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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

































STRUCTURAL STEEL &
TIMBER DESIGN III

STUDY GUIDE

(SSD301C)
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE





























COPYRIGHT
FIRST EDITION, 2001
REVISED EDITION, 2010
FLORIDA, SOUTH AFRICA



















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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE





























STRUCTURAL STEEL & TIMBER DESIGN III
STUDY GUIDE
(SSD301C)
















COMPILED BY: G. PARROTT
MODERATED BY: (ORIGINAL MATERIAL: C.A. HOLLENBACH)
REVISED BY: BD IKOTUN

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE




























COPYRIGHT DECLARATION
In accordance with the Copyright Act, 98 of 1978 no part of this material may be reproduced,
published, redistributed, transmitted, screened or used in any form without prior written
permission from Unisa. When materials have been used from other sources permission must
be obtained directly from the original source.
FIRST EDITION, 2001
REVISED EDITION, 2010
FLORIDA, SOUTH AFRICA
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

STRUCTURAL STEEL & TIMBER DESIGN III
(SSD301C)
OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this section are to introduce the student to the course material, explain what
is expected of the student, and how the course will be evaluated.
The study guide is aimed to direct the learner through the contents of the syllabus by defining
the learning outcomes and leading the learner through each section. There are a number of
typical examination questions covering each section which is intended for self evaluation.
COURSE COMPOSITION:
The course material is divided into two parts:
MODULE 1: STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
This module consists of a study guide, a compulsory prescribed textbook and relevant SANS
codes. The study guide for this module contains brief highlight on each topic, specifying the
objectives and specific outcomes. Students are directed to the prescribed book for the details
of each topic.
MODULE 2: STRUCTURAL TIMBER DESIGN
This module consists of study notes and compulsory prescribed relevant SANS codes.
Using the course Material
To successfully complete the course, the following procedure is recommended.
Work methodically through each section in turn and make your own rough notes as you
progress. Contact the mentor if you are unable to clarify any important points.
Once you are comfortable with the section, attempt the self evaluation questions.
Do not move onto the next section until you have mastered the present one.
Do not attempt and submit the assignment or project until you fully understand the course
materials required.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE










MODULE 1
STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN










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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

MODULE 1
STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Introduction
The primary objective of this part of the course is to introduce you to the basics of designing
Structural steel elements such as trusses, beams and columns. This part also covers the
loading on structures including the effects o wind. You will be lead through the theory behind
each section before getting into the actual design of the elements.

Course Format
The prescribed text is ideally suited to the course and should be followed closely together
with the code of practice when working through each section. The textbook indicates
references to the code on the right hand side of the page thus: [4.5.11] to enable the student to
quickly refer to the relevant parts of the code.
There are self evaluation questions provided for each section which are typical examination
questions for which the final answers are given (but not the worked solution) verify your
solution.

Prescribed text book:
Structural steel design to SANS10162:1-2005-1, Parrot, G.K, Shades Technical
Publications. SA 2006 ISBN1-919858-13-X.

Relevant SANS codes and construction handbook.
South African Steel Construction Handbook (Limit states design). The South African
Institute of Steel Construction.
SANS 10162-1:2005: The structural use of steel - Part 1: Limit-state design of hot-
rolled steelwork. ISBN 0-626-16165-7.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SANS 10160: The general procedures and loadings to be adopted in the design of
buildings.


Further reading:
There is a wide variety of books available for structural steel design. The students must
however ensure that any book used for additional reading is based on the relevant codes of
practice.
















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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SECTION 1.1: LOADING & LIMIT STATE DESIGN
The correct determination of loads acting on a structure is obviously a critical component of
the overall design process as any error in load calculations will lead to errors in the effects of
load on the structure and make element strength calculation meaningless.


1.1.1 Objectives
The objective of this section is to ensure that the learner is able to determine the intensity of
loading on structural elements and also provide an understanding of the limit-states
approach to structural design.




1.1.2 Specific Outcomes
At the end of this section the learner will be able to make a reasonable assessment of the
intensity of basic loads acting on structural elements. The learner will also have an
understanding of Limit State Design and be able to convert the loads calculated into
ultimate and serviceability limit state values.












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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SECTION 1.2: ANALYSIS
This is basically a revision section since most of the material covered has previously been
covered in the prerequisite subjects Applied Mechanics I and Theory of Structures II.
The additional work looks at the understanding of the analysis of frames specifically the
second order effects resulting from sway of the structure which is a design requirement of the
code of practice used.


1.2.1 Objectives
The primary of this section is to ensure that the learner is able to carry out the basic analysis
of structures (Statically determinate).



1.2.2 Specific Outcomes
At the end of this section the learner will be able to calculate the load effects on beams of
support reactions, shear forces and bending moments, and the load effects on pin-jointed
trusses of axial forces (tension and compression). Given the first order analysis calculated by
computer, the learner will also be able to determine the second order effect on framed
structures.







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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SECTION 1.3: CONNECTIONS
The type of connection used can affect the analysis and strength of a structural element which
makes it important to consider connection design before designing the elements themselves.



1.3.1 Objectives
The objective of this section is to show the learner the different types of connections used in
structural steel and to provide the necessary equations to determine their strength.





1.3.2 Specific Outcomes
At the end of this section the learner will know of the different ways of connecting structural
steel and be able to determine the strength of bolted and welded connections.









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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SECTION 1.4: TIES & STRUTS
These structural elements generally make up trusses or girders and are used extensively in
practice for roofs and bridges. It is important to remember here that the strength of these
members is also largely dependent on the type and strength of the connected ends.


1.4.1 Objectives
The objective of this section is to derive and provide the learner with the equations necessary
to determine the strength of members both in tension and compression.



1.4.2 Specific Outcomes
At the end of this section the learner will be able to determine the different modes of failure
and calculate the factored resistance of members subjected to a pure axial load either in
tension or compression.










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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SECTION 1.5: BEAMS
Beams are used extensively in structural steel building frames where they provide the support
structure to the floors. It is very important to clearly understand that the compression flange
of a beam wants to buckle laterally, and that the type of restraint offered has a large influence
on the strength of a beam.


1.5.1 Objectives
The objectives of this section are to give the learner an understanding of the behaviour of
beams and to provide him/her with the necessary information required to determine the
strength (resistance) of hot-rolled steel beams and plate girders subjected to bending and
shear effects of loading.



1.5.2 Specific Outcomes
At the end of this section the learner will understand and be able to take into account the
various types of restraint offered to a beam. The learner will be able to determine the factored
bending resistance of hot-rolled and welded plate girder beams as well as the factored shear
resistance including the provision and design of web stiffeners where required. The learner
will also be able to check the serviceability limit state of deflection.







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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SECTION 1.6: COLUMNS
These elements are encountered often and are generally referred to as beam-columns. The
learner will already know how to determine the factored resistance for bending and axial
force independently, and will now look at the interaction of these load effects.

1.6.1 Objectives
The objective of this section is to demonstrate the effects of combined stresses acting on a
member and to enable the learner to assess the suitability of a given section subjected to this
combined stress.


1.6.2 Specific Outcomes
At the end of this section the learner will be able to assess the strength and suitability of
structural steel elements that are subjected to a combination of bending moment about one or
both axes together with either axial compression or tension forces.











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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SELF EVALUATION QUESTIONS
The questions that follow are intended to assist the learner with self-evaluation of the course
material. They cover the full structural steel component of the subject and are typical
questions that may be expected in a final examination.

Answers to each question are provided at the end of each section for the learner to check
his/her accuracy.
















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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SECTION 1: LOADING & LIMIT STATE DESIGN
QUESTION 1. 1
The figure below shows the evaluation of part of a building frame. The frames are spaced at
6. 5 m centres over the length of the building. All columns are 254 x 107 H-section and all
beams are 356 x 171 x 67 I-sections. The structure is braced and all connections should be
considered as pinned (i.e. beams are simply supported). The floor consists of a 150 mm
thick reinforced concrete slab with applied finishes that amount to 1 kN/m
2
and is to be
utilised for offices containing data processing equipment. The reactions at this floor level
from columns A2 and B2 are given below:
D
n
L
n
Column A2 25 kN 120 kN
Column B2 25kN 85kN

Determine the ultimate reaction of the base of column: C1.



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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

QUESTION 1. 2
The figure below shows the elevation of a sign board that is to be erected on Durbans
beachfront. The sign is required to withstand a wind force with a mean return period of 25
years.


(a) Calculate the wind velocity pressure.
(b) Ignoring the self-weight of the sign and posts, calculate the maximum ultimate
moment that each post would be subjected to as a result of the wind pressure.

QUESTION 1. 3
The figure below shows the line drawing representing a typical frame of a rectangular clad
steel building with a mono-pitched roof. The structure is 25 m long with the frames at 5 m
centres. The building is to be located at Durban international airport (site altitude 75 m) and
will be used as a repair workshop. The interior of the building will be open plan and all four
walls are equally permeable.



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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE



(a) Calculate the free stream velocity pressure q
z
.
(b) Draw a neat sketch of the frame to clearly indicate each of the in-plane internal and
external pressure coefficients considering the wind only in the direction as indicated.
(local external pressure coefficients may be ignored).
(c) Draw the loading diagrams (units to be in kN/m) on the frame for each possible load
case of this load.

QUESTION 1. 4
The figure below shows a typical frame for a rectangular clad industrial building which is to
be constructed at a new airport at Beaufort west. The building is 60 m long with frames at 6
m c/c. The two gable ends are equally permeable and the other walls are impermeable. The
site altitude is approximately 750 m above mean sea level.
The roofing contractor has requested you to provide the required number of fixings per
square metre of roof area if each fixing is capable of resisting a factored tensile force of 0, 2
kN. The roof sheeting has a mass of 9 kg/m
2
.
Hint:
Only the forces on the roof are required.

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE


QUESTION 1. 5
The figure below shows the section through a grandstand that is to be constructed at the
proposed new sports centre in Beaufort west. The overall length of the grandstand will be 75
m and the frames are at 8 m centres. The sports centres will be situated in a developed suburb
where the altitude is approximately 800 m above mean sea level.
a. Determine the free-stream velocity pressure.
b. Provide a neat sketch to indicate the ultimate wind loads (in kN/m) on the roof of a
typical frame of the grandstand considering both downward and uplift conditions.
c. List the combinations of loads (dead, live and wind) together with the partial load
factors that may need to be considered for the analysis of the roof at the ultimate limit
state.

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

ANSWERS:
1.1 440, 2 kN
1.2 (a) 0, 95 kN/m
2

(b) 83 kNm
1.3 (a) 0, 876 kN/m
2

(b) external: low wall 0, 7, high wall -0, 25, high roof -0, 4, low roof -1, 0
internal: -0, 3 or 0, 0
(c) Case 1: low wall 4, 4, high 0, 22, high roof -0, 44, low roof -3, 1
Case 2: low wall 3, 1, high wall -1, 3, high roof -1, 8, low roof -4, 4
1.4 8 No.
1.5 (a) 0, 84 kN/m
2

(b) downward: 13, 95 kN/m and 16, 57 kN/m
uplift: 1, 74 kN/m and 6, 10 kN/m
(c) 1, 5 D
n

1, 2 D
n
+ 1, 6 L
n

1, 2 D
n
+ 1, 3 W
n(135)

0, 9 D
n
+ 1, 3 W
n(0)





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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SECTION 2: ANALYSIS
Questions on analysis are covered adequately in the first part of each question in the
following sections.



















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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SECTION 3 & 4: CONNECTIONS, TIES & STRUTS
QUESTION 3. 1
The figure below shows the bolted connection to the end of a 160 x 65 PFC tie. M16 grade
bolts are to be used and all holes will be drilled. The bolts will be of such a length that the
thread will not be in the shear plane.
(a) Check the spacing of the bolts for the given configuration.
(b) Calculate the maximum factored tension resistance considering all possible modes of
failure.


QUESTION 3. 2
The figure below shows a 90 x 65 x 6 unequal angle member in tension, spliced in the centre
using a 12 mm plate and 6 No. grade 4, 8 M20 bolts. It may be assumed that the bolt thread
will not be intercepted by the shear plane. The angles will be gas-cut to length and are
connected through the short leg. All bolt holes will be punched. The ends are connected to
thick rigid plates with 6 mm fillet welds over a length of 50 mm each using an E70XX
electrode.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE




Calculate the factored tension resistance of the member showing the calculations for all
possible modes of failure.

QUESTION 3. 3
The figure below shows the elevation of a pin-jointed truss subjected to the loads shown
which are at the ultimate limit state.
(a) Calculate the support reaction and the nature and magnitude of the forces in member
A-B, B-E, and E-F.
(b) Check the suitability of a 120 x 120 x 10 equal leg angle to be used as the bottom
chord if all of the nodes along the bottom chord are laterally restrained.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE


(c) If a 80 x 80 x 6 equal leg angle is to be used as the top chord and connected to support
A as detailed overleaf, calculate the factored tension resistance of this member. All
bolts will be M20 grade 8. 8 and the holes in the leg of the angle will be punched. The
gusset plate will be connected to the backing plate with a 6 mm fillets weld using an
E70XX electrode.



QUESTION 3. 4
The figure below shows the elevation and isometric view of a grade 300W steel tie
comprising two 70 x 70 x 6 equal leg angles connected back-to-back with a 10 mm plate that
is 70 mm wide. Grade 4, 8 M20 bolts are used in punched holes with the thread not
intercepting any shear plane, and the plate is connected at the end with a 6 mm continuous
fillet weld using an E70XX electrode.
Calculate the factored tensile resistance of the tie considering ALL possible modes of failure.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE


QUESTION 3. 5
The figure below shows the elevation of a pin-jointed steel truss manufactured from grade
300W steel. The loads indicated are at the ultimate limit state. Lateral restraint will be
provided at G, I and K.
(a) Calculate the reactions and determine the magnitude and nature of the forces in
members AB, HI, DI and AD.
(b) If a 120 x 120 x 10 equal leg angle is to be used for the top member G-H-I-J-K,
calculate the factored compressive resistance of this member and comment on your
answer.

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

(c) Determine the factored tensile resistance of member AB if a 25 mm solid square bar
is to be used and connected at the ends using a 10 mm thick plate as detailed below using
2 No. M20 grade 8, 8 bolts in punched holes.


QUESTION 3. 6
The figure below shows the elevation of a pin-jointed truss that is manufactured from grade
300W steel. The loads shown represent the critical design combination of loads at the
ultimate limit state.


(a) Calculate the reactions, then find the magnitude and nature of the forces in members
2-3, 8-16 and 11-12.
(b) Comment on the suitability of a 90 x 90 x 6 equal leg to be used as the bottom chord
of the truss (i.e. from node 10 to node 16) if lateral restraint is provided at the
supports and at the node 13. Consider only the compressive force in member 11-12 to
verify your answer.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

(c) If a 180 x 70 parallel flange channel tie is to be spliced as detailed below using a 12
mm thick plate and M24 grade 4, 8 bolts in punched holes, determine the factored
tensile resistance of the member considering all possible modes of failure.















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ANSWERS
3.1 (a) ok
(b) Tr = 135, 7 kN (based on bolts shear)
3.2 Tr = 91, 0 kN (based on weld strength)
3.3 (a) AB = 168, 0 kN (T), BE = 59, 4 kN (C), EF = 126, 0 kN (C)
(b) Cr = 131, 4 kN
(c) Tr = 190 kN (based on rupture)
3.4 Tr = 145, 6 kN (based on weld strength)
3.5 (a) AB = 145 kN (T), HI = 150 kN (C), DI = 7, 07 kN (T), AD = 7, 07 kN (T)
(b) Cr = 140, 8 kN
(c) Tr = 145, 6 kN (based on weld strength)
3.6 (a) 2-3 = 26, 25 kN (T), 8-16 = 7, 0 kN (T), 11-12 = 54, 25 kN (C)
(b) Cr = 52, 88 kN
(c) Tr = 229, 2 kN (based on bolts shear)








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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SECTION 5: BEAMS
QUESTION 5. 1
A grade 300W rolled steel beam is required to support the loads as shown in the figure below.
Lateral support to the compression flange will be provided at the position of the point loads,
and the supports may be considered to be restrained against torsion. Initial calculations have
shown that a 457 x 191 x 75 I-section should suffice.

a) Draw fully dimensioned design shear force and bending moment diagrams.
b) Check the above beam for shear and flexure.
c) Determine the magnitude of the maximum ultimate point load that could be placed on
top of the beam directly above support D if the length of stiff bearing at the support is
100 mm. (consider yielding and crippling).

QUESTION 5. 2
The figure below shows the elevation of a 1420 x 400 (10W, 25F) welded plate girder
manufactured form grade 300W steel.

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE


The nominal dead and live loads making up each of the point loads at B, C and D, that the
girder is to support addition to its self weight, are tabled below:
LOAD D
n
L
n

P
1
100 kN 100kN
P
2
125 kN 150 kN
P
3
150 kN 200 kN

The beams producing these point loads are connected to the top flanges of the girder and are
capable of providing effective lateral restraint at these points. The supports offer full torsional
restraint and simple rotational restraint.
a) Draw fully dimensioned shear force and bending moment diagrams of the girder.
b) If stiffeners are positioned at 2,5 centres over the entire length of the girder, check
that this spacing meets the requirements of the code and check the girder for
combined bending and shear at D. (the value of M
r
may be taken from b above).

