You are on page 1of 10

I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -Ç-C¢√®Ωç 2 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’

2005
Ram: Hi Shyam and Prem, well met
at: 'at' Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬--©’ -Éç-ûªèπ◊ ´·çü¿’ î√™« ûÁ©’-Ææ’-
You are talking
(éπ©’Ææ’-éÓ-´-úøç ¨¡Ÿ¶µºç).
about the college day perhaps.
èπ◊-Ø√oç-í∫ü∆. É°æ¤p-úÕC îª÷ü∆lç.
Sekhar: How good are you at Telugu?
College Day
(O’®Ω’ †’ í∫’-Jç-* ´÷ö«x-
- well met
úø’-ûª’-†o-ô’d-Ø√o®Ω’? = éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ- (O’èπ◊ ûÁ©’í∫’ áçûª -¶«í¬ ´îª’a?)
Sanjeev: Just give me some time. I will be
conversation
´-úøç ´’ç*-ü¿-®·çC. ™ as good at it as you are. (Ø√é¬\Ææh
practise îËߪ’çúÕ) time É´¤y. ؈’ èπÿú≈ F Åçûª ¶«í¬
Shyam: Yea, about the item we want to
present.
´÷ö«x-úø-û√†’)
Sekhar: I am poor at Hindi (Ø√èπ◊ £œ«çC ®√ü¿’)
(Å´¤†’. Ç®ÓV ¢Ë’ç v°æü¿-Jzç-îª-¶ßË’ Sanjeev: I am quick at picking up languages
Å稡ç í∫’Jç*) (¶µ«≠æ-©’ Ø√èπ◊ ûªy®Ωí¬ ´≤ƒh®·)
Ram: And what's that going to be? (àç
´’†ç ¢Á·ü¿-öÀ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ îª÷¨»ç-éπü∆.
v°æü¿-Jzç-îª-¶-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’?) the temple supervising some repairs.
a) He is good at giving such talks. Sushma: Doesn't matter. conversa-
(ÉD O’
Prem: We are yet to take a decision about (¢√úø’ í∫’úÕ-éÀ -¢Á-∞«}-úø’. Ñ ®ÓV ¨¡Ÿvéπ-¢√®Ωç
b) Our Principal is good at picking such tions I am at
™ ¢√úø’-ûª÷ç-úøçúÕ-)
it. (ü∆E í∫’-Jç-* Éçé¬ E®Ωgߪ’ç BÆæ’éÓ- éπü∆. v°æA ¨¡Ÿvéπ-¢√®Ωç ¢Á∞«húø’. ¢√∞¡x
experts. leisure. (at leisure – pronun-
ë«-S;
¢√Lq ÖçC) Engineer friend èπÿú≈ Åéπ\úË ÖØ√oúø’.)
good at – àüÁjØ√ äéπ N≠æߪ’ç ¶«í¬ ûÁL-ߪ’-úøç. ciation: measure
-™„ï. ï – ™ ™«í¬,
Ram: OK. O, that reminds me. There will Dad: Your mother needs some medicines.
Poor at Maths – Maths ®√ü¿’. pleasure What do you
™ ™«í¬).
be a talk on 'Decision Making' by Perhaps the shop is open now.
Quick at understanding want?
Prof. Nischai tomorrow at 6 at col- Shop
(Å´’tèπ◊ ´’çü¿’©’ 鬢√L. ûÁJîË
ûªy®Ωí¬ Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-í∫-©í∫-úøç. É™«çöÀ îÓôxçû√ Ç Sumana: You are good at English, Please
lege. Are you coming? (Ç, Ø√èπ◊ í∫’®Ìh- Öçô’ç-üË¢Á÷?)
*açC. – reminds me = í∫’®Ìh*a ´÷ö«x- í∫’ù«©’, Ωu© ûª®√yûª 'at' ¢√úøû√ç. explain this lesson.
Amar: That shop is my friend’s. He opens
a) Åûª-úø’ °æ†’-©’-îËÊÆ N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ ñ«°æuç îË≤ƒhúø’ Sushma: I am good at English, but I am not
úË-ô°æ¤p-úø’ -Åç-ô’ç-ö«ç-éπü∆ – 'ņoô’d í∫’®Ìh- shop quite early. I think it is open
He is slow at doing things. so good at explaining.
*açC—, ÅE – ü∆E-éÀC English. O’ con-
versation ™ ¢√úøçúÕ. Í®°æ¤ ÇJç-öÀéÀ 'E®Ωg-

talking about..
ߪ’-véπ´’ç— Å稡ç í∫’-Jç-* Prof. E¨¡a-ß˝’-
´÷ö«x-úø-¶-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’ college ™. -O’®Ω’-
´Ææ’h-Ø√o®√?)
Shyam and
Prem: Oh, sure. No missing it. Prof.
Nischai is very good at giving
Sumana: I am a little
such talks. We will certainly now. (Ç shop ´÷ friend C. ¢√úø’
slow at under-
make it. miss
(ÅüÁ™« Å´¤û√ç. ûªy®Ωí¬-ØË B≤ƒhúø’. É°æ¤púø’ ûÁJîË Öçô’ç-
standing

-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 54
Åô’-´çöÀ N≠æ-ߪ’ç-O’ü¿ î√™« ¶«í¬ things. Our
ü¿-†’-èπ◊çö«)
´÷ö«x-úøû√úø’) teacher is fast.
°j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ ´’†ç í∫´’-Eç-*çC– äÍé ´÷ô
Ram: Just as our Principal is good at pick- ´·çü¿’, äéπ Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç™ 'the' ¢√úø-úøç, ÉçéÓ
Many of my
ing such experts. (Å™«çöÀ E°æ¤-ù’-©†’ classmates
Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç™ 'the' ¢√úø-éπ-§Ú-´-úøç. Ñ °æJ-ÆœnA
Principal
áç°œéπ îËߪ’-úøç™ ´’† -™«í∫) b) Maths
Åûª-úø’ èπ◊ ÅÆæ©’ °æE-éÀ-®√úø’ ´·êuçí¬ v°æüË-¨»© ´·çü¿’ ´Ææ’hçC.
He is hopeless at Maths. are quick at
Shyam: That's true. M. SURESAN éÌEo v°æüË-¨»©’ v°æûËu-éπçí¬ éÌEo Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬-©Íé
c) grammar learning.
Prem: You are right. Åûª-úÕéÀ ®√ü¿’
Sushma: OK I'll try. Let us see how good I
°æJ-N’-ûªçí¬ Öçö«®·. School, college, institu-
prepositions– about, on, at He is bad at grammar. tion ™«çöÀN Nü∆u-¶µ«u-≤ƒ-EéÀ, Nü∆u ¶üµ¿-†èπ◊
°j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ am at it.
d) Ç¢Á’ §ƒô™ ´÷ Åç-ü¿-J™ Côd (learning and teaching) °æJ-N’ûªç, v°æûËuéπç.
í∫´’-Eç-î√®Ω’ éπü∆. ´’†™ î√-™«´’ç-CéÀ ûÁ©’Ææ’, b) Pavan: What do you know about the
about Åçõ‰ í∫’Jç* ÅE. About the book = Ç She is the best of all of us at singing. Å™«Íí hospital, clinic, nursing home ™«çöÀN
movie?
Now practise the following aloud in ¢Ájü¿uç §Òçü¿-ú≈EéÀ, ¢Ájü¿uç îËߪ’-ú≈-EéÀ v°æûËuéπç. Ééπ
°æ¤Ææh-é¬Eo í∫’Jç*. Prakash: What movie are you talking
a) ¢Ë’ç E†o Åûª-úÕ í∫’-Jç-* paper ™ îªC¢√ç English: temples, churches, mosques (masjids)
about?
Sushma: Hi, Sumana, ™«çöÀN °æ‹ï-©èπÿ, Ç®√-üµ¿-†èπ◊, v§ƒ®Ωn-†-©èπ◊ v°æûËuéπ
We read about him in the paper.
àçöÀ™« ´î√a´¤? Pavan: The one showing at Navrang.
Sumana: busy v°æüË-¨»©’. Ñ v°æüË-¨»©/ Ææn™«© v°æûËuéπ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’
b) school days
¢√∞¡Ÿx ¢√-∞¡x í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«x-úø’ †’¢Áyçûª í¬ ÖØ√o-N-°æ¤púø’? (Showing – The movie is
Çúø-úøç.
-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’ Sushma: °∂æ®√y-™‰ü¿’. -ë«S-í¬ØË ÖØ√o, àç 鬢√L now showing at the theatre. äéπ v°æ≤ƒh-N-Ææ’h-†o-°æ¤púø’ 'the' ®√ü¿’.
îÁ°æ¤p? I A B
They talked about their school days. ÆœE´÷ Çúø-úøç 'run' ÅE èπÿú≈
Sumana: Fèπ◊ English ¶«í¬-´îª’a éπü∆. Ñ les- Students/ go to school, college,
c) ü∆E í∫’-J-ç-* Ø√Íéç í∫’®Ω’h-™‰ü¿’ Åçö«ç. The movie ran for a hun-
son é¬Ææh explain -îË®·. lecturers/ are at university etc.
I do not remember any thing about it. dred days)
Sushma: Ø√èπ◊ English ¶«í¬ØË -´-a. é¬-E professors...
on: Prakash: I think it’s (it is) a movie about
A éÀçü¿ îÁ°œp† ¢√∞¡xç-ü¿®Ω÷ B éÀçü¿ îÁ°œp† îÓôxèπ◊
éÌçîÁç °ü¿l, ´·êu N≠æ-ߪ÷-©†’ í∫’-J-ç-* Explain îËߪ’-úøç-™  ؈çûª íÌ°æp-é¬ü¿’.
on
ÅØË-ô°æ¤p-úø’ ¢√úøû√ç. corruption in politics.
Sumana: Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ--´-úøç-™  ؈’ é¬Ææh slow. Pavan: Yes, that reminds me. I read an
¢√öÀ v°æûËuéπ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç éÓÆæç ¢Á∞«h®Ω’ 鬕öÀd,
He is going to talk on decision making school, college, etc ´·çü¿’ 'the' ®√ü¿’. N’í∫-û√-
´÷ teacher î√-™« fast í¬ îÁ°æ¤hçC. article in the paper on the same
E®Ωgߪ’ v°ævéÀߪ’ í∫’-J-ç-*. ´÷ classmates î√-™«-´’çC ûªy®Ωí¬ topic yesterday. maga-
¢√∞¡Ÿx, Åçõ‰ schools, colleges, etc Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫çûÓ
a) ´’† v°æñ«-≤ƒy--´÷u-Eo í∫’-J-ç-* ®√Æœ† ¢√uÆæç ÅC (°ævA-éπ-©™, Ææç•ç-üµ¿ç-™‰E¢√∞¡Ÿx, go to/ are at the school/
It is essay on our democracy.
ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-í∫-©®Ω’. zines ™ ¢√u≤ƒ-©†’ articles
college etc.
Sushma: OK. ؈’ v°æߪ’-Ao≤ƒh. îª÷ü∆lç ØËØÁçûª Åçö«®Ω’) There were some lines
b) È®jûª’© Çûªt-£æ«-ûªu-© í∫’-J-ç-* E¢Ë-Céπ ÅC A student goes to college/ their parents go
¶«í¬ îËߪ’-í∫-©ØÓ. in it about this movie.
It is a report on farmers suicides. to the college.
b) Pavan: Ç ´‚O í∫’-Jç-* FÍéç ûÁ©’Ææ’? Prakash: I read it too. The writer is very
(to meet the principal, pay the fees, etc)
Prakash: à movie í∫’-Jç-* †’´yúø-í∫-úøç? clever at this kind of analysis.
II (devotees),
¶µºèπ◊h©’ °æ‹ñ«-®Ω’©’ -v§ƒ®Ωn-† Ææ-n™«-©èπ◊
Pavan: †´-®Ωç-í˚™  É°æ¤p-úø’ -Ç-úø’-ûª’†o movie Pavan: Talking about articles, (N≠æ-ߪ÷-E- They go to temple/ to church/ to
-¢Á-∞¡-û√®Ω’.
éÌÊÆh –talking about/ coming to) all
í∫’Jç* mosque, etc.
Prakash: ÅC ®√ï-éÃ-ߪ÷-©™ ÅN-F-AE í∫’Jç* the centre page articles in the
the engineer is at the
Éçü∆-éπöÀ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™,
paper are good. The trouble is, all
ņ’-èπ◊çö«. temple to supervise some repairs .-Å-Ø√oç
of them are on politics.
Pavan: Ç É°æ¤púø’ í∫’®Ìh-*açC. E†o paper ™
    
(-Åéπ\úø Çߪ’† °æ‹ïéÓÆæç ¢Á-∞¡}-úøç ™‰ü¿’ éπü∆)
-v°æ-¨¡o: Direct †’ç-* Indirect speech ™éÀ ´÷Í®a- Ñ Å稻Eo í∫’-J-ç-* ØËØÓ Â°ü¿l ¢√uÆæç
îªC¢√. Åçü¿’™ éÌEo lines Ñ Amar: Dad, I am starting for college. When
III Doctors, nurses, patients go to hospital.
O∞¡xç-ü¿-JéÀhospital hospital
ûÓ °æE 鬕öÀd,
ô°æ¤púø’ Interoggative sentence if
-©-™ will you be there? ´·çü¿’ 'the' Amar's
®√ü¿’. Éçü∆-éπöÀ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™
*vû√Eo í∫’-J-ç-* èπÿú≈ -Ö-Ø√o®·.
™‰ü∆ whether if
´Ææ’hçC. é¬E á°æ¤púø’ college father, after returning from the hospital
Prakash: ؈÷ îªC¢√ Ç ¢√uÆæç. ü∆E ®Ωîª-®·ûª (؈’ éÀ ¢Á∞¡ŸhØ√o. O’È®-°æ¤p-úø’ç-ö«®Ω’
¢√ú≈L? whether á°æ¤púø’ ¢√ú≈-™ ûÁL-ߪ’ Åéπ\úø?) ÅØ√oúø’ éπü∆. Åçõ‰ Çߪ’† Åéπ\-úÕéÀ patient í¬ØÓ,
Éô’-´çöÀ N¨Ïx-≠æ-ù™ î√-™« ûÁL-N-í∫-©- doctor
Synthesis of sentences (so- Dad: You mean, at the college? (†’´y-†-úøç, í¬ØÓ ¢Á-∞¡}-úøç-™‰-ü¿’ ÅE éπü∆.
-ñ‰-ߪ’-í∫-©®Ω’. ¢√úø’. (N¨Ïx-≠æù – analysis) college You know, mother is A patient is at hospital. Their friends and rel-
that/ neither nor, not only but also) Ö°æ- Pavan: ¢√u≤ƒ© N≠æ-ߪ÷-E-éÌÊÆh, Ç °ævAéπ cen-
™Ø√?)
going to hospital. I am taking her atives go to the hospital to see.
ßÁ÷-Tç-îË °æ-ü¿l¥-ûª’-©’ -N-´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. tre page articles ÅFo ¶«í¬ØË business persons open
there; after coming back from the -É™«Íí -N-≠æ-ߪ’ç-™
– ᙸ.-ü¿’-®√_-v°æ-≤ƒü˛, Öçö«®·. Å®·ûË ÅFo ®√ï-éÃ-ߪ÷-©-†’- hospital I will see you at the college. shop, close shop, are at shop. go to
Éûª-®Ω’-™„j-ûË
Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø í∫’-Jç-îË Öçö«®·. (Å´’t hospital èπ◊ -¢Á-∞¡Ÿ-ûÓç-C éπü∆. the shop, are at the shop.

-ï-¢√-•’: Direct †’ç* Indirect speech ™éÀ Answers
Sushma: Hi Sumana, What brings you ´*a-† ûª®√yûª
Hospital
؈’ BÆæ’-Èé-∞¡Ÿ-ûª’Ø√o†’.
college
†’ç*
èπ◊-´≤ƒh†’.)
Karun: What's your brother, Kesav?
brother
(O’ àç îËÆæ’hç-ö«úø’ Íé-¨¡-¢˛?)
´÷Ja-†-°æ¤púø’, (Interrogative sentences here? conversational expres-
(ÉC Where is Arun? (Å®Ω’ù˝ áéπ\úø?) Keshav: He goes to college.
™) if Å®·Ø√, whether Å®·Ø√ äéπõ‰. sion. conversation
ÉC O’ ™ Amar: He has gone to temple. You know college student
(Åçõ‰– Åûª-úø’ ņo-
Synthesis of sentences í∫ ’-Jç-* 'He goes to college'
¢√úøçúÕ) today is friday. Every friday he goes ´÷ô. D-E-ØË
N´-J≤ƒhç. Sumana: How busy are you now? to temple. His engineer friend is at -Å-E ÉçéÓ Nüµ¿çí¬ îÁ°æp-úøç).
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -´’çí∫-∞¡¢√®Ωç 4 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
Aravind: When are you starting for college? Praphul: Too many visitors for you
(College èπ◊ -á°æ¤p-úø’ •ßª’-™‰l®Ω’- (FéÓÆæç ´îËa-¢√∞¡Ÿx ´’K -áèπ◊\-´)
ûª’-Ø√o´¤?) 3) For •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω-úøç, ¢Á-∞¡}-úøç, ûªßª÷-®Ω-´-úøç (pre-
Bhanu: Why, as usual at 9. pare), ûªßª÷-®Ω’í¬ Öçúø-úøç (ready) ™«çöÀ
(àç? ´÷´‚-©’í¬ØË ûÌN’t-Cç-öÀéÀ) ¢√öÀE ûÁ-LÊ° verbs °æéπ\† ´Ææ’hçC. °j Ææ綵«-
Aravind: But yesterday you left even at 8. ≠æ-ù™–
(é¬E E†o †’´¤y áE-N’-CçöÀÍé •ßª’-™‰l- a) start for, leave for, set out for (ÅEo-öÀéÃ
®√´¤ éπü∆. Even at 8= at 8 itself = Å®Ωnç •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω-úøç Å-ØË)
áE-N’-Cç-öÀÍé) Delhi éÀ •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω-úøç / -¢Á-∞¡xúøç
Bhanu: No, I started at 8, but it was not for leave for Delhi (setout for Delhi)
college. I went to Suman's and b) prepare for the match; be ready for the
from there, we two set out for col- match; practise for the match b) The names of things unique of their kind
b) A†o-éÌDl ™«¢Á-èπ◊\û√ç = The more we eat,
lege at 8.45. (Unique =
4) Famous, well known, known, (Ê°®Ω’-§Òç-C†/ àÈéj-éπ – äéπ ñ«AéÀ îÁçC† ´Ææ’h´¤ the fatter we become.
(áE-N’-Cç-öÀéÀ •ßª’-™‰l-JçC, college éÀ v°æÆœ-Cl¥-îÁç-C†, etc) ûª®√yûª èπÿú≈ 'for' -´Ææ’hç-C. äéπõ‰ äéπ-ô-®·ûË) c) †úÕ-*-†-éÌDl ®Ω’í¬_ Öçö«´¤ = The more you
é¬ü¿’. Ææ’´’Ø˛ ÉçöÀéÀ. Åéπ\-úÕoç* éπLÆœ Notorious for. c) The names of rivers, seas, oceans,
college éÀ •ßª’-™‰l®√ç) walk, the more active you are.
Practise the following: ranges of mountains, groups of islands,
set out= •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω-úøç– conversation d) áûª’h áéÀ\-†-éÌDl îªL áèπ◊\´ = The higher
Subha: (over phone) Hi Sobha, î√-™« thanks countries formed by groups of states.
™ ¢√úøçúÕ. you climb, the colder it.
Sobha: áçü¿’èπ◊ (for ¢√úøçúÕ) [Imp: No 'the' before the name of a single
Aravind: Have you sent for Bharat yet? No.2: ´uèπ◊h© Ê°®Ωx ´·çü¿’, °∂晫-Ø√ ´Ææ’h´¤, °∂晫Ø√
Subha: †’´¤y ´÷N’úÕ °æç-úø’x °æç°œ-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊. mountain/ single island]
(¶µº®Ωû˝ éÓÆæç/ ¶µº®Ωû˝èπ◊ éπ•’®Ω’ áéπ\-úÕ-†’ç* ÅN? d) Designations and offices (No 'the' before
îÓô, Ê°®Ωx (proper nouns) ´·çü¿’, the ®√ü¿’.
°ö«d¢√?) Å®·ûË Ééπ\úø The Amitab, The Sharook Khan
áçü¿’-éπØ√oç – ¢√∞¡x-™E ´·êu-¢Á’i† í∫’ù«©’ ÉçéÌ-éπ-

