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STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

STRATEGY FORMULATION/ALTERNATIVES

Strategic management process comprises four phases: environmental scanning, strategy
formulation, strategy implementation and strategy evaluation and control. Strategic
management is an ongoing process to develop and revise future-oriented strategies that
allow an organization to achieve its objectives, considering its capabilities, constraints,
and the environment in which it operates.

Once the environmental scanning is done the next step is strategy formulation.
Formulation produces a clear set of recommendations, with supporting justification, that
revise as necessary the mission and objectives of the organization, and supply the
strategies for accomplishing them. In formulation, we are trying to modify the current
objectives and strategies in ways to make the organization more successful. This
includes trying to create "sustainable" competitive advantages -- although most
competitive advantages are eroded steadily by the efforts of competitors.

THREE LEVELS OF STRATEGY FORMULATION

The following three aspects or levels of strategy formulation, each with a different focus,
need to be dealt with in the formulation phase of strategic management. The three sets of
recommendations must be internally consistent and fit together in a mutually supportive
manner that forms an integrated hierarchy of strategy, in the order given.

Corporate Level Strategy: In this aspect of strategy, we are concerned with broad
decisions about the total organization's scope and direction. Basically, we consider what
changes should be made in our growth objective and strategy for achieving it, the lines of
business we are in, and how these lines of business fit together. It is useful to think of
three components of corporate level strategy: (a) growth or directional strategy (what
should be our growth objective, ranging from retrenchment through stability to varying
degrees of growth - and how do we accomplish this), (b) portfolio strategy (what should
be our portfolio of lines of business, which implicitly requires reconsidering how much
concentration or diversification we should have), and (c) parenting strategy (how we
allocate resources and manage capabilities and activities across the portfolio -- where do
we put special emphasis, and how much do we integrate our various lines of business).

Business Level Strategy (often called Competitive Strategy): This involves deciding
how the company will compete within each line of business (LOB) or strategic business
unit (SBU).

Functional Strategy: These more localized and shorter-horizon strategies deal with how
each functional area and unit will carry out its functional activities to be effective and
maximize resource productivity.

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CORPORATE LEVEL STRATEGIES

Corporate level strategies are basically about the choice of direction that a firm adopts in
order to achieve its objectives. They are basically about decisions related to allocating
resources among the different businesses of a firm, transferring resources from one set of
businesses to others, and managing and nurturing a portfolio of businesses in such a way
that the overall corporate objectives are achieved.

Major types of grand strategies:

♦ Expansion (Growth) Strategies
♦ Stability Strategies
♦ Retrenchment Strategies
♦ Combination Strategies

GROWTH STRATEGIES

Growth is a way of life. Almost all organizations plan to expand. This strategy is
followed when an organization aims at higher growth by broadening its one or more of its
business in terms of their respective customer groups, customers functions, and
alternative technologies singly or jointly – in order to improve its overall performance.
E.g.: A chocolate manufacturer expands its customer groups to include middle aged and
old persons among its existing customers comprising of children and adolescents.

There are five types of expansion (Growth) strategies

♦ Expansion through concentration
♦ Expansion through integration
♦ Expansion through diversification
♦ Expansion through cooperation

Expansion through concentration

It involves converging resources in one or more of firms businesses in terms of their
respective customer needs, customer functions, or alternative technologies either singly
or jointly, in such a manner that it results in expansions. A firm that is familiar with an
industry would naturally like to invest more in known business rather than unknown
business. Concentration can be done through

Market Penetration: It involves selling more products to the same market by focusing
intensely on existing markets with its present products, increasing usage by existing
customers and increasing market share and restructures a mature market by driving out
competitors E.g.: Low pricing strategies

Market Development: It involves selling the same products to new markets by attracting
new users to its existing products. Market development can be geographic wise and

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demographic wise. E.g.: XEROX Company educated small business entrepreneurs to
create new markets.

Product Development: It involves selling new products to the same markets by
introducing newer products in existing markets. E.g.: the tourism industry in India has
not been able to attract new customers in significant numbers. New products such as
selling India as a golfing or ayuerveda-based medical treatment destination are some of
the product development efforts in the tourism industry to attract more tourists.

ANSOFF”S PRODUCT-MARKET MATRIX
.

Present New

Present Market Product
Penetration Development

New Market Diversification
Development

Advantages of concentration strategies
♦ Involves minimal organizational changes and is less threatening

♦ Enables the firm to specialize by gaining the in-depth knowledge of the
businesses.

♦ Enables the firm to develop competitive advantage

♦ Decision-making can be made easily as there is a high level of productivity

♦ Systems and processes within the firm become familiar to the people in the
organization.
Disadvantages of concentration strategies

♦ It is dependent on one industry if there is any worse condition in the industry the
firm will be affected.

♦ Factors such as product obsolescence, fickleness of market, emergence of newer
technologies are threat to concentrated firm

♦ Mangers may not be able to sustain interest and find the work less challenging

♦ It may lead to cash flow problems

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Expansion through Integration

It is done where the company attempts to widen the scope of its business definition in
such a manner that it results in serving the same set of customers. The alternative
technology of the business undergoes a change. It is combing activities related to the
present activity of a firm. Such a combination may be done through value chain. A value
chain is a set of interrelated activity performed by an organization right from the
procurement of basic raw materials down to the marketing of finished products to the
ultimate customers.

E.g.: Several process based industry such as petro chemicals, steel, textiles of
hydrocarbons have integrate firm

A make or buy decision is then made when firms wish to negotiate with the suppliers or
buyers. The cost of making the items used in the manufacture of ones owns products are
to be evaluated against the cost of procuring them from suppliers. If the cost of making is
less that the cost of procurement then the firm moves up the value chain to make the item
itself. Like wise if the cost of selling the finished products is lesser than the price paid to
the sellers to do the same thing then the firm would go for direct selling.

Among the integration strategies are of two type’s vertical and horizontal integration.

Vertical Integration: when an organization starts making new products that serve its
own needs vertical integration takes place. Vertical integration could be of two types
Back ward and forward integration.

Backward integration means moving back to the source of raw materials while forward
integration moves the organization nearer to the ultimate customer.

Generally when firms vertically integrate they do so in a complete manner that is they
move backward or forward decisively resulting in a full integration but when a firm does
not commit it fully it is possible to have partial vertical integration strategies too. Two
such partial vertical integration strategies are ‘taper’ integration and ‘quasi’ integration.
Taper integration requires firms to make a part of their own requirements and to buy the
rest from outsiders. Through quasi integration strategies firm purchase most of their
requirements from other firms in which they have an ownership stake. Ancillary
industrial units and outsourcing through sub contracting are adapted forms of quasi
integration.

Horizontal Integration: when an organization takes up the same type of products at the
same level of production or marketing process, it is said to follow a strategy of horizontal
integration. When a luggage company takes over its rival luggage company, it is
horizontal integration. Horizontal integration strategy may be frequently adopted with a
view to expand geographically by buying a competitors business, to increase the market
share or to benefit from economics of scale.

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Expansion through Diversification

Diversification is a much used and much talked about set of strategies. It involves a
substantial change in the business definition – singly or jointly- in terms of customer
groups or alternative technologies of one or more of a firm’s businesses. . There are two
categories, concentric and conglomerate diversification.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES

Related Technology Unrelated Technology

Similar Type of Marketing- technology related Marketing related
Product concentric diversification concentric diversification

New Type of Technology- related concentric Conglomerate
Product diversification diversification

Concentric Diversification: when an organization takes up an activity in such a manner
that is related to the existing business definition of one or more of firms businesses, either
in terms of customer groups, customer’s functions or alternative technologies, it is called
concentric diversification. Concentric diversification may be of three types
• Marketing related concentric diversification
• Technology- related concentric diversification
• Marketing- technology related concentric diversification

Marketing related concentric diversification: when a similar type of product is offered
with a help of unrelated technology for e.g., a company in the sewing machine business
diversifies in to kitchen ware and household appliances, which are sold to house wives
through a chain of retails stores.

Technology- related concentric diversification: when a new type of product or service is
provided with the help of related technology, for e.g., a leasing firm offering hire-
purchase services to institutional customers also starts consumer financing for the
purchase of durable sot individual customers.

Marketing- technology related concentric diversification: when a similar type of product
is provided with the help of related technology, for e.g., a rain coat manufacturer makes
other rubber based items, such as water proof shoes and rubber gloves sold through the
same retail outlets

Conglomerate Diversification: when an organization adopts a strategy which requires
taking of those activities which are unrelated to the existing businesses definition of one

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or more of its businesses either in terms of their respective customer groups, customer
functions or alternative technologies. Example of Indian company which have adopted
apart of growth and expansion through conglomerate diversification the classic examples
is of ITC, a cigarette company diversifying into the hotel industry

Expansion through Cooperation

The term cooperation expresses the idea of simultaneous competition and cooperation
among rival firms for mutual benefits. Cooperative strategies could be of the following
types

1. Mergers
2. Takeovers
3. Joint ventures
4. Strategic alliances

Mergers Strategies: A merger is a combination of two or more organizations in which
one acquires the assets and liabilities of the other in exchange for shares or cash or both
the organization are dissolved and the assets and liabilities are combined and new stock is
issued. For the organization, which acquires another, it is an acquisition. For the
organization, which is acquired, it is a merger. If both the organization dissolves their
identity to create a new organization, it is consolidation. There are different types of
mergers they are horizontal merger, vertical merger, concentric merger and conglomerate
merger.

Horizontal Mergers: it takes place when there is a combination of two or more
organizations in the same business. E.g: A company making footwear combines with
another footwear company, or a retailer of pharmaceutical combines with another retailer
in the same businesses.

