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Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying

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Cyberbullying
Cyberbullying

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Cyberbullying is the use of Information Technology to harm or harass other people in a

deliberate, repeated, and hostile manner.
[1]
According to U.S. Legal Definitions, Cyber-bullying
could be limited to posting rumors or gossips about a person in the internet bringing about
hatred in other’s minds; or it may go to the extent of personally identifying victims and publishing
materials severely defaming and humiliating them.
[2]

With the increase in use of these technologies Cyberbullying has become increasingly common,
especially among teenagers.
[3]
Awareness has also risen, due in part to high profile cases like
the Suicide of Tyler Clementi.
[4]

Legal definition
Cyberbullying is defined in legal glossaries as
 actions that use information and communication technologies to support deliberate,
repeated, and hostile behavior by an individual or group, that is intended to harm another or
others.
 use of communication technologies for the intention of harming another person
 use of internet service and mobile technologies such as web pages and discussion groups
as well as instant messaging or SMS text messaging with the intention of harming another
person.
Examples of what constitutes cyberbullying include communications that seek to intimidate,
control, manipulate, put down, falsely discredit, or humiliate the recipient. The actions are
deliberate, repeated, and hostile behavior intended to harm another. Cyberbullying has been
defined by The National Crime Prevention Council: “When the Internet, cell phones or other
devices are used to send or post text or images intended to hurt or embarrass another
person."
[5][6]

A cyberbully may be a person whom the target knows or an online stranger. A cyberbully may
be anonymous and may solicit involvement of other people online who do not even know the
target. This is known as a 'digital pile-on.'
[7]

Cyberbullying vs. Cyberstalking
Further information: Cyberstalking
The practice of cyberbullying is not limited to children and, while the behavior is identified by the
same definition when practiced by adults, the distinction in age groups sometimes refers to the
abuse as cyberstalking or cyberharassment when perpetrated by adults toward
adults.
[8]
Common tactics used by cyberstalkers are performed in public forums, social media or
online information sites and are intended to threaten a victim's earnings, employment,
reputation, or safety. Behaviors may include encouraging others to harass the victim and trying
to affect a victim's online participation. Many cyberstalkers try to damage the reputation of their
victim and turn other people against them.
Cyberstalking may include false accusations, monitoring, making threats, identity theft, damage
to data or equipment, the solicitation of minors for sex, or gathering information in order to
harass.
[9]
A repeated pattern of such actions and harassment against a target by an adult
constitutes cyberstalking. Cyberstalking often features linked patterns of online and offline
behavior. There are consequences of law in offline stalking and online stalking, and cyber-
stalkers can be put in jail.
[10]
Cyberstalking is a form of cyberbullying.
[11]

Comparison to Traditional Bullying
Certain characteristics inherent in online technologies increase the likelihood that they will be
exploited for deviant purposes.
[12]
Unlike physical bullying, electronic bullies can remain virtually
anonymous using temporary email accounts, pseudonyms in chat rooms, instant messaging
programs, cell-phone text messaging, and other Internet venues to mask their identity; this
perhaps frees them from normative and social constraints on their behavior.
Additionally, electronic forums often lack supervision. While chat hosts regularly observe the
dialog in some chat rooms in an effort to police conversations and evict offensive individuals,
personal messages sent between users (such as electronic mail or text messages) are viewable
only by the sender and the recipient, thereby outside the regulatory reach of such authorities. In
addition, when teenagers know more about computers and cellular phones than their parents or
guardians, they are therefore able to operate the technologies without concern that a parent will
discover their experience with bullying (whether as a victim or offender).
Another factor is the inseparability of a cellular phone from its owner, making that person a
perpetual target for victimization. Users often need to keep their phone turned on for legitimate
purposes, which provides the opportunity for those with malicious intentions to engage in
persistent unwelcome behavior such as harassing telephone calls or threatening and insulting
statements via the cellular phone’s text messaging capabilities. Cyberbullying thus penetrates
the walls of a home, traditionally a place where victims could seek refuge from other forms of
bullying. Compounding this infiltration into the home life of the cyberbully victim is the unique
way in which the internet can "create simultaneous sensations of exposure (the whole world is
watching) and alienation (no one understands)."
[13]
For youth who experience shame or self-
hatred, this effect is dangerous because it can lead to extreme self isolation.
One possible advantage for victims of cyberbullying over traditional bullying is that they may
sometimes be able to avoid it simply by avoiding the site/chat room in question. Email
addresses and phone numbers can be changed; in addition, most e-mail accounts now offer
services that will automatically filter out messages from certain senders before they even reach
the inbox, and phones offer similar caller ID functions.
However, this does not protect against all forms of cyberbullying; publishing of defamatory
material about a person on the internet is extremely difficult to prevent and once it is posted,
many people or archiving services can potentially download and copy it, at which point it is
almost impossible to remove from the Internet. Some perpetrators may post victims' photos, or
victims' edited photos like defaming captions or pasting victims' faces on nude bodies.
Examples of famous forums for disclosing personal data or photos to "punish" the "enemies"
include the Hong Kong Golden Forum, Live Journal, and more recently JuicyCampus. Despite
policies that describe cyberbullying as a violation of the terms of service, many social
networking Web sites have been used to that end.
[14]