What for?..
J™ Öçõ‰, ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ Ç Ê°Jx*a, ü∆E ´·çü¿’ 'the'
°úøû√ç.
1) Ñߪ’† 21´ ¨¡û√-•l°æ¤ í¬çDµ –
He is the Gandhi of the 20th C.
(Åçõ‰ í¬çDµ-í¬J í∫’ù«™x Ñߪ’-†èπ◊ î√™«
Bhanu : What for? (áçü¿’èπ◊?– ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ designations and ÖØ√o®·. í¬çDµE ûª©-°œç-°æ-ñ‰-≤ƒh-úø’ ÅE)
for what ÅE ņ®Ω’) offices if you mention 2) He is the Bhima of class - ¢√úø’ -Ç class
thereafter the name
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 55
Aravind : Have you forgotten? We have got Hµ´·úø’.
to practise for the match next of the person) Now Practise the Following:
week. e) before a countable
(´’-®Ω-*-§Ú-ߪ÷-¢√? ´îËa-¢√®Ωç a) Krishna: Hi Kumar É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊áéπ\úø’Ø√o´¤?
Match practise Sobha: singular, to talk of the
éÀ îËÆæ’éÓ-¢√L éπü∆?) Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø †’ç*. Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø v°æÆœ-Cl¥-éπü∆ Kumar: ¶µ«®Ω-û˝èπ◊ Hollywood ™«çöÀ-îÓô.
Bhanu : He is in Chennai for his cousin's whole class
®Ω≤ƒ©÷, •çT-†-°æLx ®Ωé¬-©èπ◊ (®Ω鬩’ –
f) the superlative degree
M. SURESAN Krishna: Åçõ‰ Mumbai ™Ø√?
wedding. I'll (I will) call him today varieties) Kumar: Å´¤†’. Åéπ\úø Ö-†oéÌ--Dl Éçé¬ Öçú≈-©-
and tell him that we should pre- Subha: of the adjective,
pare for the match.
Å®·ûË Â£j«ü¿-®√-¶«-ü˛èπ◊ -á-°æ¤púø’ •ßª’-©’-üË-
g) the comparative degree, when it is not fol-
E-°œç-*çC. áçûª ¶«í∫’çüÓ Mumbai.
®Ω’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤? (Start ¢√úøçúÕ.) Krishna: v°æéπ%A ≤˘çü¿®Ωuç (Beauty of Nature)
(¢√∞¡x cousin °R}éÀ îÁØÁj o -¢Á-∞«}úø’. Sobha: £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛? áçü¿’èπ◊? lowed by 'then'.
Ñ¢√∞¡ phone îËÆœ match éÀ ready Subha: Ø√ûÓ È®çvúÓ-V-©’ç-úø-ú≈EéÀ. É°æ¤púø’ îª÷úøç-úÕ: 鬢√-©çõ‰ é¬QtÍ®. ÅC ¶µ«®Ω-û˝èπ◊
Manohar: Good morning Mahesh, why are Switzerland ™«çöÀC. Åéπ\úø Dal Ææ®Ω-
Å¢√Lq Öçü¿E îÁ§ƒh) Sobha: ´÷Ø√†o Ñ ®√vA ´·ç•®· ¢Á∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o®Ω’.
Aravind: Tell him to start early. He is known you up so early? (àçôçûª ûªy®Ωí¬ Ææ’q™ Boat trip î√™« ¶«í∫’ç-ô’çC.
Çߪ’† AJ-íÌ-*aç-ûª-®√yûË Â£j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛
for his game but notorious for his Evü¿ ™‰î√´¤? Up Ééπ\úø Evü¿-™‰-´-úøç. Åéπ\úø èπÿú≈ áçûª-ÊÆ-°æ¤Ø√o Éçé¬ -Öç-ú≈-
Ææçí∫A Ç™-*-≤ƒh†’. (Leave ¢√úøçúÕ).
lack of time sense. îª÷úøçúÕ áçûª simpleí¬ ÖçüÓ. ©-E°œ-Ææ’hçC.
Å´’t äçô-Jí¬ Öçô’çC éπü∆.
(ûªy®Ωí¬ ®Ω´’t†’. Game ¶«í¬ Ç-úø- Subha: †’´¤y í∫†éπ ´ÊÆh éπFÆæç ¢√®Ωç ®ÓV-©’ - Conversation ™ ¢√úøçúÕ). b) Prabhat: Hi Prakash, àçöÀ Å™« Cí∫’-©’í¬
û√úøE Ê°®Ω’çC. -Å-™«Íí Time sense = Öç-ú≈-©E Ø√ éÓJéπ. Mahesh: I get up (am up) by this time ÖØ√o´¤?
punctuality = Ææ´ ’-ߪ ’-§ƒ-©† ™‰ü¿F every day. I go for a morning walk Prakash: ´÷ ´÷´’ߪ’u ´î√aúø’. ´÷ fami-
Sobha: OK.
Ê°®Ω’çC.) (ØËØÁ-°æ¤púø’ Ñ timeÍé ™‰* †úø’-≤ƒh†’). ly™ Çߪ’† ¨¡èπ◊E ™«çöÀ-¢√úø’.
Notorious=ØÌ-öÔJ-ߪ’Æˇ– öÔ ØÌéÀ\-°æ-©-é¬L Answer:
Manohar: Walking is good. The longer you Prabhat: àç Åçûª ü¿’®√t-®Ω’_ú≈?
Shubha: (over phone) Hi Sobha, Thanks a
walk the stronger you are.
= îÁ-úø’ °æ†xèπ◊, îÁúø’ í∫’ù«-©èπ◊ Ê°®Ω’ (áçûª Prakash: Å™«çöÀ ¢√∞¡x†’ í∫’-Jç-* áçûª -ûªèπ◊\´
§Òçü¿-úøç. a notorious murderer= Ê°®Ω’ lot.
Sobha: What for?
ü¿÷®Ωç †úÕÊÆh Åçûª •©ç) ´÷ö«x-úÕûË Åçûª ´’ç*C.
§ÒçC† £æ«çûª-èπ◊úø’. Famous actor = Mahesh: That's true. But my classmate ANSWERS:
v°æÆœ-ü¿l¥ †ô’úø’) Shubha: For sending me mangoes. Where
Sudheer walks 6 kms every morn- a) krishna: Hi Kumar, Where have you
°j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ for ¢√úøéπç îª÷úøçúÕ. are they from?
ing. And really he is the Amitab of been?
1) Éçûªèπ◊ ´·çü¿’ îª÷¨»ç– äéπ ´u´Cµ (period of Sobha: From Vijayawada. You know
´÷ classmate
our College. ( Kumar: I was in the Hollywood of india
time) ´·çü¿’ for ´Ææ’hçC– for 10 minutes Vijayawada is famous for the two
Sudheer ®ÓW 6 Kms †úø’-≤ƒhúø’. Krishna: You mean Mumbai?
(10 E-N’-≥ƒ©’í¬), for an hour (í∫çôí¬), for 3 varieties. Rasaalu and
years (´‚úË-∞¡Ÿxí¬) etc.
Åûªúø’ ´÷ College ÅN’-û√¶¸) Kumar: Yes, the more I stayed there, the
Banginapalli.
Manohar: Why so? (áçü¿’-éπE?)
2) 'for' ´·êuçí¬ ¢√-úø-úøç– éÓÆæç, ÖüËl-Pç-*† ÅØË Shubha: Then when are you starting for more/ the longer I wanted to stay.
Mahesh: He is as tall as Amitab (ÅN’-û√¶¸
Å®√n-©ûÓ. Hyderabad? How beautiful Mumbai is.
Åçûª §Òúø’í∫’) Krishna: If you talk of the beauty of nature,
°j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ Sobha: Hyderabad, what for?
a) Send for Bharat = ¶µº®Ω-û˝-èπ◊ /-¶µº-®Ωû˝ éÓÆæç Manohar: And who is the Sharook Khan of
Subha: To spend a few days with me/ nothing to beat Kashmir (Kashmir
b) what for? = áçü¿’-èπ◊ /- áç-ü¿’éÓÆæç your class?
for spending a few days with me. †’ éÌöÀdçC ™‰ü¿’. Nothing to beat
c) for the match = match éÓÆæç/match éÀ (O’ class Sharook Khan á´®Ω’?)
Sobha: Dad is leaving for Mumbai tonight. Kashmir). That is the Switzerland
Mahesh: I haven't (have not) thought of it
(ÖüËl¨¡ç) Only after he returns, do I think of of India. The boat trip in the Dal
d) for his cousin's marriage = cousin (ü∆E í∫’-Jç-* -ØËØ√-™-*ç-îª-™‰ü¿’)
Hyderabad. lake is very pleasant. There too
°Rx-éÓ-Ææç/- °-RxéÀ Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æù™ éÌ-Eo-îÓôx 'The' ¢√ú≈ç éπü∆!
Subha: If you come I want you to be here the more you stay, the more you
e) ´÷ Ø√†o Ñ vúÁÆˇ Ø√èπ◊ Delhi ™ éÌØ√o®Ω’ = The longer you walk, The stronger you are.
for a week. want to stay.
Dad bought this dress for me in Delhi. (Ø√ The Amitab of the College; The Sharook
Sobha: Ok. b) Prabhat: Hi Prakash, you look sad
éÓÆæç/ -Ø√èπ◊ ÖüËl-Pç-*†) Khan.
f) Ñ °æ¤Ææhéπç ®Ω¢Ë’-≠ˇèπ◊ = This book is for z z z z z z No. 1: áçûª îËÊÆh Åçûª ´’ç*C. É™«çöÀ ûÁ©’í∫’ Prakash: My Uncle has come he is the

Ramesh. -É°æp-öÀ-´®Ωèπ◊ éÌEo lessons ™ 'the' ¢√úøéπç Sakuni of our Family
¢√é¬u-©†’ English ™ îÁÊ°p-°æ¤púø’ Comparatives
g) Praphul: some one has come for you. í∫’-Jç-* ØË®Ω’a-èπ◊†o N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ Ææçví∫-£æ«çí¬: ¢√úøû√ç. -¢√-öÀ -´·ç-ü¿’ 'the' ûª°æpéπ ®√¢√L. Prabhat: Is he so bad?
(-F -éÓÆæç á´®Ó ´î√a®Ω’.) We use ‘the’ before a) Ç ÆœE´÷ -Fèπ◊ îª÷Æœ† éÌDl îª÷ú≈-©-E-°œ-Ææ’hçC. Prakash: The less we talk about such
Prasanth: for me? at this hour? a) The names of great and holy books (The The more you see it, the more you wish to people, the better for us.
(Ø√éÓ-Ææ´÷? Ñ -õ„iç™Ø√?) Ramayanam, etc.) see it.
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -Ç-C¢√®Ωç 9 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
Charan: Hi Chandra, how are you?
a) F´¤ ´’ç* ´÷®Ω’\©’ ûÁa-èπ◊†oçü¿’èπ◊ ÅGµ-†ç-ü¿-
Chandra: Fine Thanks, how are you? †©’ = congratulations/ congrats on your
Charan: Same here. Thanks. Congrats. good marks.
(Congrats = Congratulations éπç-ví¬- Congratulations = á´-È®jØ√ -à-üÁj-Ø√ ≤ƒ-Cµç-*-†°æ¤p-úø’
ô’u-™„-ß˝’-≠æ-Ø˛q – -™„-ß˝’ -ØÌéÀ\ °æ-©éπç-úÕ = -îÁÊ°p-C. -ü∆-EéÀ -•-ü¿’-©’í¬ thanks îÁ§ƒhç.
-Å-Gµ-†ç-ü¿-†-©’) b) †’´¤y áEo-Èéj-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Congrats
Chandra: What on? (áçü¿’èπ◊?) Congrats on your election.
Charan: On your fine performance in the c) congrats
î√™« ¶«í¬ †öÀç-*-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊
play yesterday. Congrats on your excellent action/ per-
formance.
(†’´¤y E†o Ø√ô-éπç™ î√™« ¶«í¬ îËÆœ- d) Congress con-
î√™« ¶«í¬ ÈíL*-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊
†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ – †öÀç-*-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊) grats. Congrats to congress on its excel-
Performance - °æ-§∂ƒ-´’-Ø˛q – -§∂ƒ ØÌéÀ\- lent performance in the elections.
a) ¢√úø’ v°æA-ü∆-Eéà ¢√∞¡x Åéπ\ O’ü¿ Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æ-úø-û√úø’ Mohan: ´÷´‚-©’í¬ Çúø-¢√∞¡Ÿx •ôd© O’ü¿ áèπ◊\´
°æ-©’-èπ◊û√ç = à °æØÁjØ√, ´·êuçí¬ (Performance ¢√úøéπç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ) úø•’s, Éçé¬ áèπ◊\´ time ´%ü∑∆ îËÆæ’hç-
He depends on his sister for every thing.
éÌçîÁç ´·êu-¢Á’i† N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo îËߪ’-úøç 2) Comment on: Comment Åçõ‰ ¢√uêu©’ ö«®Ω’. Åçûª-éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ time Å©ç-éπ-®Ω-
b) °æçô©’ ´®√{Eo •öÀd Öçö«®·
Performance in a play/ movie/ Comment
îËߪ’-úøç/-Å-Gµ-v§ƒ-ߪ÷©’ ¢ÁL-•’-îªa-úøç.
'on'. Crops depend on rains. ù™.
game/ as a leader = Ø√ô-éπç™/ ÆœE- ûª®√yûª èπÿú≈ Girija and
a) c) ÅFo úø•’s†’-•-õ‰d éπü∆?
perform-
´÷™/ Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊-úÕí¬ äéπJ á°æ¤púø÷ Éûª-®Ω’-©-†’ í∫’-Jç-* àüÓ äéπöÀ Åçô’ç- Sailaja: †’´¤y ´÷ O’ü¿ comments îËÆæ’h-†oô’d.
He always on comments on others. Everything depends on money.
ance play=
¢√J E®Ωy-£æ«ù/ °æE-B®Ω’. ö«úø’= b) Lakshman: á°æ¤púø’ •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω’ü∆ç?
make comments/ pass comments d) Nïߪ’ç v¨¡´’†’ •öÀd -Öç-ô’ç-C
°xß˝’ = Çúø-úøç ´÷-´‚-©’í¬; Ø√ôéπç ÅE Madhu: Åçû√ F O’ü¿ Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æúÕ -ÖçC.
èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç ¢√uêu©’ îËߪ’-úøç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ. Success depends on hard work. †’¢Áy-°æ¤púø’ ready Å®·ûË Å°æ¤púË.
ÅØË Å®Ωnç èπÿ-ú≈ ÖçC.
Chandra: Thank you.