Vertical Mergers: It takes place when there is a combination of two or more
organizations, not necessarily in the same business, which create complementarities
either in terms of supply of raw materials (input) or marketing of goods and services
(outputs). E.g: A footwear company combines with a leather tannery or with a chain shoe
retail stores

Concentric Mergers: It takes place when there is a combination of two or more
organizations related to each other either in terms of customer functions, customer
groups, or the alternative technologies used. E.g: A footwear company combining with a
hosiery firm making socks or another specialty footwear company, or with a leather
goods company making purse, hand bags and so on

Conglomerate Mergers: It takes place when there is a combination of two or more
organizations unrelated to each other, either in terms of customer functions, customer
groups, or alternative technologies used. E.g: A footwear company combining with a
pharmaceutical firm.

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Reasons for mergers.

Why the buyer wishes to merge:

1. To increase the value of the organization’s stock
2. To increase the growth rate and make a good investment
3. To improve stability of earning and sales
4. To balance, complete, or diversify product line
5. To reduce competition
6. To acquire needed resources quickly
7. To avail tax concessions and benefits
8. To take advantages of synergy

Why the seller wishes to merge

1. To increase the value of the owner’s stock and investment
2. To increase the growth rate
3. To acquire resources to stabilize operations
4. To benefit from tax legislation
5. To deal with top management succession problem

Takeover Strategies: Takeover or acquisition is a popular strategic alternative adopted
by Indian companies. Acquisitions usually are based on the strong motivation of the
buyer firm to acquire. Takeovers are frequently classified as hostile takeovers (which are
against the wishes of the acquired firm) and friendly takeovers (by mutual consent)

Friendly takeovers are where a takeover is not resisted or opposed, by the existing
management or professionals. E.g: Tata Tea’s takeover of Consolidated Coffee (a grower
of coffee beans) and Asian Coffee (a processor) is an example of a friendly takeover.

Hostile takeovers is where a takeover is resisted, or expected to be opposed, by the
existing management or professionals

Advantages of Takeovers

♦ Ensure management accountability

♦ Offer easy growth opportunities

♦ Create mobility of resources

♦ Avoid gestation periods and hurdles involved in new projects

♦ Offer a chance to sick units to survive

♦ Open up alternatives for selective divestment.

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Joint Venture Strategies: Joint ventures are a special case of consolidation where two
or more companies from a temporary form a temporary partnership (also called a
consortium) for a specified purpose. They occur when an independent firm is created by
at least two other firms. Joint ventures may be useful to gain access to a new business
mainly under these conditions

♦ When an activity is uneconomical for an organization to do alone
♦ When the risk of business has to be shared
♦ When the distinctive competence of two or more organization can be
brought together.
♦ When the organization has to overcome the hurdles, such as import quotas,
tariffs, nationalistic – political interests, and cultural roadblocks

Types of Join ventures

1. Between two firms in one industry
2. Between two firms across different countries
3. Between an Indian firm and a foreign company in India
4. Between an Indian firm and a foreign company in that foreign country
5. Between an Indian firma and a foreign company in a third country

Strategic alliances: They are partnership between firms whereby their resources,
capabilities and core competencies are combined to pursue mutual interest to develop,
manufacture, or distribute goods or services. There are various advantages:

♦ Two or more firms unite to pursue a set of agreed upon goals but remain
independent subsequent to the formation of the alliances. A pooling of resources,
investment and risks occurs for mutual gain

♦ The partner firms contribute on a continuing basis in one or more key strategic
areas, for example, technology, product and so forth.

♦ Strategic alliances offer a growth route in which merging one’s entity, acquiring
or being acquired, or creating a joint venture may not be required

♦ Global partners can help local firms by developing global quality consciousness,
creating adherence to international quality standards, providing access to state of
the art technology, gaining entry to world wide mass markets, and making funds
available for expansions.

E.g: Ranbaxy Company went into strategic alliance with Elilly of the US to realize its
mission of becoming a research based international pharmaceutical company.

E.g: synergistic benefits arising out of strategic alliance is that of Taj Hotels and British
Airways, where both create advantages for each other through complementarities of
airlines and hotel services

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STABILITY STRATEGIES

The stability grand strategy is adopted by an organization when it attempts at an
incremental improvement of its functional performance by marginally changing one or
more of its businesses in terms of their respective customer groups, customer functions,
and alternative technologies – either singly or collectively
E.g: A copier machine company provides better after sales service to its existing
customer to improve its company product image, and increase the sale of accessories and
consumables

This strategy may be relevant for a firm operating in a reasonably certain and predictable
environment. Stability strategy can be of three types –No Change Strategy, Profit
Strategy, Pause/ Proceed – with – caution Strategy.

No-Change Strategy

It is a conscious decision to do nothing new. The firm will continue with its present
business definition. When a firm has a stable internal and external environment the firm
will continue with its present strategy. The firm has no new strengths and weaknesses
within the organization and there is no opportunities or threats in the external
environment. Taking into account this situation the firm decides to maintain its strategy.

Several small and medium sized firm operating in a familiar market- more often a niche
market that is limited in scope – and offering products or services through a time tested
technology rely on the No – Change Strategy.

Profit Strategy

No firm can continue with the No – Change Strategy. Sometimes things do change and
the firm is faced with the situation where it has to do something. A firm may assess the
situation and assume that its problem are short lived and will go away with time. Till then
a firm tries to sustain its profitability by adopting a profit strategy

For instance in a situation when the profit is becoming lower firm takes measures to
reduce investments, cut costs, raise prices, increase productivity and adopt other
measures to solve the temporary difficulties.

The problem arises due to unfavorable situation like economic recession, government
attitude, and industry down turn, competitive pressures and like. During this kind of
situation that the firm assumes to be temporary it would adopt profit strategies

Some firms to overcome these difficulties would sell off assets such as prime land in a
commercial area and move to suburbs. Others have removed some of its non-core
business to raise money, while others have decided to provide outsourcing service to
other organizations.

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Pause/ Proceed with Caution Strategy

It is employed by the firm that wish to test the ground before moving ahead with a full
fledged grand strategy, or by firms that have an intense pace of expansion and wish to
rest for a while before moving ahead. The purpose is to allow all the people in the
organization to adapt to the changes. It is a deliberate and conscious attempt to postpone
strategic changes to a more opportune time.
E.g: In the India shoe market dominated by Bata and Liberty, Hindustan Levers better
known for soaps and detergents, produces substantial quantity of shoes and shoe uppers
for the export market. In late 2000, it started selling a few thousand pairs in the cities to
find out the market reaction. This is a pause proceed with caution strategy before it goes
full steam into another FMCG sector that has a lot of potential

RETRENCHMENT STRATEGIES

A retrenchment grand strategy is followed when an organization aims at a contraction of
its activities through substantial reduction or the elimination of the scope of one or more
of its businesses in terms of their respective customer groups, customer functions, or
alternative technologies either singly or jointly in order to improve its overall
performance. E.g: A corporate hospital decides to focus only on special treatment and
realize higher revenues by reducing its commitment to general case which is less
profitable.

The growth of industries and markets are threatened by various external and internal
developments (External developments - government policies, demand saturation,
emergence of substitute products, or changing customer needs. Internal Developments –
poor management, wrong strategies, poor quality of functional management and so on.)
In these situations the industries and markets and consequently the companies face the
danger of decline and will go for adopting retrenchment strategies.

E.g: fountain pens, manual type writers, tele printers, steam engines, jute and jute
products, slide rules, calculators and wooden toys are some products that have either
disappeared or face decline.

There are three types of retrenchment strategies - Turnaround Strategies, Divestment
Strategies and Liquidation strategies.

Turnaround Strategies

Turn around strategies derives their name from the action involved that is reversing a
negative trend. There are certain conditions or indicators which point out that a
turnaround is needed for an organization to survive. They are

♦ Persistent Negative cash flows
♦ Negative Profits

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♦ Declining market share
♦ Deterioration in Physical facilities
♦ Over manning, high turnover of employees, and low morale
♦ Uncompetitive products or services
♦ Mis management

An organization which faces one or more of these issues is referred to as a ‘sick’
company

There are three ways in which turnarounds can be managed

♦ The existing chief executive and management team handles the entire turnaround
strategy with the advisory support of a external consultant.

♦ In another case the existing team withdraws temporarily and an executive
consultant or turnaround specialist is employed to do the job.

♦ The last method involves the replacement of the existing team specially the chief
executive, or merging the sick organization with a healthy one.

Before a turn around can be formulated for an Indian company, it has to be first declared
as a sick company. The declaration is done on the basis of the Sick Industrial Companies
Act (SICA), 1985, which provides for a quasi judicial body called the Board of Industrial
and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR) which acts as the corporate doctor whenever
companies fall sick.

Divestment Strategies

A divestment strategy involves the sale or liquidation of a portion of business, or a major
division. Profit centre or SBU. Divestment is usually a part of rehabilitation or
restructuring plan and is adopted when a turnaround has been attempted but has proved to
be unsuccessful. Harvesting strategies a variant of the divestment strategies, involve a
process of gradually letting a company business wither away in a carefully controlled
manner

Reasons for Divestment

♦ The business that has been acquired proves to be a mismatch and cannot be
integrated within the company. Similarly a project that proves to be in viable in
the long term is divested

♦ Persistent negative cash flows from a particular business create financial problems
for the whole company, creating a need for the divestment of that business.

♦ Severity of competition and the inability of a firm to cope with it may cause it to
divest.

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♦ Technological up gradation is required if the business is to survive but where it is
not possible for the firm to invest in it. A preferable option would be to divest

♦ Divestment may be done because by selling off a part of a business the company
may be in a position to survive

♦ A better alternative may be available for investment, causing a firm to divest a
part of its unprofitable business.

♦ Divestment by one firm may be a part of merger plan executed with another firm,
where mutual exchange of unprofitable divisions may take place.

♦ Lastly a firm may divest in order to attract the provisions of the MRTP Act or
owing to oversize and the resultant inability to manage a large business.