Methods Used
Manuals to educate the public, teachers and parents summarize, "Cyberbullying is being cruel
to others by sending or posting harmful material using a cell phone or the internet." Research,
legislation and education in the field are ongoing. Basic definitions and guidelines to help
recognize and cope with what is regarded as abuse of electronic communications have been
identified.
 Cyberbullying involves repeated behavior with intent to harm and repeated nature
 Cyberbullying is perpetrated through Harassment, Cyberstalking, Denigration (sending or
posting cruel rumors and falsehoods to damage reputation and friendships),Impersonation,
Exclusion (intentionally and cruelly excluding someone from an online group)
[15]

Cyberbullying can be as simple as continuing to send e-mails or text messages harassing
someone who has said they want no further contact with the sender. It may also include public
actions such as repeated threats, sexual remarks, pejorative labels (i.e., hate speech) or
defamatory false accusations), ganging up on a victim by making the person the subject of
ridicule in online forums, hacking into or vandalizing sites about a person, and posting false
statements as fact aimed a discrediting or humiliating a targeted person.
[16]
Cyberbullying could
be limited to posting rumors about a person on the internet with the intention of bringing about
hatred in others' minds or convincing others to dislike or participate in online denigration of a
target. It may go to the extent of personally identifying victims of crime and publishing materials
severely defaming or humiliating them.
[5]

Cyberbullies may disclose victims' personal data (e.g. real name, home address, or
workplace/schools) at websites or forums or may use impersonation, creating fake accounts,
comments or sites posing as their target for the purpose of publishing material in their name that
defames, discredits or ridicules them. This can leave the cyberbully anonymous which can
make it difficult for the offender to be caught or punished for their behavior. Though, not all
cyberbullies use anonymity. Text or instant messages and emails between friends can also be
cyberbullying if what is said or displayed is hurtful to the participants.
Some cyberbullies may also send threatening and harassing emails, instant messages or texts
to the victims. Others post rumors or gossip and instigate others to dislike and gang up on the
target.


Cyberbullying by email from a fictional friend@hotmail.com
The recent use of mobile applications and rise of smartphones have yielded to a more
accessible form of cyberbullying. It is expected that cyberbullying via these platforms will be
associated with bullying via mobile phones to a greater extent than exclusively through other
more stationary internet platforms. In addition, the combination of cameras and Internet access
and the instant availability of these modern smartphone technologies yield themselves to
specific types of cyberbullying not found in other platforms. It is likely that those cyberbullied via
mobile devices will experience a wider range of cyberbullying types than those exclusively
bullied elsewhere.
[17]