QUESTION 5. 3
A beam with a cantilever end is subjected to loads at the ultimate limit state (inclusive of self-
weight) as shown below. Lateral restraint is provided at B and torsional restraint is provided
at the supports. All loading may be considered normal
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE


a) Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram showing all critical values.
b) The beam is to be welded plate girder manufactured form grade 300W steel using 150
x 16 flange plates and a 400 x 10 web. Given that J = 520 x 10
3
mm
4
and c
w
= 389 x
10
9
mm
6
, calculate all other section properties required for checking flexure. (shape
facto Z
pl
/Z
e
= 1,15)
c) Check the beam for flexure considering the segment between A and B.
d) Check the beam for shear.

QUESTION 5. 4
1420 x 300 (10W, 20F) welded plate girder manufactured from grade 300W steel is simply
supported over a span of 12 m. Two point loads are applied at third-points, each having dead
and live load components of 150 kN and 200 kN respectively. In addition to these point loads
the beam is also subjected to a uniformly distributed dead load of 20 kN/m, which excluded
the self-weight of the beam. Torsional restraint is provided at the supports, but not rotational
restraint in plan. The applied loads are free to move laterally and should be considered as
destabilising. Lateral restraint is provided at mid-span as well as the supports.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE


a) Sketch the shear force and bending moment diagrams at the ultimate limit state.
b) Check the given beam for flexure (bending) and deflection.
c) Check the given beam for shear on the end panel.
d) If the width of bearing at the supports is 90 mm, comment on the suitability of the 100
x 10 load bearing stiffeners which are placed in pairs at the supports and at third-
points.

QUESTION 5. 5
The figure below the elevation of a 1840 x 400 (12W, 35F) welded plate girder manufactured
from grade 300W steel. The beam is subjected to two dead load point loads of 380 kN each
as well as the load from the crane that will run on the bottom flange. The crane has a mass of
150 kg and working live load of 500 kN. There is no UDL applied to the beam, but allowance
must be made for its self-weight. The top flange of the girder is laterally restrained at the
supports as well as at B and C. The rotational restraint at these points is simple (pinned)
and torsional restraint is provided at the ends.
(a) Calculate the maximum bending moment (position the crane accordingly) and check
the girder for bending.
(b) If the crane is positioned 2 m from A, calculate the maximum shear force and check
the girder for shear on the 4m panel only.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

















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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

ANSWERS:
5.1 (a) V = 114 kN, M = 241,5 kNm
(b) Mr = 251,88 kNm, Vr = 741,4 kN
(c) 210,2 kN
5.2 (a) V = 671,2 kN, M = 4056 kNm
(b) Mr = 4443,1 kNm, Vr = 1340,4 kN, interaction = 0,766
5.3 (a) Vmax = 115 kN, Mmax = 188,2 kNm
(b) Iyy = 9,033 x 10
6
mm
4
, Zplx = 1,39 x 10
6
mm
3

(c) Mr = 202,18 kNm
(d) Vr = 712,8 kN
5.4 (a) Vmax = 658,4 kN, Mmax = 2475,2 Nm
(b) Mr = 2694,0 kNm
(c) Vr = 686,9 kNm
(d) Cr = 961,0 kN, Br = 929,0 kN
5.5 (a) Mmax = 6973 kNm, Mr = 7144 kNm
(b) Vmax = 1233 kN, Vr = 1789 kN






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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SECTION 6: COLUMNS
QUESTION 6.1
The figure below shows the elevation of a 254 x 254 x 73 H-section column subjected to
bending about the major axis only. The column forms part of a multi-storey framed structure
and the moments given are at the ultimate limit state and include allowance for second order
effects. The ultimate axial load is 1200 kN and includes the self-weight of the member. The
major axis is unrestrained over the full height of the column and the minor axis is restrained
against lateral movement at third-points.

(a) Check the stability of the given section and comment on your answer.

QUESTION 6. 2
The figure below shows the elevation of a rigid building frame. All columns will bend about
the strong axis in the plane shown. Weak axis bending in the column may be ignored since
the out-of-plane beams are pinned to the web of the columns and shear walls will provide
adequate bracing to the weak axis of the columns. A first order liner analysis of the structure
produced an axial load of 1200 kN together with bending moment diagrams about the x-x
axis of one of the columns between levels 2 and 3 (shown bold in the figure) as shown:

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE



(a) If the relative first-order lateral displacement between the second and third floors as
found to be 52 mm, draw the final design bending moment diagram for the
highlighted column allowing for second order effects.
(b) Check the adequacy of a 254 x 254 x 107 H-section if it is to be used for this column
which is subjected to combined bending and compression.

QUESTION 6. 3
The figure below shows the elevation of a rigid-framed multi-storey steel structure subjected
to a critical load combination at the ultimate limit state. All beams are 305 x 165 x 41 I-
sections and all columns are 254 x 254 x 89 H-sections. A first order linear analysis of the
structure produced the ultimate gravity and translational bending moments about the major
axis of the centre column between the first and second floor as shown adjacent.



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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE



(a) Draw the final bending moment diagram for the major axis of this column considering
the amplification factor to allow for second order effects. Consider the level at the top
of this column where the deflection relative to the bottom of the column was found to
be 18 mm.
(b) The minor axis is laterally restrained at mid-height and bent in double curvature with
equal end moments of 25 kNm (including second-order effects). Comment on the
suitability of the given column section subjected to combined bi-axial bending and
axial load. The ultimate axial load on this column was found to be 1890 kN.






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ANSWERS:
6.1 (a) Interaction a = 0,778, b = 0,994, c = 0,865
6.2 (a) M
top
= 250 kNm, M
bot
= 125 kNm
(b) Interaction a = 0,856, b = 0,581, c = 0,954, d = 0,626
6.3 (a) M
top
= 108, 4 kNm, M
bot
= 63,4 kNm
(b) Interaction a = 0,988, b = 0,846, c = 0,999, d = 0,488
















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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE










MODULE 2
STRUCTURAL TIMBER DESIGN










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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

MODULE 2
STRUCTURAL TIMBER DESIGN
Relevant SANS codes
SANS 10163-2:2001: The structural use of timber. Part 2, Allowable stress design /
South African Bureau of Standards.
SANS 10160: The general procedures and loadings to be adopted in the design of
buildings.

Further reading
There are numerous reference works published, inter alia, by the South African Bureau of
Standards, the National Building Research institute, the National Timber Research Institute,
the South African Lumber Millers Association (SALMA) and the Institute for Timber
Construction (ITC). Contact these organisations for more information.

Introduction
The primary objective of this part of the course is to show the student that timber can serve as
a useful alternative structural material. Timber need not be restricted to roof trusses which
remain hidden from sight; it can also perform a variety of structural functions from buildings
to bridges.

Course format
A set of notes will be made available by UNISA which should be followed closely together
with the code of practice when working through each section.
Question for self-evaluation are provided at the end of each chapter in the set of notes
provided.

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

MODULE 2
STUDY NOTES
CHAPTER 1
TIMBER AS A STRUCTURAL MATERIAL
CONTENTS PAGE
1.1 OBJECTIVES 43
1.2 TIMBER AS A STRUCTURAL MATERIAL 43
1.2.1 Introduction 43
1.2.2 Species 43
1.2.3 Manufactured timber products 44
1.2.4 Properties 44
1.2.5 Grading 46
1.3 DEFINITIONS 47
1.3.1 Material 47
1.3.2 Defects 53
1.3.3 Design 55
1.4 STANDARDISED CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS 57
1.5 INTRODUCTION TO TIMBER DESIGN 57
1.6 SPECIFIC OUTCOMES 60
1.7 REFERENCES 61
1.8 QUESTIONS FOR SELF-EVALUATION 62
1.9 SOLUTIONS TO THE SELF-EVALUATION QUESTIONS 63
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1.10 TUTORIAL 65






















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1.1 OBJECTIVES:
The objective of this section is to introduce the learner to timber and define common terms
used in timber and timber construction.

1.2 TIMBER AS A STRUCTURAL MATERIAL
1.2.1 Introduction
Timber is defined as being either a softwood or hardwood. Hardwood comes from deciduous
(broad-leaved) trees and it is seldom used for common structures, whereas softwood comes
from evergreen trees (conifers in particular) and is extensively used for timber structures.
Although this course will mainly deal with softwoods it is to be noted that hardwoods are
often more durable and stronger than softwoods as demonstrated by Rhodesian Teak and
Jarrah woods used for railway sleepers, etc. Structural grade plywoods are marketed locally
in both softwood and hardwood varieties.
1.2.2 Species
Owing to different climatic conditions in the various parts of South Africa, a regional usage
factor has to be acknowledged. Different species is pine trees are grown and marketed in the
different regions:

Table 1.1: SA pine species distribution and usage
Botanical
Name
Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus
Patula Elliottii Radiata Pinaster
Common
Name
Mexican Slash Monterey Cape
Pine Pine Pine pine
Regional
Usage
Gauteng 80% 20% Nil Nil
K. Natal 20% 80% Nil Nil
W. Cape Nil Nil 90% 10%

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The differences need not generally be considered in designing structures with timber owing
to the fact that Stress-graded timbers are used commercially and these are tested by the
suppliers to comply with SANS 1783: Sawn softwood timber.
Eucalyptus is widely grown and used in South Africa, but not generally for structures. Gum
poles tend to be used as pit-props in mines, fencing, telephone and electricity poles. In
addition they are commonly used in low-load structures such as thatched roofs on cottages,
etc. The exception is Eucalyptus Saligna (Sydney blue gum or more commonly Saligna)
which is used in glulam products.

1.2.3 Manufactured timber products
Laminated timber or Glulam is commonly used to resolve architectural requirements, the
relevant code is SANS1460: Laminated timber (glulam).
These products are marketed under different names according to their grades and
composition, lengths of up to 15 m are commercially available. Although suppliers have a set
of standard sizes up to 1200 mm deep, special orders can be made up on request.
Plywood complying with SANS 929: Plywood and composite board may also be used in
structural applications.

During the Second World War the British built the De Haviland Mosquito aircraft using a
plywood and balsa sandwich for the fuselage. This Wooden Wonder was a very fast and
versatile aircraft and served for the duration of the war in a number of roles from fighter to
bomber.

1.2.4 Properties
Only commercially available structural grades of South African softwood will be considered
in these lectures, however the learner must be aware of the possibility of designing timber
structures using other types and grades of wood. The learners should visit lumber yards to
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find out firsthand what different grades and sizes of structural timber are available in this
area.
Wood is not a homogenous material like steel; it is a natural product at the mercy of the
elements both during growth and after reduction to boards. In order to ensure the end-user
and designer of a uniform product, the lumber suppliers grade timber in accordance with a set
of limitations specified by the SANS.
Trees want to stand up straight and to that end if for example the prevailing winds generally
come from one direction the tree will strengthen itself against tensile forces on the windward
side and against compressive forces on the leeward side. The end result is plain to see when
the tree is felled, the rings do not form perfect concentric circles and ring spacing is closer on
the one side than on the other, similarly the density of the wood varies from one side to the
other. These variations mean that the grader will find a range of grades from one trees
lumber. The outer wood is stronger than the inner core.
The distortion of the grain around knots adversely affects the strength of timber especially of
tensile and bending members. Knots are therefore regarded as defects whether they are sound
knots around living branches or the loose knots of dead branches.
The strength and modulus of elasticity are greatest parallel to the grain, strengths and other
properties vary considerably relative to the direction of the grain and are much weaker when
measured perpendicular or tangential to the grain.
Timber seems to loose strength with time and this loss is accelerated by high stresses. Time
to failure decreases with increase in stress. Therefore the designer should concern himself
more with long duration high stress loading than with long term low stress loadings. The
design codes do in fact take cognisance of this fact.
Timber with a high modulus of elasticity is more likely to be stronger than timber with a low
modulus of elasticity. Grading of timber in terms of stiffness and thus modulus of elasticity is
therefore possible.
Timber creeps under long term load condition and may give the impression of being unsafe
owing to excessive deflections. The design codes have addressed this issue.

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The advantages of timber as a structural material are:
i. Timber is relatively light, easy to handle and workable with normal tools and
machinery.
ii. It has a higher strength to weight ratio than for example concrete.
iii. Corrosive environments generally have less effect on timber than steel.
iv. Thermal expansion/contraction is low.
v. It has a high fire resistance.
vi. It has a high resistance to impact loadings.
vii. Aesthetically pleasing it is suitable for many architectural features.

Disadvantages of timber as a structural material are:
i. Insect and fungus damage can be disastrous if the timber is not treated.
ii. Deterioration owing to moisture changes may occur.
iii. Distortions as a result of creep under long-term loads do occur.
iv. High moisture content leads to a reduction in stiffness and strength.
v. Load defects are found because of the existence of knots.
vi. It is anisotropic material properties differ in different directions.
vii. It is hygroscopic it tends to absorb moisture.
viii. It is susceptible to wind, rain and ultra-violet radiation damage.

1.2.5 Grading
The SANS caries out spot-checks from time to time to ensure that products bearing their
SANS mark do infact comply with the specifications. These markings are in signal red on
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each piece of timber and are marked according to the test method and stress grade. Visual
stress graded timber is marked with a V and a number, e.g. V4 is a visually graded piece
with a stress grade of 4 MPa. The minimum stress grade of structural timber is 4 MPa.
Mechanical stress grades are marked with M and Proof-graded timber is marked with P
e.g. M4 and P4 respectively. The relevant codes are:
Visual grading SANS 1783-2: Stress-graded structural timber and timber for frame wall
construction.
Mechanical grading - SANS 10149: The mechanical stress grading of softwood timber
(flexural method).
Proof-grading SANS 1783-4: Brandering and battens.

1.3 DEFINITIONS
Although the following definitions comprise the most commonly used terminology of the
timber industry in Southern Africa, the list is not necessarily complete and the learner should
familiarise himself with all the definitions in the standardised specifications and those used
by the industry.
The following definitions have been extracted from SANS codes 10005, 10163, 10243 and
1783 as well as The Encyclopaedia of Wood and Mondi trade literature.

1.3.1 Material
Batten
A piece of timber used to support roof coverings of tiles or slates, usually having cross-
sectional dimensions of 38 x 38 mm or 38 x 50 mm or 50 x 50 mm.
Brandering
Timber fixed to the underside of truss chords onto which ceiling boards are attached. Usually
38 x 38 mm in cross-section.
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Cambium
The thin layer of tissue between the wood and the bark. It subdivides repeatedly to form new
wood and bark cells.
Cellulose
The principle constituent of wood comprising 50% of the mass of the wood. It is a
carbohydrate that forms the framework of wood cells.
Charge
The quantity of timber treated in one and the same treating cycle.
Density group
Density group D, is assigned to timber that exceeds 480 kg/m
3
and timber that has a density
between 400 kg/m
3
and 480 kg/m
3
is classified as density group D
2
.
Flat-grained timber
The grain patterns made by the annual growth rings make an angle of less than 45
0
with the
surface of the piece.
General slope of grain
The slope of grain (as observed over a distance of at least 600 mm) on the face that is furthest
away from the pith and tangential to a growth ring.
Glued laminated member (Glulam)
A member which has been manufactured by gluing a number of strips of timber together
which have their grains essentially parallel to each other.
Grade stress
See stress grade


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Gum
Non-volatile viscous plant exudates which, either swell or dissolve in water. The gum exuded
by pines is in fact oleoresin.
Heartwood
Wood between the pith to the sapwood. It is no longer active and is identified easily by its
darker colour owing to the presence of phenolic compounds, gums, resins and other materials
which make it more resistant to decay than sapwood.
Inner bark
The physiologically active layer of tissues between the cambium and the phellogen, plus any
cells of the phloem that remains alive.
Lignin
The second most abundant constituent of wood, located principally in the secondary wall and
the middle lamella, which is the thin cementing layer between wood cells. It is an irregular
polymer of substituted propylphenol groups. In softwoods it is 23 33% of the mass of the
wood and 16 25% of the mass of hardwoods.
Lot
Not less than 50 and more than 10 000 pieces of structural timber of the same cross-section
and stress-graded by the same method, from one manufacturer, submitted at any one time for
inspection and testing.
Lumber
This is a general term used to describe timber which has been cut into boards or planks. It is
more commonly used in USA than Southern Africa.
Lumen
The cell cavity of wood.

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Moisture content
The mass of water in a sample of timber expressed as grams of moisture per kilogram (or
percentage) of the oven-dried mass of the sample timber.
Oleoresin
In softwoods, especially pine, this is a solution of pine resin (rosin) in an essential oil
(turpentine).
Outer bark
The layer of dead tissues (generally of a dry corky nature) outside the phellogen.
Phloem
The tissues if the inner bark, characterised by sieve tubes which act as conduits for food-
bearing sap.
Pith
The soft core near the centre of any section of trunk or branch.
Planned all round (PAR)
See wrought timber.
Plywood
Plywood comprises and odd number of layers of veneers of wood glued together with the
grains of each veneer perpendicular to the preceding one. Both softwood and hardwood
plywood are available.
Regularising
The process whereby a piece of timber of rectangular cross-section is machined throughout
its length to a uniform thickness or width or both.