on the campus..
Charan: Every one was commenting on
your action only. They were all
praise for you
Chandra: Oh, that's (that was nothing).
Thanks any way. How's your
practice of cricket going? Hope
you will be on the college team for
5) Spend on: Lakshman: éÌçûª late Å®·Ø√ °∂æ®√y-™‰-ü¿’™‰. ´’†
the finals. ( -Åç-ûËç-™‰-ü¿’-™‰. é¬E ÉC î√™«
thanks. cricket practice
´·êuç. Ê°®Ω’x ñ«G-û√™ *´®Ω éπü∆ ÖØ√o®·.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 56
F ᙫ
ÖçC? College finals team ™ Spend = ê®Ω’a-°-ôd-úøç. ´’† Ê°®Ω’x °œL-îË-ô°æp-öÀéÀ ´’†ç îË®Ω’-
†’´¤yç--ö«-´E ÇP-Ææ’hØ√o) í∫úø-°æ-úøç (®ÓV©÷, èπ◊çö«ç.
Madhu: ´’†ç é¬éπ Éçé¬ öÃç™ îË®Ω-ú≈-EéÀ
Charan: Not so bad. Every thing depends b) -Å-ûª-ØÁ-°æ¤p-úø÷ Éûª-®Ω’-©†’ í∫’-Jç-* ¢√uë«u-Eç-îª-úø’
Æ洒ߪ’ç Å®·ûË)
on my game in the first two a) ¢√ú≈ ÉçöÀ-O’ü¿ î√™« á´-®Ì-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’?
He never comments/ makes comments/ Lakshman: F áç°œéπ -éπ*aûªç. ü∆EéÀ congrats.
matches. passes comments on others.
ê®Ω’a °ö«dúø’ M. SURESAN
Chandra: And what are you going to do dur- c) performance
Éûª-®Ω’© í∫’-Jç-* ¢√uêu©’ îËߪ’- He has spent a lot ´’J -Ø√ Ææçí∫Açé¬ ûÁMü¿’.
(of money) on the house. Lakshmi: Ñ selections áéπ\úø ï®Ω-í∫-† ’-
ing the vacation? úøç Ææ’©-¶µº¢Ë’. é¬-E ÅüË ´’†ç -Ç °æ-E áçûª-
b)
´-®Ωèπ◊ îË≤ƒhç ÅØË-C v°æ¨¡o. ؈’ ®ÓW È®çúø’í∫çô©’ ¢√uߪ÷´’ç îË≤ƒh†’ Ø√o®·?
(ÂÆ©-´¤™x àç îËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?) Lakshman: ´÷ College campus ™ØË.
Charan: (I am going to) spend some time It's (It is) easy to comment/ pass com- I spend two hours (every day) on exercise.
ments/ make comments on others' per- Answers:
on bowling practice. (I) need to c) §Ú®·†¢√®Ωç Åçû√ practice ™ØË í∫úÕ-§ƒúø’
formance but how well we do a thing is the a) Girija: How much did you spend on the
improve my bowling. bowl- He spent the whole of last week on prac-
(éÌçûª question. dress?
ing practice bowling tice.
îËߪ÷L. Ø√ 3) On the team. team ™. Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ ûÁ©’- Sailaja: I spent Rs. 2500/- on it. Isn't (is not)
d) ÅE™¸ á°æ¤púø÷ •ôd-©èπ◊ áèπ◊\´ ê®Ω’a °úø-û√úø’
¢Á’®Ω’-í∫’-°æ-®Ω-éÓ-¢√Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç ÖçC) (in
Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç. ûÁ©’-í∫’™ '™— Å®ΩnçûÓ) ¢√úË it worth so much?
Chandra: Ok, then. Good luck, bye. Anil spends a lot (of money) on clothes.
î√™«-îÓ-ôxEnglish on
™ ´Ææ’hçC. ñ«G-û√™ (worth = N©’´; is worth = N©’´ Öçúø-úøç
(ÆæÍ®, F Åü¿%≠ædç ¶«í∫’ç-ú≈-©E éÓJéπ, = on the list; on the rolls,
£æ…ï®˝ °æöÃd™ = Spend ûª®√yûª on ™«í¬ØË, waste ûª®√yûª èπÿú≈ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Åçûª N©’´ îËߪ’-úøç / -îË-ߪ’-éπ-
on the premises; on.
´≤ƒh-´’J) Ç´-®Ω-ù™= Nü∆u-©ßª’ Ç´- §Ú-´úøç = Worth/ not worth. The movie
Charan: Bye ®Ω-ù™ = on the campus, etc. e) TV îª÷Ææ÷h time ´%ü∑∆ îË≤ƒhúø’ is not worth half the price of the ticket =
°j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ preposition– 'on' ¢√úøéπç a) E†’o team ™ îË®Ω’aéÓç He wastes time on the TV/watching the TV. Ç ÆœE´÷ ticket èπ◊ °öÀd† úø•’s-™ Ææí∫-´’çûª
í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. We do not take you on the team. f) î√™«-ÊÆ°æ¤ friends ûÓ time ´%ü∑∆ îË≤ƒhúø’ èπÿú≈ îËߪ’ü¿’. Waste.
1) Ωù˝ Congratulations îÁ°œp-†-°æ¤púø’, b) ñ«G-û√™ -Å-ûªúÕ Ê°®Ω’ ¢Á·ü¿-öÀC He wastes time/ a lot of time on friends. Girija: I think you wasted at least Rs. 400.
îªçvü¿: What on? His name is first on the list. Now practise the following in English: I won't (will not) spend more than
c) Ø√ Ç´-®Ω-ù™ ØËE-™«ç-öÀN Ææ´’t-Aç-’ a) Girija: dress áçûª °öÀd éÌØ√o¢˛?
Ωù˝: On your fine performance. I do not allow such things on my premises.
†’´¤y Ç Rs. 2000/- on it.
2) commenting on (Spend¢√úøçúÕ) Sailaja: I spent at least two hours on that
d) ÅC College Ç´-®Ωù™ ï®Ω-í∫-™‰ü¿’
3) on the college team Sailaja: 2500 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’. Åü¿çûª îËÆæ’hçC éπü∆? selection.
It did not happen on the campus.
4) depends on Girija: éπFÆæç 400 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’ ü∆E O’ü¿ ´%ü∑∆ Mohan: Generally women waste a lot (of
4) Depend on = ÉC î√™« common. î√™«-
5) spend time on ´’çCéÀ ûÁ©’Ææ’ depend = Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æ-úø-úøç. ûÁ©’- ņ’-èπ◊çö«. ؈-®·ûË 2000 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’-©- money), a lot more of time, on
ÉO preposition 'on' ¢√úË éÌEo Ææçü¿-®√s¥©’. í∫’™ èπÿú≈ äéπü∆E/ äéπJO’ü¿ Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æ-úø-úøç éπçõ‰ °ôd†’. dresses, and still more on make up
1) Congratulations (Congrats ÅE èπÿú≈ Åçö«ç éπü∆. English ™†÷ ÅçûË. Depend Sailaja: éπFÆæç È®çúø’ í∫çô©’ °æöÀdçC selec- (still =Éçé¬).
On.
Åçö«®Ω’) ûª®√yûª á°æ¤púø÷ ûª®√yûª á°æ¤púø÷ 'on'. tion èπ◊. (spend, I ûÓ ¢√úøçúÕ) Girija and
Sailaja: Just as you are commenting on us.
-v°æ-¨¡o: Home, House, Residence - Ñ ´‚úø’ Home, house - -à-N’-öÀ ûË-ú≈? She has two houses in Hyderabad, and one b) Lakshman: When shall we start?
°æü∆© Å®√n™x ¶µ‰ü∆-™‰-N’öÀ? OöÀE á°æ¤p-úÁ- in Vijayawada = Ç¢Á’èπ◊ £j«ü¿-®√-¶«-ü˛™ È®çúÕ∞¡⁄x, Nï- Madhu: (Everything) depends on you,
°æ¤púø’ ᙫ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√™ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. ߪ’-¢√-úø™ äéπ É©÷x -ÖØ√o®·. But She lives in whenever you are ready.
– -¢√C Ææ’v•-£æ«tùuç, á´J ÉçöÀE í∫’-Jç-* ´÷ö«xúø’ûª’-Ø√o¢Á÷ ¢√∞¡x É©’x, Guntur. Her home there is very close to the sta- Lakshman: Doesn't matter if we are late.
home. tion = Guntur Doesn't (does not) matter =
-ï-¢√--•’: I. Home- ´’†ç,
´’*-M-°æôoç Ç¢Á’ ÖçúËC ´÷vûªç ™. Ç¢Á’ É©’x °∂æ®√y-™‰ü¿’.
Home Åçõ‰ ÆæyÆæn©ç ÅØË Å®Ωnç èπÿ-ú≈ ÖçC. House
(E¢√Ææç) í∫’çô÷®Óx. business house,
†’, Conversation ™ practise îËߪ’çúÕ.
´’† èπ◊ô’ç•Æ涵º’u-©ûÓ E´- My home is Nellore. ´÷ ÆæyÆæn©ç ØÁ©÷x®Ω’. The House of Tatas- ™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ¢√u§ƒ®Ω Our names are the last on the
ÆœçîË É©’x home. á´-È®jØ√ He left his books at home
E©ßª’ç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úøû√ç. list. We shall be able to reach by
¢√J ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’-©ûÓ, ņo-ü¿-´·t- ¢√úø’ ¢√úÕ books †’ (¢√úÕ) -Éçöx ´C-™‰-¨»úø’. III. Residence: ÉC éÌç-îÁç formal. Phone the time our turn comes.
©ûÓ, Åéπ\-îÁ-™„x-∞¡xûÓ ÖçúËC– 3) Home = His home is England.
ü˨¡ç.
numbers, address ©’ ´’† ÉçöÀN îÁÊ°p--ô°æ¤púø’ Madhu: Who else is coming to
(ÉçÈé-´®Ω’)
home. ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ home 4) Home = Minister for home affairs.
üËQߪ’.
¢√úøû√ç. Residence phone no; Residential be on the team?
´·çü¿’ î√-™« Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x my, (üËQߪ’– Åçûª-®Ω_ûª ´u´-£æ…®√© ´’çvA)
your, his, her, etc. ¢√úø-†-éπ\-®Ω- 5) at home and abroad = ÆæyüË-¨¡ç™, NüË-¨»™x. address (office phone no; office address èπ◊ Lakshman: Your selection is definite
™‰ü¿’. 6) Old age Home, Home for the blind- É™«çöÀ Gµ†oçí¬). Ééπ\úøèπÿ-ú≈ home phone no.,/ address (éπ*aûªç). Congrats on that. I
I am going home îÓôx 'Çv¨¡ßª’ç—. ņ-´îª’a. don't know about my position
(to my home
ÉçöÀ-Èé-∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o†’. ņç) II. House = à Éç-öÀØÁjØ√ house Åçö«ç. éÌçîÁç £æ«Ùü∆-í∫© ´uèπ◊h© E¢√-≤ƒ-©ØË Residence (position = °æJ-Æœn-A/ -Ææç-í∫A)
He went home an hour ago He bought a house last year ņúøç Ææ••’– The Prime Minister's residence, Lakshmi: Where are the selections?
(His home
í∫çô véÀûªç ÉçöÀ-Èé-∞«xúø’. Å-†éπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’) í∫ûª Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç É©’x éÌØ√oúø’. The governor's residence, etc. Lakshman: On our college campus.
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -´’çí∫-∞¡¢√®Ωç 11 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
Sheriff: Peter, Who are you waiting for? His parents are waiting for their daugh-
á´J éÓÆæç îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤? ter's marriage. Once that is over, they will
Peter: For sagar. I've (I have) asked him marry him off.
for some information and a few d) Ø√èπ◊ Çéπ-™‰-≤ÚhçC. ÉçÈéçûªÊÆ§Ú ¶µï-Ø√-EéÀ wait
books.
îËߪ’-™‰†’.
≤ƒí∫®˝ éÓÆæç. ¢√úÕo ؈’ àüÓ Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç, I'm (I am) very hungry. I am not able to
éÌEo °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ ÅúÕ-í¬†’.
wait for the meal any more.
Sheriff: You have waited for an hour now.
He hasn't even phoned you. Wait for = await. Å®·ûË await éÌçîÁç
†’´¤y ÅûªE éÓÆæç í∫çôí¬ îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤ ví¬çC∑éπç. conversation ™ wait for ¢Á’®Ω’í∫’.
éπü∆. Fèπ◊ Phone èπÿú≈ îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’ ´’J. 2) Ask for: á´-J-ØÁjØ√ àüÁjØ√ Åúø-í∫úøç
a) I am looking for a good book on Spoken
Peter: I am sure he will come. Any way, Samrat: ®Ωîª-®·ûª á´®Ω’?
a) ¢√úÕo Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç ÅúÕ-í¬†’. ¢√úø’ îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’.
English
let's hope for the best. I need the
I asked (him) for his help. But he did not
(®Ωîª-®·ûª = author/ writer)
books badly. Spoken English O’ü¿ ´’ç* °æ¤Ææhéπç éÓÆæç Sarat: Åûª-úø’ èπÿú≈ ã ÂÆjE-èπ◊úË. Åûª-úÕ Ê°®Ω’
help me.
¢√úø’ ´≤ƒh-úøØË Ø√ †´’téπç. àüË-¢Á’iØ√ îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o†’. ¢Áü¿’-èπ◊-ûª’-Ø√o†’. John stall.
b) ÅûªúÕo Ç¢Á’ éÌEo °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ ÅúÕ-TçC
´’çîË ÇPü∆lç. Ø√é¬ °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ î√™« b) What are you looking for? Samrat: Eïçí¬ Åçûª íÌ°æp °æ¤Ææhéπ´÷?
Å´-Ææ®Ωç. She asked him for some books. Sarat: FéπC îªC-N-†-éÌDl îªü¿-¢√-©-E-°œ-Ææ’hçC.
üËE-éÓÆæç îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o¢˛/ ¢Áü¿’-èπ◊-ûª’-Ø√o¢˛?
(need badly = î√™« Å´-Ææ®Ωç) c) Åûª-úÕ-éÓÆæç Ééπ\úø îª÷úøúøç E®Ω’°æßÁ÷í∫ç. ÉC ü∆Eo îªü¿-´-úøç -ã Å®Ω’-üÁj† ņ’-¶µº´ç
Sheriff: How long more are you going to (Å®Ω’-üÁj† = rare)
wait? It's already time for dinner.
Åûªúø’ College èπ◊ ¢Á∞Ï} time
b) Chakri: F ü¿í∫_®Ω pen Öçü∆?
ÉçÈéç-ûª-ÊÆ°æ¤ îª÷≤ƒh´¤? É°æp-öÀÍé ¶µï† -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 57 No use looking for him here. It's the time
for his college.
Charan: ÖçC. Fèπ◊ 鬢√™«?
Æ洒ߪ’ç Å®·çC éπü∆? Chakri: Ø√ pen refill Å®·-§Ú-®·çC.
Assignment complete îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’ ؈’.

Have you a pen? Charan: Assignment?
Chakri:
Charan:
Å´¤†’. Physics ™ ã chapter O’ü¿.
Ø√èπÿ\ú≈ pen Å´-Ææ®Ωç. Ééπ\úø à shop
™ ØÁjØ√ refill ûÁa-éÓ-´-a/ -üÌ-®Ω’-èπ◊-
ûª’çC.
Practise the following:
Chakri: Ç Ææ©-£æ…èπ◊ thanks.
Peter: I told him to be here for dinner. So Å®·ûË v°æ¨¡o©’ Åúø-í∫úøç Suman: á´-J-éÓÆæç îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤?
I'm sure he will come in a few min- Answers:
ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ, äéπ °æE îËߪ’- Suresh: College bus éÓÆæç.
utes. Ah, look, here he comes. Hi, ´’ØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ask ûª®√yûª a) Sarat: Have you read the book on the
Suman: ؈’ N≠æflg éÓÆæç îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o†’. Åûªúø’
Sagar, why the delay? for ®√ü¿’. ††’oéÌçûª úø•’s ÅúÕ-í¬úø’. table?
¶µï-Ø√-EéÀ ®Ω´’t-Ø√o†’ ¢√úÕE. 鬕öÀd é¬ÊÆq- -Ö-ü∆: I asked him a few Suresh: ¢√úÕ-éπ\úø Öçú≈-Lq† time Å®·çC. Samrat: What's the book on?
°æ-öÀ™ ´îËa-≤ƒh-úøØË †´’téπç Ø√èπ◊çC. questions ´≤ƒh-úË¢Á÷ È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ EN’-≥ƒ-©èπ◊. Sarat: It's (It is) on an important event/
ÅCíÓ ´÷ô-™xØË ´îËa-¨»úø’. àçöÀ ≤ƒí∫®˝, éÌEo v°æ¨¡o©’ ÅúÕ-í¬†’. M. SURESAN Suman: ¢√∞¡x Ø√†o È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ ®ÓV™x °æçÊ° episode in World War II. This is one
áçü¿’-é¬-©Ææuç? She asked her friend to úø•’s éÓÆæç îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’. (Wait of the best books on the subject.
Sagar: Looking for an auto took all my time. wait ¢√úøçúÕ) Samrat: Who is the Writer?
é¬ÊÆ°æ¤ Öçúø-´’E ÅúÕ-TçC. Suresh: ¢√úËüÓ job èπ◊ apply îËÆ œ-†-ô’d-Ø√oúø’. Sarat: He was also a soldier. Name, John
Çö éÓÆæç îª÷Ææ’h-†oç-ü¿’-´©x Ç©-Ææu-¢Á’içC. Next week orders ´≤ƒh-ߪ’E ÇP-Ææ’h-
They asked me why I was there stall.
°j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ preposition 'for' ¢√úøéπç í∫´’- Ø√oúø’.
Eç-îªçúÕ.1) Waiting for 2) asked for 3) hope for ؈-éπ\úø áçü¿’-èπ◊-Ø√o-†E ¢√∞¡Ÿx ††o-úÕ-í¬®Ω’. Samrat: Is it such a great book?
Answer:
4) time for 5) look for. -É-C-´®Ω-™  for èπ◊ -Ö†o °j Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ask ûª®√yûª for ®√ü¿’. Sarat: The more you read it, the more you
Suman: Who are you waiting for?
Å®√n©÷, Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©÷ éÌEo îª÷¨»ç. 3) hope for: üËE-ØÁj-Ø√ ÇPç-îª-úøç. hope ûª®√yûª feel like reading it. Reading it is a
for Å´-Ææ®Ωç. Suresh: For the college bus.
English áèπ◊\´ ¢√úøéπç Ö†o prepositions ™ rare experience.
Suman: I am waiting for Vishnu. He has
a) ´’ç* ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’ç-ü¿ØË ÇPü∆lç. let's (let us)
for äéπöÀ. Åçü¿’-éπE ü∆E Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’ ÆæJí¬ ûÁ©’- asked me for some money. b) Chakri: Have you a pen?
hope for the best.
Ææ’-èπ◊E conversation ™ ¢√úÕûË ´’† conversa- Suresh: (It is) time for him to be here. Charan: I have. Do you want it?
b) They hope for an early appointment.
tion effective í¬ Öçô’çC. Perhaps he will be here in a few Chakri: My refill is/ has gone dry (has run
1. Wait for: äéπJ éÓÆæç, äéπ ´Ææ’h´¤, Ææç°∂æ’-ô†
ûªy®Ω™ ã ÖüÓuí∫ç ´Ææ’hç-ü¿E ÇP-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. minutes. out of ink - is dry/ has gone dry -
éÓÆæç ¢Ë* îª÷úøúøç. Å®·ûË hope ûª®√yûª 'that' ûÓ begin ÅßË’u Suman: He is waiting for the money his dad ü∆ØÓx ink Å®·-§Ú-®·çC = run out of
Wait for me, please
´÷ô©’ ´ÊÆh for ®√ü¿’. will send him in two or three days. ink). I have not (haven't) completed
c) He hopes that he will get the job Suresh: He has applied for a job. He hopes
é¬Ææh Ø√éÓÆæç îª÷úø¢√? my assignment.
4) time for: üËE-ÈéjØ√ time´îËa-ÆœçC/Å®·çC for the orders next week.
a) Train éÓÆæç îª÷Ææ’hØ√oç Charan: Assignment?
ņ--ú≈-EéÀ time for Åçö«ç. ÉC î√™« 2) Ñ éÀçCN a/ an, the éÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*-†N.
We are waiting for the train Common. Chakri: Yes. It's on a chapter in Physics.
Practise îËߪ’çúÕ.
b) Exams a) It's time for dinner (Dinner time Charan: I need the pen too. You get a refill
Å®·§ÚßË’ ´®Ωèπ◊ îª÷ü∆lç Å®·çC) a) Sarat: Ç table O’ü¿ Ö†o °æ¤Ææhéπç îªC-¢√¢√?
Let's wait for the exams to be over b) Time has come for us to leave in any of the shops here. (Refills
Samrat: üËEéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† °æ¤Ææhéπç ÅC?
(Let's wait till the exams are over) ´’†ç •ßª’-™‰l-®√-Lq† time Å®·çC are available in any of the shops
Sarat: È®çúÓ v°æ°æçîª ßª·ü¿l¥ç-™ E ã ´·êu-¢Á’i†
here.)
c) ¢√úÕ ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’©’ ¢√∞¡x-´÷t®· °Rx éÓÆæç é¬îª’- Å™«Íí time for breakfast, for dinner, etc. Ææç°∂æ’-ô† í∫’Jç*. Ç Å稡ç O’ü¿ °æ¤Ææh-
éÌE ÖØ√o®Ω’. Å®·-§ÚûË ¢√úÕéà îËÊÆ-≤ƒh®Ω’. 5) Look for: ¢Áü¿-éπ-úøç é¬-©™ ÉC best. Chakri: Thank you for the advice.