In Social Media
Cyberbullying can take place on social media sites such as Facebook, Myspace, and Twitter.
“By 2008, 93% of young people between the ages of 12 and 17 were online. In fact, youth
spend more time with media than any single other activity besides sleeping.”
[18]
There are many
risks attached to social media cites, and cyberbullying is one of the larger risks. One million
children were harassed, threatened or subjected to other forms of cyberbullying on Facebook
during the past year, while 90% of social media-using teens who have witnessed online cruelty
say they have ignored mean behavior on social media, and 35% have done this frequently. 95%
of social media-using teens who have witnessed cruel behavior on social networking sites say
they have seen others ignoring the mean behavior, and 55% witness this frequently.
[19]
”The
most recent case of cyber-bullying and illegal activity on Facebook involved a memorial page for
the young boys who lost their lives to suicide due to anti-gay bullying. The page quickly turned
into a virtual grave desecration and platform condoning gay teen suicide and the murdering of
homosexuals. Photos were posted of executed homosexuals, desecrated photos of the boys
who died and supposed snuff photos of gays who have been murdered. Along with this were
thousands of comments encouraging murder sprees against gays, encouragement of gay teen
suicide, death threats etc. In addition, the page continually exhibited pornography to minors.”
[20]

In Gaming
Sexual harassment as a form of Cyberbullying is common in Video game culture.
[21]
A study by
the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology suggests that this harassment is due in part to
the portrayal of women in video games.
[21]
This harassment generally involves slurs directed
towards women, sex role stereotyping, and overaggressive language.
[22]

In one case, in which Capcom sponsored an internet streamed reality show pitting fighting game
experts against each other for a prize of $25,000, one female gamer forfeited a match due to
intense harassment.
[23]
The coach of the opposing team, Aris Bakhtanians, stated, "The sexual
harassment is part of the culture. If you remove that from the fighting game community, it’s not
the fighting game community… it doesn’t make sense to have that attitude. These things have
been established for years."
[23]

A study from National Sun Yat-sen University observed that children who enjoyed violent video
games were far more likely to both experience and perpetrate cyberbullying.
[24]

Law Enforcement: Cyberbullying, Cyberstalking and Electronic Harassment
A majority of states have laws that explicitly include electronic forms of communication within
stalking or harassment laws.
[25][26]

Most law enforcement agencies have cyber-crime units and often Internet stalking is treated
with more seriousness than reports of physical stalking.
[27]
Help and resources can be searched
by State or area.
Schools
The safety of schools is increasingly becoming a focus of state legislative action. There was an
increase in cyberbullying enacted legislation between 2006–2010.
[28]
Initiatives and curriclulum
requirements also exist in the UK (the Ofsted eSafety guidance) and Australia (Overarching
Learning Outcome 13). In 2012, a group of teens in New Haven, Connecticut developed an app
to help fight bullying. Called "Back Off Bully" (BOB), the web app is an anonymous resource for
computer, smart phone or iPad. When someone witnesses or is the victim of bullying, they can
immediately report the incident. The app asks questions about time, location and how the
bullying is happening. As well as providing positive action and empowerment over an incident,
the reported information helps by going to a data base where administrators study it. Common
threads are spotted so others can intervene and break the bully's pattern.
[29]
BOB, the brainchild
of fourteen teens in a design class, is being considered as standard operating procedure at
schools across the state.
Protection for Victims of Any Age
There are laws that only address online harassment of children or focus on child predators as
well as laws that protect adult cyberstalking victims, or victims of any age. Currently, there are
45 cyberstalking (and related) laws on the books.
While some sites specialize in laws that protect victims age 18 and under, Working to Halt
Online Abuse is a help resource containing a list of current and pending cyberstalking-related
United States federal and state laws.
[30]
It also lists those states that do not have laws yet and
related laws from other countries. The Global Cyber Law Database (GCLD) aims to become the
most comprehensive and authoritative source of cyber laws for all countries.
[31]

Children and Adolescents
Kids report being mean to each other online beginning as young as 2nd grade. According to
research, boys initiate mean online activity earlier than girls do. However, by middle school, girls
are more likely to engage in cyberbullying than boys.
[32]
Whether the bully is male or female, his
or her purpose is to intentionally embarrass others, harass, intimidate, or make threats online to
one another. This bullying occurs via email, text messaging, posts to blogs, and web sites.
The National Crime Prevention Association lists tactics often used by teen cyberbullies.
[33]