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Resin
Inflammable, water-soluble plant exudates common to both hardwoods and softwoods (e.g.
gum trees and pines).
Rough-sawn
Timber sawn on a breakdown saw or similar machine and edged but not otherwise machined.
Sapwood
The pale coloured word near the bark, it is the part of the timber most vulnerable to decay.
Seasoning
The drying out of timber to improve its serviceability. It may be air-dried without artificial
heat or kiln-dried using artificial heat.
Sizing
See thicknessing.
Softwood structural timber (structural timber)
Timber derived from coniferous trees grown in Southern Africa and having a nominal width
of at least 75 mm, a nominal thickness of at least 38 mm, and a working stress in bending of
at least 4 MPa.
Stress grade (of a piece of structural timber)
The numerical value of the working stress in bending in MPa that can be n safely sustained
by the piece under long-term loading conditions.
Sterilisation of timber
The destruction of all live stages of insects or fungi or both.



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Tantalised timber
Timber impregnated with copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) or copper-gallium-arsenic as a
preservative. The copper gives the treated timber a distinctive green colour. (Tanalith is a
trade name).
Thicknessing
Is the process of converting rough-sawn timber to regularised timber by skimming a thin
layer off the surface. This process does not necessarily produce smooth surfaces. (See
Wrought timber).
Timber
In Southern Africa is the term used to describe wood that has been cut into boards and planks
but in the USA it refers to trees which are still standing.
Veneer
A thin layer of wood, usually about 1 mm thick, cut from a log either by rotary-cutting in a
lathe against a knife or by sawing or by slicing.
Volatile solvent
A solvent for wood preservatives that evaporates from the treated open-stacked timber to the
extent of at least 90% of its volume within a period after treatment not exceeding two weeks.
Wood preservative
A pesticidal agent which, when impregnated into or otherwise applied to timber, renders it
less susceptible to destruction by fungi, insects or marine borers.
Wood protectant
An agent that is fungicidal or insecticidal or both, applied to timber to protect it temporarily
from attack during one or more stages of processing.
Wrought timber
A board planed on all sides to produce smooth surfaces.
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Xylem
The portion between the cambium and the pith.

1.3.2 Defects
Bleeding The exudation of creosote on the surface of treated timber.
Blooming The exudation of dry preservative compound on the surface of treated timber.
E.g. Crystal formation in the case of timber treated with PCP (pentachlorophenol).
Bow Lengthways curvature in one plane along the edge of a piece of lumber.
Check A lengthways separation of the wood fibres along the grain forming a crack or
fissure.
Compression break Minute ridges formed by the buckling of cell walls as a result of
excessive compression along the grain.
Cup Curvature occurring in the transverse section of a board.
Defective A piece of structural timber that fails in one or more respects to comply with the
requirements of the relevant specification.
Discolouration A change in the colour of a piece of lumber that affects only its appearance
and is caused by fungal stain.
Edge knot A knot of which a cross-section occurs on an edge and which extends at least
two thirds across or through the board.
Hair check A very fine check of width not exceeding 0, 5 mm.
Inbark Bark of thickness exceeding 1 mm (usually associated with a knot) that has been
enclosed by the tree and subsequently exposed by reduction of the tree to lumber.
Knot hole A hole or cavity formed in a piece of lumber as a result of the absence of a knot
or part thereof and the effect extends at least two-thirds across or through the board.
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Knot whorl Four (or more) closely associated knots that occur on at least two faces of a
piece of lumber and that originate in unexposed pith.
Machine damage Limited undersizing of timber by mechanical means during regularising.
(Usually at the ends of boards due to movements of the timber during machining).
Machine skip An area of the surface of a regularised piece of timber, that was not removed
during machining.
Resin infiltrated area An area on the surface where the wood is saturated with resin to an
extent that causes a darkening of the wood to a colour that is deeper than that of sound knot
in that board.
Resin pocket A cavity that contains or has contained resin.
Shake A separation along the grain, the greater part of which occurs between the annual
growth rings.
Sound knot A knot that is free of decay, insect damage and inbark and is firmly attached
along at least two thirds of its periphery to the surrounding wood on one face of the board. It
may be shrunk away completely from the surrounding wood on the opposite face.
Split A separation of the wood fibres along the grain forming a crack or fissure that extends
through the board and is visible on both faces.
Spring Lengthways curvature in its own plane on the face-side of a board.
Superficial face splay knot A splay knot that has been so cut that the knot does not
penetrate the lumber to a depth exceeding one-eighth of the thickness of the board.
Through face knot A knot that penetrates the lumber from one face to the other but is not
exposed on an arris (side).
Twist A form of warp that appears as lengthways spiral distortion.
Wane The original surface of a tree, with or without bark, visible on a piece of square sawn
lumber.
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Warp Any departure (may take the form of bow, spring or twist or any combination of
these) from a true or plane surface of a board.

1.3.3 Design
Allowable stress or allowable joint force The grade stress or basic joint force multiplied
by the modification factors that are appropriate to the specific conditions under which a
member, structure or joint will operate.
Basic joint force The force assigned to a joint or member of a joint to quantify the strength
of the joint or member.
Bottom chord The lower edge of a truss. It usually carries combined bending and tension
stresses.
Built-up beam A beam made up of two or more timber members.
Calculated deflection The deflection predicted for a structure based on elastic theory
analysis.
Camber A specified upward displacement in the centre of a beam or bottom chord to
compensate for deflection due to loads and/or self weight.
Characteristic joint strength The force assigned to joint or member of a joint to quantify
its strength.
Characteristic timber strength The strength assigned to a timber member or product and
below which not more than 5% of the tests fail.
Connector Any device, capable of transmitting specified loads, used for joining one or
more pieces of timber together.
Design deflection The calculated deflection adjusted to account for creep, abnormal
moisture content or abnormal fluctuation in moisture content.
Factored resistance R The product of the resistance R and the appropriate resistance
factor.
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Gravity load The mass of the supported object multiplied by acceleration due to gravity.
Imposed load The load due to intended usage, including loads due to movable partitions,
cranes, winds, rain, ice, snow, earth and hydrostatic pressures.
Limit-states Those conditions of a structure at which the structure ceases to fulfil the
function for which it was designed. The states concerning safety are called Ultimate limit-
states and include exceeding of load- carrying capacity, overturning, uplift, sliding, fracture
and fatique failure. Serviceability limit-states restrict intended use and occupancy of a
structure and include excessive deflection and vibration and permanent deformation.
Load effect A force or moment induced in a member, due to ultimate loading, ultimate
displacement or ultimate distortion.
Member Any structural component of either solid timber or built-up from pieces glued
together to form particular sections (e.g. I beam with solid flanges and plywood web).
Modification factor A factor that is applied to the member resistance, the connection
resistance or the calculated deflection, to allow for the specific condition/s under which a
member or structure will operate and which will influence its structural behaviour.
Nominal load Those loads specified in SANS 10160.
Resistance R The resistance of a member, connection or structure, as calculated in
accordance with SANS 10163-1, based on the specified material properties and nominal
dimensions.
Resistance factor - A factor, referred to in SANS 10163-1, that is applied to a specified
material property or to the resistance of a member, connection or structure that, for the limit
state under consideration, takes into account the variability of the material properties,
dimensions, workmanship, type of failure and uncertainty in prediction of member resistance.
Self-weight load The load comprising the weight of all structural members and any
permanent finishes attached to the structure.
Serviceability load The design load or action effect that pertains to the serviceability limit
state
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Structure Any assembly of timber members, including the detail parts, fasteners and other
items required for the manufacture or erection of the assembly.
Ultimate load The design load or action effect that pertains to the ultimate limit state.

1.4 STANDARDISED CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS
The SANS codes and specifications which have already been mentioned form the basis of
design in South Africa. The learner is not expected to learn these codes by rote but he is
expected to be familiar with the content and to be able to apply them to this design. The
SANS publications have lists of references and bibliographies which the learners should
endeavour to read.
In addition to these codes the Eurocodes and the British Standards institution codes are also
to be studied by the learners. There is a growing international tendency towards
standardisation and we may soon see the application of a single set of codes and
specifications.

1.5 INTRODUCTION TO TIMBER DESIGN
Timber is probably the most versatile material, it has been used for millennia in vast
quantities for every sort of application. Structural applications range from simple frames for
dwellings to the war-machines of the ancient Greeks and Romans.
Modern structural timber design has become a sophisticated extension of what previously
was empirical design, but there are still a number of uncertainties for which the design
methods have to make assumptions or adjustments. The designer therefore needs to know the
material, the application and the situation in which the structure will be used.
The demand for diversity from architects and the public in general has resulted in a range of
timber structures, some of which are not at all economic in design. For example a traditional
post-and-beam house uses far more timber than is necessary, but it achieves an effect which
some people want. Some of the structural applications of timber are described in the
following paragraphs (After Stalnaker & Harris).
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Pole structures
Pine or gum poles may be used for falsework in concrete construction, frames of cheap
housing and sheds, roof structures, fencing, sign-board supports, bridges, piers, jetties, etc.
Timber-framed (or light-framed) structures
Timber-framed buildings in the modern sense comprise a designed frame which may be clad
with planking on the outside and dry-walling on the inside. Other exterior cladding includes
corrugated iron or asbestos-cement or glass-fibre sheeting. Another variation uses a clay
brick veneer on the exterior.
Post-and-beam construction (Tudor style)
This very heavy construction has stood the test of time, many fine examples are over 400
years old. Posts 150 250 mm square are placed at 2, 4 3, 6 m centres and horizontal
members are spaced 1, 2 2, 4 m vertically. Often diagonal knee braces are used to provide
rigidity.

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Log buildings
The cost generally discourages this type of building but there are a few examples of log
cabins in South Africa. They are seldom actually designed. Rough-hewn logs are stacked on
top of each other and often rely on gravity and friction to hold them together rather then any
conventional jointing or connecting systems.
Prefabricated panel systems
A variety of proprietary systems are available but these seem to be more popular overseas
than in South Africa. One example is the stressed-skin panel which is a timber frame with
plywood on both sides forming an integral part of the structural strength.
Laminated structural components
This is a relatively new branch of engineered timber structures where considerable cost
saving can be effected by using timber beyond its traditional capacity. By using high quality
adhesives, timber is glued together to form sections which are much stronger than equivalent
sawn timber sections. This is however an aspect of design which still requires more scientific
analysis and at present laminated members are basically designed according to the shape and
grade of the component timber.
A major attraction is the variety of length and shapes that can be achieved. Complex curved
portal frames being the most common of these. Overseas laminated timber roof structures
commonly span in excess of 30 m.
Glued components are another new development. Plywood web l-beams with solid timber
flanges also offer the user cost savings in both material and erection.
Heavy timber construction
Where the smallest dimensions of columns are greater than 200 mm and beams exceed 150 x
300 mm, the structure is regarded as heavy construction. This sort of work is rare owing to
the cost of timber. Piers, jetties and bridges would usually fall under this category.


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Bridges
Although not that common there are a few wooden bridges in South Africa which carry
vehicular traffic on a daily basis. Forestry road bridges are also in use but these tend to be
crude structures made from logs. In overseas there are timber bridges which still serve the
public after 500 years of uses.
Formwork and falsework
Although largely replaced by steel and glass-fibre or plastic moulds, timber still plays an
important role in formwork for concrete construction.

1.6 SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
At the end of this section the learner will be able to identify and name components of timber
structure.












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1.7 REFERENCES
1. BURDZIK, Prof. WMG: personal communications. Pretoria: 1996.
2. FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY. Forest Service, US Dept. Of Agriculture.
1980. The Encyclopaedia of wood. New York: Sterling Publishing Co. Inc.
3. MOINDI TIMBERT PRODUCTS: Trade literature. Mondi Ltd, Stellenbosch.
4. SANS 10005: The preservative treatment of timber.
5. SANS 1783: Sawn softwood timber
6. SANS 10163-1: The structural use of timber. Part 1: Limit-states design.
7. SANS 10163-2: The structural use of timber. Part 2: Allowable stress design.
8. Stalnaker JJ & Harris EC: Structural design in wood. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New
York, 1989. (Imperial units)












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1.8 QUETIONS FOR SELF-EVALUATION
These questions are intended to provide the learner with a means of determining whether he
has understood the contents of the Lecture and generally attained sufficient knowledge in the
subject to be able to pass the exams.
Solutions to the questions are given on the next page. It should be noted that at this level of
tertiary education the Lectures serves as a study guide and the learner must carry out his own
research in order to acquire the expected levels of knowledge about the subject.

1.8.1 Draw a Fink W truss. Show and name all structural components.

1.8.2 Define the following terms:
a) Engineered truss design
b) Jack rafter
c) Lateral brace
d) Node or node-point
e) Vierendeel truss or girder

1.8.3 What types of bolts are acceptable and what are not for use in timber trusses?

1.8.4 Briefly discuss the effects of wind on a structure.



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1.9 SOLUTIONS TO THE SELF-EVALUATION QUESTIONS

1.9.1 Fink W truss from SANS 10243

19.2 Definitions from SANS 10243
a. Engineered truss design: A truss design in which loading requirements, timber
sizes, grades and plate requirements are detailed.
b. Jack rafter: A special rafter used to form a hip.
c. Lateral brace: A member placed and connected to a member of truss to prevent
horizontal movement.
d. Node; node-point: The point of intersection of the various members that make up
the panels of the truss.
e. Vierendeel truss/girder: A special form of truss that is not triangular but that has
specially designed joints at member intersections and that are rigid enough to prevent
the truss from deforming.
1.9.3 \
Bolt types in trusses from SANS 10243
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Bolts should preferably be hexagonal-head bolts. Cup-head or carriage bolts are not
recommended.

1.9.4
Wind can exert a horizontal force that is not necessarily perpendicular to the building but is
assumed to be so for most design purposes. Wind can also exert an upward force acting on
the plan area of a roof. Within the building both positive and negative pressures may result
from wind. (Refer to SANS 10160 for more details on wind and other forms of structural
loadings).

Having completed these questions the learner should now realise that a comprehensive
working knowledge of the prescribed codes, and eventually the books, is essential for success
in this subject.











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1.10 TUTORIAL
1.10.1 Describe in detail the section of a tree trunk, including all the components parts.
Illustrate your answer with a sketch.
(10)
1.10.2 Explain limit-states design and the various states with respect to structural timber
design.
(10)
1.10.3 Discuss the chemical composition of wood.
(10)
1.10.4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using timer as a structural material
(10)












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MODULE 2
STUDY NOTES
CHAPTER 2
ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN METHODS
CONTENTS PAGE
2.1 OBJECTIVES 68
2.2 DESIGN METHODS 68
2.2.1 Introduction 68
2.2.2 Working stress design 68
2.2.3 Limit-states design 69
2.2.4 Plastic design 70
2.3 REVISION OF DIPLOMA LEVEL TIMBER DESIGN 70
2.3.1 Allowable stress design 70
2.3.2 Duration of load factor 71
2.3.2.1 Example of duration of load factor 72
2.3.3 Load sharing factor 72
2.3.4 Type of structure factor 72
2.3.5 Quality of fabrication factor 73
2.3.6 Moisture content factor 73
2.3.6.1 Example of moisture content factor 73
2.3.7 Creep deflection factors 74
2.3.7.1 Example of deflection factor calculation 74
2.3.8 Design of tension members 75
2.3.8.1 Example of tension member design 76
2.3.9 Compression member design 76
2.3.9.1 Example of compression member design 80
2.4 SPECIFIC OUTCOMES 82

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2.5 REFERENCES 82
2.6 QUESTIONS FOR SELF-EVALUATION 83
2.7 SOLUTIONS TO THE SELF-EVALUATION QUESTION 84
2.8 TUTORIAL 88


















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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

2.1 OBJECTIVES
The objective of this section is to explain the basis of allowable stress design and the use of
the factors associated with it.
Lecture 2 introduces the design methods for structural timber design and reviews the National
Diploma syllabus with respect to timber design.

2.2 DESIGN METHODS
2.2.1 Introduction
Essentially there are two main categories of design methodology for designers to use,
working stress design and limit-states design. Plastic design is a variation of limit-states
design. The following has been abstracted from Prof. Burdziks notes.

2.2.2 Working stress design
Working stress, allowable stress, elastic and deterministic design are all terms which
essentially mean the same thing. The material is assumed to be linearly elastic and a factor of
safety has been applied to the yield or failure strength. The characteristic failure strength is
that strength, for timber, that has a 95% probability of being exceeded. A nominal load is
that load is assumed to have a 5% probability of being exceeded. The characteristic strength
divided by some factor that includes a safety factor against overstress, give us the
permissible stress. It is assumed that as long as the stresses due to applied nominal loads are
less than the permissible stress, the structure will be safe. Characteristic strength value are
determined by testing a large sample of the material in such a way to ensure that the
probability of any specimen of the material having a strength of less than the nominal value
will be less than 5%.
SANS 10163-2: The structural use of timber. Part 2: Allowable stress design is the applicable
design code for working stress design. Working stress codes demand that the stress due to
applied loads must be less than the permissible stress. Stresses due to applied loads are
calculated by analysis of the structure. Permissible stresses are quantified in the design code.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

Loads should be adjusted in accordance with the requirements and recommendations of
SANS 10160: The general procedure and loadings to be adopted in the design of buildings.
The code introduces factors for the duration of load, etc. as required by Clauses 4.1.2 and 5 of
SANS 10163-2.
Despite the international trend towards the use of limit-states design, working stress design is
still endorsed by most countries as an acceptable method, albeit more expensive, for the
design of small timber structures. This is probably because it is a tried and tested method
which is far simpler to apply than limit-states.

