electrical machine is a device that converts mechanical energy to
electrical energy or vice versa, and changes AC voltage from one level
to another level.
Generator
'enerator is the device that converts mechanical energy at its prime
mover to produce constant electrical energy at its output. 'enerator is
classified into two types3 AC generator and DC generator.
AC Generator
AC generator is the generator that converts mechanical energy at its
prime mover into AC electricity.
AC generator is classified into several types3
• Asynchronous AC generator or induction AC generator, an AC
generator whose field current is supplied y magnetic induction
into the field windings.
• Synchronous AC generator , an AC generator whose magnetic
field current is provided y a separate DC current source, either
e.ternal DC source or mounted DC source.
DC Generator
DC generator is the generator that converts mechanical energy at its
prime mover into DC electricity.
DC generator is classified into several types3
• Cumulatively compounded DC generator , a DC generator whose
oth shunt field and series field are present and their effects are
• Differentially compounded DC generator , a DC generator whose
effects of shunt field and series field are sutractive.
• Separately e.cited DC generator , a DC generator whose field flu.
is produced y a separate power source independent of the
generator.
• Series DC generator , a DC generator whose field circuit is in
series with the armature
Motor
Motor is the device that converts electrical energy at its input to
produce mechanical energy. Motor is classified into two types3 AC
motor and DC motor.
AC Motor
AC motor is the motor that converts AC electrical energy at its input
into mechanical energy.
AC motor is classified into several types3
• Asynchronous AC motor or induction AC motor
• Synchronous AC motor
DC Motor
DC motor is the motor that converts DC electricity into mechanical energy.
Its main components are stator, rotor, windings 4field windings and armature
windings5 and commutator.
DC motor is classified into five types3
• Compounded DC motor
• (ermanent magnet DC motor
• Separately e.cited DC motor , a DC motor whose field circuit receives
power from a separate constant voltage supply.
• Series DC motor , a DC motor whose field windings consist of relatively
few turns and connected in series with the armature circuit.
• Shunt DC motor , a DC motor whose field circuit receives power directly
across the armature terminals.
1osses in DC motor are rush drop losses, core losses, mechanical losses and stray
losses.
Transformer
"ransformer is the device that converts AC voltage from one level to another level
higher or lower, or even to the same level with out changing the voltage.
AC Motor / Generator Project
"his pro\$ect started one night while I was lying in ed trying to visuali2e how an
AC motor wor!ed. I !new that it was different from a DC motor as in it did not
require rushes and the speed was controlled y frequency instead of voltage.
After some research I came up with this pro\$ect to etter my understanding of AC
motors.
AC Theory:
AC Current is different from DC in that the polarity is constantly inverting in a
given period. ,or e.ample3 1ets say you have a standard attery hoo!ed up to a
volt meter. 6ormally you would connect the positive lead to the positive terminal
of the attery as well as the negative lead to the negative terminal. If you wish to
generate an AC current you would connect the leads normally for half a second
and then invert them 4where the positive terminal is connected to the negative lead
and the negative terminal is connected to the positive lead5 for another half
second. If you constantly repeat this process you will have an AC current
operating at one hert2 47h25. 8here a hert2 is 7 9 (eriod. "he period is the time the
current is positive plus the time it is negative in one cycle, so in our case :.;s <
:.;s = 7s per period. In America AC voltage to your home is typically 77: /olts at
>:h2 in a smooth sine wave.
Quick Magnet Theory:
A more in depth theory aout magnets can e found here. ,or our practical
purposes all we need to !now is that a magnet has two poles, north and south.
(oles attract each other when placed from north to south and repel when placed
north to north or south to south.
Quick Electromagnet Theory:
An electromagnet is a magnet that is created with a coil. 8hen current passes
through the coil a magnetic flu. is created. Conversely when a magnetic field
passes through the coil a current is created. More information can e found here.
AC Motor/Generator theory
Most of the information I used to design this motor came from this page. I placed
si. magnets on the rotor with alternating poles and placed > coils in the housing
with the polarities also alternating. 8hen an AC current is run through the coils
the polarity will switch the magnets poles from north to south at the given
frequency. "herefor the rotor will turn so that the poles on the magnets will always
line up.