 Pretend they are other people online to trick others
 Spread lies and rumors about victims
 Trick people into revealing personal information
 Send or forward mean text messages
 Post pictures of victims without their consent
Studies in the psychosocial effects of cyberspace have begun to monitor the impacts
cyberbullying may have on the victims, and the consequences it may lead to. Consequences of
cyberbullying are multi-faceted, and affect online and offline behavior. Research on adolescents
reported that changes in the victims' behavior as a result of cyberbullying could be positive.
Victims "created a cognitive pattern of bullies, which consequently helped them to recognize
aggressive people."
[34]
However, the Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace abstract
reports critical impacts in almost all of the respondents’, taking the form of lower self-esteem,
loneliness, disillusionment, and distrust of people. The more extreme impacts were self-harm.
Children have killed each other and committed suicide after having been involved in a
cyberbullying incident.
[35]

The most current research in the field defines cyberbullying as "an aggressive, intentional act or
behaviour that is carried out by a group or an individual repeatedly and over time against a
victim who cannot easily defend him or herself" (Smith & Slonje, 2007, p. 249).
[34]
Though the
use of sexual remarks and threats are sometimes present in cyberbullying, it is not the same as
sexual harassment, typically occurs among peers, and does not necessarily involve sexual
predators.
Some cases of digital self-harm have been reported, where an individual engages in
cyberbullying against themselves.
[36][37]

Adults
Stalking online has criminal consequences just as physical stalking. A target's understanding of
why cyberstalking is happening is helpful to remedy and take protective action to restore
remedy. Cyberstalking is an extension of physical stalking.
[38]
Among factors that motivate
stalkers are: envy, pathological obsession (professional or sexual), unemployment or failure with
own job or life; intention to intimidate and cause others to feel inferior; the stalker
is delusional and believes he/she "knows" the target; the stalker wants to instill fear in a person
to justify his/her status; belief they can get away with it (anonymity).
[39]
UK National Workplace
Bullying Advice Line theorizes that bullies harass victims in order to make up for inadequacies in
their own lives.
[40]

The US federal cyberstalking law is designed to prosecute people for using electronic means to
repeatedly harass or threaten someone online. There are resources dedicated to assisting adult
victims deal with cyberbullies legally and effectively. One of the steps recommended is to record
everything and contact police.
[41][42]

Harmful Effects
Research had demonstrated a number of serious consequences of cyberbullying
victimization.
[12][51][52][54]
For example, victims have lower self-esteem, increased suicidal ideation,
and a variety of emotional responses, retaliating, being scared, frustrated, angry, and
depressed.
[54]

One of the most damaging effects is that a victim begins to avoid friends and activities, often the
very intention of the cyberbully.
Cyberbullying campaigns are sometimes so damaging that victims have committed suicide.
There are at least four examples in the United States where cyberbullying has been linked to
the suicide of a teenager.
[54]
The suicide of Megan Meier is a recent example that led to the
conviction of the adult perpetrator of the attacks.
According to Lucie Russell, director of campaigns, policy and participation at youth mental
health charity Young Minds, young people who suffer from mental disorder are vulnerable to
cyberbullying as they are sometimes unable to shrug it off:
When someone says nasty things healthy people can filter that out, they're able to put a block
between that and their self-esteem. But mentally unwell people don't have the strength and the
self-esteem to do that, to separate it, and so it gets compiled with everything else. To them, it
becomes the absolute truth – there's no filter, there's no block. That person will take that on,
take it as fact.
[65]

Intimidation, Emotional Damage, Suicide
According to the Cyberbullying Research Center, "there have been several high‐profile cases
involving teenagers taking their own lives in part because of being harassed and mistreated
over the Internet, a phenomenon we have termed cyberbullicide – suicide indirectly or directly
influenced by experiences with online aggression."
Cyberbullying is an intense form of psychological abuse, whose victims are more than twice as
likely to suffer from mental disorders compared to traditional bullying.
[66]