E.g: TATA group is a highly diversified entity with a range of businesses under its fold.
They identified their non – core businesses for divestment. TOMCO was divested and
sold to Hindustan Levers as soaps and a detergent was not considered a core business for
the Tatas. Similarly, the pharmaceuticals companies of the Tatas- Merind and Tata
pharma – were divested to Wockhardt. The cosmetics company Lakme was divested and
sold to Hindustan Levers, as besides being a non core business, it was found to be a non-
competitive and would have required substantial investment to be sustained.

Liquidation Strategies

A retrenchment strategy which is considered the most extreme and unattractive is the
liquidation strategy, which involves closing down a firm and selling its assets. It is
considered as the last resort because it leads to serious consequences such as loss of
employment for workers and other employees, termination of opportunities where a firm
could pursue any future activities and the stigma of failure

The psychological implications

♦ The prospects of liquidation create a bad impact on the company’s reputation.

♦ For many executives who are closely associated firms, liquidation may be a
traumatic experience.

Legal aspects of liquidation

Under the Companies Act 1956, liquidation is termed as winding up. The Act defines
winding up of a company as the process whereby its life is ended and its property
administered for the benefit of its creditors and members. The Act provides for a
liquidator who takes control of the company, collect its assets, pay it debts, and finally
distributes any surplus among the members according to their rights.

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Combination (Mixed Strategies)

The combination grand strategy is followed when an organization adopts a mixture of
stability, expansion and retrenchment either at the same time in its different business or at
different times in the same business with the aim of improving its performance.
Complicated situations generally require complex solutions. Combination strategies are
the complex solutions that strategists have to offer when faced with the difficulties of real
life businesses.

E.g: A paint company augments its offering of decorative paints to provide a wider
variety to its customers (stability) and expands its product range to include industrial and
automotive paints (expansion). Simultaneously, it decides to close down the division
which undertakes large scale painting contract jobs (retrenchment).

It would be difficult to find an organization that has survived and grown by adopting a
single pure strategy. The complexity of doing business demands that different strategies
be adopted to suit the situational demands made upon the organization. An organisaiton
which has followed a stability strategy for quite some time has to think of expansion. Any
organization which has been on an expansion path for long has to pause to consolidate its
businesses.

BUSINESS LEVEL STRATEGIES

In this second aspect of a company's strategy, the focus is on how to compete
successfully in each of the lines of business the company has chosen to engage in. The
central thrust is how to build and improve the company's competitive position for each of
its lines of business.

Acquiring Core Competencies

A company has competitive advantage whenever it can attract customers and defend
against competitive forces better than its rivals. Companies want to develop competitive
advantages that have some sustainability. Successful competitive strategies usually
involve building uniquely strong or distinctive competencies in one or several areas
crucial to success and using them to maintain a competitive edge over rivals. Some
examples of distinctive competencies are superior technology and/or product features,
better manufacturing technology and skills, superior sales and distribution capabilities,
and better customer service and convenience.

Competitive strategy is about being different. It means deliberately choosing to perform
activities differently or to perform different activities than rivals to deliver a unique mix
of value. (Michael E. Porter)

Porter has advocated Porter's three Generic Competitive Strategies that can be
implemented at the business unit level to created a competitive advantage. They are Cost
Leadership, Differentiation and Focus strategies

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PORTER’S GENERIC BUSINESS STRATEGIES

Cost Leadership Differentiation

Focussed cost Focused
Leadership Differentiation

LOW COST LEADERSHIP STRATEGIES

Low cost leadership strategies are based on a firm’s ability to offer a product or service at
a lower cost than its rivals. When a firm is able to build a substantial cost advantage over
other competitors it can pass on its benefits to customers and gain a large market share.
This requires being the overall low-cost provider of the products or services (e.g., Costco,
among retail stores, and Hyundai, among automobile manufacturers). Implementing this
strategy successfully requires continual, exceptional efforts to reduce costs without
excluding product features and services that buyers consider essential. It also requires
achieving cost advantages in ways that are hard for competitors to copy or match. Some
conditions that tend to make this strategy an attractive choice are:

• The industry's product is much the same from seller to seller

• The marketplace is dominated by price competition, with highly price-sensitive
buyers

• There are few ways to achieve product differentiation that have much value to
buyers

• Most buyers use product in same ways -- common user requirements

• Switching costs for buyers are low

• Buyers are large and have significant bargaining power

DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES

When firm appeal to a broad cross-section of the market through offering differentiating
features that make customers willing to pay premium prices, e.g., superior technology,
quality, prestige, special features, service, convenience (examples are Nordstrom and
Lexus). Success with this type of strategy requires differentiation features that are hard
or expensive for competitors to duplicate. Sustainable differentiation usually comes from
advantages in core competencies, unique company resources or capabilities, and superior

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management of value chain activities. Some conditions that tend to favor differentiation
strategies are:

• There are multiple ways to differentiate the product/service that buyers think have
substantial value

• Buyers have different needs or uses of the product/service

• Product innovations and technological change are rapid and competition
emphasizes the latest product features

• Not many rivals are following a similar differentiation strategy

FOCUS STRATEGIES

Focus strategies aim to sell good or services to narrow or specific target market, niche or
segment. Focus builds competitive advantage through high specialization and
concentration of resources in a given niche.

Firms can build focus in one of the two ways. Focussed Cost Leadership and Focussed
Differentiation.

Focussed cost Leadership: A market niche strategy, concentrating on a narrow
customer segment and competing with lowest prices, which, again, requires having lower
cost structure than competitors

Focused Differentiation: a second market niche strategy, concentrating on a narrow
customer segment and competing through differentiating features
e.g., a high-fashion women's clothing boutique

Some conditions that tend to favor focus (either cost or differentiation focus) are:

• The business is new and/or has modest resources

• The company lacks the capability to go after a wider part of the total market

• Buyers' needs or uses of the item are diverse; there are many different niches and
segments in the industry

• Buyer segments differ widely in size, growth rate, profitability, and intensity in the
five competitive forces, making some segments more attractive than others

• Industry leaders don't see the niche as crucial to their own success

• Few or no other rivals are attempting to specialize in the same target segment

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GLOBAL STRATEGIES

Developing strategies on a global scale is not an easy task. Managers have to learn other
languages, understand host country laws, deal with volatile currencies, face political
uncertainties, and redesign products to suit different customer needs and expectations.

GLOBAL EXPANSION STRATEGIES

A firm can choose four types of strategies - Global Strategy, International Strategy,
Transnational Strategy and Multidomestic Strategy

Two sets of factors affect firm’s decision to adopt international strategies: extent of cost
pressures and the extent of pressures for local responsiveness. Cost pressures denote the
demand on a firm to minimize its unit costs. Pressures for local responsiveness makes a
firm tailor its strategies to respond to national-level differences in terms of variables like
customer preferences and tastes, government policies, or business practices

High
Global Transnational
Strategy Strategy
Cost
Pressure
International Multi domestic
Strategy Strategy
Low

Low High
Pressure for local responsiveness

Firms adopt an international strategy when they create value by transferring products
and services to foreign markets where these products and services are not available. This
is a simple strategy in the sense that an international firm, by maintaining a tight control
over its overseas operations, offers standardized products and services in different
countries with little or no differentiation. Most international companies, such as, Coca
Cola, McDonald, IBM, Kellogg, Proctor and Gamble, Microsoft, and several others adopt
this strategy for the different countries they operate in.

Firms adopt a multidomestic strategy when they try to achieve a high level of local
responsiveness by matching their products and services offerings to the national
conditions operating in the countries they operate in. In this case, the multidomestic firm
attempts to extensively customize their products and services according to the local
conditions operating in the different countries. Obviously, this leads to a high-cost

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structure as functions, such as, research and development, production, and marketing
have to be duplicated.

Firms adopt a global strategy when they rely on a low-cost approach based on reaping
the benefits of experience-curve effects and location economies and offering standardized
products and services across different countries. The global firm tries to focus
intensively on a low-cost structure by leveraging their expertise in providing certain
products and services, and concentrating the production of these standardized products
and services at a few favorable locations around the world. These products and services
are offered in an undifferentiated manner in all countries the global firm operates in,
usually at competitive prices.

Firms adopt a transnational strategy when they adopt a combined approach of low-cost
and high local responsiveness simultaneously for their products and services.

MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES

Once the MNC decides to target a particular country, it has to decide the best mode of
entry. Mode of entry means the manner in which the firm would commence its
international operations. There are several entry modes, each with their own sets of
advantages and disadvantages. A firm would have to decide which mode suits its
circumstances best before it could be adopted.

The different entry modes are:

(1) Export entry modes: Under these modes, the firm produces in the home country and
markets in the overseas markets.

♦ Direct exports do not involve home-country intermediaries and marketing is done
either through direct agent/distributor or through direct branch/subsidiary in the
overseas markets.

♦ Indirect exports involving intermediaries in the home country and who are
responsible for exporting the firm’s products.

(2) Contractual entry modes: These modes involve non-equity associations between an
international company and a company or any other legal entity in the overseas markets.

♦ Licensing is an arrangement where the international company transfers
knowledge, technology, patent, and so on for a limited period of time to an
overseas entity in return for some form of payment, usually a royalty payment.

♦ Franchising: Franchising involves the right to use a business format, usually a
brand name, in the overseas market in return for the franchise receiving some
form of payment.

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♦ Other forms of contractual arrangements, such as, technical agreements (for
technology transfers), service contracts (for technical support or expertise
provision), contract manufacturing, production sharing, turnkey operations, build-
operate-transfer (BOT) arrangements, etc.

(3) Investment entry modes: These modes involve ownership of production units in the
overseas market based on some form of equity investment of direct foreign investment.

♦ Joint venture and strategic alliances involve a cooperative partnership between
two or more firms with financial interests as the basis of cooperation, (These entry
options have been discussed earlier under the heading of cooperative strategies.)