2.2.3 Limit-states design
Limit-states (or load factor or unified code) design attempts to ensure uniform safety against
failure. Assumptions include that both material and likely loads have some form of
distribution of strength and dimensions. Loads are multiplied by factors (in the same way as
allowable stress design using SANS 10160 procedures), but additional factors are introduced.
These factors are the ultimate limit states and the serviceability limit states which so modify
load combinations applied to a structure that a uniform safety factor against failure will result
(SANS 10160). The probable distribution of dimensions and strength are taken up in a
material strength factor. This method assures the designer of a more realistic appraisal of the
true safety factor against structural failure. Limit-states, in addition to strength values, include
deflections, crack size, serviceability, etc.
The applicable design code in Southern Africa is SANS 10163-1: The structural use of
timber. Part 1: Limit-states design.
Limit-states design is a method which may be applied to any structural timber design
however it is more specifically intended for substantial structures where a higher confidence
level is expected. For example a 3-storey building. It would be unusual to apply this method
to a small wooden bungalow design. Limit-states design is more simple and rational than
elastic design and easier to apply to more sophisticated structures with the results being more
predictable of actual in-service behaviour of the structure. Although opinion is divided, it is
generally accepted that the use of limit-states design results in a more economical structure
than one designed using allowable stress.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

2.2.4 Plastic design
The material is assumed to behave plastically and that when yield stresses are reached in
flexural members the member will have enough rotational capacity to shed some of the load
to sections that are not as heavily loaded. Failure will occur when sufficient plastic rotational
hinges have formed for the structure to become a mechanism. As with limit-states design
safety factors are applied to the loading.
We will not be covering Plastic Design in this course.

2.3 REVISION OF DIPLOMA LEVEL TIMBER DESIGN
2.3.1 Allowable stress design
The grade stresses referred to in SANS 10163-2, other than those for compression of slender
members, are the 5
th
percentile strength value of a sample, divided by a factor of 2,22. The 5
th

percentile value is that value which has a 95% probability of being exceeded and the 2,22
factor includes a factor for the duration of load combined with a safety factor. The grade
stresses in the code are therefore for long duration loading. Stresses for slender compression
members are divided from a Perry-Robertson type formula which is based on Eulers
buckling formula that allows for initial lack of straightness,
Permissible stresses are obtained either by multiplying SANS 10163-2 grade stresses by
stress modification factors or the loads can be multiplied by the relevant coefficient or
divided by the stress modification factors. The factors used in the design of members are:

.
.
.
.
5
4
3
2
1
1
1
content moisure the for factor the k
n fabricatio of quality for factor the k
structure of type the for factor the k
sharing load of factor the k
W C W C W C
W W W
k
load of duration the for factor the k
W fW I fI D fD
W D

+ +
+ +
=


Allowable stress for bending, tension and shear:
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

( ) stress bending k k k k p f
b 4 3 2 1
=
( ) grain the to parallel stress tensile k k k k p f
t 4 3 2 1
=
( ) stress shear k k k k p f
v 4 3 2 1
=
Allowable stress for compression:

stress Grade p Where
k k k k k p f
c
=
=
5 4 3 2 1

There are other modification factors in SANS 10163-2 but these will be dealt with later. Note
that the symbols used throughout this course will be those in the relevant SANS codes.

2.3.2 Duration of load factor
Long duration loads appear to cause strength loss in timber. Permanent, medium and short
duration loads are all considered when determining the value of k
1
(SANS 10163-2:
CI.6.3.3).
Permanent loads are those on the structure for 3 months or longer and include the self weight
of the structure. Medium duration loads (1-3 months) include imposed floor loads, etc., short
duration loads of less than a day include wind and very short duration loads of less than one
hour are the 0,9 kN point load. (SANS 10163-2: Table 7).
Where wind loading is critical and works to counter the effect of other loads, use only the
wind load to calculate k
1
.
Where loads work in the same direction and have the same form, the actual loads can be
inserted into the formula for the duration of load factor. It is therefore possible to modify the
loading and keep the permissible stress equal to the grade stress.



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2.3.2.1 Example of duration of load factor
Calculate the k
1
factor, for bending stresses, when a uniform loading is applied. Self-weight
is 1.5 kN/m and the imposed load is 2.1 kN/m.

Bending Moment =
8
2
wL
for both load cases, it therefore does not need to be calculated to
determine the factor. The factor will be the same for all lengths under this loading.
247 , 1
1 , 2 66 , 0 5 , 1 0 , 1
1 , 2 5 , 1
1
=
+
+
= k
In this case wind loading was not considered so W
W
= 0 in the equation from SANS 10163-2:
CI.6.3.3.

2.3.3 Load sharing factor
Care must be taken in applying this factor to ensure that the structure has a uniformly
distributed load acting on four or more members spaced not more than 600 mm apart in such
a way that they are restrained to the same deflection.
If the structure complies with these parameters and it is not a truss or a group of laminated
members then the modification factor k
2
may be taken as 1, 15.
In all other cases k
2
= 1

2.3.4 Type of structure factor
Usually this factor k
3
= 1 and it is applied to structural elements where failure would have
little effect. However the factors values range from 0,85 to 1,15 for trusses and girders of
different spans.

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2.3.5 Quality of fabrication factor
This modification factor k
4
is usually taken as 1 unless the structure under consideration is a
fabricated set of components complying with a SANS standard then k
4
= 1, 05.

2.3.6 Moisture content factor
Care must be taken in applying this factor to timber treated with water-based preservatives
such as CCA (Tanalised) owing to the strong possibility of moisture content being in
excess of 200 g/kg (20%). If the moisture content is certain not to exceed 170 g/kg (17%)
take k
5
= 1 but if the moisture content can occasionally exceed 170 g/kg (17%) in a joint or
compression member then take k
5
= 0, 75. Normal moisture content of structural timber is in
the order of 12% and fibre saturation point is around 25%.

2.3.6.1 Example of moisture content factor
Calculate the permissible axial stress for a column carrying a permanent load of 8 kN and a
short duration load of 15 kN. The grade stress is 4 MPa and the moisture content is 25%.

285 , 1
15 66 , 0 8 0 , 1
15 8
1
=
+
+
= k
k
2
= 1, 0
k
3
= 1, 0
k
4
= 1, 0
k
5
= 0, 75 (Moisture content > 17%)

Allowable stress = f
c
= p . k
1
. k
2
. k
3
. k
4
. k
5

= 4, 0 . 1, 285 . 1, 0 . 1, 0 . 1, 0 .0, 75
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= 3, 855 MPa

2.3.7 Creep deflection factors
The biological variability of timber contributes to the fact that under prolonged loading
deformation will increase with time. Some deformation will remain after the load is removed,
this permanent deformation is called creep. Creep is a function of the stress level and duration
to which the fibres have been subjected. It has been assumed that design stresses are equal to
the permissible stresses. Elastic deflections have to be adjusted in relation to the duration and
intensity of the load. The moisture content of 17% is a critical point above which creep also
increases.
Note that omission of creep modification factors will lead to actual deflection being
greater than those calculated.

design deflection
=
calculated deflection
. d
1
. d
2


allowable deflection
where
= deflection
d
1
= deflection modification for creep
d
2
= deflection modification for moisture content
(See SANS 10163-2: Table 9).
Refer to clause 6.4 SANS 10163-2.

2.3.7.1 Example of deflection factor calculation
The effect of self weight and imposed load is the same in this case because they are both
uniformly distributed loads.

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE


19 , 1
3 . 0 , 1 2 . 6 , 0
3 2
1
=
+
+
= d

2.3.8 Design of tension members
Tension members are those that are subject to axial tensile forces parallel to the grain of the
timber member. Forces tend to stretch the member. Failure is not influenced by slenderness
of the member.

t t
f
A
P
= =
where

t
is the calculated tensile stress in MPa
P is the total tensile force or applied load in N
A is the net cross-sectional area in mm
2

f
t
is the allowable tensile stress in MPa
f
t
= p . k
1
. k
2
. k
3
. k
4

The maximum Slenderness Ratio of a tension member may not exceed 250,
72 / b
e
l (SANS 10163-2: CI.7.3.4)



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2.3.8.1 Example of tension member design
Calculate the maximum allowable force that may be applied to 38 x 152 SAP Grade V4
member with a 20 mm diameter hole drilled through its centre. The proportion of the
permanent load to the imposed short duration load is 2.
Effective area = A = (152 -20) . 38 = 5016 mm
2

Grade stress = p = 2,2 MPa (SANS 10163-2: Table 3)
Duration of load factor = k
1
= (2 + 1) / (1, 0 . 2 + 0, 66 . 1) = 1, 128
Factors k
2
, k
3
& k
4
all equal 1, 0
Allowable tensile stress = f
t
= p . k
1
. k
2
. k
3
. k
4

= 1, 128 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 2, 2 = 2,48 MPa
Total tensile force = P < = A . f
t
= 5016 . 2, 48 = 12 439 N = 12,439 kN

Note that had the hole been drilled through the 38 mm face i.e. a 152 mm long hole there
would have been substantially less wood left in the section and the equation would have
been:
Effective area = A = 152 . (38 20) = 2 736 mm
2
with obvious reductions in order results.

2.3.9 Compression member design
Members which are axially loaded parallel to the grain with purely compressive forces are
compression members, these could be struts or columns. Forces tend to shorten the member.
The failure force is a function of the length and cross-sectional dimensions. The strength of a
compression member is usually written as a function of a slenderness ratio. This slenderness
ratio for steel is defined as the ratio between effective length and radius of gyration whereas
timber column slenderness is described as the ratio between the effective length and the
cross-sectional dimensions.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

A loaded timber compression member can fail in three ways depending on support
conditions, length and dimensions:
i. A short thick member will have a low slenderness and when it fails the wood fibres
buckle or fold together so that a compression crease runs across the material. These
creases may run diagonally or at 90
0
to the direction of the compressive force.
ii. An intermediate slenderness column, loaded to failure will have local breaking and
bending of wood fibres as well as sideways movement of central portion of the
column.
iii. A slender timber column will buckle sideways before any deformation of fibres can
occur.
Elastic design principles are still valid for compression members:

c c
f
A
P
=
Where
P = applied compression force
A = cross-sectional area of the member
c
= the compressive stress due to the design load
f
c
= allowable compressive stress = p . k
1
. k
2
. k
3
. k
4
The Grade Compressive Stress is a function of the Effective Length, which in turn is a
function of the End Support Conditions, and the Cross-sectional Dimensions. The end
support conditions play an important role in the way a column buckles. The greater the fixity
at the ends of a column the shorter the effective length becomes and thus the greater the
failure or permissible stress becomes.
The buckling mode or buckled shape gives us a good idea of the Euler effective length of a
column. The Euler column formula assumes straight, homogeneous columns that have linear-
elastic properties with concentric loading.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

Timber does not satisfy most of these conditions and the ends can seldom be fully fixed, in
addition effective lengths determined by Eulers buckling formula were found to be too
conservative it was therefore modified to the Perry-Robertson type formula now found in
SANS 10163-2 for concentrically loaded pin-ended columns:

( ) ( )
e cy
e cy e cy
c
p p
p p p p
p

+ +

+ +
=
2
2
1
2
1

Where
P
c
= the grade compressive stress.
P
cy
= the grade compressive stress parallel to the grain in a short strut, which is calculated at a
theoretical value of slenderness ratio approaching zero in MPa
= the eccentricity coefficient = 0, 002
Where: slenderness ratio = r
e
/ l =
Where:
e
l = effective length in mm
r = radius of gyration in mm
P
e
= the Euler stress =
2
2

e
E

Where: E
e
= effective modulus of elasticity = E / 2,22
Where: E is the average modulus of elasticity.
In the case of rectangular sections,

12
b
r =
Where: r = radius gyration in mm.
b = least dimension of the rectangular section in mm.
In the case of round sections.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE


4
D
r =
Where: D is the least diameter of the pole in mm.
When determining the slenderness ratio , / / D or b
e e
l l use the least dimension of the
section i.e. b is the smallest lateral dimension of a rectangular section and D is the least
diameter of a pole. See Tables 4-6 in SANS 10163-2.
According to Burdzik column or compression member design procedure is:
i. Determine the maximum axial compressive force on the member
ii. Establish the support conditions, draw the buckled mode of the column and determine
the effective length about the two major axes.
iii. Assume that the most economical member can be found if the slenderness ratios about
the two major axes are the same. Find the ratio between b, the width, and d, the depth.
iv. Assume a value for the permissible stress, divide the force by the permissible stress
and thereby determine a required cross-sectional area. Use the ratio between b and d
and find the dimensions.
v. Use the dimensions found in iv. to ascertain the grade stress. Determine the
permissible stress by multiplying the grade stress by the k factors.
vi. If the new permissible stress is more than 20% greater or less than the estimated
permissible stress of iii. find the average between the estimated and the new
permissible stress. Repeat the later part of step
vii. And the whole of step
viii. Until the permissible stress is within tolerances.
ix. Standardise one of the dimensions and calculate and standardise the other. Check that
the stresses due to the load are less than the permissible stress.

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Figure 2.1 shows some of the end conditions for a column or compression member. On the
left of each sketch the actual member is shown indicating the fixity and on the right of the
sketch the buckled shape and the Eulers effective length are shown. These values are based
on Eulers assumptions that:
i. Yield stress is ignored and infinite elasticity is assumed.
ii. The column is perfectly straight and loaded absolutely concentrically.
iii. The member is stable and in equilibrium.
See Table 15 in SANS 10163-2 for the design effective lengths which differ from Eulers
effective lengths as discussed above.

2.3.9.1 Example of compression member design
Determine the dimensions of a 3 m long column using SAP V4. The column is fixed at one
end and hinged at the other. It is unlikely that the moisture content will exceed 120 g/kg. A
permanent load of 7 kN and a short duration load of 15 kN is applied.

i. Axial load = 22kN
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ii. Effective length = 0, 85 . 3 000 (Table 15 SANS 10163-2)
= 2 550 mm
iii. Buckling length about both axes is the same, therefore b = d
iv. Assume permissible stress = 3, 0 MPa
Required sectional area = 22 000 / 3, 0
= 7 333 mm
2

with b = d we can take the root of the area to find the value of b

b = 85, 6 mm
v. Slenderness ratio = 2 550 / 85, 6 = 29, 8 (say 30)
vi. Grade stress = 2, 23 (Table 4, SANS 10163-2)

k
1
= (7 + 15) / (1,0 . 7 + 0,66 . 15) = 1, 302

k
2
to k
5
all equal 1,0
f
c
= 2, 23 . 1, 302 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 = 2,90 MPa
vii. The difference between assumed and calculated stresses is < 20% so from Appendix
B in SANS 10163-2 the thickness b is taken as 76 mm.
viii. Slenderness ratio = 2 550 / 76 = 34
Grade stress = 1, 77
Permissible stress = 1, 302 . 1, 77 = 2, 30 MPa
Width d = 22 000 / (2,30 . 76) = 125, 9 mm
Standardise d = 152 mm
Final dimensions = 76 x 152 mm

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2.4 SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
The learner will be able to determine the factors for duration of load, load sharing, type of
structure, quality of fabrication, moisture content and creep deflection after working though
this section.


2.5 REFERENCES
1. BURDZIK, Prof. WMG: Personal communications. Pretoria 1996.
2. SANS 1783: Sawn softwood timber
3. SANS 10163-2 : The structural use of timber. Part 2: Allowable stress design.













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2.6 QUESTIONS FOR SELF-EVALUATION
Try these questions before turning the page to look at the solutions.
2.6.1 Calculate the value of the k
1
factor for bending stresses for a uniform beam, 6 m long,
with a self weight of 1,5 kN/m and an imposed point load of 6 kN in the centre of the beam.
Ignore wind loads.
2.6.2 Calculate the value of the creep factor for bending stresses for the 8 m centrally
loaded long beam shown in the sketch.

2.6.3 Calculate the size of a tension member for a truss with a self weight of 10 kN and an
imposed load of 8 kN. The trusses are at 600 mm centres and are made of M6 SAP. It is
assumed that joints will deform plastically producing a load-deflection curve plateau which
ensures that load sharing can occur despite the fact that the trusses will have similar
stifnesses.
2.6.4 Give five factors which affect lateral buckling of a timber beam.
2.6.5 Determine a suitable cross-section for a 4 m long column of Stocklam which is hinged
at both ends but laterally supported 2 m above the bottom end along the minor axis and along
the major axis it is hinged at one end and fixed at the other. The long duration load is 30
kN and the short duration is 40 kN. Moisture content will remain below 10%.