The reluctance youth have in telling an authority figure about instances of cyberbullying has led
to fatal outcomes. At least three children between the ages of 12 and 13 have committed
suicide due to depression brought on by cyberbullying, according to reports by USA Today and
the Baltimore Examiner. These would include the suicide of Ryan Halligan and the suicide of
Megan Meier, the latter of which resulted in United States v. Lori Drew.
More recently, teenage suicides tied to cyberbullying have become more prevalent. The latest
victim of cyberbullying through the use of mobile applications was Rebecca Ann Sedwick, who
committed suicide after being terrorized through mobile applications such as Ask.fm, Kik
Messenger and Voxer.
[67]

Adults and the Workplace
Cyberbullying is not limited to personal attacks or children. Cyberharassment, referred to as
cyberstalking when involving adults, takes place in the workplace or on company web sites,
blogs or product reviews.
Cyberbullying can occur in product reviews along with other consumer-generated data are being
more closely monitored and flagged for content that is deemed malicious and biased as these
sites have become tools to cyberbully by way of malicious requests for deletion of
articles, vandalism, abuse of administrative positions, and ganging up on products to post
"false" reviews and vote products down.
Cyberstalkers use posts, forums, journals and other online means to present a victim in a false
and unflattering light. The question of liability for harassment and character assassination is
particularly salient to legislative protection since the original authors of the offending material
are, more often than not, not only anonymous, but untraceable. Nevertheless, abuse should be
consistently brought to company staffers' attention.
Recognition of Adult and Workplace Cyberbullying Tactics
Common tactics used by cyberstalkers is to vandalize a search engine or encyclopedia, to
threaten a victim's earnings, employment, reputation, or safety. Various companies provide
cases of cyber-stalking (involving adults) follow the pattern of repeated actions against a target.
While motives vary, whether romantic, a business conflict of interest, or personal dislike, the
target is commonly someone whose life the stalker sees or senses elements lacking in his or
her own life. Web-based products or services leveraged against cyberstalkers in the
harassment or defamation of their victims.
The source of the defamation seems to come from four types of online information purveyors:
Weblogs, industry forums or boards, and commercial Web sites. Studies reveal that while some
motives are personal dislike, there is often direct economic motivation by the cyberstalker,
including conflict of interest, and investigations reveal the responsible party is an affiliate or
supplier of a competitor, or the competitor itself.

What is Cyberbullying
Cyberbullying is bullying that takes place using electronic technology. Electronic technology
includes devices and equipment such as cell phones, computers, and tablets as well as
communication tools including social media sites, text messages, chat, and websites.
Examples of cyberbullying include mean text messages or emails, rumors sent by email or
posted on social networking sites, and embarrassing pictures, videos, websites, or fake profiles.
 Why Cyberbullying is Different
 Effects of Cyberbullying
 Frequency of Cyberbullying
Why Cyberbullying is Different
Kids who are being cyberbullied are often bullied in person as well. Additionally, kids who are
cyberbullied have a harder time getting away from the behavior.
 Cyberbullying can happen 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and reach a kid even when he or she
is alone. It can happen any time of the day or night.
 Cyberbullying messages and images can be posted anonymously and distributed quickly to a
very wide audience. It can be difficult and sometimes impossible to trace the source.
 Deleting inappropriate or harassing messages, texts, and pictures is extremely difficult after they
have been posted or sent.
Back to top
Effects of Cyberbullying
Cell phones and computers themselves are not to blame for cyberbullying. Social media sites
can be used for positive activities, like connecting kids with friends and family, helping students
with school, and for entertainment. But these tools can also be used to hurt other people.
Whether done in person or through technology, the effects of bullying are similar.
Kids who are cyberbullied are more likely to:
 Use alcohol and drugs
 Skip school
 Experience in-person bullying
 Be unwilling to attend school
 Receive poor grades
 Have lower self-esteem
 Have more health problems