♦ Independent ventures or wholly-owned subsidiaries are modes in which the parent
international company holds 100 percent equity and is in full control. Such
facilities may be created either through a new venture known as a Greenfield
venture or acquired through takeover strategies.

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STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

STRATEGIC ANALYSIS AND CHOICE

Strategic Analysis and Choice seeks to determine alternative courses of action that could
enable the firm to achieve its mission and objectives. Strategic Analysis and Choice tries
to find out answers to three basic questions:

How effective has the existing strategy been?
How effective will that strategy be in future?
What will be the effectiveness of selected alternative strategy in future?

Portfolio Analysis

Portfolio Analysis is analyzing elements of a firm's product mix to determine the
optimum allocation of its resources. It is used in Multi Business Corporation to develop
corporate strategy. The top management views its product lines and business units as a
series of investment from which it expects a return.

It deals with how individual product lines and business units can gain competitive
advantage in the marketplace by using competitive and cooperative strategies. It helps the
company to answer the following questions:

• How much of our time and money should we spend on our best products to ensure
that they continue to be successful?

• How much of our time and money should we spend developing new costly
products, most of which will never be successful?

The two best-known portfolio planning methods are the Boston Consulting Group
Portfolio Matrix and the McKinsey / General Electric Matrix.

BCG GROWTH-SHARE MATRIX

It is based on the observation that a company's business units can be classified into four
categories based on combinations of market growth and market share relative to the
largest competitor, hence the name "growth-share". The growth-share matrix thus maps
the business unit positions within these two important determinants of profitability

The relative market share serves as a measure of SBU strength in the market. The market
growth rate provides a measure of market attractiveness.

Each of the corporation’s product lines or business units is plotted on the matrix
according to both the growth rate of the industry in which it competes and its relative
market share

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The Boston Consulting Group Box ("BCG Box")

Stars - Stars are high growth businesses or products competing in markets where they are
relatively strong compared with the competition. They are typically at the peak of their
product life cycle. Stars generate large amounts of cash because of their strong relative
market share, but also consume large amounts of cash because of their high growth rate.
Often they need heavy investment to sustain their growth. Eventually their growth will
slow and will become cash cows.

Cash Cows - Cash cows are low-growth businesses or products with a relatively high
market share. These are mature, successful businesses with relatively little need for
investment. They typically bring in far more money than is needed to maintain their
market share. In this decline stage of their life cycle, these products are “milked” for cash
that will be invested in new question marks.

Question marks - Question marks are businesses or products with low market share but
which operate in higher growth markets. Question marks are growing rapidly and thus
consume large amounts of cash, but because they have low market shares they do not
generate much cash. A question mark (also known as a "problem child") has the potential
to gain market share and become a star, and eventually a cash cow when the market
growth slows. If the question mark does not succeed in becoming the market leader, then
after years of cash consumption it will degenerate into a dog when the market growth
declines. Management have to think hard about "question marks" - which ones should
they invest in? Which ones should they allow to fail or shrink?

Dogs - Dogs have low market share and a low growth rate and thus neither generate nor
consume a large amount of cash. However, dogs are cash traps because of the money tied
up in a business that has little potential. Such businesses are candidates for divestiture.

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The Boston Consulting Group Portfolio Matrix simplicity is its strength - the relative
positions of the firm's entire business portfolio can be displayed in a single diagram. Its
limitation is market growth rate is only one factor in industry attractiveness, and relative
market share is only one factor in competitive advantage. The growth-share matrix
overlooks many other factors in these two important determinants of profitability

GE BUSINESS SCREEN

It is the business portfolio framework developed by General Electric with the help of
McKinsey and Company, a consulting firm. GE Business Screen includes nine cells
based on long-term industry attractiveness and business strength/competitive position

Factors that Affect Market Attractiveness: There are several factors which can help
determine attractiveness. These are listed below:

- Market Size
- Market growth
- Market profitability
- Pricing trends
- Competitive intensity / rivalry
- Overall risk of returns in the industry
- Opportunity to differentiate products and services
- Segmentation
- Distribution structure (e.g. retail, direct, wholesale

Factors that Affect Competitive Strength: There are several factors which can help
determine the business unit strength. These are listed below:

- Strength of assets and competencies
- Relative brand strength
- Market share
- Customer loyalty
- Relative cost position (cost structure compared with competitors)
- Distribution strength
- Record of technological or other innovation
- Access to financial and other investment resources

Plotting the Information Each business unit can be portrayed as a circle plotted on the
matrix, with the information conveyed as follows:

• Market size is represented by the size of the circle.
• Market share is shown by using the circle as a pie chart.
• The expected future position of the circle is portrayed by means of an arrow.

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The green zone indicates go ahead. It includes the strong SBU’s in which the company
should invest and grow. They go for Expansion Strategies

The yellow zone indicates wait and see. It includes SBS’s that are medium in overall
attractiveness. They should maintain their level of investments. They go for Stability
Strategies

The red zone indicates stop. It includes SBU’s that are low in overall attractiveness. They
go for Retrenchment Strategies (Divestment and Liquidation).

The shading of the above circle indicates a 40% market share for the strategic business
unit. The arrow in the upward left direction indicates that the business unit is projected to
gain strength relative to competitors, and that the business unit is in an industry that is
projected to become more attractive. The tip of the arrow indicates the future position of
the center point of the circle.

Six-step approach for the implementation of the McKinsey Matrix

1. Specify drivers of each dimension. The corporation must carefully determine
those factors that are important to its overall strategy.
2. Determine the weight of each driver. The corporation must assign relative
importance weights to the drivers.
3. Score the SBU's on each driver.
4. Multiply weights and scores for each SBU.
5. View resulting graph and interpret it.
6. Perform a review/sensitivity analysis. Make use of adjusted other weights and
scores (there may be no consensus).

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SHELL’S DIRECTIONAL POLICY MATRIX (A Nine Celled directional Policy
Matrix)

The Shell Directional Policy Matrix is another refinement upon the Boston Matrix. Along
the horizontal axis are prospects for business sector profitability, and along the vertical
axis is a company's competitive capability. As with the GE Business Screen the location
of a Strategic Business Unit (SBU) in any cell of the matrix implies different strategic
decisions. However decisions often span options and in practice the zones are an irregular
shape and do not tend to be accommodated by box shapes. Instead they blend into each
other.

Each of the zones is described as follows:

Divest: SBU's running in losses with uncertain cash flows. They should be divested as
the situation is not likely to improve in the near future. These liquidate or move thee
assets.

Phased withdrawal: SBU's with weak competitive position in a low growth market with
very little chance of generating cash flows. They should be phased out gradually. The
cash realized should be invested in more profitable ventures.

Double or quit: Gamble on potential major SBU's for the future. Either invests more to
use the prospects presented by the market or else better to quit the business.

Custodial: SBU’s are just like a cash cow, milk it and do not commit any more
resources. The corporate has to bear with the situation by getting help from other SBU’s
or get out of the scene so as to focus more on other attractive business.

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Try harder: SBU’s could be vulnerable over a longer period of time, but fine for now.
They need additional resources to strength their capabilities. The corporate try harder to
exploit the business prospects thoroughly.

Cash Generator: Even more like a cash cow, milk here for expansion elsewhere. SBU’s
May continue their operations, at least for generating strong cash flows and satisfactory
profits. No further investments are made.

Growth: Grow the market by focusing just enough resources here. These SBU’s need
funds to support product innovations, R&D activities etc.

Market Leadership: Major resources are focused upon the SBU. It must receive top
priority.

INTERNATIONAL PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS

International Portfolio Analysis provides a good snapshot of collective SBU’s pursuing
global ventures. Country attractiveness is measured against competitive strength. A
country’s attractiveness is composed of its market size, the market rate of growth, the
extent and type of government regulation, and economic and political factors. A
product’s competitive strength is composed of its market share, product fit,
contribution margin, and market support.

Depending on where a product fits on the matrix, it should either receive more funding or
be harvested for cash. Portfolio analysis might not be useful, however, to corporations
operating in a global industry rather than a multidomestic one. In discussing the
importance of global industries, Porter argues against the use of portfolio analysis on a
country-by-country basis.

Portfolio Matrix for Plotting Products by Country

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CORPORATE PARENTING

Corporate Parenting is a strategy employed by highly centralized and diversified firms
with large resource pools. It views the corporation in terms of resources and capabilities
that can be used to build business units value as well as generate synergies across
business units.

Corporate parenting generates corporate strategy by focusing on the core competencies of
the parent corporation and on the value create from the relationship between the parent
and its businesses

• If there is a good fit b/w the parent’s skills and resources and the needs and
opportunities of the business units corporation is likely to create value

• If there is not a good fit corporation is likely to destroy value

Developing a Corporate Parenting Strategy

First, examine each business unit (or target firm in the case of acquisition) in terms of it
critical success factors (CSF – Those elements of a company that determine its strategic
success or failure)

Second, examine each business unit (or target firm) in terms of areas in which
performance can be improved. These are considered to be parenting opportunities. For
Example, two businesses can gain economies of scope by combining their sales forces or
share manufacturing and logistics skills

Third, analyze how well the parent corporation fits with the business unit (or target firm).
Corporate headquarters must be aware of its own strengths and weaknesses in terms of
resources, skills, and capabilities

Parenting – Fit Matrix

Parenting – Fit Matrix summarizes the various judgements regarding corporate/business
unit fit for the corporation as a whole. This matrix emphasizes their fit with the Corporate
parent Fit. This matrix composes of 2 dimensions: Positive contributions that the parent
can make and the negative effects the parent can make. The combination of these two
dimensions create 5 different positions

• Heartland Businesses
• Edge-of-Heartland Businesses
• Ballast Businesses
• Alien Territory Businesses
• Value Trap Businesses

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Parenting – Fit Matrix

Heartland Businesses: Heartland Businesses should be at the heart of the corporation’s
future. These Heartland Businesses have opportunities for improvement by the parent,
and the parent understands their critical success factors well. These businesses should
have priority for all corporate activities

Edge-of-Heartland Businesses: In these businesses some parenting characteristics fit the
business, but other do not. The parent may not have all the characteristics needed by a
unit, or the parent may not really understand all of the units strategic factors.
E.g.: a unit in this area may be very strong in creating its own image through advertising
– a critical success factor in its industry. The corporate may however not have this
strength and tends to leave this to its advertising agency. If the parent forced the unit to
abandon its own creative efforts in favor of using the corporation’s favorite ad agency,
the unit may struggle.

