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Interviewing Skills

Interviewing Skills

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Published by: Prof. Lakshman Madurasinghe on Mar 10, 2008
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11/17/2012

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SELECTION SKILLS

PROGRAMME OBJECTIVES
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Create an understanding of Selection tools and techniques and their appropriateness Understand competency based selection Learn interviewing skills Understand the need for psychometric testing

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LEARNING GRID
Unconscious competence IV
Unlearning/Review Practice

Conscious competence III
Learning/Training

Unconscious Incompetence I

Awareness

Conscious incompetence II

RECRUITMENT & SELECTION
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Manpower Planning Setting Specs Advertising/Consultant/Online/Referral Shortlisting CV’s Calling candidates Group Process/Psychometric Testing Interviews Offer letter Joining Induction Training Grooming for productivity

COMMON ERRORS IN RECRUITING
Right person Wrong Person

Selected √

A

Not selected

B

Selection Techniques
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Interviews Tests - General Ability,special aptitudes Simulation exercise Work Sample Tests Personality questionnaires Interest questionnaires Bio Data Reference Checks Group Discussions Handwriting Analysis etc. Case discussions Presentations On - field accompaniment In tray exercises Assessment Centres (combination of above items)

Perfect Prediction - Validity
0.7 0.6 Assessment Centers (development) Work sample Tests Ability Tests

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

Assessment Centers (selection) Personality Tests Structured Interviews Typical Interviews References Astrology/Graphology

Chance

Smith, Gregg & Andrews - 1987

RANKING OF SELECTION METHODOLOGIES
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Patterns of past behaviour

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TESTS - reported present behaviour

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Interviews - with many ‘How would you behave in the future’ questions

WHY DIFFERENT SELECTION TOOLS ?
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Any one tool cannot get all the data Need a set of different tools, which involve testing different faculties and behavior of candidates Each tool is effective for for a specific set of relevant attributes

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Critical Attribute
Physical attribute : Attainment : e.g. 6 feet tall e.g. B.Tech

Competency/Talent/Traits : e.g. Achievement Orientation Intuition Charisma

Competency Any quality or characteristic of a person, which underpins recurring successful performance

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Skills :

Skills, Knowledge & Talent

• The How - to’s of the role • Capabilities that can be transferred from one person to another

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Knowledge
• ‘What you are aware of ‘ • Factual ( things you know) Can & should be taught • Experiential (understandings you have picked up along the way). Less Tangible and therefor much harder to teach

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Talent
• Recurring patterns of thought feeling behavior,that carve individual minds • If someone does not have the talent as part of his filter , then very difficult for others to inject it.

The three levels of competencies are

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DISTINGUISHING THRESHOLD FUNCTIONAL

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A CHECK LIST FOR BEHAVIOURAL INDICATORS Each indicator should:
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Describe directly observable behavior, or other specific evidence of an individual’s competency Describe just one piece of behavior of evidence Not to be duplicated under two or more competencies Include a verb phrase i.e. describe action

THE COMPETENCY PLANNING & ORGANISING
Definition : Level 1 - Junior Manager
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Manages own time and personal activities Breaks complex activities into manageable tasks Identifies possible obstacles to planned achievements

THE COMPETENCY PLANNING & ORGANISING
Definition : Level 2 - Middle Manager
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Produces contingency plans for possible future occurrences Estimates in advance the resources and time scales needed to meet objectives Co-ordinates team activities to make the best use of individual skills and specializations

THE COMPETENCY PLANNING & ORGANISING
Definition : Level 3 - Senior Manager
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Identifies longer term operational implications of business plans Effectively plans utilization of all resources

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THE 12 MOST COMMON COMPETENCIES
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Communication Achievement orientation Customer Focus Team work Leadership Planning and organising Commercial awareness Flexibility Developing others Problem solving Analytical thinking Building relationships

Source: Competency based Recruitment & Selection by Robert Wood and Tim Payne

Competencies & Trainability
SKILLS Less Conscious
Less Trainable
TRAITS MOTIVES VALUES COGNITIVE CAPBILITIES

More conscious
KNOWLEDGE

More trainable

E.g.: Has contacts E.g.: Results orientation,planning abilities

Critical Attributes for Sales Managers ( Example)
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Interpersonal Skills Influencing Skills Results orientation Customer Concern Technical expertise Providing direction Analytical Thinking

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Conceptual thinking Information seeking Staff development Team building Planning Decision Making

Interview

Entrevoir ( French) to have a glimpse of

WHAT IS AN INTERVIEW?