“Cyber bullying” is defined as a young person tormenting, threatening, harassing, or
embarrassing another young person using the Internet or other technologies, like cell phones.
The psychological and emotional outcomes of cyber bullying are similar to those of real-life
bullying. The difference is, real-life bullying often ends when school ends. For cyber bullying,
there is no escape. And, it’s getting worse. Read on to get the facts.
1. Nearly 43% of kids have been bullied online. 1 in 4 has had it happen more than once.
2. 70% of students report seeing frequent bullying online.
3. Over 80% of teens use a cell phone regularly, making it the most common medium for
cyber bullying.
4. 68% of teens agree that cyber bullying is a serious problem.
5. 81% of young people think bullying online is easier to get away with than bullying in
person.
6. 90% of teens who have seen social-media bullying say they have ignored it. 84% have
seen others tell cyber bullies to stop.
7. Only 1 in 10 victims will inform a parent or trusted adult of their abuse.
8. Girls are about twice as likely as boys to be victims and perpetrators of cyber bullying.
9. About 58% of kids admit someone has said mean or hurtful things to them online. More
than 4 out 10 say it has happened more than once.
10. About 75% have visited a website bashing another student.
11. Bullying victims are 2 to 9 times more likely to consider committing suicide.
The Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012, officially recorded as Republic Act No. 10175, is
a law in the Philippines approved on 12 September 2012. It aims to address legal issues
concerning online interactions and the Internet in the Philippines. Among the cybercrime
offenses included in the bill are cybersquatting, cybersex, child pornography, identity theft,
illegal access to data andlibel.
[1]

While hailed for penalizing illegal acts done via the internet that were not covered by old laws,
the act has been criticized for its provision on criminalizing libel, which is perceived to be a
curtailment in freedom of expression.
On October 9, 2012, the Supreme Court of the Philippines issued a temporary restraining order,
stopping implementation of the Act for 120 days, and extended it on 5 February 2013 "until
further orders from the court."
[2][3]

On May 24, 2013, The DOJ announced that provisions of the law have been dropped, namely,
the contentious online libel provisions.
[4]

History[edit]
The Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 is the first law in the Philippines which specifically
criminalizes computer crime, which prior to the passage of the law had no strong legal
precedent in Philippine jurisprudence. While laws such as the Electronic Commerce Act of
2000 (Republic Act No. 8792
[5]
) regulated certain computer-related activities, these laws did not
provide a legal basis for criminalizing crimes committed on a computer in general: for example,
Onel de Guzman, the computer programmer charged with purportedly writing
the ILOVEYOU computer worm, was ultimately not prosecuted by Philippine authorities due to a
lack of legal basis for him to be charged under existing Philippine laws at the time of his arrest.
[6]

Although several cybercrime-related bills were filed in the 14th and 15th Congress, the
Cybercrime Prevention Act in its current form is the product of House Bill No. 5808, authored by
Representative Susan Yap-Sulit of the second district of Tarlac and 36 other co-authors, and
Senate Bill No. 2976, proposed by Senator Edgardo Angara. Both bills were passed by their
respective chambers within one day of each other on June 5 and 4, 2012, respectively, shortly
after the impeachment of Renato Corona, and the final version of the Act was later signed into
law by President Benigno Aquino III on September 12,
Provisions[edit]
The Act, divided into 31 sections split across eight chapters, criminalizes several types of
offenses, including illegal access (hacking), data interference, device misuse,cybersquatting,
computer-related offenses such as computer fraud, content-related offenses such
as cybersex and spam, and other offenses. The law also reaffirms existing laws against child
pornography, an offense under Republic Act No. 9779 (the Anti-Child Pornography Act of 2009),
and libel, an offense under Section 355 of the Revised Penal Code of the Philippines, also
criminalizing them when committed using a computer system. Finally, the Act provides for a
"catch-all" clause, wherein all offenses currently punishable under the Revised Penal Code are
likewise punishable under the Act when committed using a computer, with corresponding
stricter penalties than if the crimes were punishable under the Revised Penal Code alone.
The Act has universal jurisdiction: its provisions apply to all Filipino nationals regardless of the
place of commission. Jurisdiction also lies when a punishable act is either committed within the
Philippines, whether the erring device is wholly or partly situated in the Philippines, or whether
damage was done to any natural or juridical person who at the time of commission was within
the Philippines. Regional Trial Courts shall have jurisdiction over cases involving violations of
the Act.
A takedown clause is included in the Act, empowering the Department of Justice to restrict
and/or demand the removal of content found to be contrary to the provisions of the Act, without
the need for a court order. This provision, originally not included in earlier iterations of the Act as
it was being deliberated through Congress, was inserted during Senatedeliberations on May 31,
2012.
[7]
Complementary to the takedown clause is a clause mandating the retention of data on
computer servers for six months after the date of transaction, which may be extended for
another six months should law enforcement authorities request it.
The Act also mandates the National Bureau of Investigation and the Philippine National
Police to organize a cybercrime unit, staffed by special investigators whose responsibility will be
to exclusively handle cases pertaining to violations of the Act, under the supervision of the
Department of Justice. The unit is empowered to, among others, collect real-time traffic data
from Internet service providers with due cause, require the disclosure of computer data within
72 hours after receipt of a court warrant from a service provider, and conduct searches and
seizures of computer data and equipment. It also mandates the establishment of special
"cybercrime courts" which will handle cases involving cybercrime offenses (offenses
enumerated in Section 4(a) of the Act).
Reactions[edit]