Such business units are likely to consume much of the parent’s attention, as the parent
tries to understand them better and transform them into Heartland Businesses

Ballast Businesses: Ballast Businesses fit very comfortably with the parent corporation
but contain very few opportunities to be improved by the parent. Like cash cows may be
important sources of stability and earnings. But if environmental changes, ballast could
move to alien territory. Therefore corporate decision makers should consider divesting

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this unit as soon as they can get a price that exceeds the expected value of future cash
flows. E.g.: IBM’s mainframe business

Alien Territory Businesses: Alien Territory Businesses have little opportunities to be
improved by the corporate parent, and a misfit exists between the parenting
characteristics and the units strategic factors. There is little potential for value creation
but high potential for value destruction on the part of the parent. The corporation must
divest this unit while it still has value

Value Trap Businesses: Value Trap Businesses fit well with parenting opportunities, but
they are a misfit with the parent’s understanding of the units’ CSF. This is where the
corporate headquarters can make its biggest error. It mistakes what it sees as
opportunities for ways to improve the business units’ profitability or competitive
position.
E.g.: To make the unit a world-class manufacturer (because the parent has world-class
manufacturing skills) it may not notice that the unit is primarily successful because of its
unique product development and niche marketing expertise

STRATEGIC IMPLEMENTATION

Implementation involves actually executing the strategic game plan. This includes setting
polices, designing the organization structure and developing a corporate culture to enable
the attainment of organizational objectives. Strategic implementation is a process by
which strategies and policies are put into action through the development of programs,
budgets, and procedures. Strategic implementation is mainly concerned regarding two
issues: Structural Issues and Bhavioural Issues

STRUCTURAL ISSUES

Every organization has a unique structure. An organizational structure is the reflection of
the company’s past history, reporting relationships and internal politics. When
implementing new strategies the management has to take a very close look at the
organization structure and evaluate if it supports the formulated strategy. The CEO has to
customize the organizational structure to fit the strategy. This would improve the
performance of the organization. Different types of organizational structure involve in
response to strategic change.

Functional Structure: In a functional structure, the division of labor in an organization
is grouped by the main activities or functions that need to be performed within the
organization—sales, marketing, human resources, and so on. Each functional group
within the organization is vertically integrated from the bottom to the top of the
organization. For example, a Vice President of Marketing would lead all the marketing
people, grouped into the marketing department.

Employees within the functional divisions of an organization tend to perform a
specialized set of tasks, for instance the engineering department would be staffed only

27
with engineers. This leads to operational efficiencies within that group. However it could
also lead to a lack of communication between the functional groups within an
organization, making the organization slow and inflexible.

As a whole, a functional organization is best suited as a producer of standardized goods
and services at large volume and low cost. Coordination and specialization of tasks are
centralized in a functional structure, which makes producing a limited amount of
products or services efficient and predictable. Moreover, efficiencies can further be
realized as functional organizations integrate their activities vertically so that products are
sold and distributed quickly and at low cost.

Functional Structure

CEO

Human
Finance Marketing Resource Production
Management

Divisional Structure: Also called a "Product Structure", the divisional structure groups
each organizational function into divisions. Each division within a divisional structure
contains all the necessary resources and functions within it.

For example, an automobile company with a divisional structure might have one division
for SUVs, another division for subcompact cars, and another division for sedans. Each
division would have its own sales, engineering and marketing departments.

CEO

General Manager General Manager
Division A Division B

Finance Marketing Finance
Marketing

Human Resource
Human Resource Production Production
Management
Management

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Matrix Structure: Matrix structure groups employees by both function and product.
This structure can combine the best of both separate structures. A matrix organization
frequently uses teams of employees to accomplish work, in order to take advantage of the
strengths, as well as make up for the weaknesses, of functional and decentralized forms.

These type of structure is created by assigning functional specialists to work on a special
project or a new product or service. For the duration of the project, specialists from
different areas form a group or team and report to a team leader. Simultaneously they
may work in their respective parent department. Once the project is completed, the team
members revert to their parent departments.

Strategic Business Unit Organization Structure: A strategic business unit is a
distinctive business with its own set of competitors that can be managed reasonably
independently of other business within the organization. Each unit will have a clearly
defined strategy, based on the capabilities and overall organizational needs.

CEO

Group Group
Group
Head SBU2 Head SBU3
Head SBU1

Division Division Division Division Division Division Division Division
Division A A
A A A A A A A

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BEHAVIOURAL ISSUES

It is vital to bear in mind that organizational change is not an intellectual process
concerned with the design of ever-more-complex and elegant organization structures. It is
to do with the human side of enterprise and is essentially about changing people's
attitudes, feelings and - above all else - their behaviour. The behavioural of the
employees affect the success of the organization. Strategic implementation requires
support, discipline, motivation and hard work from all manager and employees

Influence Tactics: The organizational leaders have to successfully implement the
strategies and achieve the objectives. Therefore the leader has to change the behaviour of
superiors, peers or subordinates. For this they must develop and communicate the vision
of the future and motivate organizational members to move into that direction

Power: it is the potential ability to influence the behaviour of others. Leaders often use
their power their power to influence others and implement strategy. Formal authority that
comes through leaders position in the organization (He cannot use the power to influence
customers and government officials) the leaders have to exercise something more than
that of the formal authority (Expertise, charisma, reward power, information power,
legitimate power, coercive power)

Empowerment as a way of Influencing Behaviour: The top executives have to
empower lower level employees. Training, self managed work groups eliminating whole
levels of management in organization and aggressive use of automation are some of the
ways to empower people at various places.

Political Implications of Power: organization politics is defined as those set of activities
engaged in by people in order to acquire, enhance and employ power and other resources
to achieve preferred outcomes in organizational setting characterized by uncertainties.
Organization must try to manage political behviour while implementing strategies. They
should

• Define job duties clearly
• Design job properly
• Demonstrate proper behaviours.
• Promote understanding
• Allocate resources judiciously

Leadership Style and Culture Change: Culture is the set of values, beliefs, behaviours
that help its members understand what the organization stands for, how it does things and
what it considers important. Firms culture must be appropriate and support their firm.
The culture should have some value in it .

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To change the corporate culture involves persuading people to abandon many of their
existing beliefs and values, and the behaviours that stem from them, and to adopt new
ones.
The first difficulty that arises in practice is to identify the principal characteristics of the
existing culture. The process of understanding and gaining insight into the existing
culture can be aided by using one of the standard and properly validated inventories or
questionnaires that a number of consultants have developed to measure characteristics of
corporate culture. These offer the advantage of being able to benchmark the culture
against those of other, comparable firms that have used the same instruments. The
weakness of this approach is that the information thus obtained tends to be more
superficial and less rich than material from other sources such as interviews and group
discussions and from study of the company's history.

In carrying out this diagnostic exercise, such instruments can be supplemented by surveys
of employee opinions and attitudes and complementary information from surveys of
customers and suppliers or the public at large.

Values and Culture: Value is something that has worth and importance to an
individual. People should have shared values. This value keeps the every one from the
top management down to factory persons on the factory floor pulling in the same
direction.

Ethics and Strategy: Ethics are contemporary standards and a principle or conducts that
govern the action and behviour of individuals within the organization. In order that the
business system function successfully the organization has to avoid certain unethical
practices and the organization has to bound by legal laws and government rules and
regulations

Managing Resistance to Change: To change is almost always unavoidable, but its
strength can be minimized by careful advance Top management tends to see change in its
strategic context. Rank-and-file employees are most likely to be aware of its impact on
important aspects of their working lives.

Some resistance planning, which involves thinking about such issues as: Who will be
affected by the proposed changes, both directly and indirectly? From their point of view,
what aspects of their working lives will be affected? Who should communicate
information about change, when and by what means? What management style is to be
used?

Managing Conflict: Conflict is a process in which an effort is purposefully made by one
person or unit to block another that results in frustrating the attainment of the others goals
or the furthering of his interests. The organization has to resolve the conflicts.

Linking Performance and Pay to Strategies: In order to implement the strategies
effectively the organization has to align salary increases, promotions, merit pay, bonuses
etc., more closely to support the long term objectives of the organization.

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STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP.

Strategic leaders manage the strategic management process that is designed to help the
organisation achieve its objectives.
Among the strategic leaders, we have managers operating at different levels of an
organisation: corporate-level, business-level, functional-level and operational-level.

• Corporate-level managers include the chief executive officer (CEO), senior
executives and the corporate staff. The corporate-level managers manage the
strategic management process for the whole organisation. These managers may
carry designations such as CEO, managing director, executive director or
president.
• Business-level managers are the strategic leaders at the business, division or SBU
levels. These managers manage the strategic management process at the business-
level. These may carry designations such as general manager or vice-president.
• Functional-level managers are the strategic leaders of specific functions such as
marketing or operations. They are called marketing managers or operations
managers. The functional managers manage the strategic management process at
the functional level.
• At the operational-level, there are managers who are responsible for the
implementation of strategies within their assigned functional areas. They occupy
positions such as deputy manager of marketing or assistant manager of operations.

The Tasks of Strategic Leaders

Determining Strategic Direction One of the more crucial tasks of a strategic leader
is to provide a sense of direction to the organisation. The strategic direction is
concerned with the future shape of the organisation.

