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Chapter 24: An Age of Limits

Chapter Main Idea: President Nixon reaches out to Communist nations, but leaves office disgraced by the Watergate scandal.
His successors face a sluggish economy, environmental concerns, and a revolution in Iran.
Essential Question: How did the presidencies in the 1970s shape America moving forward?
New Federalism
National Energy Act
Malaise Speech
Iran Hostage Crisis
Camp David Accords

Section 1: The Nixon Administration
Main Idea: President Richard M. Nixon tries to steer the country in a conservative direction and away from federal control.
Why it matters now: American leaders of the early 1970s laid the foundations for the broad conservative base that exists
1. Nixons New Conservatism
New Federalism
- Richard M. Nixon: decrease size and influence of federal government
- New Federalismgive part of federal power to state, local government
- Nixon proposes revenue sharing, which becomes law in 1972:
1. state, local governments now decide how to spend federal money
New Federalism Wears Two Faces
- Nixon backs some social spending increases to win Democratic support
- Tries to dismantle some programs, impounds funds for others
1. courts order release of impounded funds
Law and Order Politics
- Nixon moves aggressively to end war, mend divisiveness in country
1. Begins law and order policies to end riots, demonstrations; sometimes uses illegal tactics
Give an example of New Federalism today.

2. Nixons Southern Strategy
A New South
- Nixon: win over Southern Democrats for votes, majority in Congress
1. Southern strategyappeal to dislike of desegregation, Supreme Court
How did Nixon hope to win Southern support?

3. Confronting a Stagnant Economy
The Causes of Stagflation
- Stagflationcombination of high inflation, high unemployment
- Inflation result of LBJs deficit spending on war, social programs
- Unemployment from more international trade, new workers
- Rising oil prices, U.S. dependence on foreign oil add to inflation
- Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) controls prices
Nixon Battles Stagflation
- Nixon tries different strategies; none have much success
How did OPEC affect the U.S. economy?

4. Nixons Foreign Policy Triumphs
Kissinger and Realpolitik
- Henry Kissingernational security adviser, later secretary of state
- Realpolitikforeign policy based on power issues, not ideals, morals
- Realpolitik calls for U.S. to confront powerful nations, ignore weak
- Nixon, Kissinger follow policy of dtenteeasing Cold War tensions
Nixon Visits China
- 1971, Nixons visit to China a huge success; U. S., China agree to:
1. cooperate over disputes, have scientific, cultural exchange
- Takes advantage of rift between China, Soviet Union
Nixon Travels to Moscow
- 1972, Nixon visits Moscow; he, Brezhnev sign SALT I Treaty:
1. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks limit missiles to 1972 levels
- Foreign policy triumphs, expected Vietnam peace help win reelection
How did Nixon try to ease Cold War tensions?

If Nixon had not run for reelection after his first term, do you think he would have gone down in history as a great president?
Why or why not?

Section 2: Watergate: Nixon's Downfall
Main Idea: President Richard Nixons involvement in the Watergate scandal forces him to resign from office.
Why it matters now: The Watergate scandal raised questions of public trust that still affect how the public and media
skeptically view politicians.
1) President Nixon and His White House
a) An Imperial Presidency
i) Depression, WW II, Cold War make executive most powerful branch
ii) Nixon expands presidential powers, ignores Congress
b) The Presidents Men
i) Nixon has small, loyal group of advisers; like him, desire secrecy
(1) H. R. Haldeman, White House chief of staff
(2) John Ehrlichman, chief domestic adviser
(3) John Mitchell, Nixons former attorney general
2) The Drive Toward Reelection
a) A Bungled Burglary
i) Committee to Reelect the President break into Democratic headquarters
ii) Watergate scandal is administration attempt to cover up break-in
(1) destroy documents, try to stop investigation, buy burglars silence
iii) Washington Post reporters link administration to break-in
iv) White House denies allegations; little public interest in charges
v) Nixon reelected by landslide over liberal Democrat George McGovern
Why did the CRP order the burglary of the Democratic National Committee headquarters