Screenshot of the social networking siteFacebook, as the Filipinos changed their profile pictures
into black in protest against the Cybercrime Prevention Law of 2012
The new Act received mixed reactions from several sectors upon its enactment, particularly with
how its provisions could potentially affect freedom of expression, freedom of speech and data
security in the Philippines.
The local business process outsourcing industry has received the new law well, citing an
increase in the confidence of investors due to measures for the protection of electronic devices
and online data.
[8]
Media organizations and legal institutions though have criticized the Act for
extending the definition of libel as defined in the Revised Penal Code of the Philippines, which
has been criticized by international organizations as being outdated:
[9]
the United Nations for
one has remarked that the current definition of libel as defined in the Revised Penal Code is
inconsistent with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and therefore violates
the respect of freedom of expression.
[10]

Senator Edgardo Angara, the main proponent of the Act, defended the law by saying that it is a
legal framework to protect freedoms such as the freedom of expression. He asked the Act's
critics to wait for the bill's implementing rules and regulations to see if the issues were
addressed.
[11]
He also added that the new law is unlike the controversial Stop Online Piracy
Act and PROTECT IP Act.
[12]
However, Senator Teofisto Guingona III criticized the bill, calling it
a prior restraint to the freedom of speech and freedom of expression.
[13]

The Electronic Frontier Foundation has also expressed concern about the Act,
[14]
supporting
local media and journalist groups which are opposed to it. The Centre for Law and Democracy
also published a detailed analysis criticizing the law from a freedom of expression
perspective.
[15]

Petitions to the Supreme Court[edit]
Several petitions have been submitted to the Supreme Court questioning the constitutionality of
the Act.
[16]
However, on October 2, the Supreme Court deferred on acting on the petitions, citing
the absence of justices which prevented the Court from sitting en banc.
[17]
The lack of a
temporary restraining order meant that the law went into effect as scheduled on October 3. In
protest, Filipino netizens reacted by blacking out their Facebook profile pictures and trending the
hashtag #notocybercrimelaw on Twitter. Anonymousalso defaced government websites,
including those of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage
System and the Intellectual Property Office.
On October 9, 2012, the Supreme Court issued a temporary restraining order, stopping
implementation of the Act for 120 days.
[18]
In early December, 2012, the government requested
the lifting of the TRO
[19]


Petitioner Date of Filling
1 Sen. Teofisto Guingona III

2 Group of lawyers from the Ateneo School of Law

3 Journalists led by Alab ng Mamahayag (ALAM)
September 24,
2012
4 Kabataan party-list Rep. Raymond Palatino

5 National Artist Bienvenido Lumbera et al.

6 Technology law experts led by UP Law professor JJ Disini

7 Louis Biraogo
September 25,
2012
8
National Union of Journalists of the Philippines and the Center for Media
Freedom and Responsibility

9
Bloggers and Netizens for Democracy (BAND) led by Tonyo Cruz, "The
Professional Heckler” and 18 more bloggers
October 4, 2012
10 Philippine Bar Association