-v°æ-¨¡o: Below, beneath © ÆæJ-ßÁi’† Å®√n-©†’ ûÁL°œ,
¢√öÀE ¢√úË Ææçü¿-®√s¥-©†’; -Å-™«Íí Famous, Famous.. Popular.. -Åç-õ‰? A popular movie star- v°æñ«-Gµ-´÷†ç §ÒçC† û√®Ω–
ÆœE-´÷-©†’ í∫’-Jç-* ûÁL-Æœ-†-¢√∞¡⁄x, ÆœE-´÷©’ ¶«í¬ îª÷ÊÆ-
Popular © ÆæJ-ßÁi’† Å®√n-©†’ ûÁL°œ, ¢√öÀE ¢√úË ¢√∞¡Ÿx É≠æd-°æúË û√®Ω©’.
Ææçü¿-®√s¥-©†’ N´-Jç-îªçúÕ. popular Åçõ‰ v°æñ«-Gµ-´÷†ç éπ© ÅE. famous ņo- ã cinema star, famous, popular È®çúø÷ 鬴a.
°æ¤púø’ ûÁLÆœ, NE Öçúø-ö«-EéÀ v§ƒüµ∆†uç ûªèπ◊\´. 'popu- °æ®Ω-¶µ«≥ƒ *vû√© íÌ°æp actor ©†’ í∫’-Jç-* ´’†èπ◊ ûÁLÊÆh
-ï-¢√-•’: Below, beneath © ûËú≈ -ûªy®Ω-™ N´-J≤ƒhç.
– Èé.´ç-Q-éπ%≠æg, °æ®Ω-鬩, ´®Ωç-í∫™¸ ->-™«x
lar' ™ äéπ ®Ωçí∫ç™ ®√ùÀç-*-†-¢√-JE Ç ´®√_-EéÀ Ææç•ç- ¢√∞¡Ÿx famous. ´’† ¶µ«≥ƒ *vû√© íÌ°æp-û√-®Ω©’, ´’†ç
Famous Åçõ‰ v°æÆ œ-Cl¥-Èé-éÀ\†, v°æë«uA îÁçC†. Åçõ‰ Cµç-*† v°æï©’ ÅGµ-´÷-Eç-îª-úøç, É≠æd-°æ-úø-úøç. v°æÆœ-Cl-Èé-éÀ\-†- ÅGµ-´÷-Eç-îË-¢√∞¡Ÿx popular stars.
v°æñ«-F-éπç™ î√-™«´’çCéÀ ûÁL-Æœ†, î√-™«-´’çC NE Ö†o ¢√∞¡x/ ¢√öÀ °æôx ´’†èπ◊ É≥ƒd-E-éπçõ‰, ¢Á’°æ¤p, íı®Ω´ç A famous song - Åçü¿®Ω÷ ¢Á’a-éÌØË §ƒô.
ÅE. áèπ◊\´. Popular Å®·† ´uèπ◊h-©†’ ´’†ç É≠æd-°æ-úøû√ç, A popular song- Åçü¿®Ω÷ ÅGµ-´÷-EçîË, Åçõ‰ éÌClí¬
Abdul Kalam is a famous scientist = Çߪ’† v°æÆ œCl¥ ¢√∞¡x-†’ í∫’-Jç-* Éûª®Ω ®Ωçí¬© ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ ûÁL-ߪ’-éπ-§Ú-´îª’a– 'mass' song ÅE.
îÁçC† ¨»ÆæY-¢Ëûªh – î√-™«´’ç-CéÀ, ¨»ÆæYçûÓ Ææç•ç-üµ¿ç-™‰E A famous movie star - v°æÆ œ-Cl¥-Èé-éÀ\† ÆœE-´÷-û√®Ω– ÆœE- Tendulkar is a famous cricketer- Ééπ\úø popular
¢√∞¡xèπ◊ èπÿ-ú≈ -Ç-ߪ’-†- í∫’-Jç-* ûÁ©’Ææ’– Çߪ’† í∫’-Jç-* NE ´÷-©-†’ í∫’-Jç-* Åçûªí¬ ûÁL-ߪ’E/ interest ™‰E ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ ņç éπü∆.
ÖØ√o®Ω’ ÅE. Åûª-úÕ/- Ç-¢Á’ í∫’-Jç-* ûÁ©’Ææ’.
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -Ç-C¢√®Ωç 16 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
Anil: Hi, Trishal, where were you last
Éçé¬ îª÷úøçúÕ:
evening?
b) By the time I reached the station, the train
(E†o ≤ƒßª’çvûªç áéπ\-úø’-Ø√o´¤?) had left. station
؈’ train
îËÍ®-Ææ-JéÀ, ¢ÁR}§Ú-
Trishal: Most of the time at home.
®·çC. Train sta-
¢Á-R}-§Ú-´-úøç ´·çü¿÷, ؈’
(E†o áèπ◊\´ÊÆ°æ¤ ÉçöxØË ÖØ√o) tion the train had left.
îË®Ω-úøç ûª®√yûª, 鬕öÀd
Why, what's the matter?
c) My uncle too had waited for me for ten
(àçöÀ N≠æߪ’ç?) minutes - Ø√ éÓÆæç 10 EN’-≥ƒ©’ îª÷Æœ, ûª®√yûª
Anil: But Sunil told me he had seen you
ÉçöÀéÀ •ßª’-™‰l-®√úø’, had waited - had + pp
going somewhere
d) Seeing that I had not come– ؈’ ®√™‰-ü¿E
(Å®·ûË †’-¢Áy-éπ\-úÕéÓ ¢Á∞¡Ÿhç-úø-úøç- îª÷Æœ, he started for home. ؈’ ®√éπ-§Ú-´-úøç,
îª÷¨»†E Sunil îÁ§ƒpúø’) earlier past action, 鬕öÀd had come - had
Trishal: He seen me on my way to the sta- Lakshmi:
+ past participle. Ñ éÀçC È®çúø÷ §Ú©açúÕ: Éçé¬ éÌEo ÖØ√o®·. ´’†ç ¢Á-R}
tion to receive my uncle. But by the a) The Moghuls had ruled India before the
e) I had kept it for two days... when I îª÷ü∆lç °æü¿.
time I reached the station the train British ruled it (British b) Pratap: Hi Pramod, †’´¤y bike éÌØ√o-´E
returned it to the library. had
Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ ¢√-Jéπç-õ„ -´·ç-ü¿’
had left. My uncle too had waited for had ruled,
-¢Á·í∫-©’-©’ ¶µ«®Ω-û˝†’ §ƒLç-î√®Ω’. Prasanth îÁ§ƒpúø’ Ø√ûÓ, ¢Á·†o-†’-
kept – had + past participle (pp) ´·çü¿®Ω
me for 10 minutes. Seeing that I ruled).
ïJ-T†past action †’ ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰-≤Úhç-C éπü∆.- èπ◊çö«.
had not come, he started for home b) India had been under Moghul rule before Pramod: Éçé¬ é̆-™‰ü¿’. éÌØ√-©E ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o.
Ééπ\-úø ´’†ç ûÁ©’Ææ’-èπ◊†o ´·êu N≠æߪ’ç: it was under British rule (British
on his own. §ƒ©-†™ Pratap: O’ cousin bike éÌçô’-Ø√o¢√?
had + past participle always expresses the Moghul
(؈’ ´÷ uncle éÓÆæç station èπ◊ ¢Á∞¡Ÿh- ÖçúË ´·çü¿’, §ƒ©-†™ ÖçúËC). Pramod: ™‰ü¿’. E†oØË ûÁL-Æ œçC, ¢√úøC
earlier of two past actions. Éçûª-´-®Ωèπÿ, Ñ lesson ™ ´’†ç ûÁ©’Ææ’èπ◊†o
†o-°æ¤púø’ îª÷¨»úø’. Å®·ûË Øˆ’ station Ţ˒t-¨»-úøE.
èπ◊ -¢Á-∞Ï}Ææ-JÍé train -´-*a -¢Á-R}-§Ú®·ç-C.

He had been an actor
´÷ uncle èπÿú≈ Ø√ éÓÆæç 10 EN’-≥ƒ©’
îª÷Æœ ÉçöÀéÀ •ßª’-™‰l-®√úø’)
But why did you want to see me?
(Å®·ûË †’´¤y †ØÁoç-ü¿’èπ◊ éπ©-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊-
Ø√o´¤?)
Anil: I wanted that book on computers verbs: had been (be Pratap: á´-JéÀ?
from you. form - í∫ûªç™ Ö†o Pramod: ¢√úÕ §ƒûª bike †’ éÌûªh bike ûÓ
(F ü¿í∫_®Ω †’ç* Ç computer book
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 58
È®çúø’ N≠æ-ߪ÷-©™ exchange îËÆæ’èπ◊Ø√o-†E îÁ§ƒpúø’.
BÆæ’éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊Ø√o) ´·çü¿®Ω Ö†o N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo Answers:
Trishal: I am sorry, I don't have it. I had kept îÁ°æ¤ hçC), had + pp
it for only two days till the day (action - í∫ûªç™ ïJ- a) Lakshmi: Hi Ajitha, when did you return?
before when I returned it to the a) ¢√úø’ pass Åߪ÷u-úøE Ø√ûÓ îÁ§ƒpúø’. When I phoned yesterday your
T† È®çúø’ °æ†’™x
library. He told me that he had passed. (pass ¢Á·ü¿öÀ °æEE ûÁ-LÊ°ç- M. SURESAN mother told me you had not
(Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω ™‰C-°æ¤púø’, È®çvúÓ-V©’ Öç- Å´-úøç ´·çü¿÷, îÁ°æp-úøç ûª®√yûª éπü∆. 鬕öÀd ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç) returned yet.
èπ◊E ¢Á·†oØË library ™ -ÉîËa¨».) ´·çü¿J past action, had + passed (had + a) ¢√u§ƒ®Ωç v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-îË-´·çü¿’ Çߪ’† teacher í¬ Ajitha: That's right. I arrived half an hour
°j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù-™E verbs: had seen, had left, pp) ÖçúË-¢√úø’ = He had been a teacher before after you had phone. What's the
had waited, had come, had kept É´Fo èπÿú≈ b) Ç¢Á’ °R}éÀ ´·çü¿’ teacher í¬ °æE-îË-ÆœçC. he started business. matter?
She had worked as teacher before she b) Lawyer í¬ practice rail-
v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-îË -´·çü¿’ Lakshmi: Leela told me yesterday she had
had + past participle form ™ ÖØ√o®· éπü∆.
ways ™ °æEî˨»®Ω’ = He had worked/ He brought some sarees from
Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ Ñ form of verb †’ ´’†ç Ñ les- got married.
had been (ÖØ√o®Ω’) in the railways before Mumbai. How about seeing
sons ™ îª÷úø-™‰ü¿’. Ñ verb form: had + past had + pp éÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† 'be' form had been. he started practising as a lawyer. them?
participle. DØËo past perfect tense Åçö«®Ω’. ´’†èπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éπü∆, 'be' form á°æ¤púø÷ Öçúø-ú≈-Eo c) sisters unmarried
¢√∞¡x °R} ÅßË’uç-ûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ Ajitha: She told me the day before she
DE Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫ç- îª÷ü∆lç: ûÁ©’°æ¤-ûª’çC. í¬ØË ÖØ√oúø’ = He had been unmarried
had given away most of them.
a) Sunil told me he had seen you. Ééπ\úø two Ñ éÀçC È®ç-úø÷ §Ú©açúÕ: until his sisters got married.
Lakshmi: Still some more are there. Let's go
past actions (í∫ûªç™ ïJ-T† È®çúø’ °æ†’--©’– a) NTR had acted in movies before he Now practise the following in English. and see.
äéπöÀ Sunil E†’o îª÷úø-úøç, Ç N≠æߪ’ç Ø√ûÓ entered politics (politics -™  v°æ¢Ë-PçîË a) Lakshmi: Hi Ajitha á°æ¤púø’ AJ-íÌ-î√a´¤? O’ b) Pratap: Prasanth told me that you had
îÁ°æp-úøç) ÖØ√o®·. Ççü¿’™ äéπöÀ ´·çü¿’, ´·çü¿’, ÆœE-´÷™x †öÀç-î√úø’. †öÀç-îª-úøç – -ÉC ÉçöÀéÀ ؈’ E†o phone îËÊÆh O’ bought a bike. I think, the day
ÉçéÓöÀ ûª®√yûªéπü∆. Sunil, Trishal †’ îª÷-úø-úøç action (Ωu). ´·çü¿’ ïJ-T† past action Å´’t †’Nyçé¬ ®√™‰-ü¿E îÁ°œpçC. before (yesterday).
´·çü¿’, Ç N≠æߪ’ç Anil ûÓ îÁ°æpúøç ûª®√yûª 鬕öÀd, had acted - had + past participle) Ajitha: Å´¤†’. †’´¤y phone îËÆœ† Å®Ω-í∫çô Pramod: Not yet. I think of buying one.
éπü∆. Ééπ\úø ´·çü¿’ ïJ-T† °æE Sunil, b) NTR had been an actor before he was a ûª®√yûª ؈’ ÉçöÀéÀ îË®√†’. àçöÀ Pratap: (Are you) buying your cousin's
Trishal †’ îª÷úø-úøç, had seen – had + past CM (CM í¬ ÖçúË ´·çü¿’, actor í¬ ÖØ√oúø’). N≠æߪ’ç? bike?
participle form ™ Öçúø-úøç í∫´’-Eç-î √L Ééπ\-úø verbs – had been, was. Ñ È®çúø÷ Lakshmi: M© ´·ç¶„j †’ç* éÌEo <®Ω©’ ûÁî √a- Pramod: No. Only yesterday I came to know
´’†ç. Åçõ‰ È®çúø’ past actions ™ äéπöÀ èπÿú≈ 'be' forms ü∆. Åçü¿’-éπØË, he was a CM - †E îÁ°œpçC E†o. ´’†ç ¢ÁRx he had sold it off.
´·çü¿’, ÉçéÓöÀ ûª®√yûª ïJ-TûË, ´·çü¿’ ïJ-T† (äéπ-°æ¤púø’) CM í¬ ÖçúË¢√®Ω’ (É°æ¤púø’ -™‰®Ω’). îª÷ü∆l´÷? Pratap: Who to?
past action á°æ¤púø÷ had + past participle Åçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ actor - 鬕öÀd had been an Ajitha: É°æp-öÀÍé î√-™« ÉîËa-¨»-†E ¢Á·†oØË Pramod: He told me he had exchanged his
form ™ Öçô’çC. actor. îÁ°œpçC Ø√ûÓ. old bike for a new one.

-v°æ-¨¡o: 1) Would you come please? -v°æ-¨¡o: English Newspapers ™ Headlines Å-Fo simple present
Could you come please? tense ™ ®√≤ƒhÈ®çü¿’-éπE?Å-´-Fo ïJ-T-§Ú-®·† N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ éπü∆!
Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀéÀ ûËú≈ àN’öÀ? would - past tense of will 2) Could éÀ would éÀ difference -à-N’-öÀ? -¢√-öÀ-E -à-ßË’
éπ-ü∆. Ééπ\úø would, could áçü¿’èπ◊ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√®Ω’? Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x use îËߪ’-´îª’a?
2) Sell this vehicle off (Active Voice),
-ï-¢√-•’:
– °œ.í∫-ù‰-¨¸, é¬éÀ-Ø√-úø.
What does she want (Active Voice). -O-öÀE Passive Voice ™ please ? ÅØËC more formal (áèπ◊\´ ™«ç-†-v§ƒßª’ç,
à N-üµ¿çí¬ ®√ߪ÷™ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. 1) î√-™« -´’ç-* question. English èπ◊ -Ö†o v°æûËuéπ ©éπ~ùç, historic
could éπçõ‰). Åçõ‰ ´’†-éπç-ûªí¬ °æJ-îªßª’ç ™‰E, ´’†ç íı®Ω-NçîË
3) The function went off well Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰Ææ÷h, went off present. Åçõ‰ í∫ûªç™ ïJ-T-†-¢√-öÀéÀ èπÿú≈ present tense (sim-
´uèπ◊h-©†’ îËÊÆ request. ple) ¢√úø-úøç. ÉC newspaper headlines ™ áèπ◊\´.
™«çöÀ ¢√öÀéÀ Å®√n©’ áéπ\úø, ᙫçöÀ °æ¤Ææh-é¬--™-x -Öç-ö«-ßÁ÷ ûÁL-ߪ’- 2) sell this vehicle off. DEéÀ passive voice – Let this vehicle
Prime Minister Inaugurates the conference.
ñ‰-ߪ’-í∫-©®Ω’. be sold off.
– ÅçûªöÀ °çîª-©ßª’u, What does she want èπ◊ passive – what is wanted by her. Ééπ\úø Inaugurates Åçõ‰ îËÆæ’h-Ø√o-®ΩF é¬ü¿÷, îËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o-®ΩF
éÌEo Ææçü¿-®√s¥-™x-ØË ûª°æp Éô’-´çöÀ sentences active ™ Öçõ‰ØË é¬ü¿’. îËÊÆ-¨»-®ΩE. ÉC English ™ ûª°æ¤p-é¬ü¿’.
-ï-¢√-•’:
®√ïç-Ê°ô.
natural í¬ Öçô’çC. Here was I already late to the station. Just then my brother

1) would, should, could í∫’-Jç-* ûªy®Ω™ -ûÁ-©’Ææ’èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’. could 3) went off well - Åçõ‰ ¶«í¬ ïJ-TçC ÅE. Éô’-´çöÀ phrases èπ◊ comes with the news that I have forgotten my ticket. Ééπ\úø
you come please? ÅØËC, 'would you come please' éπØ√o Å®Ωnç oxford/ longman's ™«çöÀ ´’ç* dictionaries ™, 'go' éÀçü¿ comes ûª°æ¤p-é¬ü¿’. effect éÓÆæç ¢√úø-û√®Ω’.
áèπ◊\´ ´’®√uü¿ Ææ÷*çîË request. Å®·ûË would you come, îª÷úøçúÕ. 2) could, would í∫’-Jç-* ÆæN-´-®Ωçí¬ -ûÁ-©’Ææ’èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’.
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -´’çí∫-∞¡¢√®Ωç 18 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
Sivaram: Hi Unni, what's new? c) His mother told me that some one had
(°æ©-éπ-Jç°æ¤ ´÷ô -É-C. Practice it in stolen them.
your conversation) üÌçT-Lç-îª-úøç ´·çü¿’, îÁ°æp-úøç ûª®√yûª– 鬕öÀd
Unni: Have you seen Kiran of late? had stolen (had + pp)
éÀ®Ω-ù˝†’ Ñ ´’üµ¿u à´’Ø√o îª÷¨»¢√? d) She was sure that they had gone for
(of late = lately = Ñ ´’üµ¿u) good.
Sivaram: No, yesterday I did go to Kiran's. ÅN §Ú´--úø-¢Ë’í¬-F -Éçéπ -üÌ®Ωéπ-úø-´’ç-ô÷ -Öç--úø-ü¿-E
But by the time I reached there, he Ç¢Á’ †´’t-éπçí¬ ÖçC. §Ú´-úøç ´·çü¿’, 鬕öÀd
had gone out. I missed him by had gone (had + pp)
minutes. Krishna: That means you applied for it last
had + pp N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ í∫´’-Eç-î√-Lq† ´·ê-u¢Á’i† Gopal: á´y®Ω÷ ™‰®Ω’. Åçûª-èπ◊-´·çüË
Saturday
™‰ü¿’. E†o ¢√R}ç-öÀÍé ¢Á∞«}†’. é¬F N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ È®çúø’-Ø√o®·.
؈’ ¢Á∞Ï}-ô°æp-öÀéÀ Åûª-úø’ •ßª’-öÀéÀ Åçü¿®Ω÷ ¢Á-R}-§Ú-ߪ÷®Ω’.
b) Sarat: Who are the police searching for?
¢ÁR}§Ú-ߪ÷úø’. Åûª-úÕ-E éÌ-Eo -E-N’-≥ƒ-© - Krishna: Åéπ\úø watchman ™‰ú≈?
(Police ¢√∞¡Ÿx (Plural). äéπ Police = a
ûË-ú≈-ûÓ miss Åߪ÷u†’. Gopal: Åûª-úË îÁ§ƒpúø’ Principal ´’üµ∆u£æ«oç
Police man. Plural í¬ Policemen/
Unni: Why did you want to see him? classes ÅFo cancel î˨»-®ΩF, Åçü¿’-
Police persons èπÿú≈ ¢√úÌa.)
áçü¿’-Èé-∞«}´¤ ¢√-R}ç-öÀéÀ?
Sivaram: He had promised to lend me the
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 59 éπØË Åçü¿®Ω÷ ¢ÁR}§Ú-ߪ÷-®ΩE. Karim: For the chitfund company director
Krishna: †’´¤y TC (Transfer certificate) éÀ Sarat: What happened?
CDs of some latest movies. So I
apply îËÆ œç-üÁ-°æ¤púø’? Karim: He had collected money from all and
went to him to get them. a) had + pp ¢√úË Å´-鬨¡ç, Å´-Ææ®Ωç – í∫ûªç™
Gopal: Apply îËߪ ’-´ ’E †’´¤y îÁ°æp-ú≈-EéÀ disappeared/ left town
Ø√éÌ\Eo ÆœE-´÷© CDs É≤ƒh-†-Ø√oúø’. È®çúø’ °æ†’©’ ïJT, ¢√öÀ™x äéπöÀ ´·çü¿’,
ÅN ûÁa-èπ◊ç-ü∆-´’E ¢Á∞«x†’. ÉçéÓöÀ ûª®√yûª ïJ-T-†-°æ¤púø’ ´÷vûª¢Ë’. ´·çüË î˨»†’. Sarat: When did people know he had dis-
b) í∫ûªç™ ïJ-T† äÍé °æEE v°æ≤ƒh-Nç-îË-ô-°æ¤púø’ Krishna: Åçõ‰ †’´¤y last saturday ØË apply appeared?
Unni: Let's go now and get them now.
É°æ¤p-úÁR} ûÁa-èπ◊ç-ü∆´÷ ¢√öÀE? had + pp Å´-Ææ®Ωç Öçúøü¿’. î˨»-´-†o-´÷ô. Karim: Just Yesterday. He had run the com-
pany for two years when he ran
away. He had collected by then