A selection procedure designed to predict future job performance on the basis of applicants oral responses to oral enquiries

OBJECTIVES OF SELECTION IN INTERVIEW
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Selecting people for jobs by:
Informing applicants about the job Gaining unbiased factual information against the criteria Influencing suitable candidates to accept

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Demonstrating that the company operates a fair and equitable selection procedure (Public Relations)

Goodwill Bank
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Need a process that will enhance company stature
– Fair – Friendly – Rigorous – Respect for individual - Time bound

How will a candidate not selected speak of your organisation?

SELECTION INTERVIEW - EFFECTIVENESS Bottom line Test - Answering Three key questions
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Can he do the job

(Competence)

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Will he do the job

( Motivation)

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Will he fit in ( Team / Organisation)? ( Match)

SELECTION INTERVIEW
IF EFFECTIVE Saves Time Better job/person matching Satisfied interviewers/Interviewees Good image / PR Tightening of recruitment process IF INEFFECTIVE May end up recruiting unfit candidates Missing suitable candidates Demotivating suitable candidates from joining

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UNDERSTANDING YOUR APPLICANTS
According to research, students have listed the following Organisational characteristics as important to them:
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Type of work you would do Type of people you would like to work with Training & development opportunities Chances of promotion Salary Job security Working condition Reputation/image of the organisation Geographical location Hours expected at work Benefits ( Company car, Pension , Loans etc.)

INTERVIEW PROCESS - REQUIREMENTS
Venue
INTERVIEW PROCESS

CANDIDATE
Expects •Professionalism •Realistic picture of job & company/organisation •Input on where he stands (process, time scale etc.) •Minimal Wait •Objectivity

INTERVIEWER
Needs: • Purpose of I/V • Agreed Criteria • Application form •Time to prepare and judge job and company knowledge •Skills to obtain & evaluate information and make effective judgements • Relaxed and open minded • Right attitude

List the things you would like to have seen when you last went for an interview. What did you expect from the company ?

SETTING THE ENVIRONMENT
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No disturbance No phone Calls Seating - Neutral ( Perhaps an L shape ) No distraction in the vicinity No ‘Power Statements’ Having water available on the table ( for candidate ) Have stationary ready ( for candidate )

Remember
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Note taking - minimal , with permission Stress Interviews - Try to avoid Politeness - specially to ‘bad’ Airtime - 80 - 20

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INTERVIEW STRUCTURE
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2 3 4 5 6

Opening, rapport building Current & previous roles Aspirations & awareness Education & upbringing Circumstances & interests Closing , wrap up

Interview - An Information Sorting Model
Opening & Rapport Building

CA 1 CA2
Information Sorting

Current & Previous Roles Aspirations & Awareness

CA3 CA4 CA5

Education & Upbringing

Circumstances & Interest Closing/Wrap up

Assessment

OPENING, RAPPORT BUILDING
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Appropriate recognition Relaxed Approach Introduce yourself Share - Interview purpose
» Recruitment process » Job Role ( briefly) » Interview structure & Time

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Check Understanding

Things to look out for in a CV
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Organisation of events - Priority accordance Clarity of depiction and succinctness Unexplained breaks in Service and Education Extent of customisation to the job applied Quality of the CV: mode , spelling errors, verbosity

QUESTIONING SKILLS

TYPE OF QUESTIONS
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Factual recall Comparison Opinion Case Problems Hypothetical Rhetorical Leading Pumping

PAST BEHAVIOUR is the single best predictor of future behaviour

Structure of Questions
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Open ended Questions

How - What - When - Where - Who - Why

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Close ended Questions

Do you - Did you - Can you - Will you - Could you Would you - Should you
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Prompting/ encouraging expressions

Tell me…, Describe … For example?, For instance?, In what sense? How come?, In simpler terms...