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2.7 SOLUTIONS TO THE SELF-EVALUATION QUESTIONS
Having completed these questions the learner should now realise that a comprehensive
working knowledge of the prescribed design codes is essential even if it is an open book
exam.
2.7.1 Moment due to self weight = m kN
wL
. 75 , 6
8
6 5 , 1
2
2 2
=

=
Moment due to imposed load = m kN
wL
. 9
4
6 , 6
4
= =
k
1
= 241 , 1
9 66 , 0 75 , 6 0 , 1
9 75 , 6
=
+
+


2.7.2 In this case the effects of the loads are not equal.
Deflection due to self weight =
I E I E
L w

=

7 , 106
384
5
4

Deflection due to imposed load =
I E I E
L w

=

3 , 53
48
1
3

(E.I cancels out and may be omitted from the question for d)
36 , 1
33 , 53 0 , 1 7 , 106 6 , 0
33 , 53 7 , 106
1
=
+
+
= d

2.7.3 Grade stress = 3, 6 MPa (SANS 10163-2 : Table 3)
k
1
= (10 + 8) / (1, 0 . 10 + 0, 66 . 8) = 1,178
k
2
= 1, 15
k
3
= 1, 0 and k
4
= 1, 0
f
t
= 1, 178 . 1, 15 . 1, 0 . 1, 0 . 3, 6 = 4, 87 MPa
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

Area required = p / f
t
= (18 . 103) / 4, 87 = 3 696 mm
2
Using a standard width of 38 mm:
Depth = 3 696 / 38 = 97 mm
Therefore use the standard depth of 114 mm giving a member of 38 x 114 mm

2.7.4 The solution was found in the commentary of Clause 7.2.3.2 of SANS 10163-2. (This
illustrates the need for the learner to thoroughly acquaint himself with all the content of the
relevant codes)
i. The depth-to width ratio.
ii. The geometrical and physical properties of the beam section.
iii. The nature of the applied load.
iv. The position of the applied loading with respect to the neutral axis of the section.
v. The degree of restraint provided at the vertical supports and at points along the span.

2.7.5
i. Axial load = 30 + 40 = 70 kN
ii. Effective lengths:
Minor axis = 1, 0 . 2 000 = 2 000 mm
Major axis = 0, 85 . 4 000 = 3 400 mm
iii. Set slenderness ratio on major axis = slenderness ratio on minor axis
2 000 / b = 3 400 / d
d = 1, 7 b
iv. Assume permissible stress = 4 MPa
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

v. Area = Force / permissible stress = 70 000 / 4 = 17 500 mm
2

b . 1, 7 . b = 17 500 therefore b = 101, 5 mm
Therefore d = 1, 7 . 101, 5 = 172, 6 mm
New slenderness ratios:
Minor axis = 2 000 / 101, 5 = 19, 7 (say 20)
Major axis = 3 400 / 172, 6 = 19, 7 (say 20)

vi. Determine the permissible stresses:
Grade stress = 4,32 MPa (Table 4 SANS 10163-2)
k
1
= (30 + 40) / (1,0 . 30 + 0,66 . 40) = 1,24 (for both axes)
k
2
, k
3
, k
5
= 1,0
k
4
= 1,05 (Stocklam complies with an SANS code)
Permissible stress = 1,24 . 1 .1 . 1,05 . 1 . 4,32 = 5,62 MPa
This is > 20% more than the estimated stress.

vii. New estimated permissible stress = (5,62 + 4) / 2 = 4,81 MPa

viii. Area required = 70 000 / 4,81 = 14 553 mm
2

b . 1,7 . b = 14 553 therefore b = 92,5 mm and d = 157, 3 mm
New slenderness ratios:
Minor axis = 2 000 / 92,5 = 21,6 (say 22)
Major axis = 3 400 / 157,3 = 21.6 (say 22)
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ix. Determine permissible stresses
Grade stress = 3,78 MPa
Permissible stress = 1,24 . 1 . 1 . 1,05 . 3,78 = 4,92 MPa
Difference between new estimated and calculated stresses < 20%
New dimensions:
1,7 . b
2
= 70 000 / 4,92 therefore b = 91,48 mm
Standardise from Appendix B : b = 100 mm
New slenderness ratio about minor axis = 2 000 / 100 = 20
x Determine permissible stresses
Grade stress = 4,32 MPa
Permissible stress = 1, 24 . 1 . 1 . 1,0 5 . 4, 32 = 5, 62 MPa
Depth of member = 70 000 / (5,62 . 100) = 124,6 mm
Standardise 100 + 33,3 = 133,3 mm
Final dimensions = 100 x 133, 3 mm








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2.8 TUTORIAL
2.8.1 With reference to SANS 0163-2, discuss the effects of moisture content and the
duration of load on structural timber members. (5)
2.8.2 Briefly compare allowable stress and Limit-states design methods.
2.8.3 Calculate the k
1
factor for bending stresses for a 7 m long uniform section timber beam
with a self weight of 3 kN/m. The beam has two points loads of 9 kN acting at the third
points. (10)
2.8.4 Calculate the dimensions for a concentrically loaded, 3,6 m long column with a
permanent load of 18 kN, medium term load of 10 kN and a short duration load of 16 kN. M8
SAP timber, with a moisture content of 165 g/kg is being used in structure where both ends
are hinged. (10)













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MODULE 2
STUDY NOTES
CHAPTER 3
BASIC STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS & JOINTS

CONTENTS PAGE
3.1 OBJECTIVES 91
3.2 BEAM DESIGN 91
3.2.1 Permissible stresses 91
3.2.2 Laterally supported beam design example 92
3.2.3 Laterally unsupported beams 94
3.2.4 Example of laterally unsupported beam design 98
3.3 JOINTS 100
3.3.1 Allowable joint force and design loads 100
3.3.2 Butt-joints in compression 102
3.3.3 Density groups 102
3.3.4 Fasteners 102
3.3.5 Loads at various angles to the grain 103
3.3.6 Nails 103
3.3.6.1 Example of joint design with nails 105
3.3.7 Bolts 106
3.3.7.1 Example of bolted joint design 108
3.4 TIMBER SECTION PROPERTIES 110
3.5 SPECIFIC OUTCOMES 114
3.6 REFERENCES 115
3.7 QUESTIONS FOR SELF-EVALUATION 116

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3.8 SOLUTIONS TO THE SELF-EVALUATION QUESTIONS 117
3.9 TUTORIAL 120




















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3.1 OBJECTIVES
The objective of this section is:
1. To show the student how to apply the allowable stress method of design to design basic
ties, struts and beams.
2. To explain the use of different types of connections in timber and to enable the student to
determine the allowable joint forces and design loads.

3.2 BEAM DESIGN
The design of timber beams does not only needs to consider the usual bending, shear
stresses, deflection and camber, but also the bearing area at the supports in relation to the
allowable compressive stresses of the timber.
The basic principles of timber beam design hold true for all timber products. This means
that, as with other materials such as concrete and steel, timber beams can be designed to
take a number of different forms and compositions. For example, the latest trend in South
Africa is to use I beams which are composite (built-up) beams with solid timber flanges
and plywood webs. Laminated timber beams have been in service for some time in this
country.

3.2.1 Permissible stresses
Calculate bending stress =
b b
f
d b
M

=
2
6

Where:
M = applied moment in MPa
b = width of member in mm
d = depth of member in mm
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

f
b
= P
b
. k
1
. k
2
. k
3
. k
4
in MPa
Calculate shear stress =
v v
f
d b
V

=
5 , 1

Where
M = applied shear force in N
b = width of member in mm
d = depth of member in mm
f
v
= P
v
. k
1
. k
2
. k
3
. k
4
in MPa
Calculate bearing stress =
cp cp
f
w b
R

=
Where
R = reaction force in N
b = width of member in mm
w = width of support in mm
f
cp
= P
cp
. k
1
. k
2
. k
3
. k
4
in MPa (Allowable compressive stress perpendicular to the grain)

3.2.2 Laterally supported beam design example
Design a beam to a span 5 m with a permanent load of 1,5 kN/m, it is laterally supported on
its compression edge along its full length. A 70 mm wide Stocklam is required. Calculate the
required depth of the beam, final long term deflection and test for shear. (W Burdzik)

Referring to Table 3 SANS 10163-2:
Grade stress in bending = p
b
= 5,2 MPa
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

Allowable bending stress = f
b
= 5,2 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 = 5,2 MPa
Allowable shear stress = f
v
= 0,7 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 = 0,7 MPa
Allowable bearing stress = f
cp
= 2,1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 =2,1 MPa

Design for bending. Test for shear and bearing:
Bending stress =
b b
f
d b
M

=
2
. 6

Moment M = 1,5 . 5
2
/ 8 = 4,69 kN.m
Therefore d
2
= mm d so 278
70 2 , 5
10 69 , 4 6
6
=



Standardise the depth (Clause b.2.2 SANS 10163-2)
9 . 33,3 = 299 mm

Required support width:
Design stress Allowable stress
cp
f
w b
R


R = 1,5 . 5 / 2 = 3,75kN
R / w . b = 2,1 therefore w = 3,75 . 10
3
/ 2,1 . 70 = 25,5 mm

Test for shear stress:
Design stress Allowable stress
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

v
f
d b
V

. 5 , 1

. 7 , 0 269 , 0
7 , 0
299 70
10 75 , 3 5 , 1
3
ry satisfacto therefore is shear The




Calculate final deflection:
Design deflection = Elastic deflection . d
1
. d
2

ALLOWABLE

( )
667 . 1
0 . 0 , 1 0 . 0 , 1 5 , 1 . 6 , 0
0 0 5 , 1
. . .
04 , 10
10 93 , 155 7800 384
5000 5 , 1 5
384
5
10 . 93 , 155 12 / 299 . 70 12 / . /
2 0163 1 2 . 1 . 4 . 25 200 / 5000
200 /
1
1
1
4 4
4 3 3 3
=
+ +
+ +
=
+ +
+ +
=
=


=


=
= = =
= =
=
W dW dl D dD
W D
ELASTIC
ALLOWABLE
W C W C W C
W W W
d
mm
I E
L w
mm h b
SANS CI mm
L

d
2
= 1,0 (Table 9 SANS 10163-2) Assume the Equilibrium Moisture Content applies, this is
less than 17% anywhere in Southern Africa.
ALLOWABLE
mm = = 74 , 16 0 , 1 . 667 , 1 . 04 , 10
Member size is 299 x 70 Grade 5 stocklam

3.2.3 Laterally unsupported beams
The lateral stability of timber beams is a function of the ratio between depth and width and
the effective length of the beam. It is an aspect of design that should always be examined.
Table 10 in SANS 10163-2 shows h / d ratios.
In addition to a beams h / d ratios there are other factors which can introduce torsional
effects which may results in buckling:
Geometrical and physical properties of the beam.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

The nature of the applied loadings.
Position of the applied loads with respect to the neutral axis.
The degree of lateral support at supports and along length of beam.
A Slenderness Factor and a critical Slenderness Factor are used in timber beam design:
b
k
e
s
P
E
C and
b
d
C

=
5
3
2
l

Where
C
s
= Slenderness Factor
C
K
= Critical Slender Factor
e
l = Effective length as multiple of L
u
obtained from Table 3.1
L
u
= Laterally unsupported length of beam
d = Depth of beam
b = Width of beam
E = Average modulus of elasticity
P
b
= Grade Bending Stress
Table 3.1: Effective
e
l for rectangular beams
Type of beam span & nature of load Effective length
e
l
Single span beam, load concentrated at centre 1,61 L
u

Single span beam, uniformly distributed load 1,92 L
u

Single span beam, equal end moments 1,84 L
u

Cantilever beam, load concentrated at unsupported end 1,69 L
u

Cantilever beam, uniformly distributed load 1,06 L
u

Single span or Cantilever beam, any load 1,92 L
u
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

The designer has three options, firstly Figure 4 in SANS 10163-2 gives a modified bending
stress, P
bm
which may be read directly or secondly to use Table 3.2 of this study guide, which
also gives P
bm,
both of these were derived from formulae in Clause 7.2.3 of SANS 10163-2
and both simplify the calculation process to the form:
Allowable bending stress = f
b
= P
bm
. k
1
. k
2
. k
3
. k
4
. k
5

The critical Slenderness factor has already been calculated in Table 3.2 of this study guide so
all that remains is to determine the values of c
s
and
e
l , then read off P
bm
from Table 3.2
where values above the thick line are intermediate beams (where 10 < C
s
C
k
) and those
below the thick line are long beams (C
k
< C
s
< 52)
Short beams are those where C
s
< 10 and P
bm
so no modification is needed.














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Table 3.2: Modified Grade Bending Stress P
bm
for Slender Beams

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

Deflection, shear and bearing all are designed for in the same way as laterally supported
beams.

3.2.4 Example of laterally unsupported beam design
Calculate the size of a Grade 8 member spanning 6 m with a tiled-roof load, tile mass is 50
kg/m
2
. The members are at an angle of 25
0
and are spaced at 600 mm centres. There is no
lateral bracing.
Estimate self weight of beams and battens at 0,3 kN/m
2
. The short duration roof load for
inaccessible roofs is 0,5 kN/m
2
(SANS 10160).

Factoring loads as required by SANS 10160:
Tiles = 0,6 . 0,5 / cos 25
0
= 0,33 kN/m
Beam = 0,6 . 0,3 = 0,18 kN/m
Self weight = 0,33 + 0,18 = 0,51 kN/m
Imposed load = 0,6 . 0,5 = 0,3 kN/m
Total load = 0,51 + 0,3 = 0,81 kN/m
Bending moment = M = 0,81 . 6
2
/ 8 = 3,645 kN/m
Dimensions are unknown, so assume a value for modified bending stress:
P
bm
= 7,0 MPa
K
1
= (0,51 + 0,3) / (1,0 . 0,51 + 0,66 . 0,3) = 1,14
F
b
= P
bm
. k
1
. = 7,0 . 1,14 = 7,98 MPa
Set induced stress permissible stress

b
f
h b
M

2
6

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

Set h = 3 . b (From Table 10 : SANS 10163-2)
98 , 7
9
10 645 , 3 6
3
6


b

67 b mm with a span of 6 m it is almost a foregone conclusion that glulam is used so we
can set b = 70 mm then h = 3 . 70 = 210 mm, standardise to 7 . 33,3 = 233 mm
From Table 3.1 (or SANS 10163-2 Table 11):
mm L
U e
520 11 000 6 . 92 , 1 . 92 , 1 = = = l
Calculate the slenderness factor:

. 755 , 5
233 70
10 645 , 3 6
647 , 7 14 , 1 708 , 6
708 , 6 1 . 3
4 , 23
70
233 11520
2
6
1
2 2
acceptable is size therefore f MPa
MPa k P f
MPa P Table from rata pro
b
d
C
b b
bm b
bm
e
S
=


=
= = =
=
=

l

Check shear:

MPa k p f
f
d b
V
v v
v
14 , 1 0 , 1
5 , 1
1
= =


Induced horizontal shear stress = MPa
v
223 , 0
233 70
10 43 , 2 5 , 1
3
=


=
v v
f which is satisfactory
Check bearing stresses at support:
Design stress Allowable stress

, 7 , 8 70 87 , 3 / 10 36 , 2 87 , 3 70 /
87 , 3 14 , 1 4 , 3
3
mm w therefore w R
MPa f
w b
R
cp
= = =
=


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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

This is minimal so a nominal 38 x 75 mm wallplate will be more than adequate.
Check deflection:
From SANS 10163 Table 1: mm L
ALLOWABLE
24 250 / = =
Design deflection = elastic deflection
ALLOWABLE
d d
2 1


34 , 1
3 , 0 0 , 1 51 , 0 6 , 0
3 , 0 51 , 0
64 , 17
10 788 , 73 10500 384
6000 81 , 0 5
384
5
10 . 788 , 73 12 / 233 . 70 12 / /
1
6
4 4
4 6 3 3
=
+
+
=
+ +
+ +
=
=


=


=
= = =
W dW I D dD
W I D
ELASTIC
W C W W C
W W W
d
mm
I E
L w
mm h b

d
2
= 1,0 (Table 9 SANS 10163-2) Assume that EMC applies.
ALLOWABLE
mm = = 64 , 23 0 , 1 . 34 , 1 . 64 , 17
Member is 233 x 70 Grade 8 Stocklam on a 38 x 114 mm wallplate.

3.3 JOINTS
The term fastener, as used in SANS 10163-2, generally means screw, bolt or connector other
than nails or nail-plates.
Designers must be aware of the possible causes of joint failure so that these problems can be
accommodated. Some of the more common problems include: joint slip or joint deformation,
timber shrinkage, fungal decay and fastener corrosion. These potential problems are largely
attributable to moisture. If adequate precautions are taken to ensure that the timber remains
below 17% moisture content, preservatives (and or sealants) are applied and corrosion-
resistant (galvanised) fasteners are used, then most hazards are avoided.

3.3.1 Allowable joint forces and design loads
The basic joints according to SANS 10163-2 (Appendix C) is taken as the lesser of the
following two values:
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

a) The average ultimate force divided by 3 or the 5% lower exclusion limit divided by
2,22; or
b) The average force at joint slip (timber to timber) of 0,76 mm divided by 1,6.