They had gone for.. Rs. 2 crore.
Sarat: When do people learn? A number of
chitfund companies had closed
shops even before this (happened).
Practise the following also:
Sivaram: No chance. His mom told me yes- Anil: I saw the movie, 'Nenodda Neeku?' on b) Sarat:á´JéÓÆæç ¢Áü¿’èπ◊ûª’Ø√o®Ω’ police
Prasad:
terday that some one had stolen the TV last night. (E†o ®√vA TV ™, ¢√∞¡Ÿx? É°æ¤pú≈ •çúÕ áéπ\-úø’çC?
the suit case with the CDs in it. It 'ØËØÌü∆l Fèπ◊?— ÆœE´÷ îª÷¨») Karim: Chit Company director éÓÆæç.
(•çúÕ= Vehicle)
was to the police that he had gone Kumar: éÀ®Ωù˝ ü∆Eo ÉçöÀéÀ BÆæ’Èé-∞«}úø’.
Krishna: I have seen it too. What a bore! Sarat: àç ïJ-TçC?
when I went there. He wanted to Prasad: Mechanic - ü∆-Eo- á°æ¤p-úø’ °æ‹Jhí¬
(؈÷ îª÷¨»ØËx. áçûª NÆæ’íÓ!) Karim: Åçü¿J ü¿í∫_®Ω úø•’s BÆæ’-éÌE §ƒJ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’
report it to the police. I saw it last Saturday, I think. repair î˨»úø’?
(§ƒJ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’= disappeared/ left
CDs suit Anil Ç Kumar: E†o repairs °æ‹Jh î˨»úø’. É°æ¤púø’
Ç Å´-鬨¡ç ™‰ü¿’. Ç Ö†o ÆœE´÷ town)
case á´®Ó üÌçT-Lç-î √-®ΩE E†o îª÷¨»úø’ E†o-®√vA – ÉC Sarat: Åûª-úø’ §ƒJ-§Ú-ߪ÷-úøE á°æ¤púø’ ûÁLÆœçC? ´’ç* condition ™ØË ÖçC.
¢√∞¡x´’t Ø√ûÓ îÁ°œpçC. ØËEo†o Åéπ\- past action, time Prasad: á´®Ω’ ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’ ü∆Eo-°æ¤púø’?
Karim: E†oØË. §ƒJ-§Ú-ßË’-ô-°æp-öÀéÀ company
úÕéÀ ¢ÁR}-†-°æ¤púø’ ¢√úø’ ¢ÁR}çC police known - saw
Åçü¿’-éπE È®çúË∞¡Ÿx †úÕ-§ƒúø’. Å°æp-öÀÍé È®çúø’ éÓôx Kumar: éÀ®Ωù˝ ¢√∞¡x†o. Åûª-úÕéÀ ¢Á·†oØË sales-
report É´y--ú≈EÍé. (past doing word) man í¬ ÖüÓuí∫ç ´*açC.
Unni: Does he hope to get them back?
®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’ collect î˨»úø’.
Krishna èπÿú≈ Ç (Collect= ´Ææ÷©’) Prasad: Çߪ’† Åçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ àç îËÊÆ-¢√úø’?
ÅN üÌ®Ω’-èπ◊-û√-ߪ’ØË Ç¨¡ Éçé¬ Öçü∆ ÆœE´÷ îª÷¨»--†Ø√oúø’ – Sarat: á°æ¤púø’ í∫’ù-§ƒ®∏Ωç ØË®Ω’a-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’ ï†ç? Kumar: Student. Åûª-úÕéÀ job ´îËa time èπ◊
Åûª-úÕéÀ? ÉC past action, time DEéÀ ´·çü¿’ î√™« Chit Fund îªü¿’´¤ °æ‹®Ωh-´-™‰ü¿’.
Sivaram: I don't know. His mother was how- not known - Åçü¿’-éπE M. SURESAN Answer:
Companies ´‚ûª-°æ-ú≈f®· éπü∆.
ever sure that they had gone for Ééπ\úø have + pp. ´’S} Prasad: Where is the vehicle (now)?
last Saturday ÅE time îÁ°æ¤ h-Ø√oúø’ 鬕öÀd saw. ANSWERS:
good. Kumar: Kiran has taken it home.
à¢Á÷ ´’J. ¢√∞¡x´’t ´÷vûªç Éçéπ üÌ®Ω- îª÷úøçúÕ– Ñ independent, single past actions a) Krishna: Was there any one/ Was any
Prasad: When did the mechanic complete
éπ-ü¿ØË †´’t-éπç™ ÖçC. èπ◊ ¢ËöÀE èπÿú≈, had+pp ™ îÁ°æp-úøç ™‰ü¿’. õ„jç one there when you went there?
the repairs?
(For good = permanently = °æ‹Jhí¬/ ûÁL-Æœ† past actions - past doing word; time Gopal: None. People (Every one) had left
Kumar: Yesterday. It is now in good condi-
¨»¨¡y-ûªçí¬. Practise it in your con- îÁ°æpE past action have+ pp/ has + pp. the place.
tion.
versation)
Å®·ûË Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd È®çúø’ related past Krishna: Wasn't (was not) the watchman
Prasad: Who is using it now?
actions, È®çúø’ NúÕ sentences ™ îÁÊ°h Å°æ¤púø’ there?
Unni: Really unfortunate. Kumar: Kiran's elder brother. He got the job
had + pp ¢√úø-´îª’a. Gopal: He told me that the principal had
Eïçí¬ ü¿’®Ω-ü¿%-≠d-éæ π®Ωç. I went there at 4 PM. He had already gone. of a salesman just the day before
cancelled all afternoon classes.
°j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-*† verbs sets ؈-éπ\-úÕéÀ ≤ƒ-ߪ’ç-vûªç -Ø√-©’í∫’ í∫ç-ô-©èπ◊ ¢Á∞«}†’. (yesterday).
That was why all of them had gone
îª÷úøçúÕ: a) reached- had gone out; b) had Å°æp-öÀÍé Åûª-úø’ ¢ÁR}-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’. Prasad: What was he before that?
away.
promised- went; c) told- had stolen; d) had Kumar: He was a student. But he had not
Practise the following aloud in English: Krishna: When did you apply for the TC?
gone, went; d) was- had gone. completed his studies when he got
a) Krishna: E†o †’´y-éπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á-∞Ï}-ô°æp-öÀÍé Gopal: I had applied for it before you told
°j verbs v°æA ïçô™ éÀçü¿öÀ lesson™ the job.
á´È®jØ√ ÖØ√o®√? me to.
´’†ç îª÷Æœ† had + participle form ™ Ö†o
verbs ÖØ√o®· éπü∆. a) had gone out, b) had -v°æ-¨¡o: "General" - DE pronunciation -ï†-®Ω™¸ Dictionary™ É*a† Phonetic symbols †’ •öÀd, ®√ùÀç-îªôç – make a mark / distinguish
promised, c) had stolen, d) had gone. éπü∆! ≤ƒ-üµ∆®Ω-ùçí¬ "G" ûª®Ω’-¢√ûª "e" ÅØË Åéπ~®Ωç TV English News Caste †’ îª÷Æœ, NE ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ- (oneself).
´’†ç éÀçü¿-öÀ-≤ƒJ îª÷¨»ç éπü∆– had + past ´ÊÆh ü∆EE ' ñ„— í¬-ØË °æ©-é¬-©çö«®Ω’. -´’-J ´-©-ÆœçüË. -v°æ-¨¡o: 1) She goes to her friend's on sundays
participle (PP) form ™ Ö†o verb á°æ¤púø÷, the "Get" pronunciation -†’ -Å-™«í¬éπ ' Èíö¸—— -v°æ-¨¡o: 1) "Would" †’ Present ™, Past ™ 2) She goes her friends on sundays.
Åçö«®Ω’ áçü¿’èπ◊? Future ™†÷ ¢√úø-û√-®Ωô éπü∆. Ñ ´‚úø’
earlier of two past actions (í∫ûªç™ ïJ-T† - Ñ È®ç-úÕç-öÀ-™ -à-C ÆæÈ®j-†-C?
È®ç-úø’ °æ-†’-™x ´·çü¿’ ïJ-T† ü∆Eo) îÁ°æ¤hç-ü¿E. – °œ. Ææ’üµ∆-éπ®˝, *†o-´’-™«x-È®úÕf, £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 鬙«-©èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç* usage †’ °æ‹Jhí¬ -v°æ-¨¡o-© Ææç-ü¿®√s¥-™x -When, Why, What,
-ï-¢√-•’: ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. How ©-†’ -Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îª-úø-¢Á’-™«?
É°æ¤púø’ °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ ´’J-éÌEo Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù©’: 'g' ûª®√yûª 'e' ´ÊÆh 'ï—í¬ °æ©-é¬-©E 2) ǧƒu-ߪ’ûª, ņ’-®√í∫ç, ņ’-•çüµ¿ç– Ñ ´‚úø’ – -´’-ØÓ-ñ¸, ´÷Ωx
a) By the time I reached his place he had rule àO’ ™‰ü¿’. English °æü∆-©†’ Éç-Tx-≠ˇ-™ -à-´’ç-ö«®Ω’? ' ®√ùÀç-îªôç—— ï-¢√-•’:
gone out. Pronunciation ™ á°æ¤púø÷ ÅØË °æü∆-EéÀ ÆæJ-ßÁi’† Éç-Tx-≠ˇ °æü¿ç àC? Ñ È®ç--úø’ -¢√é¬u-™x 1- ) Correct; 2) Wrong.
؈’ Åéπ\-úÕéÀ îËÍ®-Ææ-JéÀ Åûª-úø’ -¢Á-R}-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’. §ƒöÀç-îª-í∫© rules î√™« ûªèπ◊\´. – Èé.Ææ’v•-´’ùuç, ´·†-í¬©§ƒúø’ English™ È®çúø’®Ω鬩Questions: i) 'Wh' words
b) He had promised the CDs and I went G ûª®√yûª e ´ÊÆh 'ï— í¬ °æ©-鬙«, ï-¢√-•’: (What, When, Where, etc.,)ûÓ ¢Á·ü¿-©ßË’u
there to get them. 'í∫— í¬ °æ©-鬙« ÅØËC, Ç ´÷ô à 1) Would Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç ûªy®Ω-™ ØË -ûÁ-©’Ææ’èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’. v°æ¨¡o©÷, ii) ÅN ™‰E v°æ¨¡o©’. 'Wh' ûÓ ¢Á·ü¿-©ßË’u
CD©’ É≤ƒh-†-†-úøç ´·çü¿’, ؈’ ¢Á-∞¡}-úøç ¶µ«≠æ-†’ç* English™éÀ ´*aç-ü¿-ØË- 2) ǧƒu-ߪ’ûª – Warmth/ affection; v°æ¨¡o™x 'Wh' word ´·ç-ü¿’ ®√¢√L.
ûª®√yûª– 鬕öÀd had promised. ü∆Eo •öÀd Öçô’çC. ņ’-®√í∫ç– affection; ņ’-•çüµ¿ç– attachment.
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 20 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
Pavan: How long can we be here? Mohan: He says you will soon be a minister
´’†ç áçûª-ÊÆ-°œ-éπ\úø Öçúø-í∫©ç? Ravi: I, A minister!! It's sheer nonsense.
Ravi: Why? There's no hurry. We can be How can I be a Minister
here as long as we like. What's the ؈’ ´’çvAØ√!! Åçûª-éπçõ‰ Å®Ωnç ™‰E
matter? N≠æߪ’ç ÉçéÓöÀ Öçúøü¿’.
àç? ´’†ç áçûª-ÊÆ°æ¤ é¬¢√-©-†’-èπ◊çõ‰ °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ look at the expressions- can
Åçûª-ÊÆ°æ¤ Öçúø-í∫©ç. àçöÀ N≠æߪ’ç? be, can understand, can read, can't (Cannot)
Pavan: Then let's listen to this man. He is speak, cannot follow, can translate etc.
saying some thing in Tamil. Can you É´Fo èπÿú≈ can ûÓ èπÿúÕ† verbs éπü∆. ÉN two
understand what he says? forms(È®çúø’ ®Ω÷§ƒ-©)™ ÖØ√o®· éπü∆?
Å®·ûË Éûª†’ îÁ°æ¤h-†oC Nçü∆ç. ûªN’- 1) can be-ÉC be form - Öçúø-ú≈Eo ûÁ©’°æ¤ûª’çC.
∞¡ç™ àüÓ îÁ°æ¤h-Ø√oúø’. Åûª†’ îÁÊ°pC 2) can understand, can read, can speak, etc.
†’´¤y Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-í∫-©¢√? É´Focan + 1st Regular Doing Word (1st
Prabha: Come, Prasanthi, how can you
Ravi: I can, but only a little. He says he is a RDW) form. e) Ç¢Á’ Ééπ\úÕéÀ°æ¤púø’ ®√™‰ü¿’
She can't (cannot) come here now. be so harsh/ unkind to me?
palmist. He can read our palms and ÉN °æ†’-©†’ (Actions) Ææ÷*-≤ƒh®·.
tell us of our future. 1. Can: (ability)
-É-C ≤ƒ´’-®√n uEo verb.
ûÁLÊ° f) Éçûª *†o N≠æߪ’ç Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’éÓ-™‰¢√? Prasanthi: How can you talk so much non-
àüÓ éÌçûª (Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’éÓ-í∫-©†’). Åûª†’ v°æÆæ’hûªç(present) ™ é¬F, ¶µºN-≠æuû˝ Can't you (can you not) understand this sense?
Palmist - £æ«Ææh-≤ƒ-´·-vCéπç-– îË®· îª÷Æœ (Future) ™ é¬F Öçúø-í∫-©í∫úøç, îËߪ’-í∫- simple thing? Ñ éÀçC day to day situations ™ ¢√úË vocab-
©í∫úøç ÅE îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊can ¢√úøû√ç. Practise the following in English: ulary/ expressions practise îËߪ’çúÕ: (Prn:
a) He can be here in ten minutes. Prabha: ؈’ CM (become
†’ é¬í∫-L-T-ûË...- Pronunciation)
Åûª†’ 10 EN’-≥ƒ--™x Ééπ\úø Öçúø-í∫-©úø’. ¢√úøçúÕ)
1. get up -
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 60
(can be - be form éπü∆ – Öçúø-í∫-©-í∫úøç -ûÁ-©’°æ¤- Prasanthi: Çí¬í∫’. †’´¤y CM ᙫ Å´-í∫-©´¤? Evü¿-™‰-´-úøç
ûª’ç-C) Prabha: ؈’ Å´-™‰-†Ø√ F †´’téπç? (wakeup ÅØÌa – é¬F ÅC é¬Ææh §ƒçúÕûªuç)
2. have/ take a bath - ≤ƒo†ç îËߪ’úøç.
(bathe - ≤ƒo†ç îËߪ’úøç, Ææ´·vü¿ ≤ƒo†ç – Ñ

I can speak..
´÷ô Ö†o-°æp-öÀéà DØÁo-´®Ω÷ É°æ¤púø’ ¢√úøúøç ™‰ü¿’.
§ƒûª-•-úÕ† ¢√úø’éπ – Ææ´·-vü¿-≤ƒo†ç – a swim in
the sea)
3. have/ take breakfast (Prn: -v¶„é˙-°∂æÆˇd) – §Òü¿’-löÀ
°∂æ-™«-£æ…®Ωç.
4. boil: (prn: ¶«ß˝’™¸) ´’J-Tç-îª-úøç/-´’-®Ω-í∫úøç
ñÆæuç îÁÊ°p-¢√úø’. ´’† £æ«Ææhͮ꩒ îª÷Æœ b) FÈéç-ûª-ÊÆ°æ¤ é¬¢√-©çõ‰ Åçûª-ÊÆ°æ¤ ØËE-éπ\úø Öçúø- Prasanthi: †’´¤y CM
é¬í∫-©¢Ó, 5. fry: ¢Ë®·ç-îªúøç, ¢Ë°æ¤úø’ èπÿ®Ω
´’† ¶µºN-≠æuû˝ îÁ°æp-í∫-©-†çô’-Ø√o--úø’. í∫-©†’
(Read the palm – ͮ꩒ îª÷úøôç– I can be here as long as you like/ want. ™‰üÓ é¬F, 6. bake: (prn: ¶„ß˝’é˙) †÷ØÁ-™«ç-öÀN ™‰èπ◊çú≈
£æ«Ææh-Í®-ê©’) c) ¢√úÕ-éπ\úø í∫çô-éπçõ‰ Öçúø-™‰úø’ nonsense E°æ¤p© O’ü¿ 鬩aúøç. Bread Å™«Íí îË≤ƒh®Ω’
Pavan: But how can we understand him? He He cannot be (can't be) here for more than ´÷vûªç 鬕öÀd Bread îËÊÆ îÓô’: Bakery (¶„ß˝’-éπ-J)
can't (can not) speak Telugu and we an hour. î√™« ´÷ö«x- Snacks/ refreshments/ eats - ´’†ç
can't follow his Tamil. d) President
¶µ«®Ω-Bߪ’ §˘®Ω’úÁ´-®Ω-®·Ø√ í¬ Öçúø- úø-í∫-©´¤. ´÷´‚-©’í¬ -Å-ØË öÀ°∂œ-Ø˛èπ◊ correct English
Åûª-úÕ -´÷-ô-©’ ᙫ Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’èπ◊-ØË-C? Åûª- í∫-©úø’ Prabha: †’´¤y Ø√ M. SURESAN ´÷ô©’. öÀ°∂œØ˛ English ´÷ô é¬ü¿’.
úËË¢Á÷ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ´÷ö«x-úø-™‰úø’. ´’†ç ÅûªE Any Indian citizen can be the president. N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ 7. pastime: 鬩-Íé ~-§ƒ-EéÀ NØÓü¿ç.
Tamil Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’éÓ-™‰ç. ᙫí¬? (ÖçúËç-ü¿’èπ◊ Å®Ω’|úø’) Åçûª éπJ∏- 8. lunch: °æí∫-öÀ/ -´’-üµ∆u£æ«oç ¶µï†ç.
Ravi: Ah, here comes Mohan. He can e) F ï†t™ †’´¤y CMí¬ Öçúø-™‰´¤ †çí¬ á™« Öçúø-í∫-©¢Ë? (harsh/
unkind - éπJ∏-†-¢Á’i†) 9. Dinner: (´’†èπ◊) ®√vA ¶µï†ç. (prn: úÕ†– 'úÕ—
speak Tamil. You cannot (can't) be a CM for your life
Mohan Tamil
´Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’. Åûª-úø’ ´÷ö«x-úø- É´Fo èπÿú≈ (can be) be forms- Öçúø-í∫-©í∫ú≈Eo - Prasanthi: Å®·ûË †’´yçûª nonsense ᙫ E ØÌéÀ\-°æ-©’-èπ◊û√ç.) äéπ ®ÓV™ ´’†ç îËÊÆ
í∫-©úø’. ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰≤ƒh®·. ´÷ö«x-úø-í∫-©¢˛? ´·êu-¢Á’i† ¶µï†ç. ´’† ü˨¡ Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç™
Mohan: What's going on? (àç ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûÓçC?) 2. can + 1st RDW - action. Answer: Dinner ®√vA ¶µï-†¢Ë’ Å´¤-ûª’çC. îªL-üË-¨»™x
Prabha: If I can become the C.M..
Ravi: Here's a Tamil Palmist. Can you a) ؈’ £œ«çC ¶«í¬ ´÷ö«x-úø-í∫-©†’ ´’üµ∆u£æ«o ¶µï†ç 鬴a.
Prasanthi: Wait. How can you become the 10. Supper: (prn: Ææ°æ– Ææ ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç) –
translate his tamil for us? I can speak Hindi well.
CM?
Tamil palmist.
Éûª†’ Tamil
-Ñ-ߪ’-† ™ b) Åûª†’Tendulkar ™« Çúø-í∫-©ú≈? ®ÓV™ *´J ¶µï†ç – v°æA-®ÓW Öçú≈-©E
Prabha: Are you sure (that) I can't (can-
îÁÊ°pC ´÷èπ◊ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ îÁ°æp-í∫-©¢√? Can he play like Tendulkar? ™‰ü¿’. Åçûª ´·êuç é¬ü¿’.
not) be the CM?
Mohan: That's OK. Go on then. c) subjects
O’Í® ¶Cµç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’? breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper - ´’†ç
Prasanthi: I don't (do not) know if you can
(The Palmist studies Ravi's palm What subjects can you teach?
become the CM or not; but you ®ÓW îËÊÆ¢ÁjûË OöÀ ´·çü¿’, A/ An, The ®√´¤.
and says some thing in Tamil - Åûª†’ d) English
O’È®çûª ¶«í¬ ´÷ö«x-úø-í∫-©®Ω’? can certainly talk a lot of non-
Tamil ™ àüÓ îÁ§ƒhúø’) How well can you speak English?
sense.