Questioning Pattern
Broad Open ended Probe Narrow

Close Summarise

Characteristics of Good Questions

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Purposeful Relevant Clear & concise Limited to one idea Neutral in tone & substance

The quality & value of answer depends on the quality of the question

QUESTIONS COVERAGE
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WHAT Q’s - Elicit information about knowledge, facts/data, opinions WHY Q’s - Analytical skills , reasoning, logic etc. motivations( what else…How else…, Where else….) HOW Q’s - Knowledge of functional skills, process/steps ( also analytical skills) HOW MUCH/HOW WELL Q’s - validating achievements

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THE INTERVIEW FUNNEL
START WITH AN OPEN ENDED QUESTION LISTEN NARROW DOWN TO SPECIFIC AREA LISTEN HOW DID THE PERSON GO ABOUT IT LISTEN FIND OUT MOTIVATIONS LISTEN ACHIEVEMENTS LISTEN SUMMARISE AND SEEK AGREEMENT START WITH NEW AREA

INTERVIEW STRUCTURE
1. Opening 2. Current & Previous roles 3. Aspiration / Awareness 4. Education & Upbringing 5. Circumstances & Interest 6. Closing What, why, How well What, why, how realistic What, why, how well What, why, how well implication Description Motivation Achievement Causes – relate past to present Trends, people are not static

THE PANEL INTERVIEW
SOME GUIDELINES

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Agree roles & structures Stick to roles Do not interrupt Do not help the candidate Select lead interviewer The others listen,take notes ( factual) , ask questions around other key areas and observe non verbal behavior Follow up at end of a section

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Questioning Technique
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Situation Task Achievement Review

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Telephonic Interviews
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You cannot see the candidate , so you have to trust only two senses - hearing & intuition Do not short circuit the interview. The process should be the same as a face-to-face interview Follow the interview structure Use the funnel - what, why, how,how well Use many encouraging , prompting expressions ,like …
• • • • • • Yes Tell me more Describe I see For example? In what sense?

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Keep sentences & discussions short Summarise each section

INTERVIEW TIPS
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Interviewers need to be provided with job description & specification of the requirements of the position to minimize the influence of stereotypes Interview questions need to be job related Avoid making quick decisions about an applicant Avoid giving too much weight to a few characteristics Try to put the applicant at ease during the interview Communicate clearly with the applicant Maintain consistency in the questions asked

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Management Interviewing
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Less emphasis on background : more on role and work

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Ask about aspirations before role Easy for candidate to obscure track record through jargon and generalities

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A ‘look good, talk good’ candidate may land up interviewing the interviewer - superficial interview may take place

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Hence be specific - focus on Critical attributes

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Job titles can be misleading

Focus on Roles

Main areas of job . Principal tasks that you do personally? Why’? How do you divide your time? Performance criteria,targets,priorities,performance ratings,informal reviews Focus on relationships - up, down , or with colleagues Time perspective Breadth of perception of job relative to entire organisation Perceived freedom to act Ability to influence the organisation

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Management skills
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How results are achieved and how the candidate handles the process of management Setting objectives for self and team Decision making style - alone or team Resolving conflicts - how and when Handling customers - relationship based and task based Resolving issues between internal demands and customer expectations

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Management focus
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Motivational style - sort of environment in team. Leading team front or back Grooming others - spending time for developing people Investing in self - learning & growing Monitoring work of self and team Handling communication & consultation Influencing others through meetings and presentations