11 Paul Cornelius Castillo and Ryan Andres October 3, 2012
12 Bayan Muna. Rep. Neri Colmenares

13 National Press Club

14 Philippine Internet Freedom Alliance

15 Harry Roque et al.

The Supreme Court has scheduled the same amount of time for oral arguments on Tuesday, 15
January 2013 by the petitioners and on 22 January by the Solicitor General.
[20]

On 5 February 2013, The Supreme Court extended the temporary restraining order on the law,
"until further orders from the court."
[2][3]

Revision of the law[edit]
On May 24, 2013, The DOJ announced that online libel provisions of the law have been
dropped, as well as other provisions that "are punishable under other laws already", like child
pornography and cybersquatting. The DOJ will endorse the revised law to the next 16th
Congress of the Philippines.
[4][21]

Repeal of the law[edit]
A Magna Carta for Philippine Internet Freedom has been crowdsourced by Filipino netizens with
the intent of, among others, repealing the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012.
[22]


Bullycide
With so many recent cases of suicide being talked about in the media, it leaves many wondering
about the new term Bullycide. This new term, bullycide, is a hybrid of bullying and suicide to
explain when someone takes their life as a result of being bullied.



There are many teens who face being bullied every day whether it be at school, around their
neighborhood, in public places or online. Cyberbullying has taken the concept ofphysical
bullying to a whole new level, which is why many researchers believe it is often responsible for
cases of bullycide. With many teens taking their lives after being bullied by fellow peers either in
school or on the Internet, it leaves parents, teachers and their friends wondering what can be
done to prevent bullycide.
What is bullycide?
The correct definition to this question is bullycide is suicide caused from the results of bullying.
Children and teens who are bullied live in a constant state of fear and confusion in their lives.
Many feel the only way to escape the rumors, insults, verbal abuse and terror is to take their
own life. Bullycide is clearly a serious issue. There are several different reasons that ultimately
can lead to bullycide including:
 Being constantly physically and emotionally bullied
 Experiencing constant physical and emotional pain
 Having to continually relive an embarrassing moment over and over that is regularly
brought up peers as a method of torment
 Being the victim of bullying by an authority figure like a parent, teacher, coach or other
adult
 When the victim of bullying has no other friends to rely on for support or encouragement
while being bullied regularly
Bullying prevention:
Because bullying is at the root of the problem when it comes to these ever-to-frequent cases of
bullycide, the best way to take preventative measures is to work on stopping children and teens
from being bullied. It is important to realize that the big, mean boy on the playground isn't the
only type of bully anymore. There are many types of bullies from boys, girls, teens of all ages to
adults in authority positions. Cyberbullying also makes it easier for children and teens to bully
one another. Bullying has also been found to be a growing trend among recent bullying
statistics. Now the question comes down to how to prevent bullying among youth to prevent
cases of bullycide. One of the best ways to prevent bullying is to have your child journal every
single instance of bullying. If the bullying is happening at school or is school-related, make sure
to take this journal to a teacher, counselor or even the principal. If the matter is not resolved
from there, take the situation to the police. Bullying and hate crimes are against the law. If
teachers or administrative members at your school refuse to take action, file a complaint or
charges against the school for negligence to cases of criminal bullying. It is their job to ensure
the safety of your child while they are at school. Take the matter to the police and school board
to ensure action. This may make the difference between ending the bullying and some child or
teen's life as the result of bullycide.
Do not allow your child to become a victim of bullying by encouraging open communication. If
your child hides the instances of bullying from you, chances are you may not even notice that
they have a problem until it is too late. Make sure your child knows they can come to you for
help with anything. Another way to prevent bullycide and from bullying getting to far, make sure
your child has a good group of friends. Often, bullies target children and teens who are loners or
do not have many friends because they make for easy targets. Having friends can be a great
protection for your teen or child against bullying. While cases of bullying and bullycide are
growing, there are also more and more schools cracking down to ensure their students are not
becoming bullies or becoming victims of bullies. However, parents still play a vital role in
protecting their child against cases of bullying and bullycide.

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