-v°æ-¨¡o: Infinitive ûÓ, modal verbs ûÓ éÌEo ®Ω鬩 ¢√é¬u©’ Aéπ-´’éπ 3 a) Book, Madras èπ◊ °æç°œç-î√-Lqç-üË. -v°æ-¨¡o: Éç-Tx-≠ˇ™ commands, orders ûÁ©-°æ-ú≈-EéÀ (™‰ü∆) Conditions
°úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®·. -Ñ -¢√é¬u-™x -ûË-ú≈-©’ -N-´-Jç--îªí∫-©®Ω’. (é¬F °æç°œç-î√®Ó ™‰üÓ-ûÁLߪ’ü¿’) NCµç-îª-ú≈-EéÀ Should ™‰ü∆ must ©†’ ¢√úøû√ç éπü∆. é¬F ØËØÌéπ
1) a) They have to have gone there ÉC clear í¬ -ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’ Ñ sentence ™. text book ™ îª÷ÊÆh be forms Å®·† is, are ©†’ ¢√ú≈®Ω’.
b) They should have gone there b) -™  should been sent •ü¿’©’, should have been sent áçü¿’-éπ™«?
2) a) They have to have been there Å®·-ûËØË correct. Å°æ¤púø’ Å®Ωnç. °æ¤Ææhéπç °æç°æ-•-ú≈-LqçüË é¬F 1) äéπ Çü∆ߪ’ç ´u´-≤ƒßª’ Çü∆ߪ’ç. ÅC ¶µº÷N’ †’ç* -Öçú≈L – ÅØË
b) They should have been there °æç°æ-•-úø-™‰ü¿’.
3) a) The book was to have been sent to Madras 4 a) O’ car †’ green í¬ paint îË®·ç* Öçú≈-LqçC.
≠æ®Ω-ûª’-©†’ text book ™ To be an agricultural income... The
revenue is derived from land ÅE ≠æ®Ω-ûª’í¬ Ê°®Ì\-Ø√o®Ω’. Å™«-é¬éπ
b) The book should been sent to Madras (Å™« îË®·ç-î√®Ó ™‰üÓ, Ñ sentence clear í¬ ûÁ-©°æü¿’)
The revenue should be derived.. ÅE ¢√úÌa éπü∆.
4) a) You have to have your car painted green b) O’ car †’ green í¬ paint îËÆ œ Öçú≈-LqçC.
b) You should have painted your car green (Å™« îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’, O’®Ω’. ÉçéÓ colour ûÓ paint î˨»®Ω’) 2) Å™«Íí äéπ vôÆæ’d Çü∆ߪ’ç °æ†’o †’ç-* N’†-£æ…-®·ç°æ¤ §Òçü∆-©çõ‰
5) a) She was to have taken that bus ÅC ÉØ˛-éπç-ö«èπ◊q éπ-N’≠æ-†®˝îË †¢Á÷üÁj -Öçú≈L ÅØË ≠æ®Ω-ûª’†’; äéπ text
b) She must/ should have taken that bus . book ™ The trust should be registered with the commis-
sioner of I.T ÅE ¢√úøí¬, ´’®Ìéπ text ™ The trust is registered
-ï-¢√-•’:
– áÆˇ.-®√-ï-¨Ï-ê®˝, éπ®Ω÷o©’
with commissioner of I.T as per the provision of 12A ÅE -
1 a) They have to have gone there ÖçC. ´’J Ééπ\-úø is registered éÀ should be registered éÀ ´’üµ¿u
¢√∞¡xéπ\úÕéÀ ¢ÁR} Öçú≈-LqçC, ¢Á∞«}®Ó ™‰üÓ ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’. í∫© ûËú≈ àçöÀ? È®çúÕç-öÀ™ à ¢√éπuç áô’-´çöÀ Å®√nEo ÉÆæ’hçC?
b) They should have gone there
™‰ü∆ È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u©’ äéπ-õ‰Ø√?
¢√∞¡x-éπ\-úÕéÀ -¢Á-∞«}-LqçC, é¬F ¢Á∞¡}-™‰ü¿’.
-ï-¢√-•’:
Sentence 1) a construction
Åçûª ´’ç* have to have
é¬ü¿’. –Ê≠é˙ Å°∂æb™¸ ë«Ø˛, ´·çîÁ´·†-í¬©§ƒúø’
gone ™«çöÀexpressions, usage ™ î√™« Å®Ω’ü¿’. ü∆E •ü¿’©’ 5 a) Ç¢Á’ Ç bus áéÀ\ Öçú≈-LqçC.
1) 'The revenue should be derived' Åçõ‰-ØË correct,
They had to go there simple
Åçõ‰ í¬ ÅüË Å®Ωnç-ûÓ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC. (áéÀ\çüÓ ™‰üÓ, Ñ sentence ´©x clear í¬ ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’)
2 a) 1a) sentence
DEéà Ææ-´÷-üµ∆-†-¢Ë’ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC. Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ Ñ b) She must have taken that bus. O’®Ωç-ô’-†oô’x.
They had to be there,
•ü¿’-©’ simpler direct
Åçõ‰ í¬ í¬ bus
Ç¢Á’ éπ*a-ûªçí¬ Ç ØË áéÀ\ Öçô’çC. 2) ÉC èπÿú≈, The trust should be registered Åçõ‰ØË correct.
Öçô’çC. Ñ sentence Å®Ωnç ¢√Rx-éπ\úø Öçú≈-LqçC (í∫ûªç™). (ÆæçüË£æ«ç ™‰ü¿’, áéÀ\çC) O’®Ω’ Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-èπ◊-†o-ô’xí¬, is derived, is registered Åçõ‰
(é¬F ÖØ√o®Ó ™‰üÓ ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’). DEo Ñ sentence clear í¬ She should have taken that bus. ´÷´‚-©’í¬ ïJ-ÍíC ÉüË ÅE. Å™« é¬èπ◊çú≈ äéπ rule í¬ îÁ§ƒp-©çõ‰
îÁ°æpü¿’. Ç¢Á’ Çbus áé¬\Lq ÖçúÕçC, é¬F áéπ\-™‰ü¿’. should be derived, should be registered ÅØË¢Ë correct.
b) -D-†®Ωnç: ¢√Rx-éπ\úø Öçú≈-LqçC, é¬F ™‰®Ω’. bus
(ÉçÍé-üÓ áéÀ\çC).
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 23 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
Mahesh: Hi Ramesh, you can sing, can't you?
Kishore:
àçöÀ problem?
®Ω-¢Ë’-¨¸, †’´¤y §ƒúø-í∫-©´¤ éπü∆? Kumar:
´÷ cousins Ñ weekend Ééπ\úø
Ramesh: Of course I can. Why, what's the mat- Öçö«®Ω’.
ter? Kishore: ¢√∞¡x†’ èπÿú≈ ´’†ûÓ ®Ω´’t†’.
Å´¤†’. áçü¿’-éπ-úø’-í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤? Kumar: ¢√∞¡Ÿx ®√™‰®Ω’. ¢√Rx-éπ\-úÕéÀ -ã interview -éÓÆæç
Mahesh: You can participate in the singing -´Ææ’hØ√o®Ω’. ¢√∞¡x-é¬-¢Ë∞¡ interview ÖçC.
competition at college next week. Kishore: -†’-´¤y -™‰èπ◊ç-ú≈ -ØË-Ø√ picnic enjoy -îË-ߪ’-
´îËa-¢√®Ωç §ƒô-© -§Ú-öÙ §ƒ™Ô_-†-´îª’a. ™‰-†’. -†’-¢Áy-™«Èíj-Ø√ ®√-´-ú≈-EéÀ -v°æ-ߪ’-Aoç-.
Ramesh: Oh, no. I can sing but not in a com- Kumar: ´÷ cousins Ééπ\-úø’-†o-°æ¤púø’ ᙫ ®√í∫-
petition. ©†’? îª÷ü∆lç. ¢√∞¡Ÿx Í®§Ú, á©’xçúÓ
Åçûª ™‰ü¿’. àüÓ §ƒúø-í∫-©†’ é¬F §ÚöÙx phone îË≤ƒh®Ω’. correctí¬ á°æ¤p-úÌ-≤ƒh®Ó?
´÷vûªç é¬ü¿’. ü∆Eo-•öÀd Fèπ◊ îÁ§ƒh†’. Answers: b) Bhavan: Hi Bhaskar, Congrats.
Mahesh: O come Ramesh. Tell yourself you Kishore: †’´¤y ††’o E®√-¨¡-°æ-®Ω-îª-´ØË (disappoint) a) Kumar: Hi Kishore, What news? Bhaskar: What on?
can, and you will. ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’. †’´¤y ņ’-èπ◊çõ‰ ûª°æpéπ Kishore: How about coming for a picnic / join-
®√í∫-©´¤. ´’†-Ææ’çõ‰ ´÷®Ω_ç Öçô’çC éπü∆. Bhavan: Sekhar told me yesterday (that) you
®Ω¢Ë’≠ˇ, Ø√ ´÷ô N†’. †’´¤y §ƒúø-í∫-©-´E
Kumar: §ÚF picnic postpone îËÆæ’éÓ-™‰-¢√? ing a picnic this weekend? will you had got/ won a prize.
Fèπ◊ †’¢Ëy îÁ°æ¤péÓ, §ƒúË-ߪ’-í∫-©´¤.
Picnic miss Å´-úøç Ø√éπ-Ææ©’ É≠ædç ™‰ü¿’. come for/ will you join a picnic this Bhaskar: O, That's nothing. I got that prize for
Ramesh: I am not so sure. (Åçûª- †-´’téπç Ø√èπ◊ weekend? Ten of us are going. the best essay in the essay writing
™‰ü¿’) Kumar: This weekend? I'm (I am) afraid I can't competition.
Mahesh: You can try at least, Keep telling your- (cannot) come. Bhavan: I Know you can write very well/ I know
self you can, and you will be able to Kishore: What's (What is) the problem? you are very / quiet good at writing.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 61
do it. Kumar: My cousins will be here this weekend.
But I didn't know that you had got/
؈’ §ƒúø-í∫-©†’, §ƒúø-í∫-©†’, ÅE îÁ°æ¤p- Kishore: Ask them to join us too.
èπ◊çô÷ (ņ’-èπ◊çô÷) Öçúø’. †’´¤y §ƒúø- won the prize until sekhar told me. let
í∫-©’í∫’-û√´¤.

How can we..
(keep telling - îÁ°æ‹h-Öç--úø-úøç – continue
telling. keep doing something / contin-
ue to do some thing - äéπ °æE îËÆæ÷h
Öçúøôç)
Ramesh: Ok, I'll try. v°æߪ’-Ao-≤ƒh†’.
can
°j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ ûÓ Ö†o verbs †’ í∫´’-Eç-î√®Ω’ me tell you. I can't (cannot) write so
Kumar: They can't (can
éπü∆. ´’†ç éÀçü¿öÀ lesson ™ ûÁ©’-Ææ’èπ◊†o Å®ΩnçûÓØË Kishore: Å-Eo -à®√p-ô’x -îËÊÆ-¨»ç. -Éçéπ -á-™« post- well as you. congrats again.
pone -îË-ߪ’-´’ç-ö«--´¤? not). They are
Ééπ\úøcan †’ ¢√ú≈ç. Åçõ‰ 'í∫©— ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ – Bhaskar: O, You're praising me too much/
Kumar: Ok. äéπ\-®ÓV Çí∫’. Í®°æ¤ îÁ§ƒh à N≠æߪ’ç. coming here
≤ƒ´’®Ωn uç(ability) can
ûÁL-ߪ’-°æ®Ω-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√ú≈ç. that's praising too much. How is your
Kishore: †’´¤y ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈ ´Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤. for an inter-
Ñ response (reply) Ramesh: Of
îª÷úøçúÕ. cricket practice?/ How is your cricket
b) Bhavan: Hi, congrats Bhaskar. view. They
course, I can. conversation can you do
™ practice going on?
Bhaskar: have an inter-
something? Å-ØËquestion èπ◊ îËߪ’-í∫-©†’ ÅØË üËEéÀ? (That's praising too much- spoken
Bhavan: prize view that day.
I can do it, FÍéüÓ ´*aç-ü¿E ¨Ïê®˝ E†o Ø√ûÓ
English
Ææ´÷-üµ∆†ç É´y--ú≈-EéÀ ÅE °æ‹Jhí¬ Å†-
èπ◊çú≈,I can I
Åçõ‰ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC. îËߪ’-™‰-éπ-§ÚûË ÅØ√oúø’. Kishore: I can't (can not) M. SURESAN ™ áèπ◊\´)
Bhaskar: Åü∆. ÅüË-´’çûª °ü¿l N≠æߪ’ç é¬ü¿’. ´÷ enjoy the picnic Bhavan: We have been practising for the past
can't (cannot) Åçö«ç. °æ‹Jh sentence ņç.
college §ÚöÙ x Åûª ’u-ûªh´ ’ ¢√u≤ƒ-EéÀ without you. Do try to come/ try to one week. only four days are left
Bhaskar: I can play cricket very well. In fact I
prize ´*açC. come. (Do try - í∫öÀdí¬ îÁ°æp-ú≈-EéÀ Å-™« (N’TL ÖØ√o®·) for the tournament.
can play better than some of the
Bhavan: †’´yçûª ¶«í¬ ®√ߪ’-í∫-©-´E Ø√èπ◊ ¶«í¬ My Fielding needs some improve-
players in the Indian team.
Åçö«ç)
ûÁ©’Ææ’. Å®·ûË Fèπ◊ prize ´*a† N≠æߪ’ç Kumar: How can I come when my cousins are ment. I am sure our team will make it/
Bhavan: Oh, can you? (Å™«í¬?) -¨Ï-ê®˝ îÁÊ°p-´-®Ωèπ◊ ûÁ-L-ߪ’™‰ü¿’. îÁ°æ¤hØ√o éπü∆. here? Let's (let us) see. They will reach the finals.
Bhaskar: You think I can't (cannot) ?
Bhavan: (Do) You mean the selectors don't
؈’ F Åçûª ¶«í¬ ®√ߪ’-™‰†’. ´’®Ó≤ƒ-J phone/ call / ring me tomorrow or the (make it - (àüÁjØ√) îËߪ’-í∫-©í∫-úøç)
ÅGµ-†ç-ü¿-†©’. day after, when they will be/ will come Bhaskar: Isn't' (Is not) the tourney (tournament
know your greatness? Bhaskar: †’´¤y ††’o ´’K §ÒT-úË-Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤. Thank
selectors here exactly. Depending on that I'll (I èπ◊ ÉçéÓ-´÷ô) in Hyderabad?/ the
Åçõ‰ èπ◊ F íÌ°æp-ûª†ç ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ü¿ç-ö«¢√? you. F cricket practice ᙫ ÖçC?
Bhaskar: They can't. Moreover, I can, but I will) let you know. tourney is in hyderabad, isn't it? when
Bhavan: í∫ûª ¢√®Ωç ®ÓV-©’í¬ practice îËÆæ’hØ√oç.
don't play. Ééπ tournaments èπ◊ Ø√-©’í∫’ -®Ó-V™‰í¬ Kishore: I'm (I am) sure you will not disappoint will you be there for the first match?
¢√∞¡x®Ωnç îË≤ÚéÓ-™‰ü¿’. ؈’ Çúø-í∫-©†’, é¬E ÖçC. Ø√ fielding éÌçûª ¢Á’®Ω’-í∫’-°æ-ú≈-Lq† me. If you want you can come. Where Bhavan: On the 22nd. Our first match is with
Çúø†’. Å´-Ææ®Ωç ÖçC. ´÷ team finals ü∆é¬ ®√í∫- there is a will there is a way, you the khammam team/ the team from
îª÷¨»®Ω’ éπü∆? Spoken English ™ can, can't ©-ü¿ØË †´’téπç Ø√èπ◊çC. know. (you know - éπü∆-) khammam.
(can not) -ûÓ äéπJ ability (≤ƒ´’-®Ωn uç) í∫’-Jç-* Bhaskar: £j«vü∆-¶«-ü˛™  éπü∆ Ñ tournaments. Kumar: Why don't you postpone your picnic? Bhaskar: Ok It's time for me to leave. All the
áçûª-ÊÆ-°æ-®·Ø√ Ææ綵«-≠æù ï®Ω-°æ-´îª’a. O’È®-°æ¤púø’çö«®Ω’ Åéπ\úø 1st matchéÀ? Kishore: We have made all arrangements. best.
Now, Practise the following aloud in English. Bhavan: 22´ û√K-ê’†. ´÷ 1st match ê´’tç How can we postpone it? Bhavan: Thank you.
a) Kumar: Hi Kishore, team ûÓ. Kumar: Wait for a day I'll let you know tomor-
àçöÀ N¨Ï-≥ƒ©’? Vocabulary / Expressions:
Bhaskar: OK. ´’J Ø√èπ◊ time Å®·çC. -¢Á-∞«}-L. row.
Kishore: Ñ ¢√®√çûªçpicnic èπ◊ ´≤ƒh¢√? Ñ (Prn- Pronunciation)
All the best. Kishore: You are coming definitely.
weekend ã °æC-´’ç-CN’ ¢Á∞¡ŸhØ√oç. 1. Attend (Prn:
Bhavan: Thank you. Åõ„çú˛– õ„ç ØÌ-éÀ\-°æ-©’-èπ◊û√ç) -– £æ…ï-
Kumar: Ñ ¢√®√ç-ûª´÷? ®√™‰-ØË¢Á÷. (Definitely) certainly - éπ*a-ûªçí¬). ®Ω-´-úøç– attend/ school/ college/ place of work