Effectively Managing the Organisational Resources Portfolio Strategic leaders are
called upon to manage effectively, the portfolio of organizational resources. Such a
portfolio includes financial capital, human capital, social capital and organizational
capital.

Sustaining an Effective Organisational Culture Strategic leaders try to build and
sustain an effective organizational culture.

Emphasising Ethical Practices Strategic leaders emphasise on ethical practices in
word and deed when the strategies are being implemented.

Establishing Balanced Organisational Controls Strategic leaders use a combination
of financial and non-financial controls to help the organisation achieve its objectives.

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The Roles of Strategic Leaders

Role of Chief Executive Officer
The role of the ceo is evident through all the phases of the process of strategic
management.
A ceo performs the strategic tasks: actions which are necessary to provide a direction
to the organisation so that it achieves its purpose. He plays a pivotal role in setting the
mission of the organizations, deciding the objectives and goals, formulating and
implementing the strategy and, in general, seeing to it that the organisation does not
deviate from its pre-determined path, designed to move it from the position it is in to
where it wants to be.

Role of Senior Managers The senior (or top) management consists of managers at
the highest level of the managerial hierarchy. Senior managers perform a variety of
roles by assigning the board and the chief executive in the formulation,
implementation and evaluation of strategy. Organisationally, they come together in
the form of different types of committees, task forces, work groups, think tanks,
management teams and the like, to play a very important role in strategic
management.

Role of Business-Level Executives The rationale for organizing structure according
to the strategic business units (SBUs) is to manage a diversified company as a
portfolio of businesses – each business having a clearly defined product-market
segment and a unique strategy. The business-level executives, also known as either
profit center or divisional heads are considered as chief executives of a special
business unit. The business-level strategy formulation and implementation are the
primary responsibilities of the business-level executives.

Role of Functional and Operational Managers The major role of functional and
operational managers, also called the middle-level managers to relate to functional
and operational matters and therefore they rarely play an active role in higher-level
strategic management. They may, at best, be involved as ‘sounding boards’ for
departmental and operational plans, as implementers of the decision taken by the
corporate- and business-level managers, followers of policy guidelines and passive
receivers of communication of functional strategic plans.

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STRATEGY EVALUATION AND CONTROL

The final stage in strategic management is strategy evaluation and control. All strategies
are subject to future modification because internal and external factors are constantly
changing. In the strategy evaluation and control process managers determine whether the
chosen strategy is achieving the organization's objectives. The fundamental strategy
evaluation and control activities are: reviewing internal and external factors that are the
bases for current strategies, measuring performance, and taking corrective actions.

Strategic Evaluation generally operates at two levels: strategic and operational. At the
strategic level managers try to examine the consistency of strategy with environment. At
the operational level, the focus is on finding how a given strategy is effectively pursued
by an organisation.

IMPORTANCE: SEC helps an organisation in several ways.

• Feedback: SEC offers valuable feedback on how well things are moving ahead. It
also throws light on the relevance and validity of strategic choice. It helps to
answer critical questions such as: Are we moving in the proper direction? Are our
assumptions about major trends are correct? Should we adjust or abort strategy?

• Reward: SEC helps in identifying rewarding behaviours that are in tune with
formulated strategies. It helps in pinpointing responsibilities for failure as well.
Where people find it difficult to stick to a planned course of action due to
circumstances beyond their control, managers can take note of such things and
initiate suitable rectification steps immediately.

• Future Planning: SEC offers a considerable amount of information and
experience to decision makers than can be quite valuable in the formulation of
new strategic plans.

BARRIERS: There are three types of barriers in evaluation the limits of control,
difficulties in measurement, and motivational problems.

• The limits of Control: It is not easy for strategists to decide the limits of control.
Too much control prevents mangers from taking initiative, experiment with their
creative ideas and gain through calculated risk taking. On the other hand, when
there is very little control people tend to go off the hook, waste resources without
any fear of punishment and work at cross purposes – putting a big question mark
on the very survival of the firm.

• Difficulties in Measurement: It is not easy to find measurement techniques that
are valid and reliable. Validity is the extent to which an instrument measures
what it intends to measure (for example measuring the speed and accuracy of a
typist in a typing test). Reliability is the confidence that an indicator will measure
the same thing every time. In the absence of reliability and validity, the control

34
system gets distorted. It may fail to measure results uniformly or measure
attributes that are not required to be measured. When people are not confident
about the measures used for judgement, they resist the whole process vehemently.

• Motivational Problems: Having taken a position while formulating and
implementing the strategy, strategists are often reluctant to admit their mistakes
when things go off the track. They tend to shift the blame on others. This may
also prevent them from hiving off unprofitable divisions, reversing wrong
decisions and go in search of more viable alternations quickly.

EVALUATION CRITERIA: The critical factors that could help in evaluating a
strategy may broadly be classified into two categories: quantitative factors and qualitative
factors.

Quantitative Factors: Quantitative criteria commonly employed in evaluate strategies
are financial ratios, which strategists use to make three important comparisons: (i)
comparing the firm’ s performance over different time periods (ii) comparing the firm’s
performance to competitors’ and (iii) comparing the firm’s performance to industry
averages. Some key financial ratios those are particularly useful as criteria for strategy
evaluation may be stated thus:

• Return on investment
• Return on equity
• Z score
• Employee turnover
• Employee satisfaction index
• Return on capital employed
• Profit margin
• Market share
• Debt to equity
• Earnings per share
• Sales growth
• Asset growth

Qualitative Factors: Many managers feel that qualitative organizational measurements
are best arrived at simply by answering a series of important questions at revealing
important facets of organizational operations. Some qualitative questions that are useful
in evaluating strategies.

1. Is the strategy internally consistent?
2. Is the strategy consistent with the environment?
3. Is the strategy appropriate in view of available resource?
4. Does the strategy involve an acceptable degree of risk?
5. Does the strategy have an appropriate time framework?
6. Is the strategy workable?

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STRATEGIC CONTROL

Strategic control focuses on the dual questions of whether: (1) the strategy is being
implemented as planned; and (2) the results produced by the strategy are those intended."
Strategic control is "the critical evaluation of plans, activities, and results, thereby
providing information for the future action". There are four types of strategic control:
premise control, implementation control, strategic surveillance and special alert control

Premise Control: Planning premises/assumptions are established early on in
the strategic planning process and act as a basis for formulating strategies. Premise
control has been designed to check systematically and continuously whether or not the
premises set during the planning and implementation processes are still valid. It involves
the checking of environmental conditions. Premises are primarily concerned with two
types of factors:

• Environmental factors (for example, inflation, technology, interest rates,
regulation, and demographic/social changes).
• Industry factors (for example, competitors, suppliers, substitutes, and barriers to
entry).

All premises may not require the same amount of control. Therefore, managers must
select those premises and variables that (a) are likely to change and (b) would a major
impact on the company and its strategy if the did.

Implementation Control: Strategic implantation control provides an additional
source of feed forward information. "Implementation control is designed to assess
whether the overall strategy should be changed in light of unfolding events and results
associated with incremental steps and actions that implement the overall strategy." The
two basis types of implementation control are:

1. Monitoring strategic thrusts (new or key strategic programs). Two approaches are
useful in enacting implementation controls focused on monitoring strategic
thrusts: (1) one way is to agree early in the planning process on which thrusts are
critical factors in the success of the strategy or of that thrust; (2) the second
approach is to use stop/go assessments linked to a series of meaningful thresholds
(time, costs, research and development, success, etc.) associated with particular
thrusts.

2. Milestone Reviews. Milestones are significant points in the development of a
programme, such as points where large commitments of resources must be made.
A milestone review usually involves a full-scale reassessment of the strategy and
the advisability of continuing or refocusing the direction of the company. In order
to control the current strategy, must be provided in strategic plans.

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Strategic Surveillance: is designed to monitor a broad range of events
inside and outside the company that are likely to threaten the course of the firm's strategy.
The basic idea behind strategic surveillance is that some form of general monitoring of
multiple information sources should be encouraged, with the specific intent being the
opportunity to uncover important yet unanticipated information.

Strategic surveillance appears to be similar in some way to "environmental scanning."
The rationale, however, is different. Environmental, scanning usually is seen as part of
the chronological planning cycle devoted to generating information for the new plan. By
way of contrast, strategic surveillance is designed to safeguard the established strategy on
a continuous basis.

Special Alert Control: Special alert controls are the need to thoroughly, and
often rapidly, reconsider the firm's basis strategy based on a sudden, unexpected event.
(i.e., natural disasters, chemical spills, plane crashes, product defects, hostile takeovers
etc.). Special alert controls should be conducted throughout the entire strategic
management process.

The characteristics of each control component are detailed in Table 6-4, including the
component's purpose, mechanism used to implement it, the procedure to be followed,
degree of focusing, information sources, and organizational/personnel to be utilized.

OPERATIONAL CONTROL

Operational control systems are designed to ensure that day-to-day actions are
consistent with established plans and objectives. It focuses on events in a recent period.
Operational control systems are derived from the requirements of the management
control system. Corrective action is taken where performance does not meet standards.
This action may involve training, motivation, leadership, discipline, or termination.

Evaluation Techniques for Operational Control:

Value chain analysis: Firms employ value chain analysis to identify and evaluate the
competitive potential of resources and capabilities. By studying their skills relative to
those associated with primary and support activities, firms are able to understand their
cost structure, and identify their activities through which they can create value.

Quantitative performance measurements: Most firms prepare formal reports of
quantitative performance measurements (such as sales growth, profit growth, economic
value added, ration analysis etc.) that manager’s review at regular intervals. These
measurements are generally linked to the standards set in the first step of the control
process. For example if sales growth is a target, the firm should have a means of
gathering and exporting sales data. If the firm has identified appropriate measurements,
regular review of these reports helps managers stay aware of whether the firm is doing
what it should do. In addition to there, certain qualitative bases based on intuition,
judgement, opinions, or surveys could be used to judge whether the firm’s performance is
on the right track or not.

