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RELATING MOLES TO COEFFICIENTS OF A CHEMICAL EQUATION
Find the ratio of moles of a reactant to moles of a product of a chemical equation. Relate this ratio to the coefficients of these substances in the balanced equation for the reaction.
DATA & CALCULATIONS DATA COLLECTED
Variable mass of iron filings mass of paper towel mass of paper + copper visual observations Value 2.24 g 3.89 g 6.32 g
dark, smells awful; opaque bottom layer, with a more transparent upper layer forming; purple-brown residue is on the sides of the beaker, and as the copper dust settles to the bottom, a metallic film is left on top. The bottom is now covered in reddish-brown precipitate, with a nasty greenish liquid on top.
Table 1. The measurements taken for the Lab.
CALCULATIONS MASS OF COPPER PRODUCED
NUMBER OF MOLES OF COPPER PRODUCED
NUMBER OF MOLES OF IRON REACTED
WHOLE NUMBER RATIO OF MOLES OF IRON TO MOLES OF COPPER
Variable mass of copper produced number of moles of copper produced number of moles of iron reacted whole number ratio of moles of iron to moles of copper
Table 2. Contains the calculations for the Lab.
Value 2.43 g .038 mol .040 mol 1:1
CONCLUSIONS AND QUESTIONS
1. How does the ratio found in the fourth calculation compare with the ratio of the coefficients of the same two metals in the balanced equation for the reaction? The balanced equation is ; the coefficients for each part of the equation are all “1”; therefore, any of the substances (iron, copper(II) sulfate, iron(II) sulfate, copper) would have a 1:1 ratio with any other one of the substances. How many moles of copper(II) sulfate are used to produce the solution in this experiment? Why is this amount of copper sulfate said to be “in excess”?
Therefore, .05 moles of copper(II) sulfate were used to produce the solution in this experiment. When it says “in excess”, it means that there is some of it left after the reaction (not all used up). Explain why the iron is the limiting factor in this experiment. For a specific quantity of iron to react to form iron(II) sulphate and copper, there is specific quantity of copper(II) sulphate wherewith it needs to react. Anything else will be left over. Because the quantity of copper(II) sulphate needed for the reaction was less than what was available, it was the iron that was the limiting factor in this experiment; had there been less copper(II) sulphate than needed for 2.24 grams iron, the copper(II) sulphate would have been the limiting factor. A general description of the single replacement reaction in this experiment is: . Give a balanced equation for another of this type of single replacement reaction.
Give general descriptions of two other types of single replacement reactions. Using balanced equations, give a specific example of each type. General Description Example replacement of a metal in a compound by another metal replacement of hydrogen in water by a metal
Table 3. Two other types of single replacement reactions.
Consider the reaction: copper metal react, how many moles of silver metal will be produced? 6 moles of silver metal should be produced.
If 3 moles of