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AP European History/Neiffer C.

Francis Bacon
Review Outline i. Advocacy for empiricism
ii. Bacon's method
The Age of Absolutism D. Rene Descartes
i. Discourse on Method
I. Old Science ii. “I think, therefore I am...”
A. Ancient science E. Scientific method
i. Natural philosopher i. Observe
ii. Aristotle ii. Predict
a) Science work iii. Test
b) Theory of falling objects V. Major question: how should one best study science?
c) Aristotle's universe model A. Old school doctorin'
iii. Ptolemy B. Galen
a) Almagest i. Adherence to Hippocrates
b) Ptolemaic model of the universe ii. Four bodily humours
iv. Ancient model of the universe C. Medicine and the church
B. Medieval model of the world D. Andreas Vesalius
i. Impact of religion i. Study of anatomy
ii. Geocentric world universe ii. On the Fabric of the Human Body
C. Science as the medieval era iii. Dissection controversy
i. Alchemy E. William Harvey
ii. Witchcraft i. An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and
iii. Astrology Blood in Animals
D. St. Thomas Aquinas ii. Acceptance among the medical community
i. Theological view
ii. Summa Theologica
II. Causes of the scientific revolution
A. Medieval universities
B. The Renaissance
C. Age of Discovery
D. Development of scientific methodology
III. Major question: what is the nature of the universe?
A. The debate
i. Geocentric
ii. Heliocentric
B. Nicholas Copernicus
i. Concerning the Revolutions of Celestial Spheres
ii. Pope Paul III
iii. “...the book that nobody read.”
C. Tycho Brahe
i. Tycho's model
ii. The Dream
D. Johannes Kepler
i. Kepler's data and claims
ii. Kepler's Three Laws of Planetary Motion
a) The Law of Ellipses
b) The Law of Equal Areas
c) The Law of Harmonies
E. Galileo Galilei
i. Inventions
ii. Theory of falling objects
iii. Work on the telescope
iv. Dialogues on Two Chief World Systems
a) Simplico!
b) Church response
v. Trial
a) Pope Urban VIII
b) Results
F. Issac Newton
i. Theological background
ii. Principia
iii. Newton's Laws of Motion
a) 1st Law
b) 2nd Law
c) 3rd Law
d) 4th Law... just jokin'
iv. Significance
IV. Major question: how should one best study science?
A. Science in the ancient and medieval world
B. Empiricism