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Benchmarking: It is a process of learning how other firms do exceptionally high-quality
things. Some approaches to bench marking are simple and straightforward. For example
Xerox Corporation routinely buys copiers made by other firms and takes them apart to
see how they work. This helps the firms to stay abreast of its competitors’ improvements
and changes.

Key Factor Rating: It is based on a close examination of key factors affecting
performance (financial, marketing, operations and human resource capabilities) and
assessing overall organisational capability based on the collected information.

THE CONTROL PROCESS

Regardless of the type or levels of control systems an organization needs, control may be
depicted as a six-step feedback model):

1. Determine What to Control: The first step in the control process is
determining the major areas to control. Managers usually base their major controls on the
organizational mission, goals and objectives developed during the planning process.
Managers must make choices because it is expensive and virtually impossible to control
every aspect of the organization's

2. Set Control Standards: The second step in the control process is
establishing standards. A control standard is a target against which subsequent
performance will be compared. Standards are the criteria that enable managers to
evaluate future, current, or past actions. They are measured in a variety of ways,
including physical, quantitative, and qualitative terms. Five aspects of the performance
can be managed and controlled: quantity, quality, time cost, and behavior

Standards reflect specific activities or behaviors that are necessary to achieve
organizational goals. Goals are translated into performance standards by making them
measurable. An organizational goal to increase market share, for example, may be
translated into a top-management performance standard to increase market share by 10
percent within a twelve-month period. Helpful measures of strategic performance
include: sales (total, and by division, product category, and region), sales growth, net
profits, return on sales, assets, equity, and investment cost of sales, cash flow, market
share, product quality, valued added, and employees productivity.

Quantification of the objective standard is sometimes difficult. For example, consider the
goal of product leadership. An organization compares its product with those of
competitors and determines the extent to which it pioneers in the introduction of basis
product and product improvements. Such standards may exist even though they are not
formally and explicitly stated.

Setting the timing associated with the standards is also a problem for many organizations.
It is not unusual for short-term objectives to be met at the expense of long-term

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objectives. Management must develop standards in all performance areas touched on by
established organizational goals. The various forms standards are depend on what is
being measured and on the managerial level responsible for taking corrective action.

3. Measure Performance: Once standards are determined, the next step is
measuring performance. The actual performance must be compared to the standards.
Many types of measurements taken for control purposes are based on some form of
historical standard. These standards can be based on data derived from the PIMS (profit
impact of market strategy) program, published information that is publicly available,
ratings of product / service quality, innovation rates, and relative market shares standings.

Strategic control standards are based on the practice of competitive benchmarking - the
process of measuring a firm's performance against that of the top performance in its
industry. The proliferation of computers tied into networks has made it possible for
managers to obtain up-to-minute status reports on a variety of quantitative performance
measures. Managers should be careful to observe and measure in accurately before taking
corrective action.

4. Compare Performance to Standards: The comparing step determines the
degree of variation between actual performance and standard. If the first two phases have
been done well, the third phase of the controlling process - comparing performance with
standards - should be straightforward. However, sometimes it is difficult to make the
required comparisons (e.g., behavioral standards). Some deviations from the standard
may be justified because of changes in environmental conditions, or other reasons.

5. Determine the Reasons for the Deviations: The fifth step of the control process
involves finding out: "why performance has deviated from the standards?" Causes of
deviation can range from selected achieve organizational objectives. Particularly, the
organization needs to ask if the deviations are due to internal shortcomings or external
changes beyond the control of the organization. A general checklist such as following can
be helpful:

• Are the standards appropriate for the stated objective and strategies?
• Are the objectives and corresponding still appropriate in light of the current
environmental situation?
• Are the strategies for achieving the objectives still appropriate in light of the
current environmental situation?
• Are the firm's organizational structure, systems (e.g., information), and resource
support adequate for successfully implementing the strategies and therefore
achieving the objectives?
• Are the activities being executed appropriate for achieving standard?

6. Take Corrective Action: The final step in the control process is determining the need
for corrective action. Managers can choose among three courses of action: (1) they can
do nothing (2) they can correct the actual performance (3) they can revise the standard.

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When standards are not met, managers must carefully assess the reasons why and take
corrective action. Moreover, the need to check standards periodically to ensure that the
standards and the associated performance measures are still relevant for the future.

The final phase of controlling process occurs when managers must decide action to take
to correct performance when deviations occur. Corrective action depends on the
discovery of deviations and the ability to take necessary action. Often the real cause of
deviation must be found before corrective action can be taken. Causes of deviations can
range from unrealistic objectives to the wrong strategy being selected achieve
organizational objectives. Each cause requires a different corrective action. Not all
deviations from external environmental threats or opportunities have progressed to the
point a particular outcome is likely, corrective action may be necessary.

CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM

Effective control systems tend to have certain qualities in common. These can be stated
thus:

1. Suitable: The control system must be suitable to the needs of an organisation. It
must conform to the nature and needs of the job and the area to be controlled. For
example, the control system used in production department will be different from
that used in sales department.

2. Simple: The control system should be easy to understand and operate. A
complicated control system will cause unnecessary mistakes, confusion and
frustration among employees. When the control system is understood properly,
employees can interpret the same in a right way and ensure its implementation.

3. Selective: To be useful, the control system must focus attention on key, strategic
and important factors which are critical to performance. Insignificant deviations
need not be looked into. By concentrating attention on important aspects,
managers can save their time and meet problems head-on in an effective manner.

4. Sound and economical: The system of control should be economical and easy to
maintain. Any system of control has to justify the benefits that it gives in relation
to the costs it incurs. To minimize costs, management should try to impose the
least amount of control that is necessary to produce the desired results.

5. Flexible: Competitive, technological and other environmental changes force
organizations to change their plans. As a result, control should be necessarily
flexible. It must be flexible enough to adjust to adverse changes or to take
advantage of new opportunities.

6. Forward-looking: An effective control system should be forward-looking. It
must provide timely information on deviations. Any departure from the standard

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should be caught as soon as possible. This helps managers to take remedial steps
immediately before things go out of gear.

7. Reasonable: According to Robbins, controls must be reasonable. They must be
attainable. If they are too high or unreasonable, they no longer motivate
employees. On the other hand, when controls are set at low levels, they do not
pose any challenge to employees. They do not stretch their talents. Therefore,
control standards should be reasonable-they should challenge and stretch people
to reach higher performance without being demotivating

8. Objective: A control system would be effective only when it is objective and
impersonal. It should not be subjective and arbitrary. When standards are set in
clear terms, it is easy to evaluate performance. Vague standards are not easily
understood and hence, not achieved in a right way. Controls should be accurate
and unbiased. If they are unreliable and subjective, people will resent them.

9. Responsibility for failures: An effective control system must indicate
responsibility for failures. Detecting deviations would be meaningless unless one
knows where in the organisation they are occurring and who is responsible for
them. The control system should also point out what corrective actions are
needed to keep actual performance in line with planned performance.

10. Acceptable: Controls will not work unless people want them to. They should be
acceptable to chose to whom they apply, controls will be acceptable when they
are (i) quantified, (ii) objective (iii) attainable and (iv) understood by one and all.

STRATEGIC ISSUES IN MANAGING TECHNOLOGY

The Role of Management: Due to increased competition and accelerated product
development cycles, innovation and the management of technology is becoming crucial
to corporate success. The importance of technology and innovation must be emphasized
by people at the very top and reinforced by people throughout the corporation.
Management has an obligation to not only encourage new product development, but also
to develop a system to ensure that technology is being used most effectively with the
consumer in mind.

EXTERNAL SCANNING: Corporations need to continually scan their external societal
and task environments for new developments in technology that may have some
application to their current or potential products, Stakeholders, especially customers, can
be important participant in the new product development process.

Technological Developments: Focusing one’s scanning efforts too closely on one’s own
industry is dangerous. Most new developments that threaten existing business practices
and technologies do not come from existing competitors or even from within traditional
industries. A new technology that can substitute for an existing technology at a lower
cost and provide higher quality can change the very basis for competition in an industry.

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Impact of Stakeholders on Innovation: A company should look to its stakeholders,
especially its customers, suppliers, and distributors, for sources product and service
improvements. These groups of people have the most to gain from innovative new
products or services. Under certain circumstances, they may propose new directions for
product development. Some of the methods of gathering information from key
stakeholders are using lead users, market research, and new product experimentation.

Lead Users: Companies should look to lead users for help in product development,
especially in high technology industries where things move so quickly that a product is
becoming obsolete by the time it arrives on the market. These lead users are “companies,
organizations, or individuals that are well ahead of market trends and have needs that go
far beyond those of the average user. They are the first to adopt a product because they
benefit significantly from its use-even if it is not fully developed.

Market Research: A more traditional method of obtaining new product ideas is to use
market research to survey current users regarding what they would like in a new product.
This method has been successfully used by companies such as Procter & Gamble to
identify consumer preferences. It is especially useful in directing incremental
improvements to existing products.

New Product Experimentation: Instead of using lead users or market research to test
the potential of innovative products, by “probing” potential markets with early versions
of the products, learning from the probes, and probing again.

INTERNAL SCANNING: In addition to scanning the external environment, strategists
should also assess their company’s ability to innovate effectively by asking the following
questions:

1. Has the company developed the resources needed to try new ideas?
2. Do the managers allow experimentation with new products or services?
3. Does the corporation encourage risk taking and tolerate mistakes?
4. Are people more concerned with new ideas or with defending their turf?
5. Is it easy to form autonomous project teams?

In addition to answering these questions, strategists should assess how well company
resources are internally allocated and evaluate the organization’s ability to develop and
transfer new technology in a timely manner into the generation of innovative products
and services.