Tables 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 31, 32 and 33 in SANS 10163-2 show basic joint forces for various
fasteners, nails and density groups.
The allowable joint force = basic force multiplied by the relevant modification factors (k
1
to
k
5
).
The load acting on an individual fastener is:
( ) ( )
2 2
my dy mx dx
F F F F F + + + =
Where F
dx
= F
x
/ n
F
dy
= F
y
/ n
F
mx
= M . Y
m
/ /
p

F
my
= M . X
m
/ /
p

F
x
= force in the X direction
F
y
= force in the Y direction
n = Number of fasteners
M = Moment acting as a point
X
m
, Y
m
= x and y co-ordinate distances to the nail furthest from the joint centroid.
/
p
= /
x
+ /
y
= Polar moment of area of the nail group.
/
x
= Second moment of area of the nail group about the X axis.
/
y
= Second moment of area of the nail group about the Y axis.

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3.3.2 Butt-joints in compression
Butt-joints acting in one plane are fairly common in trusses. The maximum allowable gap is 1
mm between members. It may be assumed that 50% of the compressive forces acting in the
member are transferred to the joint fasteners.
The allowable compressive stresses should not be exceeded.

3.3.3 Density groups
The tables mentioned in 3.3.1 above give basic joint forces for the two density groups. Stress
grades 4 and 5 generally fall under density group D
2
and stress grades 6 to 16 fall under
density group D
1
.

3.3.4 Fasteners
When groups of screws, bolts or connectors are used in a joint refer to SANS 10163-2: CI.8,
1.5. See the following example:

Six 12 mm bolts form two rows of three parallel to the grain in a V4 SAP 38 x 114 mm
tension member subject to a permanent load of 8 kN, a short duration load of 5 kN. Will the
bolts be strong enough for the load?

P
6
= 6 . 2,7 . 1,0 = 16,2 kN (From table 21 and 27 : SANS 10163-2)
K
1
= (8 + 5) / (1,0 . 8 + 0,66 . 5) = 1,15
F
t
= 2,2 . 1,15 . 1,0 . 1,0 . 1,0 = 2,53 MPa
A = 38 . 114 = 4 332 mm
2

P = 4 332 . 2,53 / 1000 = 10,96 kN
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The allowable joint force 16,2 kN > 10,96 kN load therefore this joint will be satisfactory.

3.3.5 Loads at various angles to the grain
The angle of load to the grain affects the strength of fasteners. Coach screws, bolts, toothed
split-ring and shear-plate connectors which are subject to forces which are not parallel to the
grain need to be modified by calculating the allowable force N
1
for any angle against the
grain. This is necessary because the compressive strength of wood differs with respect to the
direction of the grain. The bearing pressure of a fastener meets relatively high resistance in
the direction of the grain and a much lower resistance perpendicular to the grain.
Nails, staples and wood screws are exempt from this because in their case, joint slip is a more
important factor for failure than ultimate strength.
The allowable force is determined by Hankinsons formula:


2 2
1
cos sin +

=
Q P
Q P
N
Where:
P = allowable force for the fastener parallel to the grain in N.
Q = allowable force for the fastener perpendicular to the grain in N
= the acute angle of load direction and the grain longitudinal direction.

SANS 10163-2 Clause 8.1.6 gives a fairly descriptive commentary and set of rules to be
applied which will not be repeated here.

3.3.6 Nails
A variety of nails are available but we will only concern ourselves with plain wire nails
complying with SANS 820: Mild steel nails.
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The minimum spacing of nails should be 10.D along the grain and 5.D across the grain and
the edge distance should be 5.D for members subjected to axial forces and 10.D for members
subjected to bending. (See CI.8.2 SANS 10163-2). By staggering the nails (or any fasteners),
more can be placed in a given area and still comply with the requirements of the Code. See
Figure 3.1.


Allowable shear load that each nail can carry is:
P
v
= P
a
/ (50 . D
2
) OR
Where holes are pre-drilled (0,5 to 0,8.D (maximum) holes)
P
v
= P
a
/ (12,5 . D
2
)
Where D = nominal diameter of nails in mm.
P
a
= basic force in single shear in kN. (Table 22 SANS 10163-2)
The allowable strength calculated in this manner may be increased by 25% if metal side-
plates are used.
Read the commentary in SANS 10163-2 Clause 8.2.1 with regard to withdrawal forces. Baird
and Ozelton state no load in withdrawal should be carried by a nail driven into the end grain
of timber. They also give a formula for the ultimate withdrawal load in side grain:
F
u
= 47,6 . p
2.5
.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

Where F
u
= Ultimate nail in N/mm of penetration.
p = The specific gravity of the wood. {see below}
D = The diameter of the nail in mm.
Specific gravity is now called Relative density and it is the density of the substances in
question divided by the density of water. The average density, given in Table 1 of SANS
10163-2, divided by 1 000 will give the required value.
Note: The basic load should be taken as F
u
/ 6 and may be applied to both green and
seasoned timber.
Whether this formula for ultimate withdrawal load is used or not is a matter of designers
choice, it is not mentioned in the SANS codes for Allowable Stress or Limit-states design.
These codes of practice are not comprehensive design documents, they are guidelines for
minimum standards of practice and as can be seen from reading them there are many
instances where the respective codes refer the reader to other literature.

3.3.6.1 Example of joint design with nails
Design a tension splice in a 38 x 114 mm V4 SAP member which has a permanent load of 4
kN and a short duration load of 3kN.

Assume that splice plates are 25 mm thick V4 SAP on each face of the member to be joined
then:
Nail length = 25 . 2 + 38 = 88 mm
Use a 4,0 mm diameter nail 90 mm long
Basic force = 0,23 kN/nail for D2 timber (Table 22 SANS 10163-2)
K
1
= 4 + 4 + 3 / (1 . 4 + 0,66 . 3) = 1,17
Allowable force per nail = 1,17 . 0,23 = 0,269 kN in single shear
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

therefore in double shear force = 0,538 kN
Number of nails required = Load / Allowable force
= (4 + 3) / 0,538 = 13 say 14 nails.
Spacing across the grain = 10 . D = 40 mm
Spacing parallel to the grain = 5 . D = 20 mm
Using staggered spacing the splice needs to be 480 mm long as illustrated in Figure 3.2.


This is because there are 6 x 40 mm spaces on each side in order to achieve the necessary
spacing.

3.3.7 Bolts
Bolts should have washers under both head and nut to facilitate fixing and to spread the load.
Clause 8.4.4 of SANS 10163-2 makes provision for modification of the basic forces when
large washers are used. The minimum sizes of washers given as 3.D diameter and 0,3.D
thickness by SANS for large washers are actually recommended by Baird & Ozelton as the
minimum for any washers. (See Appendix A of SANS 10163-2)
SANS is more conservative than the overseas standards with regards to spacing of bolts. 4.D
is the general spacing, with 2.D allowed as edge distance on axially loaded members (1,5.D
overseas), 4.D edge distance for members subjected to bending and 7.D from ends of
members.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

Bolt holes should be the same diameter as the bolt with an allowable tolerance of + 1,0 mm.
See clause 8.4.6 SANS 10163-2, with regard to joint slip, hole diameter and creep deflection.
The stress modification factors k
1
to k
5
and the deflection factors d
1
and d
2
must be applied to
bolts.
The allowable load per unit area for bolts = P
v
= P
a
/ (16. D
2
)
Where D = Diameter of the bolt in mm.
P
a
= basic force in kN. (Tables 27 & 28 SANS 10163-2)

Note: It can be seen from these tables that both timber thickness and density group have a
direct bearing on the allowable bolt load.
As a rule the minimum required bolt length will be the thickness of the members to be joined
plus the bolt diameter, which is normally slightly larger than the nut thickness. For example
two 50 mm members joined by a set of M12 bolts will require at least (2 . 50) + 12 = 112 mm
long bolts, but the standard sizes are 110 and 120 mm so the joint will need 120 mm long
bolts.
Bolts and washers should be corrosion resistant, hot-dip galvanising is the most commonly
used method and in certain circumstances stainless steel may be needed. Do not mix types, or
protection of metals or electrolytic corrosion may occur.
Hankisons Formula may be used to calculate load capacities of the bolts when loads are
between 0
0
and 90
0
to the grain. SANS do not suggest a method of determining joint shear
stress values but Breyer recommends this formula:

e
d b
V
t

=
5 , 1

Where
t = Shear stress in MPa.
V = Shear stress in kN.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

b = Breadth or thickness of the member in mm.
d
e
= Distance from unloaded edge to the centre of the nearest bolt (or edge of split-ring or
circular toothed connector) in mm.
Stalnaker & Harris have a variation of this formula, adapted from a beam shear formula.
However it gives different results to Breyers equation. Breyers formula is more
conservative and therefore preferable.

3.3.7.1 Example of bolted joint design
A 152 x 38 mm V4 SAP joist is bolted to a 114 x 38 mm V4 SAP column. The permanent
load is 3,6 kN and an imposed load of 6kN is applied for 8 hours every day in a sheltered
area. Design the bolted joint.

Assume 4 m 12 bolts will be used then from Table 27 in SANS 10163-2 basic force per bolt
= P
b
= 1,7 kN (Perpendicular to grain)
k
1
= 3,6 . 6 / (3,6 / 1 + 0,66) = 1, 270 (Clause 6.3.3)
k
2
to k
5
each equals 1 in this case
Allowable force per bolt = P = P
b
. k
1
= 1,7 . 1,27 = 2,16 kN
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

Assume steel side-plates are used then Clause 8.2.2 applies:
P = P . 1,25 = 2,70 kN
Allowable force on joint from Clause 8.1.5 SANS 10163-2:
P
N
= n . P . = 4 . 2,70 . 0,99 = 10,69 kN
Total load on joint = W = 3,6 + 6 = 9,6 kN
The design is satisfactory so far because P
N
> W
Check for shear:
Grade shear stress parallel to grain = P
v
= 0,7 MPa (Table 3)
Allowable shear stress =
v
= k
1
. P
v
= 1,27 . 0,7 = 0,889 MPa.
Shear force = V = 1 . 3,6 + 0,66 . 6 = 7,56 kN.
d
e
= 80 mm (See figure 3.3) and b 38 mm
Shear stress = t = 1,5 . 7,56 . 10
3
/ (38 . 80) = 3,73 MPa.

The actual shear stress exceeds the allowable so the joint will fail because the column is
loaded parallel to the grain and it will not withstand the applied load. In addition owing to the
restrictions on bolt spacing, it is not possible to put any more bolts into the connection. Some
other method of connection will have to be tried on this joint or the column and/or beam sizes
and possibly the grade will have to be changed. Changing the grade alone would not provide
a sufficiently high enough allowable shear stress for this load.





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3.4 TIMBER SECTION PROPERTIES
Table 3.3: Rough-Sawn (Minimum Dimensions) SA Pine Section Properties










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Table 3.4: Nominal SA Pine Stocklam Section Properties (Cont.)













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Table 3.4 (Continued): SA Pine Stocklam Section Properties






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Table 3.4 (Continued): SA Pine Stocklam Section Properties

These tables were generated on a computer spreadsheet. You can easily produce your own
table in the same way for a number of different reasons.
For example, round pole section tables, PAR tables, etc. The more preparatory work you do
now, the less tiresome the exam will be.



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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

3.5 SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
At the end of this section the learner will be able to:
1. Determine the permissible stresses and size of timber section required to resist
tension, compression, bending and shear effects.
2. Design bolted and nailed joints in timber elements.

















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3.6 REFERENCES
1. BURDZIK, Prof. WMG: Personal communications. Pretoria: 1996.
2. SANS 10160: The general procedures and loadings to be adopted in the design of
buildings.
3. SANS 10163-2: The structural use of timber. Part 2: Allowable stress design.
4. Baird JA & Ozelton EC: Timber designers manual. (2
nd
Edition). Blackwell Science
Ltd, Oxford, 1995.
5. Stalnaker JJ & Harris EC: Structural design in wood. Van Nostrand reinhold, New
York, 1989 (Imperial units)
6. South African lumber Millers Association: SALMA Timber Manual. SALMA,
Isando, 1995.












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3.7 QUESTIONS FOR SELF-EVALUATION
Try these questions before turning the page to look at the solutions.
3.7.1 Determine a safe span for a laterally supported beam carrying a 22 mm thick floor in a
house. The joints are spaced at 600 mm centres, 38 x 200 mm Grade 5 SAP is used,
moisture content is 12%.


















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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

3.8 SOLUTIONS TO THE SELF-EVALUATION QUESTIONS
3.8.1
From SANS 10160:
UDL = 0,6 . 1,5 = 0, 900 kN/m
Flooring = 0,6. 9,81 . 0,5 . 22 / 1 000 = 0,065 kN/m
Self weight = 470 . 9,81 . 0,036 . 0, 197 / 1 000 = 0,033 kN/m
Total self weight = 0, 065 + 0,033 = 0,098 kN/m
Total load = 0.098 + 0,9 = 0,998 kN/m
Modification factors:
k
1
= 1,15
k
3
= k
4
= k
5
= 1,0
k
1
= (0,098 + 0,9) / (1,0 . 0,098 + 0,66 . 0,66 . 0,9) = 1,4421
Referring to Table 3 SANS 10163-2:
Grade stress in bending = P
b
= 5,2 MPa
Allowable bending stress = f
b
= 5,2 . 1,4421 . 1,15 . 1 . 1 = 8,62 MPa
Allowable shear stress = f
v
= 0,7 . 1,4421 . 1,15 . 1 . 1 = 1,16 MPa
Allowable bearing stress = f
cp
= 2,1 . 1,4421 . 1,15 . 1 . 1 = 3,38 MPa
Design for bending. Test for shear and bearing:

mm L set
mm L so L therefore
m kN L M Moment
f
d b
M
stress Bending
b b
000 4
4011
6 998 , 0
197 36 62 , 8 8
. 8 / 998 , 0
6
2
2
2
2


=
=

= =

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

Required support width:
Design stress Allowable stress

cp
f
w b
R


R = 0,998 . 4 / 2 = 1,996 kN
R / w . b = 3,48 therefore w = 1,996 . 10
3
/ 3,48 . 36 = 16 mm
No problems here, use a 38 x 76 mm wallplate.
Test for shear stress:
Design stress Allowable stress

16 , 1
197 36
10 996 , 1 5 , 1
5 , 1
3

v
f
d b
V

0,422 1,16 The shear is therefore satisfactory.
Calculate final deflection:
Design deflection = Elastic deflection . d
1
. d
2

ALLOWABLE

) 2 0163 1 9 ( 0 , 1
041 , 1
9 , 0 0 , 1 098 , 0 6 , 0
098 , 0 9 , 0
6 , 18
22936119 7800 384
4000 998 , 0 5
384
5
119 936 22 12 / 197 . 36 12 / . /
) 0160 1 1 ( 3 , 13 300 / 000 4
300 /
2
1
4 4
4 3 3
=
=
+
+
=
+ +
+ +
=
=


=


=
= = =
= =
=
SANS Table d
W C W C W C
W W W
d
mm
I E
L w
mm h b
SANS Table mm
L
W dW I dI D dD
W I D
ELASTIC
ALLOWABLE

Because the allowable deflection is already exceeded, take another look at the span, using
13 mm as deflection:
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

m say mm L then L Set 6 , 3 621 3
0 , 1 . 041 , 1 . 998 , 0 . 5
13 . 22936119 . 7800 . 384
4
= =
Safe span is 3,6 m



















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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

3.9 TUTORIAL
3.9.1 A 38 x 228 mm M8 SAP simply supported beam spanning 4,5 m has lateral support
on the ends and the centre of the top edge. It carries a central point load.
a) What is the moment resistance of the beam? (5)
b) What is the maximum central point load W this beam can carry, based on bending
strength only? (5)
3.9.2 A 50 x 228 mm M6 SAP beam is supported by a 38 x 114 mm SAP wallplate. The
reaction at the support is 20 kN. Show whether or not there is a possibility of bearing
and shear failure. (5)
3.9.3 A 52 x 114 mm M5 SAP has an axial tensile load of 19 kN. It has a bolted joint in the
centre which has steel side-plates. Design the bolted joint to resist the axial force.
(10)
3.9.4 A tension splice in a 38 x 152 mm V4 SAP member with a permanent load of 5 kN, a
medium duration load of 2 kN and a short duration load of 1,5 kN is nailed together
with 25 mm thick VS splice plates on both sides. Design the nailed joint, taking
withdrawal forces into account. (10)









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MODULE 2
STUDY NOTES
CHAPTER 4
FORMWORK
CONTENTS PAGE
4.1 OBJECTIVES 122
4.2 FORMWORK 122
4.2.1 Loads acting on formwork 122
4.2.1.1 Example of formwork load calculation 124
4.2.2 Timber formwork materials 125
4.2.3 Timber formwork design 128
4.2.3.1 Wall formwork 128
4.2.3.1.1 Example of wall formwork design 128
4.3 FALSEWORK 136
4.4 SPECIFIC OUTCOMES 139
4.5 REFERENCES 140
4.6 QUESTIONS FOR SELF-EVALUATION 141
4.7 SOLUTIONS TO THE SELF-EVALUATION QUESTIONS 142
4.8 TUTORIAL 148




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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

4.1 OBJECTIVES
The objective of this section is to study the loads & pressure acting on formwork and
shutterboards.

4.2 FORMWORK
Shuttering is the part of the formwork which is in contact with the concrete. Formwork is the
framework supporting the shuttering and falsework is the framework supporting the
formwork. However, the terms formwork and shuttering are generally used interchangeably
to describe all three terms. Overseas publications refer to sheathing when referring to the
sheathing used in formwork, but we call it shuttering or shutter-panels or shutter-boards in
Southern Africa.