-v°æ-¨¡o:
(´’†ç ´%Ah/ NCµ E®Ωy-£œ«çîË îÓôxèπ◊ ¢Á∞¡}-úøç/
1) Rajani has to work along with Ravi We have to start now to meet him - Åûª-úÕ-E éπ-©’Ææ’éÓ-´-ú≈-EéÀ ´’†ç É°æ¤púø’ £æ…ï-®Ω-´-úø-ç)/ Marriage/ meeting/ dinner/ party/
Rajani is to work along with Ravi •ßª’-©’-üË-®√L– ÉC ´’† Å´-Ææ-®√Eo/ °æJ-Æœn-ûª’© -äAh-úÕE Ææ÷*-Ææ’hçC. celebrations etc. Oô-Eo-öÀéÀ èπÿú≈ £æ…ï-®Ω-´-úøç,
2) They have to hold the programme She has to stay at office from 10 to 4. ®√´-úøç, ¢Á-∞¡}-úøç ÅØË Å®√n-©ûÓ come, go, be
They are to hold the programme Ç¢Á’ Office ™ 10 †’ç* 4 ´®Ωèπ◊ Öçú≈L– NCµ. present •ü¿’©’ attend áèπ◊\´ ¢√úøû√ç.
3) The SP, Naveen Chand who was to She has to take care of her child, so she is unable to come.
a) E†o-¢√úø’ School èπ◊ ®√-™‰ü¿’.
attend as a chief guest in this pro- Ç¢Á’ °æJ-ÆœnA (Gúøf†’ îª÷Ææ’éÓ-´-úøç) Ç¢Á’†’ ®√E-´y-ü¿’.- He didn't (did not) attend school yesterday.
gramme was not / had not/ did not come You have to be here at 10 – O’J-éπ\úø 10éÀ Öçú≈L– ÉC Çïc.
b) O’®Ω’ °-R}-Èéç-ü¿’èπ◊ ®√™‰ü¿’?
yesterday. 2) Rajani is to work along with Ravi – Rajani Ravi ûÓ éπ-LÆœ °æE-îË-ߪ÷-L/
°j ¢√é¬u-™xE is/ has to, how to/ are to, was/ had -îË-ߪ’-¶-ûª’ç-C/ -îË-Ææ’hçC– Ééπ\úø ÉC ï®Ω-í∫-¶-ßË’-ü∆Eo í∫’-Jç-* -îÁ-•’-ûª’ç-C. ÉC Whyriage?
didn't you (did you not) attend the mar-

not ïJÍí Å´-鬨¡ç ü∆ü∆°æ¤ éπ*aûªç. Åçõ‰ Åçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ îËÆæ’èπ◊†o à®√p-ô’-´©xé¬F,
Ç Rajani, Ravi ©èπ◊ ´*a† Çïc´©xé¬E ¢√∞¡Ÿx -éπ-LÆœ °æEîËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’/ îË≤ƒh®Ω’ c) Æ涵ºèπ◊ î√-™«-´’çC ´î√a®Ω’.
-Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’ éπÈ®Íéd-Ø√?-N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’.
– Å•’l™¸ ´·Ø√°∂ˇ, †çC-éÌ-ô÷\®Ω’ ÅE. have to/ has to Åçõ‰ îËߪ÷L– îË≤ƒh®Ó, ™‰üÓ ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’. am to/ is to/ A large number (of people) attended the
-ï-¢√-•’: are to/ was to/ were to N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ Å®·ûË îËߪ÷L, îËÊÆ Å´-鬨¡ç î√™«
meeting.
1) Rajani has to work along with Ravi Åçõ‰ – ®ΩïE ®ΩNûÓ °æE-îË-ߪ÷-L/-°æE áèπ◊\´, îËߪ’-úøç ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’çC. d) Í®°æ¤ dinner éÌÆæ’h-Ø√o®√?
îËߪ÷Lq Öçô’çC. Ééπ\úø Rajani has to – °æE îËߪ÷L. á´-JûÓ?– Ç¢Á’-éÀ- 3) ´·êu-Å-AC∑ †O-Ø˛-îªçü˛ ®√´-©-Æ œçC/ ®√-¢√-Lq-†-¢√úø’, é¬F Çߪ’† ®√™‰ü¿’, ÅE DE Will you/ are you going to, attend the dinner
*a† Çïc-´©x/ Ç¢Á’-èπ◊†o Å´-Ææ-®Ωç-´©x/ °æJ-Æœn-ûª’© v§Úü¿s-©ç-´©x– Ñ é¬®Ω-ù«-©™ ¶µ«´ç. Ñ Å®Ωnç correct í¬ ´îËa-ôô’x îÁÊ°p sentence- The SP, Navin tomorrow? / Are you attending the dinner
üËE-´-©x-ØÁjØ√ Ç¢Á’ ®ΩNûÓ °æE-îË-ߪ÷-L/ -îË-ߪ÷Lq ´Ææ’hçC ÅE. has to †’ he, Chand who was to have attended as the chief guest did not come yes- tomorrow?
she, it ûÓ ¢√úøû√ç. have to †’ I, We, You and they ûÓ ¢√úøû√ç. terday. was not come- English
ÆæÈ®j† had not come
é¬ü¿’. Ééπ\úø ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’.
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 27 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
Sridhar: Hi Neeraj, just how busy are you?
busy
-F®Ω-ñ ¸, †’´¤y busy
Ø√?/ áçûª í¬ Ééπ\-úø can -†’ question form ™, permission
ÖØ√o´¤? Åúø-í∫-ú≈-EéÀ (ņ’-´’-A- §Òç-ü¿-ú≈-EéÀ) ¢√úø’-ûª’Ø√oç.
a) ´’-S} á°æ¤púø’ éπ©-´-´’ç-ö«®Ω’ N’´’tLo?
(Ééπ\úø just = ÅÆæ©’. conversation ™ When can I see you again?
ûÁ©’-í∫’™ '´’J— -™«í¬ just ¢√úø’-ûª’ç-ö«®Ω’.) (asking for permission)
Tarun: Not at all. What's the matter? b) ØËEéπ ¢Á∞¡xØ√?
-Å-üËç -™‰-ü¿’. àçöÀ N≠æߪ’ç? Can I go now? (asking for permission)
Sridhar: I am in a hurry to get home. Can you c) Can I use your pen?
drive me home on your bike? pen
O’ (permission)
¢√úø’-éÓØ√?
bike
ÉçöÀéÀ ûªy®Ωí¬ ¢Á∞«xL. F O’ü¿ †-†’o - 3. Question form ™permission Åúø-í∫-ú≈-EéÀ
Éç-öÀéÀ -BÆæ’Èé-∞¡-û√-¢√? can
¢√úÕ-†õ‰x, †’ statement form permission
™
Tarun: Drive you home? O no. You can take É´y-ú≈-EéÀ ¢√úøû√ç.
my bike if you want. I am tired of driv- a) You can keep the bike till 5'o clock. Answer:
b) Question form ™ I/ we ûÓ permission Åúø-í∫-
ing for the day. †’´¤y bike †’ Å®·-Cç-öÀ-ü∆é¬ Öç-éÓ-´îª’a. Kareem: Can I see you/ speak to you for a few
ú≈-EéÀ ¢√úøû√ç. minutes?
EEoç-öÀéÀ BÆæ’Èé-∞¡}-úø-´÷? Ø√´©x -é¬ü¿’. Å©- (giving permission) c) Statement form ™ request, permission É´y-
kasyap: What about?
Æœ-§Ú-ߪ÷†’. 鬢√-©ç-õ‰ Ø√ bike BÆæ’éÓ-. b) You can take my bike. ú≈-EéÀ ¢√úøû√ç.
d) Statement form ™ possibility éÀ (≤ƒüµ¿u¢Ë’ Å´¤- Kareem: It's a bit important.
Ø√ bike BÆæ’éÓ´-a/ -BÆæ’éÓ.
kasyap: You can talk now. I am at leisure.
(giving permission) ûª’ç-ü¿-†’-èπ◊†o -N-≠æ-ߪ÷-EéÀ) ¢√úøû√ç.
Kareem: There are a few vacancies for typists
c) †’Nyéπ ¢Á-∞Ô}a. - Practise the following aloud in English:
jobs in your friend's company. I've
You can go now. (giving permission) Kareem: ؈’ O’ûÓ é¬ÊÆ°æ¤ (a few minutes) ´÷ö«x-
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 62 d) †’´¤y ´çü¿-®Ω÷-§ƒ-ߪ’-©-éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ ê®Ω’a °ôd-ú≈-
EéÀ -O-™‰x-ü¿’.
úø-´î√a? (see/ speak ¢√úøçúÕ)
Kasyap: üËE N≠æߪ’ç?
(have) applied for one of them. Can
you help me to get the job? My father
told me to talk to you.
Kasyap: Who is your father?

You can talk now
Kareem: Syed Mustafa.
kasyap: O, I know him well. Your father knows
my friend too. Your father can talk to
him.
Kareem: You can influence him better.
Kasyap: Can you come here tomorrow?
Sridhar: How long can I have it? you cannot spend more than Rs. 100/-. Kareem:
é¬Ææh ´·êu-¢Á’i† Kareem: Certainly- when shall I come?
áçûª-ÊÆ-°æ¤ç--éÓ†’? (you can spend = you have permission to N≠æߪ’ç. Kasyap: (At) this time tomorrow.
Tarun: Will three hours do? spend upto Rs. 100/-) Kasyap: É°æ¤púø’ ´÷ö«x- Vocabulary/ Expressions
´‚úø’ í∫çô©ÊÆ°æ¤ î√™«? 4. Ææ’Dµ®˝: úøçúÕ. ؈’ BJ- (prn=pronunciation)
(will do =î√©’. An income of Rs a) Driving in such traffic can be dangerous. í¬_ØË ÖØ√o†’. tnap = é¬ÊÆ°æ¤ Evü¿/ Evü¿-§Ú-´-úøç; ´·êuçí¬ ´’üµ∆u£æ«o
10000/- a day will do for me. I don't É™«çöÀ traffic ™ drive îËߪ’-úøç v°æ´÷-ü¿-éπ®Ωç Kareem: O’ friend com- ¶µï†ç ûª®√yûª (After lunch, he usually
want more. ®ÓVèπ◊ °æC-¢Ë© ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’© 鬴a/ í¬ Öçô’çC. pany ™ typist has a nap)
Çü∆ߪ’ç î√©’ Ø√èπ◊. Åçûª-éπçõ‰ ´ü¿’l) Ééπ\úø can, possibility (≤ƒüµ¿u-¢Ë’¢Á÷ ņ’-èπ◊-ØË- jobs ë«Sí¬ M. SURESAN tCut it out = Ééπ Ç°æ¤. Åü¿çû√ éπöÀd-°ô’d
Sridhar: O that's fine. Thank you. ü∆-E-E) ûÁ©’°æ¤ûª’çC éπü∆. ÅC can èπ◊ ÉçéÓ ÖØ√o®·. ؈’ (á´-È®jØ√ ņ-´-Ææ®Ω N≠æ-ߪ÷-©-ûÓ NÆœ-TÊÆh
Tarun: You can keep the bike till 5 o'clock. Go Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç. èπÿú≈ apply î˨»†’. ´÷ Ø√†o-í¬®Ω’ O’ûÓ cut it out, come to the point Åçö«ç)
by the other road. The traffic along this b) <éπöx ¢Á∞ Ô}ü¿’l. §ƒ´·-©’ç-ö«®·. tClass áíÌ_-ôdúøç = bunk;
Don't go out in the dark. There can be
´÷ö«x -úø-´’-Ø√o®Ω’. Ø√é¬ job ´îËaç-ü¿’èπ◊ O’®Ω’ tï•’s †öÀç*, class, °æE áíÌ_-ôdúøç = malinger
road at this hour can be heavy. Driving
in such traffic can be dangerous. snakes. (possibility)
≤ƒßª ’ - ° æ-úø-û√®√? (prn: ´’Lçí∫; 'Lç— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç),
Kasyap: O’ Ø√†o-í¬-È®-´®Ω’?
鬢√-©çõ‰ 5 í∫çô© ü∆é¬ -ÖçéÓ. Ç ®Ó-úø’f c) Ç v°æߪ÷ùç î√™« Å©-Ææ-ô éπ-L-Tç-îª-´-a. •úÕ üÌçí∫ = malingerer.
Kareem: Syed Mustafa. tÇö/ Jé~¬/ ö«éÃq ™«çöÀN îËÆæ’éÓ-´úøç (-áéπ\-úøç,
í∫’ç-ú≈ ¢Á-∞¡Ÿ}. Ñ road ´ü¿’l. Ñ time ™ (Å´-鬨¡ç ÖçC)
Ñ road ™ traffic ®ΩDl áèπ◊\-´í¬ The journey can be very tiresome/ tiring. Kasyap: Ø√é¬-ߪ’† ¶«í¬ûÁ©’Ææ’. Ø√ friend O’ Ø√†o- -¢Á-∞¡}-úøç) = take an auto/ rickshaw/ taxi, etc.
ÖçúÌa. Driving Ñ Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™ éÌçîÁç d) He can give you trouble. Be careful. í¬-JéÀ èπÿú≈ ûÁ©’Ææ’. Çߪ’ØË ´÷ö«x-úø-´îª’a You take bus no.7 to go to the station.
v°æ´÷-ü¿-éπ-®Ω¢Ë’ Ŵa. ñ«ví∫ûªh. ¢√úø’ Fèπ◊ trouble É≤ƒh-úË¢Á÷/ É´y-í∫-©úø’ éπü∆. (7 number bus
´ áéπ\çúÕ)
°j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ can ûÓ Ö†o verbs îª÷úøçúÕ. (possibility / ability). Kareem: O’®Ω-®·ûË áèπ◊\´ influence îËߪ’-í∫-©-®ΩE. t´·JéÀ •ôd©’ = soiled clothes
1) Can you drive me home? ÉO can èπ◊ -Ö†o Éûª®Ω uses. Ææçví∫-£æ«çí¬ 'can' †’– Kasyap: Í®°æ¤ †’Ny-éπ\-úÕéÀ ®√í∫-©¢√? His clothes are soiled.
ÅûªE •ôd©’ ´·J-éπ-ߪ÷u®·–
ÉçöÀéÀ BÆæ’Èé-∞¡}-í∫-©¢√? a) Question form ™ ´·êuçí¬, I/ we ûÓ Kareem: ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈. ͮ°-°æ¤púø’ ®√†’? trags = The beggar is in rags
°‘L-éπ©’.
2) You can take my bike – Ø√ bike BÆæ’Èé-∞¡Ÿ}. REQUESTS èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç. Kasyap: ≤ƒßª’çvûªç Ñ õ„jçèπ◊ ®√. Ç ´·≠œd-¢√úø’ *J-T† í∫’úøf™x ÖØ√oúø’.
3) How long can I have it?
áçûª-ÊÆ-°æ¤ç--éÓ-´’ç-ö«´¤? v°æ¨¡o: O’®Ω’ Spoken English QJ{-éπ™ ' ¢√é¬u-©†’ Practice -ï-¢√-•’: 1) What about you? ÅØËC ü∆ü∆°æ¤ How about you? ûÓ Ææ´÷-†¢Ë’.
4) You can keep the bike till 5'o clock. îËߪ’çúÕ—— ÅE noun form ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. °ü¿l ûËú≈ ™‰ü¿’. àC ¢√ú≈L ÅØËC á°æ¤p-úÁjØ√ Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd O’Íé
5) The traffic at this hour can be heavy. Å™«é¬èπ◊çú≈ ' practise îËߪ’çúÕ— ÅE verb form - ûÁ©’-Ææ’hçC.
6) Driving in such traffic can be dangerous. Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îªúøç ÆæÈ®j-†-C éπü∆! 2) I haven't money ÅE ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ Å†ç. I haven't any money
can can ÅEí¬F, I haven't the money ÅE-í¬E Åçö«ç. I have no money
-ï-¢√-•’: Practice, Practise èπ◊ -ÖçúË ûËú≈ advice èπ◊,
í∫’Jç* ´’†ç Éçûª´®Ωèπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-†oN: – §Úûª’© XE-¢√Ææ’, ¢Ëí¬-ߪ’´’tÊ°ô, ûª÷.íÓ.->™«x
ability (≤ƒ´’-®√n uEo) ûÁ-©’°æ¤-ûª’ç-ü¿E éπü∆. Åçõ‰– éÀ éπÈ®-é˙dí¬ Ææ´÷-†-¢Á’i-†C I haven't any money.
'í∫©— – Öçúø-í∫-©í∫-úøç, îËߪ’-í∫-©í∫-úøç ™«çöÀ Å®√n-©ûÓ. advise èπ◊ -ÖçúË ûËú≈ äéπõ‰. Practice Ŷµ«uÆæç; I haven't the money éÀ Å®Ωnç, ü∆EéÀ (àüÓ °∂晫--Ø√-ü∆-EéÀ) 鬴-©-Æ œ†
Ñ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ can èπ◊ -Ö†o ´’J-éÌEo Å®√n©’, practise- Ŷµºu-Æ œç-îª-úøç. úø•’s Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω ™‰ü¿’ ÅE.
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’ îª÷ü∆lç: a) I have the practice - Ø√èπ◊ Ŷµ«u-Ææç/- 'Are you buying a car?/ Why don't you buy a car?'
1. Can you drive me home? Ééπ\úø can drive, Å-©-¢√ô’ ÖçC. Practice makes us 'I'd like to, but I haven't the money/ but I don't have the
ability é¬ü¿’ í∫ü∆! Ééπ\úø Tarun †’ request perfect - Ŷµ«uÆæç ´©x °æJ-°æ‹-®Ωgûª ´Ææ’hçC. money.' (the money = car
v°æ¨¡o: May èπ◊ •ü¿’©’ can ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. May I help you éÀ •ü¿’-©’í¬ can I
éÌØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ úø•’s)
îËߪ’ú≈-EéÀ Sudheer can ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’ éπü∆ b) We practise the game everyday - ¢Ë’ç ®ÓW Çô†’
(ÉçöÀéÀ BÆæ’Èé-∞Ï}-ü∆?ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ). Åçõ‰ can †’ Ŷµºu-Æœ≤ƒhç (Çúøû√ç). Åçü¿’-éπE Ééπ\úø practise Ŷµ«uÆæç îËߪ’çúÕ help you ÅE ®√Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. Can ÅØËC Natural ability éÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*-ç-
request (Nïc°œh) îËߪ’-ú≈-EéÀ ¢√úø-´îª’a, question ÅØË Å®Ωnç ®√¢√-©çõ‰ practice îËߪ’çúÕ ÅØ√L éπü∆. may •ü¿’©’ can áçü¿’èπ◊ use îËߪ÷L? can E Natural ability
v°æ¨¡o: 1) Seventh class English Reader (Mother tongue) page No 52
ü¿®·-ûË
form ™. ™ é¬èπ◊çú≈ Éçé¬ áEo Nüµ∆-©’í¬ use îËߪ’-´îª’a.
1) é¬Ææh -F pen -É≤ƒh-¢√? 'Trees' Poem When evening changes into night, and when
-ï-¢√-•’: Can, natural ability E ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-Ææ’hçC, correct í¬ 'í∫©— ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ.
™ – °œ.-í∫-ù‰-¨¸, é¬éÀ-Ø√-úø
Can you give me your pen? / Can I have a moon floats on the sky. They hum a drowsy lullaby. the Ééπ\úø
your pen? moon a moon
Öç-ú≈-L éπ-ü∆.áçü¿’èπ◊ ¢√-ú≈®Ó ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’-í∫-©®Ω’. He can do it, Åçõ‰ ¢√úø’ ÅC îËߪ’-í∫-©úø’. Å®·ûË can èπ◊ -Ö-†o
2) O’ûÓ È®çúø’ EN’-≥ƒ©’ ´÷ö«x-úø-´î√a? 2) Are you studying in Seventh Class? DEéÀ ï¢√-¶„-™« -îÁ°æp-´-a? ´’J-éÌEo Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬-©™ offer äéπöÀ. Åçõ‰ ÉçéÌ-éπ®Ω’ Åúø-èπ◊\çú≈ ´’†ç
Can I speak to you/ see you for a few min- ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ àüÁjØ√ É´y--úøç/-îË-ߪ’-úøç. ü∆EéÀ can question form ™
-ï-¢√-•’: 1) 'a moon' Ñ line ™ Åa ûª°æ¤p (printer's error). The moon
–í∫’-v®Ωç -¨¡çéπ®˝, Íé-¨¡-´°æ-ôoç
utes? ¢√úøû√ç, may ™«í¬.
3) Can you lend me some money? ÅØË îªü¿’-´¤-éÓ-¢√L. May I help you? = O’èπ◊ Ø√ ≤ƒßª’ç 鬢√-™«?/- ØË-ØË-´’Ø√o O’èπ◊
é¬Ææh Å°œp-≤ƒh®√? 2) Yes, I am. ≤ƒßª’-°æ-úø-í∫-©-Ø√? – ÉC offer. Å®·ûË ÉC éÌçîÁç formal - Åçõ‰ Åçûª
-Ééπ\-úø can †’ question form ™ requests èπ◊ -
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-*-†-ô’x -ûÁ-©’-≤Úhç-C éπ-ü∆! Åçõ‰ can †’
v°æ¨¡o: How about you? What about you Ñ È®çúÕçöÀ Å®Ωnç äéπõ‰ Å®·ûË Ñ °æJ-îªßª’ç ™‰E ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ ´’† offer.
Can I help you? D†®Ωnç èπÿú≈ O’èπ◊/ -Fèπ◊ Ø√ ≤ƒßª’ç 鬢√-™«?/
È®çúø÷ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îª-úøç™ ûËú≈ àN’öÀ? ´’†ç Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√-©-†’-èπ◊-†o-°æ¤púø’
question form ™ ´·êuçí¬ you ûÓ, I/ we ûÓ Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀ™ àüÁjØ√ ¢√úø-´î√a? ü¿ßª’-îËÆœ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. I haven't -O’-èπ◊/ -Fèπ◊ ØËØË Nüµ¿çí¬ Å®·Ø√ ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’-í∫-©Ø√? ÅE informal
requests èπ◊ ¢√úø-´îª’a. money / I have no money Å®Ωnç äéπ-õ‰Ø√, é¬-†-ôx®·-ûË ¢√öÀE ᙫ í¬, Åçõ‰ ´’†èπ◊ ¶«í¬ °æJ-îªßª’ç Ö†o ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ îËÊÆ offer. May I help
2. How long can I have it? Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√L? ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. you? - formal offer. Can I help you? - less formal/ informal
bike
áçûªÊÆ°æ¤ -؈’ F Öç-éÓ-´îª’a? – ´çQ, £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛ offer.
I -Ñ-Ø√-úø’ -≤Ú-´’-¢√®Ωç 31 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2005
Pooja: Hi Raasi, what a surprise! you, here!
àçöÀ ®√Q, †’-Ny-éπ\úø! àçöà Nçûª? °j Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ í∫´’-EçîË Öçö«®Ω’, canûÓ ´îËa
verbs Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç. Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ ´’†ç-îª÷-Æœ-†¢Ë éπü∆.
Raasi: I am on my way to the spoken English
Institution near here. You know it. The 1. You can't (cannot) find the time
4th building from your place. F´¤ BJ-éπ- -îËÆæ’éÓ-™‰èπ◊ç-ú≈ -Ö-Ø√o-´¤. (ability)
spoken English Institution
Ééπ\úø ü¿í∫_®Óx èπ◊ 2. Can you do me a favour?
¢Á∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o†’. Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’í¬. O’ ÉçöÀ-†’ç* ã ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’-í∫-©¢√? (Can - request)
Ø√-©’íÓ building. 3. Can you let me spend...
(I am on my way to – ؈-éπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á∞¡ŸhØ√o†’.
O’ Éçöx ؈’ç-úøØ√? (Permission/ request)
On the way – ü∆J™)
Pooja: Come, Raasi, you go there everyday, 4. I can neither go home...
and you can't find the time to drop in at ØËEç-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡x†÷ ™‰†’, Öçúø†÷ ™‰†’ (ability)
my place. 5. You can, by all means–
†’´¤yçúÌa, ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈ Bhavani: ûª°æp-èπ◊ç-ú≈®√. c) Manoj: üË-E í∫’-Jç-* îªJa-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’ O’®Ω’?
®ÓW Åéπ\úÕ ¢Á∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o´¤, ´÷ ÉçöÀéÀ ®√´--ú≈-EéÀ (can – permission/ request)
´÷vûªç -B-Jéπ îËÆæ’éÓ-™‰éπ§Ú-ûª’-Ø√o´¤ éπü∆! b) Prakash: Sekhar †’ í∫’-Jç-* F ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç Rajeev: ®Ω¢Ë’≠ˇ ´’†èπ◊ Ææ£æ…ߪ’°æúø-í∫-©ú≈, ™‰-ú≈ ÅE.
6. I can't (cannot) give – É´y-™‰†’. (ability)
Raasi: I joined there only a week ago. I had àN’öÀ? (Whether -ûÓ begin îËߪ’çúÕ)
been thinking of seeing you and we met. Manoj: àçô-Ææ©’ N≠æߪ’ç?
Vinai: áçü¿’-éπ-úø’-í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?
Can you do me a favour?
Prakash: Åûª†’ ´’ç* player Å®·ûË ´’† team Raghav: £j«ü¿-®√-¶«-ü˛™  Cricket Match éÀ tickets