Resource Allocation Issues: The Company must make available the resources necessary
for effective research and development. Research indicates that a company’s R&D
intensity (its spending on R&D as a percentage of sales revenue) is a principal means of
gaining market share in global competition. The amount of money spent on R&D often
varies by industry.

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Time to Market Issues: In addition to money, another important consideration in the
effective management of research and development is time to market. A decade ago, the
time from inception to profitability of a specific R&D program was generally accepted to
be 7 to 11 years. Time to market is an important issue because 60% of patented
innovations are generally imitated within 4 years at 6.5% of the cost of innovation.

STRATEGY FORMULATION: Research and development strategy deals not only
with the decision to be a leader or a follower in terms of technology and market entry but
also with the source of the technology. Should a company develop its own technology or
purchase it from others? The strategy also takes into account a company’s particular mix
of basic versus applied and product versus process R&D. The particular mix should suit
the level of industry development and the firm’s particular corporate and business
strategies. In addition, R&D strategy in a large corporation deals with the proper balance
of its product portfolio based on the life cycle of the products.

Product versus process R&D: The proportion of product and process R&D tends to
vary as a product moves along its life cycle. In the early stages, product innovations are
most important because the product’s physical attributes and capabilities most affect
financial performance. Later, process innovations such as improve manufacturing
facilities, increasing product quality, and faster distribution become important to
maintaining the product’s economic returns. Generally product R&D has been key to
achieving differentiation strategies, whereas process R&D has been at the core of
successful cost leadership strategies. To be competitive, companies must find the proper
mix of product and process R&D.

Technology Sourcing: Typically a make-or-buy decision, can be important in a firm’s
R&D strategy. Although in-house R&D has traditionally been an important source of
technical knowledge for companies, firms can also tap the R&D capabilities of
competitors, suppliers, and other organizations through contractual agreements.

A company should buy technologies that are commonly available but should make (and
protect) those that are rare, valuable, hard to imitate, and have no close substitutes. In
additions, outsourcing technology may be appropriate when:

• The technology is of low significance to competitive advantage.
• The supplier has proprietary technology.
• The supplier’s technology is better and/or cheaper and reasonably easy to
integrate into the current system.
• The company’s strategy is based on system design, marketing, distribution, and
service-not on development and manufacturing.
• The technology development process requires special expertise.
• The technology development process requires new people and new resources.

Licensing technology to other companies may be an excellent R&D strategy-especially in
a turbulent high tech environment where being the first firm to establish the standard
dominant design may bring competitive advantage.

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Importance of Technological Competence: Companies must have at least a minimal
R&D capability if they are to correctly assess the value of technology developed by
others. Those corporations that do purchase an innovative technology must have the
technological competence to make good use of it. Some companies that introduce the
latest technology into their processes do not adequately assess the competence of their
people to handle if. A corporation may acquire a smaller high technology company in
order to learn not only the new technology, but also a new way of managing its business.

ORGANIZING FOR INNOVATION: CORPORATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP:

Corporate entrepreneurship (also called intrapreneurship) is defined by Guth and
Ginsburg as “the birth of new business within existing organizations, that is, internal
innovation or venturing; and the transformation of organizations through renewal of the
key ideas on which they are built, that is, strategic renewal.

A large corporation that wants to encourage innovation and creativity within its firm must
choose a structure that will give the new business unit an appropriate amount of freedom
while maintaining some degree of control at headquarters.

Burgelman proposes that the use of particular organizational design should be determined
by (1) the strategic importance of the new business to the corporation and (2) the
relatedness of the unit’s operations to those of the corporation. The combination of these
two factors results in nine organizational designs for corporate entrepreneurship.

Designs for Corporate Entrepreneurship

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1. Direct Integration: A new business with a great deal of strategic importance and
operational relatedness must be a part of the corporation’s mainstream. Product
champion-people who are respected by others in the corporation and who know
how to work the system-are needed to manage these projects.

2. New Product Business Department: A new business with a great deal of strategic
importance and partial operational relatedness should be a separate department
organized around an entrepreneurial project in the division where skills and
capabilities can be shared.

3. Special Business Units: A new business with a great deal of strategic importance
and low operational relatedness should be a special new business unit with
specific objectives and time horizons.

4. Micro New Ventures Department: A new business with uncertain strategic
importance and high operational relatedness should be a peripheral project, which
is likely to emerge in the operating divisions on a continuous basis. Each division
thus has its own new ventures department.

5. New Venture Division: A new business with uncertain strategic importance that
is only partly related to present corporate operations belongs in a new venture
division. It brings together projects that either exist in various parts of the
corporation or can be acquired externally, sizable new businesses are built.

6. Independent Business Units: Uncertain strategic importance coupled with no
relationship to present corporate activities can make external arrangements
attractive.

7. Nurturing and Contracting: When an entrepreneurial proposal might not be
important strategically to the corporation but is strongly related to present
operations, top management might help the entrepreneurial unit to spin off from
the corporation. This allows a friendly competitor, instead of one of the
corporation’s major rivals, to capture a small niche.

8. Contracting: As the required capabilities and sills of the new business are less
related to those of the corporation, the parent corporation may spin off the
strategically unimportant unit yet keep some relationship through a contractual
arrangement with the new firm. The connection s useful in case the new firm
eventually develops something of value to the corporation.

9. Complete Spin-Off: If both the strategic importance and the operational
relatedness of the new business are negligible the corporations is likely to
completely sell off the business to another firm or to the present employees in
some form of ESOP (Employee Stock Ownership Plan). The corporation also
could sell off the unit through a leveraged buy-out (executives of the unit buy the

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unit from the parent company with money from a third source, to be repaid out of
the unit’s anticipated earnings.

STRATEGIC ISSUES IN NOT-FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

Not-for-Profit (NFP): An organization that provides some service or good with no
intention of earning a profit. NFP includes Private nonprofit corporations (such as
hospitals, institutes, private colleges, and organized charities) as well as Public
governmental units/agencies (such as welfare departments, prisons and state universities)

Types of Not-for-Profit Organizations

Importance of Revenue Source: NFPs are dependant on dues, assessments or donations
for their revenue sources. In NFP organizations there is likely to be a very different sort
of relationship between the organisations providing and the person receiving the service.
Because the recipient of the service typically does not pay the entire cost of the service,
outside sponsors are required.

Pattern of Influence on Strategic Decision Making: Pattern of influence is derived
from its source of revenues. Those who fund the NFP are likely to have significant
influence on its operations

Usefulness of Strategic Management and Techniques: some strategic management
concepts can be equally applied to business and not for profit organizations whereas
others cannot. The concept of competitive advantage is less useful to the typical not-for-
profit organizations than the related concept of Institutional advantage. A NFP
organisation is said to have institutional advantage when it performs its tasks more
effectively than other comparable organizations.

Portfolio analysis may be more difficult to apply to NFPs. Situation (SWOT) analysis;
mission statements, stakeholder analysis, and corporate governance are all relevant to the
strategic assessment of NFPs as they are to a profit making organizations

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Strategic management is difficult to apply where the output of an NFP is difficult to
measure. Thus it is very likely that most of the NFPs have not used strategic management
because its concepts, techniques and prescription does not lend themselves to situations
where sponsors, rather than the market place determine the value. However the situation
is changing nowadays.

Impact of Constraints on strategic management: Several characteristics peculiar to the
not for profit organisation constrain its behavior and affects it strategic management. The
constraints are as follows:

• Service is often intangible/hard to measure
• Client influence may be weak
• Strong employee commitments to professions
• Resource contributors intrude on internal management
• Restraints on use of rewards and punishments

Impact on Strategy Formulation:

Goal conflicts with rational planning: because NFPs typically lacks a single clear cut
performance criterion, divergent goals and objectives are likely, especially with multiple
sponsors.

An integrated planning process tends to shift from results to resources: because NFPs
tend to provide services that are hard to measure planning becomes more concerned with
resource inputs, which can be easily measured than with service which cannot.

Ambiguous objectives create opportunities for internal politics and goal displacement: the
combination of vague objectives and heavy concerns with resources allows managers a
considerable scope in their activities. Such attitude created opportunities for politics.

Professionalization simplifies detailed planning but adds rigidity: In NFPs professional
values and traditions can prevent the organizations from changing its conventional
behviour patterns to fit new service mission tuned to changing social needs. Goals of the
professionals and their representative bodies may not align with organizational goals

Impact on Implementation

Decentralization is complicated: the difficulty of setting objectives for an intangible
service complicates the decision making authority.

Increased requirement for an environmental buffer role: because of the heavy
dependence on outside sponsors a special need arises for people in buffer roles to relate
to both inside and outside organizations. The job of a “dean for external affairs” for
example consists primarily of working with the school alumnae and raising funds.

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Job enlargement and executive development can be restrained by professionalism: in
organisations that employ large number of professionals, managers must design jobs that
appeal to prevailing professional norms.
Impact on Evaluation & Control

Rewards & penalties have little or no relation to performance: when results are vague and
the judgement of success is subjective, predictable and impersonal feedback cannot be
established.

Inputs rather than outputs are heavily controlled: because its inputs can be mneasured
much more easily than outputs, the not for profit organisation tends to focus more on the
resources going into performance than on the performance itself.
Popular Not for Profit Strategies

Strategic piggybacking: Strategic piggybacking refers to he development of a new
activity for the not-for-profit organization that would generate funds needed to make up
the difference between revenues and expenses. Its purpose is to help subsidize the
primary service programs. It appears to be a form of concentric diversification but it is
engaged in only for its money generating value

Mergers: Merging with an organization with a similar mission can help to reduce
administration costs.

Strategic alliances: Developing cooperative ties with other NFPs. This will enhance their
capacity to serve clients or to acquire resources while enabling them to keep their
identity.

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