4.2.1 Loads acting on formwork
SANS 10160 does not make any recommendations for loads on formwork, however both
Parts 1 and 2 of SANS 10163 do mention formwork and scaffolding in their respective
duration-of-load modification factors.
There seems to be little consensus on what design method to use for formwork in South
Africa. A common trend is merely to use safe-load tables published by scaffolding and
formwork suppliers, these tables were originally designed by empirical and allowable stress
methods. There seems to be little choice but to follow established practice overseas and adapt
these methods to local conditions. Meuwese produced a comprehensive book on formwork
design, for in-house use by Murray & Roberts, using allowable stress design principles and
drawing heavily on American Concrete Institute recommendations. Unfortunately this work
has not been updated and timber grades referred to no longer exist.

The following factors affecting pressure on formwork are adapted from Hurst.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

Densities can vary from 10 kN/m
3
for light-weight concrete to as much as 40 kN/m
3
for
heavy aggregate concretes but most concrete poured in Southern Africa is in the order of 25
kN/m
3
. Note that density has no influence on hydrostatic pressures.
Height of discharge could have an influence on the formwork but if good concreting practice
is adhered to this should not become an issue.
Temperature of concrete should be in the range of 15 30
0
C. When no precautions are taken
to control concrete temperature (which is generally the case), the concrete pressure and the
hydrostatic pressure must be increased by 3% for every 1
0
C below 15
0
C and decreased by 3%
(with a maximum of 30%) for every 1
0
C above 15
0
C.
Rates of placing concrete influence pressure on the shuttering and the pressure depend on the
fluidity of the concrete where:
Pressure on shuttering, P
sh
= 5 . V
p
+ 21 kN/m
2
(Stiff, dry mix)
Pressure on shuttering, P
sh
= 10 . V
p
+ 19 kN/m
2
(Soft mix)
Pressure on shuttering, P
sh
= 14 . V
p
+ 18kN/m
2
(Pumping mix)
Where V
p
is the rate of placing in a wall in vertical m/hr, setting time is 5 hours, temperature
is 15
0
C, concrete density is 25 kN/m
2
and internal vibration is used for compaction. See
figure 4.1

Figure 4.1: Formwork pressure diagram (After Hurst)
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

Workability of concrete has a similar influence on pressure to the rate of placing. Factors
affecting workability include mix design, admixtures, fillers such as PFA, etc. Figure 4.1
shows some typical values.
Imposed loads will include the 25 kN/m
2
of the concrete, a 2,5 kN/m
2
load for the workmen,
the self-weight of the formwork, wind loads and any abnormal loads such as additional
machinery or vehicles which may be used on the formwork during construction.
Vibration should only be from internal poker vibrators used for compaction, external
vibrators should not be used in the interests of good concreting practice. Figure 4.1 assumes
that vibration ceases when compaction is achieved.
Hydrostatic of concrete, P
hs
= D
c
. h
s
kN/m
2

Where:
D
c
= concrete density in kN/m
3

h
s =
height from top surface of concrete downwards in m.
Note: The height is NOT the top of the shutter!
This is the highest possible value for hydrostatic pressure from the concrete and is only used
when all other values are higher. The lowest value for pressure due to the concrete is always
used in the design. See example below.

4.2.1.1 Example of formwork load calculation
If a soft mix concrete, at 13
0
C, is poured at a rate of 3 m/hr for a 4 m high wall, what
hydrostatic pressure can be expected?

From Figure 4.1 (or by calculation):
P
sh
= 10 . 3 + 19 = 49 kN/m
2
(This is the Consistency Limit)
h
s
= 49 / 25 = 1,96 m
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

P
hs
= 25 . 4 = 100 kN/m
2
(This is the Hydrostatic Pressure)
The consistency Limit is the lowest value so it becomes the design pressure.
Temperature adjustment of 6% increase is needed in this case, therefore the design pressure is
51, 94 kN/m
2
and is distributed equally from the bottom of the shutter to a point 1, 96 m
below the top of the concrete. From this point to the top of the concrete the value reduces to
zero at the top surface.

4.2.2 Timber formwork materials
Although formwork can be made entirely of wood, in practice it is usual to have a
combination. For example the shutterboard is a plywood, soldiers are fabricated proprietary
steel units and walers are scaffold tubes. The plywood is mounted in a steel frame which is
compatible with the soldiers using gutter-bolts (which are not subject to any forces of
consequence), this makes it easy to replace the plywood when it is damaged.
Usually five more pours are possible with each set of shutters, depending on how much care
is taken when erecting and stripping the formwork. The steel units and scaffolding can be
used for 30 or more pours. Obviously the industry gravitates towards the most economical
solution.
We will consider both the design of timber formwork and combinations of tubular
scaffolding with timber formwork. The following definitions represent a small fraction of the
terminology used in the formwork industry but they are the terms used in timber formwork:

Brace or strut A diagonal prop stabilising the formwork.
Button A round mushroom-shaped piece of plastic used to blank off unwanted holes
that may have been drilled in shuttering in previous pours.
Deck or Decking The horizontal shuttering boards used for the soffit of a slab.
Double waler Two walers used as a set where the members are not more than 30 mm apart
between which ties are fixed.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

Joist A horizontal member serving as a beam to support slab formwork.
Kicker or sill A strip of wood nailed or spiked to the blinding or foundation to hold the
base of the shuttering in place.
Prop A timber column used to support soffit formwork.
Shutter Boarding or planking used, at the interface with the concrete to be poured, to form
the shape of the structure.
Soldier A vertical member providing stiffening and bearing for shuttering.
Spreader A temporary piece of wood used in wall formwork to keep the shutters the
correct distance apart.
Stud A horizontal soldier.
Tie A metal device for holding shuttering in position and capable of withstanding
hydrostatic pressures. Some ties are sleeved and recoverable with only the sleeve remaining
in the concrete. Others remain cast in the concrete with only the bolt portion being
recoverable.
Twin soldier A double waler used in vertical position when studs rather than soldiers are
used.
Waler or wailing A horizontal member which supports the soldier and through which ties
are fastened.

Shutterboards are usually plywood, the grade and thickness being a combination of personal
choice and load requirements. Plywood or battenboard or similar board products are used for
off-shutter finishes where appearances are important.
Where work is not exposed to view such as the back of retaining walls, etc. 25 mm thick
planking may be used. In practice however, this is quite an expensive option and contractors
would be more inclined to use old damaged boards which still have strength but which are
too warped or holed from use to be used for good finishes.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

The common shutterboard used to be 5-ply treated plywood, 22 mm thick (marine ply) but
these tend to be expensive and there is a trend towards using lumberboards which is 19 mm
thick with a core of 16 mm thick solid timber strips of wood glued together faced on both
sides with a veneer, contractors seal the board with a polyurethane sealant for the first pour
and then use shutter-oil for subsequent pours.
There are other thicknesses of lumberboards which is also known by other names such as,
battenboard and VP Boards. (See SANS 929: Plywood and composite board and Tables 35
37 SANS 10163-2).
Another choice of material for shuttering is planed 25 x 228 mm SAP which is either butt-
jointed or tongued and grooved, but this also tends to be expensive and is only really viable in
small work or for filling awkward areas.
Soldiers are the vertical members directly behind the shutterboard, at spacings determined by
design. Typically soldiers are made from V4 timber and dimensions start at 50 x 50 mm.
Walers or waling are the horizontal members which carry the bulk of the load and ensure that
the formwork stays in place during construction. Two (typically 50 x 114 mm) walers are
placed 20 30 mm apart (double walers) and serve as a set through which ties are fastened.
When a single waler is used its strength is compromised by having to drill holes through it for
the ties.
Ties are available in a greater variety of types but the simple threaded rod type with a
hexagonal nut and a 50, 75 or 100 mm square washer (6 mm thick) is one of the most
effective and easiest to use with timber shuttering. These ties come in different diameters
from 10 to 30 mm but most commonly used is a 16 mm diameter high tensile rod which has a
permissible tensile load of about 90 kN. The rod is separated from the concrete by placing it
in a 20 mm diameter plastic tube which in turn acts as a control for the width of the panel
being cast. It is advisable to use spreaders to prevent these plastic sleeves from buckling.



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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

4.2.3 Timber formwork design
4.2.3.1 Wall formwork
According to Stalnaker & Harris the procedure (adapted for Southern African conditions) for
designing formwork for walls is:
i. Calculate the design lateral pressure.
ii. Check the shutterboard for bending, deflection and shear. (According to Hurd, shear
normally does not need to be checked). Either the thickness of the shutterboard or the
spacing of its soldiers may be adjusted. Availability of materials will determine which
is adjusted. The deflection limit of l / 360 applies to both shutterboard and supporting
members.
If the shutterboard dimensions are fixed then the maximum allowable span of the
shutterboard will equal the soldier spacing.
If the soldiers are fixed then the bending check will need to determine the required
section modulus of the shutterboard based on the bending stresses.
iii. Design soldiers considering bending, shear and deflection.
iv. Design walers for bending, shear and deflection.
v. Choose ties and spacing.
vi. Check bearing stresses of soldiers on walers and tie-holders on walers.
vii. Design the lateral bracing of the formwork.
viii. Design the falsework if required.

4.2.3.1.1 Example of wall formwork design
A 3,6 m high wall is to be cast at 1 m/hr with a soft mix of concrete at 15
0
C, poker vibrators
will be used to achieve compaction. There is no wind and only 3 labourers will be placing
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

the 25 kN/m
3
. Tie used have a permissible tensile load of 80 kN, V4 SAP members are to be
used for soldiers and walers.
The shuttering will be sealed 19 mm lumberboard (battenboard) which has E = 4,6 kN/mm
2

and allowable bending stress of 4,7 N/mm
2
parallel to the grain. (Table 36, SANS 10163-2).
Note: The dry strength (10 % moisture content) of plywood is about 30 % greater than its
saturated strength, therefore if shuttering is not sealed the modulus of elasticity should be
reduced by 30 %.

i. Design lateral pressure:
P
sh
= 10 . 1 + 19 = 29 kN/m
2
(Consistency Limit)
h
s
= 29 / 25 = 1,16 m
P
hs
= 25 . 3,6 = 90 kN/m
2
(Hydrostatic Pressure)
P
max
= 29 kN / m
2
(Design Lateral Pressure, the lowest value)
ii. Check shutterboard for bending:
Assume that bending stresses are parallel to the face grain and that the board is
continuous over three or more spans.
L L
L w
M 9 , 2 29 1 , 0
10
2
2
= =

= (Lateral Pressure Moment)


k
1
= 29 / 0,66 . 29 = 1,515
f
b
= P
b .
k
1
. k
2
. k
3
. k
4
= 4,7 . 1,515 . 1 . 1 . 1 = 7,12 MPa
3
2 2
167 60
6
19 1000
6
mm
d b
Z =

=
M
r
= f
b
. Z (Allowable bending stress times section modulus)
M
r
= 7, 12 . 60 167

/ 1

000 000 = 0, 428 389 kN.m
Equate M = M
r
to solve for L:
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

2,9 . L
2
= 0,428 389
Therefore L = 384 mm % (max. allowable span based on bending)
Assume a 38 mm wide soldier will be used then the clear span will be
L
c
= L 38 = 346 mm
iii) Check shutterboard for deflection:
4
3 3
583 571
12
19 1000
12
mm
d b
I =

=
Deflection is limited to 3 . L / 1000

allowable
= 0,003 . L = 1,153 mm

max
=
mm
I E
L P
c
012 , 1
571583 . 4600
346 . 29 . 0064 , 0
.
. . 0064 , 0
4
4
max
= =
Therefore deflection is satisfactory.
iv) Check shutterboard for shear:
For Rolling or Interlaminar Shear
Grade stress = P
v
= 0,67 MPa (Table 36 SANS 10163-2)
When used on the flat the induced shear in a board should not exceed the allowable
interlaminar shear. Boards are treated as beams as far as formulae are concerned,
therefore:
Shear stress
v v
P
d b
V

= 5 , 1 (Note: b = 1000 mm)


Where shear for continuous beams (or panels) = V = 0,6 . w . L
c

V = 0,6 . 29 . 0,346 = 6,02 kN

v
= 1,5 . 6,02 . 10
3
/ 1000 . 19 = 0,48 MPa P
v
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

v) Check soldiers for bending:
A width of 38 mm has already been assumed for the soldier and the spacing L = 384
mm
c
c

The imposed load on each soldier w
is
= 29. 0,384 = 11,147 kN/m
m kN
L w
M
is
. 1644 , 0 384 , 0 . 147 , 11 . 1 , 0
10
2
2
= =

=
K
1
= 11,147 / 0,66 . 11,147 = 1,515
f
b
= P
b
. k
1
. k
2
. k
3
. k
4
= 4,0 . 1,515 . 1 . 1 . 1 = 6,06 MPa
Assume a depth for the soldier of 114 mm

3
2 2
308 82
6
114 38
6
mm
d b
Z =

=
M
r
= f
b
. Z (Allowable bending stress times section modulus)
M
r
= 6,06 . 82 308 / 1 000 000 = 0,4988 kN.m
Therefore M M
r

vi) Check soldiers for deflection

4
3 3
556 691 4
12
114 38
12
mm
d b
I =

=
Assume that V4 walers are to be placed at 0,9 m
c
c
which means that 5 sets of walers
are needed and 4 spans.
Deflection is limited to 3 . L
s
/ 1000

allowable
= 0,003 . L
s
= 2,70 mm
mm
I E
L P
s
66 , 1
4691556 . 6000
900 . 147 , 11 . 0064 , 0
.
. . 0064 , 0
4 4
max
max
= = =
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

Therefore deflection is satisfactory.
vii) Check soldiers for shear:
Grade stress = P
v
= 0,4 MPa (Table 3 SANS 10163-2)
Hurd recommends that the allowable shear is multiplied by load-duration factor of
1,5 and a two-beam factor of 1,5.
Therefore allowable shear stress = P
v
= 0,4 . 1,25 . 1,5 = 0,75 MPa
Shear stress
v v
P
d b
V

= 5 , 1 (Note: b = 38 mm)
Where shear for continuous beams = V = 0,6 . w
is
. L
s

L
s
= 900 130 = 770 mm (Assuming double waler with 50 mm wide members 30
mm apart)
= 0,6 . 11,147 . 0,770 = 5,15 kN

v
= 1,5 . 5,15 . 10
3
/ 770 . 38 = 0,26 MPa P
v

viii) Check walers for bending:
A width of 50 mm has already been assumed for the double waler, now assume a
depth of 114 mm and a spacing of 30 mm between the two 50 mm wide members.
The imposed load on each waler w
iw
= P max . Ls / 2
W
iw
= 29 . 0,770 / 2 = 11,17 kN/m

3
2 2
4 3 2 1
1
2
2
600 216
6
114 . 100
6
.
06 , 6 1 . 1 . 1 . 515 , 1 . 0 , 4 . . . .
515 , 1 17 , 11 . 66 , 0 / 17 , 11
. 662 , 0 770 , 0 . 17 , 11 . 1 , 0
10
.
mm
d b
Z
MPa k k k k P f
k
m kN
L w
M
b b
s iw
= = =
= = =
= =
= = =

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

M
r
= f
b
. Z (Allowable bending stress times section modulus)
M
r
= 6,06 . 216 600 / 1 000 000 = 1,313 kN.m
Therefore M M
r
ix) Check walers for deflection:

4
3 3
200 346 12
12
114 100
12
mm
d b
I =

=
Deflection is limited to 3 . L
s
/ 1000

allowable
= 0,003 . L
s
= 2,70 mm
mm
I E
L P
s
63 , 0
12346200 . 6000
900 . 147 , 11 . 0064 , 0
.
. . 0064 , 0
4 4
max
max
= = =
Therefore deflection is satisfactory.

x) Check ties:
Load tie = P
TIE
= P
max
. L . L
s
= 29 . 0,384 . 0.900 = 10,03 kN
Compressive strength perpendicular to the grain = P
cp
= 1,6 MPa
Required bearing area under washer = P
TIE
/ P
cp
= 6 270 mm
2

A standard size washer of 100 mm square less the space gives a bearing area
= 100 . (100 30) = 7 000 mm
2
, therefore it is OK.
Tie spacing = Tie capacity / Waler load = 80 / 11,17 = 7,16 m.
This is obviously out of the question because the wall is only 3,6 m high.
The tie is therefore too strong for the application, either use a smaller tie or place ties
at 900 mm
c
/
c
vertically and 1 152
c
/
c
to suit the waler and soldier spacings.
xi) Check bearing stresses:
Compressive stress between waler and soldier
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

= (half soldier load x L
s
) / (Width of soldier x width of waler)
= 0,5 . 11,147 . 900 / 38 . 100 = 1,32 MPa P
cp
therefore OK.
xii) Lateral bracing:
Adequate lateral bracing is very important for stability and safety considerations, it is
better to have too much than too little. An unexpected gust of wind could easily blow
the formwork down if it is not braced.
The following method (after Hurd) is based on a modified Euler formula and does not
conform to SANS 10163. However it is a safe method.
Slenderness value = L / d 50
Where
L = Unsupported length in mm (ignoring Effective length)
d = Least dimension of the bracing member in mm (Not the radius of gyration as given in
SANS 10163)
The allowable load P = P
B
/ A =
( )
c
d L
E

3 , 0
(Safety factor = 3)
Where P = Total load on the bracing in kN.
A = Net cross-sectional area in mm
2
.
E = Modulus of elasticity in MPa. (Table 3 SANS 10163-2)





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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

Table 4.1: Allowable load for formwork bracing based on unsupported length for v4
sap
Size 50 x 114 76 x 114 114 x 114 50 x 152 76 x 152
A
mm
2
5700 8664 12 996 7600 11 552
L
mm
P
kN
L/d P
kN
L/d P
kN
L/d P
kN
L/d P
kN
L/d
100
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
25,6
11,4
6,4
4,1
20
30
40
50

90,0
40,0
22,5
14,4
10,4
7,3
13,1
19,7
26,3
32,8
39,4
46,0
304
135
76,0
48,6
33,7
24,8
19,0
15,0
12,1
10,0
8,7
13,1
17,5
21,9
26,3
30,7
35,7
39,4
43,8
48,2
34,2
15,2
8,5
5,4
20
30
40
50
120
53,3
30,0
19,2
13,3
9,8
13,1
19,7
26,3
32,8
39,4
46,0

(ONLY VALUES OF L/d 50 SHOWN)
Care must be taken when applying the values given in Table 4.1 to ensure that the bracing is
adequately fixed to the formwork and in the ground (either to a concrete kicker-block or to a
heavy stake).
The allowable bearing stress must not be exceeded if there is a wood-to wood contact. If
stresses are in this order of magnitude then the load may be transferred by means of other
devices, such as metal brackets bolted to the brace and to the waling.