-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 63
؈-éπ\úø îËJ ¢√®Ω-¢Ë’ -Å-®·çC. O’ ÉçöÀéÀ
®√¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’, ´’†ç éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç. ã ™éÀ BÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ü∆-´’E. 鬢√L ´÷èπ◊. ®Ω¢Ë’-≠ˇèπ◊ cricket board ™
*†o ≤ƒ-ߪ’ç îËÆœ-°-ôd-í∫-©-¢√ Ø√èπ◊?
(Do a favour – ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’-úøç)

I can't give..
Pooja: Doing you a favour! That will be a real
pleasure for me. What's it?
Fèπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’-úøç Ø√èπ◊ Eïçí¬ ÆæçûÓ-≠æ¢Ë’.
àçöÀ îÁ°æ¤p.
Raasi: Can you let me spend the lunch break in
your home? We have two sessions with
a break of an hour in between. Vinai: Åûª†’ î√™« ¶«í¬ Éü¿l®Ω’ ´·í∫’_®Ω’ ûÁ©’Ææ’. Åçü¿’-éπE Åûª-ØË-
7. You can have– Öçô’çC. Possibility– Å´-鬨¡ç.
I can neither go home nor stay at the Çúø-í∫-©úø’. E©-éπ-úøí¬ ´’Ø√o ûÁ°œpç-îª-í∫-©-úË-¢Á÷-†E.
institution.
É´Foèπÿú≈ É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊ ´’†ç ûÁ-©’Ææ’èπ◊-†o 'can'
Concentration ûÓ - Manoj: ¢√úø’ îËߪ’-í∫-©úø’ é¬F îËߪ’úø’. Åûª-ØÁ°æ¤púø÷
؈’ lunch break O’ Éçöx í∫úø-§Òî√a. Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’.
classes break
Çúø-û√úø’. á´-JéÀ ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’úø’. Ø√éÀç-ûª-´-®Ωèπÿ à
´÷èπ◊ ´’üµ¿u™ ã í∫çô Now Practise the following aloud in English.
Öçô’çC. ÉçöÀéà ¢Á∞¡x†÷ ™‰†’, Åçûª-ÊÆ-°æ-éπ\úø Prakash: Å®·ûË ´’†ç Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç èπÿú≈ îËߪ’-™‰-ü¿-ûª†’.
(Use all that you have learnt so far)
Öçúø-†÷ ™‰†’. ÅûªEo Rajeev: ÉC î√™« E®√--¨¡ éπ-L-Tç-îË -N-≠æ-ߪ’ç.
Pooja: You can, by all means. Only I can't be a) Bhavani: Í®°æ¤ Ø√ birthday. O’J-ü¿l®Ω÷ ûª°æpéπ BÆæ’éӴa éπü∆. M. SURESAN Raghav: àç worry Å´èπ◊. -ØË-†’ ûÁ°œpç-îª-í∫-©-†’-™‰
there at the time. I am sorry I can't give ´≤ƒh®Ω’ éπü∆? Vinai: Å®·ûË ØË-†’ Åûª-Eéà ᙫíÓ äéπ™«.
you company. I go for my dance classes Sucharitha: O’
at the time. Don't worry. You can have
Éçöx á°æ¤púø’çúø´’ç-ö«´¤ N≠æߪ’ç îÁ-°æpØ√? ´’† match á°æpúø’ éπÈ®- d) Nagaraj: †’Ny-°æp-öÀÍé Ø√ time î√™« waste
´’´’tLo? é˙dí¬?
my sister Pallavi's company. î˨»´¤ ††’o ¢Á∞¡}F.
Chandra: Cake á°æ¤púø’ éÓ≤ƒh´¤? Prakash: Fèπ◊ ûÁMü∆. ´îËa Sunday ØË éπü∆?
ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈, Å®·ûË, Çtime ™ Ø√éÀçöx Prahlad: ´’S} ØËØÁ-°æ¤púø’ éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ†’. E†’o?
company Bhavani: Correct í¬ ≤ƒßª’çvûªç 5.30éÀ. Å´-ûªL team ™ î√-™«´’ç* players
Öçúø-úøç èπ◊ü¿-®Ωü¿’. Fèπ◊ É´y-™‰†’. Nagaraj: Í®°æ¤ à time ™-ØÁj-Ø√.
time dance Sucharitha: àç °∂æ®Ω-¢√-™‰ü¿’,. âCç-öÀÍé ؈-éπ\úø
ÅüË ™ ؈’ é¬xÆæ’-©-Èé-∞«h†’.°∂æ®Ω-¢√- ÖØ√o®Ω’. ¢√∞¡xç-ü¿®Ω’ ¶«í¬ Çúø-í∫-L-T† ¢√∞Ïx. Prahlad: Í®°æ¤ éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-™‰†’. Ø√èπ◊ examÖçC. Ç
™‰-ü¿’™‰. ´÷ îÁLx °æ©xN Fèπ◊ ûÓúø’ç-úø-í∫-©ü¿’. Öçö«. Vinai: Ø√èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’. Éçûªèπ◊ ´·çü¿’ ¢√∞¡xûÓ È®çúø’ N≠æߪ’ç Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éπü∆.
F鬢Á’ company Öçô’çC. Chandra: Ø√èπ◊ Í®°æ¤ 5 ´®Ωèπ◊ class ÖçC. 5.30éÀ matches Çú≈ç. äéπöÀ ´’†ç, ÉçéÓöÀ ¢√∞¡⁄x
(By all means – ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈, ÅEoNüµ∆™«) Nagaraj: á©’xçúÕ ´÷ ÉçöÀéÀ ®√í∫-©¢√?
ØË®√-™‰†’. äéπ Å®Ω-í∫çô late í¬ ´≤ƒh. Èí-L-î√®Ω’. Prahlad: ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈.
Raasi: Thank you.

-v°æ-¨¡o: ' Ç <®Ω î√™« ¶«í∫’çC éπü∆?—— ÅØË ¢√é¬uEo O’®Ω’ Éç-Tx-≠ˇ™ ''Isn't -v°æ-¨¡o: I saw a devil, I happend to see a devil – Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀéÀ ûÁ©’í∫’
that sari nice/ beautiful"? ÅØ√o®Ω’. ûÁ©’í∫’¢√éπuç™ ØÁí∫-öÀ¢˛ÂÆØ˛q Å®Ωnç, ü¿ßª÷uEo îª÷¨»†’. é¬E verbs ™ Ç ´÷®Ω’p áçü¿’èπ◊ ´*açC.
™‰ü¿’ é¬E Éç-Tx-≠ˇ ´îËaÆæJéÀ ØÁí∫-öÀ-¢˛ÂÆØ˛q™ ÖçC. Ç ûÁ©’í∫’ ¢√é¬uEo Model auxiliary verbs °æéπ\† have been ´ÊÆh ûÁ©’í∫’ Å®Ωnç
''Is that sari nice/ beautiful?" ņ-èπÿ-úøü∆? à´’E ´Ææ’hçC?Å™«Íí could be E áEo ®Ω鬩 Å®√n-©’ ´îËa-ôô’x
-ï-¢√-•’: A very good question. ûÁ©’-í∫’™ negative sense ûÁ-LÊ°
– -Ê≠é˙ -†-@®Ω’-Fo≤ƒ, -Å-´’%-ûª-©÷®Ω’ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îª-´îª’a. ü¿ßª’-îËÆœ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
-ï-¢√-•’: I saw a devil- ؈’ devil †’ îª÷¨»†’/devil éπ†-•-úÕçC.
– XE-¢√-Ææ-®√´¤, ´÷®Ω÷d®Ω’
´÷ô ™‰èπ◊-†o-°æp-öÀéÃ, 'éπü∆— ÅØË ´÷ô™ negative tone ´Ææ’hçC
éπü∆. Is that sari beautiful Åçõ‰ Å®Ωn-¢Ë’-N’öÀ? Ç <®Ω ´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ x, y Will be
éÀ É´y-†’-Ø√o-®ΩE Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC. I happend to see a devil- ؈’ devil †’ îª÷úøôç ûªô-Æ œnç-
¶«í∫’çü∆? ÅE éπü∆. 'Ç <®Ω ¶«í∫’çü∆?— Å-†-ú≈-EéÀ, 'Ç <®Ω given Man of the match
ÅE èπÿú≈ ņ-´îª’a. Å®·ûË ¢√úø’-éπ™ *çC/ devil Ø√èπ◊ éπ†-°æ-úøôç ûªô-Æœnç-*çC. I happened to -
¶«í∫’çC éπü∆?— ņ-ú≈-EéÀ ûËú≈ English ™ îÁ§ƒp-©çõ‰, 'Isn't award to be given áèπ◊\´. ņ’-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈/ áü¿’-®Ω’-îª÷-úøE Ææç°∂æ’-ô-††’ í∫’-Jç-* É™« îÁ§ƒhç.
that sari beautiful?' ÅE-é¬F, 'That sari is beautiful, isn't (wedding) to be solemnized by x ņ’-èπ◊çü∆ç. Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ °æNvûª I bought it in that shop – ؈C Ç shop ™ éÌØ√o†’.
it?' ÅE-é¬F Åçõ‰ ûª°æp, ûÁ©’-í∫’-™ E ¶«í∫’çC éπü∆? ÅØË Å®Ωnç (by somebody),
鬮Ωuç E®Ωy-£œ«ç-°æ-•-úø-¶-ûª’-†oC Åçõ‰ -´÷´‚©’ I happened to buy it in that shop – ؈C Ç shop ™
somebody (x), to solemnize the wedding
-v°æ-¨¡o: Ñ -´‚-úø’ -¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ English Translation îÁ°æpí∫-©®Ω’.
®√ü¿’. í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. ûÁ©’-í∫’™ (Ñ °æNvûª é̆ôç ïJ-TçC (Ç shop -™ éÌçö«-†E ņ’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’ é¬F
To be solemnized correct
鬮√uEo E®Ωy-£œ«ç-îª-†’-Ø√o®Ω’ ÅE). í¬
-v°æ-¨¡o: àéπ-é¬-©ç™ ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’†o È®çúø’ Ωu-©†’ É™« îÁ§Òpî√a? He is think-
Å®·ûË is to be solemnized is, omit
ÅE ÅØ√L. to be sol-
îËÆœ Åéπ\úË éÌØ√o†’).
1. ؈’ Í®°æ¤ áéπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á∞«h-†E O’®Ω’ ņ’-éÌç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’?
2. Ç¢Á’ Ø√ í∫’Jç* à´’†’éÌçöç-ü¿E O’®Ω’ ņ’-éÌç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’? emnized ÅØËC ¢√úø’éπ. Will be solemnized ÅE èπÿú≈ ing by walking (-†-úø’Ææ÷h -Ç-™-*Ææ’h-Ø√-o-úø’). Gita is singing by
3. Åûª†’ ††’o NÆæ’-èπ◊\ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’. Å-†´îª’a ¢√éπu E®√t-ù«Eo •öÀd. working (§ƒúø’ûª÷ °æE-îË-Ææ’-èπ◊ç--öçC).
b) To be + past participle ´·êuçí¬ passive construction. He is
-ï-¢√-•’:
– -vQ-E-¢√Æˇ, -A®Ω’°æ-A
-ï-¢√-•’: O’®Ω’ ®√Æœ† È®çúø÷ ÆæÈ®j-†-N é¬-´¤. Ist sentence: D-E-™ È®çúø÷
1. Where, do you think, I am going/ I will go tomorrow? to do it (active) - It is to be done by him.
– §Úûª’© XE-¢√Ææ’, ¢Ëí¬-ߪ’-´’t-Ê°ô, ûª÷.íÓ.->™«x.
2. What do you think she thinks of me? (îª÷¨»®Ω’ éπü∆- to be done - to be + pp)
3. He feels vexed with me. I am to take them home (active) - They are to be taken (to àéπ-鬩 Ωu-©’– É°æ¤púø’ ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’-†o-´-†’éÓç-úÕ. Å°æ¤púø’ (is
-v°æ-¨¡o: 1. véÀÈé-ö¸™Man of the match ''to be given''
ÉîËa-ô-°æ¤púø’ ÅE be + pp) home by me. thinking correct é¬ü¿’). He thinks as he is walking/ He
thinks and is walking at the same time, ņ-´îª’a. Å®·ûË
''to be solemnised by (some
Åçö«®Ω’. Å™«Íí °R} 鬮Ω’f-©™ 2) I could have found the way all right - ؈’ ü∆J ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-í∫-LÍí
- Past tense. Ñ È®çúø’ èπÿú≈ é¬Ææh ᶄs-ô’dí¬ éπEp-Ææ’hØ√o®· 鬕öÀd, He
-v°æ-¨¡o:
body)'' ÅE ®√≤ƒh®Ω’. Ø√ ÆæçüË£æ«ç– to be will be
•ü¿’©’ ÅE ¢√úÕØË (é¬E, ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’)
Parts of speech Preposition The thinks as he walks ņ-úøç better. äéÓ\-≤ƒ-J I/ II regular
¢√úÌa éπü∆!To be + PP á°æ¤púø’ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’? ™ †’ áéπ\úø ᙫ ¢√ú≈™,
2. ''I could have found the way all right''. Tenses,
†’ èπÿú≈ áéπ\úø ¢√ú≈™ ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’çúÕ. OöÀûÓ§ƒô’ doing word †’ É°æp¤úø’ ïJÍí °æ†’-©èπ◊ èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç 鬕öÀd.
Ñ ¢√éπuç Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ? ÉC à õ„Ø˛q™ Öç-C? direct & indirect speech í∫’-Jç-* -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. He thinks as he walks ÅØË sentence èπ◊ ¢√-úÁ°æ¤p-úø÷ îËÊÆ

-ï-¢√-•’: Parts of speech ™ prepositions †’ í∫’-Jç-* lessons ™
°æE ÅC (¢√-úÁ°æ¤p-úø÷ †úø’Ææ÷h Ç™-*-≤ƒhúø’/ Ç™-*ç-îË-ô°æ¤p-úø’
-ï-¢√-•’: To be given, to be seen ™«çöÀN passive infinitives.
– -áÆˇ.-ñ-≠œ, -äçíÓ-©’ – -öÀ.Ææç-ûÓ-≠ˇ π◊-´÷®˝, -ߪ÷®√-úø
†úø’-≤ƒhúø’) ÅØË Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈ ´Ææ’hçC.
1) To be given Åçõ‰ É´y-•-úø-ôç/ -É-´y-•-úø-ö«-EéÀ/ É´y-•-úËç-ü¿’èπ◊– N´-JÆæ’h-Ø√oç. Å™«Íí tenses í∫’Jç* -Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ N´- 2nd sentence: Gita is singing and working at the same
´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®·ûË É´y-úøç, É´y--ú≈-EéÀ, ÉîËaç-ü¿’èπ◊ Åçö«ç Jçî√ç, Å®·ûË tenses Ê°®Ω’x îÁ°æp-èπ◊çú≈. English ¶«í¬ time Åçõ‰ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC éπü∆ (Ç¢Á’ Ç °æ†’©’ îËÆæ’h-†oC É°æ¤p-
éπü∆. Man of the match award to be given to Åçõ‰ Man of the ´÷ö«x-úËç-ü¿’èπ◊ tenses + Ê°®Ω’x ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-Lq† Å´-Ææ-®Ωç-™‰ü¿’. úø-®·ûË). Ç¢Á’ °æE îËÊÆ--ô°æ¤p-úøçû√ §ƒúø’-ûª’çC ÅØ√-©-†’-èπ◊çõ‰
match °æ¤®Ω-≤ƒ\®Ωç x îËûª y éÀ É´y-•-úø-¶-ûª’çC ÅØË Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC; verb form ´·êuç– ÅC N´-Jçî√ç. §ƒûª papers îª÷úøçúÕ. Gita sings as/while she works ņ-´îª’a éπü∆.

Related Interests