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TYPES OF INTERVIEWS
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Unstructured Interview Situational Interview Behaviour Description interview Comprehensive structured interview Structured behavioural interview Oral Interview boards

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INTERVIEWING FOR TALENT

TALENT What is Talent? A recurring pattern of thought, feeling or behavior that can be productively applied

TALENT
According to Gallup there are 3 kinds of talent:

1. Striving : Why of the person 2. Thinking: How of the person 3. Relating : Who of the person

Talent ( some examples)
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Striving
• Achiever ( A drive that is internal, constant & self imposed ) • Mission ( a drive to put your beliefs into actions)

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Thinking
• Responsibility (A need to assume personal accountability for your work ) • Numerical ( An affinity for numbers )

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Relating
• Relator ( a need to build bonds that last ) • Command ( an ability to take charge )

Talent Interview
(Points to remember)
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This should stand alone It should be more structured , more focussed, less banter , more questions Ask him about choices he makes Let him reveal himself to you

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1. Always listen for a specific example 2. Give credit only to the person’s top of the mind response 3. Do not probe too much to get response Clues for talent: Rapid learning ability Source of satisfaction After they have been hired , check back to see if the people who subsequently performed well answered your question in a consistent way.This will take time and focus , but are essential to the art of interviewing for talent.

Talent Interview (Listen for specifics)

PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING
Psychological tests have been devised and are used primarily for the determination and analysis of individual differences in general intelligence,specific aptitudes , educational achievement , vocational fitness,and non intellectual personality traits. These tests have been used for a variety of psychological , educational cultural , sociological and employment studies of groups and for individuals

TEST - VARIATIONS
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Achievement / Attainment Aptitude Personality Interest Attitude IQ ( Intelligence quotient)

APPLICATIONS OF PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING
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Placement Personnel selection Training & development Career & Succession Planning Diagnosis & recommendation of Performance problems Vocational education and career counseling

WHY TESTS
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To reduce errors

• Standardized set of questions • Objective evaluation

SELECTING TESTS
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SOURCES METRICS INTERPRETATION

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ONLINE TESTING
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Standardization Easy to administer across locations Quick Automatic Reports Does not need interpretation expertise Still requires to be anchored by qualified persons

REFERENCE CHECKS
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Verify claims made by the candidate Confirm selectors perceptions, sensing and inferences Clarify doubts that may have arisen during the selection process Add to understanding through input from referee or any specific area of concern Hear first hand from referee or anything significant about the candidate ( positive or dysfunctional)

Effective Reference Checks - the Steps
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Ensure that the candidate gives references that know him well Be clear on what you wish to ask the referee Let the referee know – That his/her input is important – that you care about the candidates career choice / direction – the context of the job that the candidate has applied for

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Confirm referee’s extent of familiarity with the candidate Ask open ended questions to start with Follow through with pointed questions in your areas of concern THANK THE REFEREE for the time invested Do a 360 degree reference check

ASSESSMENT

Behavior Assessment Process
Evaluate Rate data & behavior to agreed standard Classify Categorize behavior and other data into critical attributes

Store Accurately store in memory what happened

Observe Carefully watch and listen to what has happened

ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES
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People tend to behave in a consistent way Understand the context of people’s behavior Relate information from one source to another

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RATINGS
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Excellent - 4 Tremendous amount of data across all sections supporting the indicators. Goes beyond the indicators. A big strength area. This is where the candidate operates from,as a psychological platform ( will be an adjective for him )

RATINGS
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V Good - 3 A lot of data from at least two three sections, or overwhelmingly in at least one section supporting the indicators. This is the way the indicators are defined. Supports with examples

RATINGS
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Acceptable - 2 Evidence from at least one section of the interview. Supports at least 2/3 of the indicators. Will do. Exhibits data with some examples

RATINGS
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Not acceptable - 1 Shows definite evidence of lack of the indicators. Falls short

COMMON FAILINGS IN ASSESSMENT
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Leniency The Halo effect Mirror image Contrast Projection

Happy Interviewing

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