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4.3 FALSEWORK
Timber falsework is rarely used owing to the cost of timber and labour in Southern Africa.
Proprietary scaffolding systems are generally cheaper to hire, quicker to erect and strip and
have the added advantage of light-weight, durability and sets of design tables for quick
accurate specification of the requirements of the project. Timber falsework does still seem to
have a place in the USA for certain applications.
In the Far East bamboo scaffolding is still commonplace. In 1996, bamboo scaffolding was
erected to renovate a church in Singapore, the structure was about 50 m high.
In South Africa the most common usage would be pine or gum pole bracing and props under
small deck slabs, where empirical methods of sizing are used. It is unlikely that timber
falsework will be used in any heavy construction.
Some factors to bear in mind when designing falsework, irrespective of the material being
used, are shown in Table 4.2 (After Ratay).

Table 4.2: interrelated falsework items
ITEM SIZE & SPACING DEPENDS ON
Shutterboard
Joist spacing
Cap beams
*

Props #
Sills
Footings
Optimum
Optimum
Optimum
Spacing
Size & length
Size & length
Joist spacing
Joist pan between cap beams
*

Span between props
Finite maximum load / prop #
Prop # loads
Loads & bearing capacity of soil

Note:
*
Cap beams = Ledgers or Main bearers
#Prop = Frame legs or trestles (Standards for scaffolding-tubing)

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

Failure to optimise any one of the items in Table 4.2 could have an adverse effect on the
design of other components of the system. For example thinner shutterboard would result in
more closely spaced joists. The consequence of this is that joists are more expensive and
additional handling increases both time of erection and stripping, which in turn costs the
contractor and the developer more money. From this it may be concluded that the entire
formwork and falsework system should be designed as an entity.

Figure 4.2: Falsework Trestle

Figure 4.2 shows the sort of standard used for heavy-duty falsework for slab construction
subjected to heavy loadings. Only a single trestle set (without joist and shuttering) is shown
for clarity. The joist would be perpendicular to the cap beams. Trestle sets would be spaced at
centres determined by the loads and the joist design. Additional cross-bracing between trestle
sets would be necessary to provide stability. Footings may need to be more closely spaced
than illustrated to avoid settlement into the ground. For heavy traffic loads the members
could be 300 x 300 mm except that footings, side plates and bracing could be as big as 300 x
100 mm sections. Decking of two layers perpendicular to each other with the bottom 100 mm
planking and the top 50 mm planks.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

The considerations applicable to formwork design also apply to the falsework. The American
Concrete Institude (ACI) recommendations (Hurd) include, an imposed load of 2,4 kN/m
2

horizontally for the weight of labour, equipment and impact. This is increased to 3,6 kN/m
2

when concrete dumpers are used. Some authorities in the USA specify a minimum combined
load of 4,8 kN/m
2
horizontally. The ACI also recommend that 1,46 kN/m or 2% of the slab
total permanent load is taken as a UDL acting horizontally on the edge of the slab, whichever
is the greater.
A loaded 1360 kg concrete dumper travelling at 10 km/hr stopping in 2 seconds will impose a
horizontal force of 1,824 kN and at 20 km/hr the force will be 3,65 kN. Retay recommends
that, for lengths (spans) from 0 to 12 m the imposed loads should be increased by 30% to
allow for impact loads.

Table 4.3: Some ohs and nosa requirements
DESCRIPTION LIMITS
Slope of scaffolding ramps 1: 1,5 max
Factor of safety for scaffolding ramps 2
Guardrail height for scaffolding > 2 m high 900 1 000 mm
Spacing wooden scaffolding standards 3 m
c
/
c
max
Dimension of any component of wooden scaffold 75 mm or equivalent
Height of wooden framework for scaffolding 10,0 m max
Dimensions of scaffold plank 38 x 275 mm min.

In addition to normal design considerations the requirements of the National Occupational
Safety Association (NOSA) and the Occupational Health and Safety Act No. 85 of 1993
(OHS) should also be taken into consideration (See Table 4.3). The actual design is carried
out using SANS 10163 (either Part 1 or Part 2), but bearing in mind the overseas practice
mentioned above.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SANS 10100: The structural use of concrete specifies that untreated timber must not be used
for formwork and that cambers should be introduced to ensure that tolerances of the finished
concrete are met. As far as falsework is concerned the SANS state that designs should be
such that if one member breaks or is damaged, the adjacent one will be strong enough to
carry the load thus preventing further damage or a domino effect collapse.

4.4 SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
At the end of this section the student will be able to follow the correct procedure for
designing formwork and be capable of checking the strength of all components of the
formwork system for slabs, beams, walls and columns.














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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

4.5 REFERENCES
1. SANS 1783: Sawn softwood timber
2. SANS 10100: The structural use of concrete.
3. SANS 10163-2: The structural use of timber. Part 2: Allowable stress design.
4. Baird JA & Ozelton EC: Timber designers manual. (2
nd
Edition). Blackwell Science
Ltd, Oxford, 1995.
5. Breyer DE: Design of wood structure. McGraw-Hill, London, 1988.
6. Hurd MK: Formwork for concrete. American Concrete Institute, Detroit.
7. Hurst MP: Formwrk. Construction Press, Longman Group Ltd, Harlow, 1983.
8. Meuwese RFA: Form design. Murray & Roberts (Cape) Ltd.
9. Peurifoy RL: Construction planning, equipment and methods. (3
rd
edition). McGraw-
Hill, 1979.
10. Ratay RT: Handbook of temporary structures in construction. McGraw-hill, 1984.
11. Richardson JG: Formwork construction and practice. Viepoint.
12. Stalnaker JJ & Harris EC: Structural design in wood. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New
York, 1989 (Imperial units).
13. South African Lumber Millers Association: SALMA Timber Manual. SALMA,
Isando, 1995.





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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

4.6 QUESTIONS FOR SELF-EVALUATION
Try these questions before turning the page to look at the solutions.
4.6.1 A 280 mm thick reinforce concrete slab 3,0 m above level ground is to be cast with a
high slump mix of concrete at 15
0
C, poker vibrators will be used to achieve
compaction. The plan size of the slab is 20 x 15,5 m. There is no likelihood of wind
and only labourers will be placing the concrete. V4 SAP members are to be used for
the falsework.
The shuttering will be sealed 19 mm lumberboard (battenboard) which has E = 4,6
kN/mm
2
and an allowable bending stress of 4,7 N/mm
2
parallel to the grain. (Table 36
SANS 10163-2)
Design the formwork and falsework using timber for the soffit, joist and cap beams
and steel scaffolding frames for the falsework.
Scaffolding standard can carry a permissible load of 2 000 kg each and the system
allows for either 1,2 m or 1,5 m horizontal bracing to form towers.











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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

4.7 SOLUTIONS TO THE SELF-EVALUATION QUESTIONS
4.7.1 Slab formwork design follows much the same set of rules as wall formwork, except
that soldiers and walers would be replaced by cap beams (ledgers or bearers) and
joists, ties would not be needed and lateral bracing might apply to props under the
beams.
i) Design load:
Load due to concrete = P
c
= 0,28 . 1 . 1 . 2 400 . 9,81 = 6,592 kN/m
2

Imposed load due to workers = P
I
= 1,5 kN/m
2

P
max
= P
I
+ Pc = 1,5 + 6,6 = 8,1 kN/m
2

ii) Check shutterboard for bending:
Assume that bending stresses are parallel to the face grain and that the board is
continuous over three or more spans.

( )
3
2 2
4 3 2 1
1
2 2
2
167 60
6
19 1000
6
12 , 7 1 . 1 . 1 . 515 , 1 . 7 , 4 . . . .
515 , 1 1 , 8 . 66 , 0 / 1 , 8
81 , 0 . 1 , 8 . 1 , 0
10
mm
d b
Z
MPa k k k k P f
k
L L
L w
M
b b
=

=
= = =
= =
= =

=

M
r
= f
b
. Z (Allowable bending stress times section modulus)
M
r
= 7,12 . 60 167 / 1 000 000 = 0,428 389 kN.m
Equate M = M
r
to solve for L:
0,81 . L
2
= 0,428 389
Therefore L = 727 mm
c
/
c
(max. allowable span based on bending)
Assume a 38 mm wide joist will be used then the clear span will be
L
c
= L 38 = 689 mm

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

iii) Check shutterboard for deflection:

4
3 3
583 571
12
19 . 1000
12
.
mm
d b
I = = =
Deflection is limited to 3 . L / 1000

allowable
= 0,003 . L = 1,153 mm

max
= mm
I E
L P
c
44 , 4
571583 . 4600
689 . 1 , 8 . 0064 , 0
.
. . 0064 , 0
4
4
max
= =
This deflection is excessive. Try a shorter span L
c
say 462 mm
then L = 462 + 38 = 500 mm which is a module of a standard scaffold
frames 1 500 mm width.

max
= mm 898 , 0
571583 . 4600
462 . 1 , 8 . 0064 , 0
4
=
Therefore deflection is now satisfactory.
iv) Check shutterboard for shear:
For Rolling or Interlaminar Shear
Grade stress = P
v
= 0,67 MPa (Table 36 SANS 10163-2)
Shear stress
v v
P
d b
V
=
.
5 , 1 (Note: b = 1 000 mm)
Where shear for continuous beams (or panels) = V = 0,6 . w . L
c

V = 0,6 . 8,1 . 0,462 = 2,25 kN
=
v
1,5 . 2,25 . 10
3
/ 1 000 . 19 = 0,18 MPa P
v
v) Check joists for bending:
A width of 38 mm has already been assumed for the joist and the spacing
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

L = 500 mm
c
/
c

The imposed load on each joist w
IJ
= 8,1 . 0,500 = 4,05 kN/m
m kN
L w
M
IJ
. 1013 , 0 500 , 0 . 05 , 4 . 1 , 0
10
.
2
2
= = =
k
1
= 4,05 / (0,66 . 4,05) = 1,515
f
b
= P
b
. k
1
. k
2
. k
3
. k
4
= 4,0 . 1,515 . 1 . 1 . 1 = 6,06 MPa
Assume a depth for the joist of 114 mm

3
2 2
308 82
6
114 38
6
mm
d b
Z =

=
M
r
= f
b
. Z (Allowable bending stress times section modulus)
M
r
= 6,06 . 82 308 / 1 000 000 = 0,4988 kN.m
Therefore M M
r
(A 38 x 76 mm would work but the minimum preferred size is
114 mm)
vi) Check joist for deflection:

4
3 3
4691556
12
114 . 38
12
.
mm
d b
I = = =
Assume that cap beams are spaced at 1.5 m c/c to suit scaffold frames.
Deflection is limited to 3 . L
J
/ 1000

allowable
= 0,003 . L
J
= 4,50 mm

Note that this allowable deflection is excessive for the required tolerances of the
finished concrete. In most cases this will happen because tolerances for off-
shutter concrete are quite small.

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

mm
I E
L P
joist mm a Try excessive is deflection again Once
mm
I E
L P
m kN W P
J
J
IJ
97 , 1
11120725 . 6000
1500 . 05 , 4 . 00064 , 0
.
. . 0064 , 0
. 152 38 .
66 , 4
4691556 . 6000
1500 . 05 , 4 . 0064 , 0
.
. . 0064 , 0
/ 16 , 4
4
4
max
max
4
4
max
max
max
= = =

= = =
= =

This deflection is within acceptable tolerances for the slab soffit.
vii) Check joist for shear:
Grade stress = P
v
= 0,4 MPa (Table 3 SANS 10163-2)
Hurd recommends that the allowable shear is multiplied by a load duration factor of
1,5 and a
two-beam factor of 1,5.
Therefore allowable shear stress = P
v
= 0,4 . 1,25 . 1,5 = 0,75 MPa
Shear stress for continuous beams = V = 0,6 . w
IJ
. L
J

L
J
= 1 500 mm
V = 0,6 . 4,05 . 1,5 = 3,645 kN

V V
P MPa = = 096 , 0 38 . 1500 / 10 . 645 , 3 . 5 , 1
3

viii) Check cap beams (ledgers) for bending:
The imposed load on each cap beam is in effect two point load acting at the third
points of the length and a point load directly over each support. These loads are the
total load per joist span for the length of the cap beam span plus the self-weight of the
joists and shuttering.
W
shutter
= 1,5 . 0,500 . 0,019 . 460 .9,81 / 1 000 = 0,064 kN
W
joist
= 1,5 . 0,152 . 0,038 . 460 . 9,81 / 1 000 = 0, 039 kN
W
imposed
= 1,5 . 0,5 . 8,1 = 6,075 kN
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

Although the self weights are small in this case, it is a good practice to always include
them.
W
ICB
= 0,064 + 0,039 + 6,075 = 6,18 kN (Point load imposed by joist)
Max. bending moment: continuous beam point load at third points.
M
max
= 0,119 . 2 . w
ICB
. L
J
= 0,119 . 2 . 6,18 . 1,5 = 2,206 kNm
K
1
= 22,06 / 0,66 . 22,06 = 1,515
f
b
= P
b
. k
1
. k
2
. k
3
. k
4
= 4,0 . 1,515 . 1 . 1 . 1 = 6,06 MPa
Assume cap beams are 50 x 225 mm members (This is a common size).

3
2 2
875 421
6
225 50
6
mm
d b
Z =

=
M
r
= f
b
. Z (Allowable bending stress times section modulus)
M
r
= 6,06 . 421 875 / 1 000 000 = 2,557 kN.m
Therefore M M
r

ix) Check cap beams for deflection:

4
3 3
937 460 47
12
225 . 50
12
.
mm
d b
I = = =
Deflection is limited to 3 . L
J
/ 1000

allowable
= 0,003 . L
J
= 4,50 mm
mm
I E
L P
S
41 , 1
47460937 . 6000
1500 . 36 , 12 . 00064 , 0
.
. . 0064 , 0
4
4
max
max
= = =
Therefore deflection is satisfactory.
x) Check bearing stresses:
Compressive stress between cap beam and joist =
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

(joist load) / (width of joist x width of cap beam)
= 6,18 . 1000 / 38 . 50 = 3,25 MPa 1,6 MPa P
cp
for V4.
Either increase grade to M8 or use two 50 x 225 mm members back-to back as cap
beams.
xi) Load on scaffolding:
Three of the four loads mentioned in viii) above plus the self weight of the cap beam
will make up the load on each prop.
w
prop
= 3 . 6,18 + 2 . 0,050 . 0,225 . 1,5 . 460 . 9,81 / 1 000
w
prop
= 18,7 kN per prop.
Allowable load per leg of the scaffolding is:
2 000 . 9,81 / 1 000 = 19,62 kN w
prop
therefore acceptable.
The final solution is:
Scaffolding 1,5 x 1,5 m braced towers with 1,5 m spacing in both directions between
towers.
Cap beams 2 No. 50 x 225 mm V4 SAP@1,5m
c
/
c

Joist 38 x 152 mm V4SAP@500mm
c
/
c

SOFFIT 19 MM SEALED BATTENBOARD






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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

4.8 TUTORIAL
4.8.1 Would a 50 x 50 mm member be acceptable as bracing for a wooden scaffolding?
Qualify your answer. (2)
4.8.2 What is the difference in strength between dry plywood and saturated plywood?
(1)
4.8.3 Design a timber form for a 12 m long rectangular beam which is to cast on ground
level, cured and then lifted into place. The beam will 1,2 m high and 300 mm wide, it
will be reinforced and 40 MPa concrete with a 75 mm slump will be used. Include all
bracing and ties. (15)
4.8.4 Describe the principles you would use to design timber formwork for a column.
(7)