3) The Cover-Up Unravels
a) The Senate Investigates Watergate
i) Judge John Sirica presides burglars trial, thinks did not act alone
ii) Burglar leader James McCord says lied under oath, advisers involved
iii) Nixon dismisses White House counsel John Dean; others resign
iv) Senator Samuel J. Ervin heads investigative committee
b) Startling Testimony
i) Dean declares Nixon involved in cover-up
ii) Alexander Butterfield says Nixon tapes presidential conversations
c) The Saturday Night Massacre
i) Special prosecutor Archibald Cox subpoenas tapes; Nixon refuses
ii) Nixon orders Cox fired, attorney general Elliot Richardson refuses
iii) Saturday Night Massacre: Richardson resigns; deputy refuses, fired
iv) Coxs replacement, Leon Jaworski, also calls for tapes
v) Vice President Spiro Agnew resigns, revealed he accepted bribes
vi) Nixon nominates, Congress confirms Gerald R. Ford as vice-president
What did Nixon do during the investigation?

4) The Fall of a President
a) Nixon Releases the Tapes
i) March 1974, grand jury indicts 7 presidential aides
(1) charges: conspiracy, obstruction of justice, perjury
ii) Nixon tells TV audience he is releasing edited transcripts
iii) July, Supreme Court rules unanimously Nixon must surrender tapes
b) The President Resigns
i) House Judiciary Committee approves 3 articles of impeachment
(1) formal accusation of wrongdoing while in office
(2) charges: obstruction of justice, abuse of power, contempt of Congress
ii) Nixon releases tapes; show knows of administration role, cover up
iii) Before full House votes on impeachment, Nixon resigns
c) The Effects of Watergate
i) 25 members of administration convicted, serve prison terms
What did the tapes reveal about what Nixon knew and when he knew it?

Section 3: The Ford and Carter Years
Main Idea: The Ford and Carter administrations attempt to remedy the nations worst economic crisis in decades.
Why it matters now: Maintaining a stable national economy has remained a top priority for every president since Ford and
1) Ford Travels a Rough Road
a) A Ford, Not a Lincoln
i) September 1974, new president Gerald R. Ford pardons Nixon
ii) Tries to move country past Watergate; loses much public support
b) Ford Tries to Whip Inflation
i) Unsuccessfully asks public to cut back use of oil, gas, save energy
ii) Cuts government spending; urges higher interest to restrict credit
iii) Tight money policy triggers recession
iv) Continually battles Democratic Congress with own economic agenda
What did Ford do about the economy?

2) Carter Enters the White House
a) Mr. Carter Goes to Washington
i) Jimmy Carter promises to restore integrity to presidency
(1) defeats Ford by narrow margin
ii) Has down-to-earth style; holds fireside chats on radio, TV
iii) Does not make deals with Congress; relies on Georgia advisers
iv) Both parties in Congress join to sink Carter budgets, major reforms
3) Carters Domestic Agenda
a) Confronting the Energy Crisis
i) Carter offers energy proposals; oil-, gas-states, auto makers resist
ii) National Energy Actencourages conservation, U.S. energy sources
iii) National Energy Act, conservation cut foreign oil dependence
b) The Economic Crisis Worsens
i) Violence in Middle East creates fuel shortage; OPEC raises prices
ii) Carter tries various methods, none work; gives malaise speech
iii) 1980 inflation 14%, standard of living drops; people lose confidence
c) A Changing Economy
i) From 1950s automation, foreign competition reduce manufacturing jobs
ii) Service sector expands, higher paying jobs require education, skills
d) Carter and Civil Rights
i) Carter hires more African Americans, women than previous presidents
ii) Many civil rights groups disappointed because few laws passed
iii) 1978 Bakkecase, Supreme Court strikes affirmative action quotas
(1) allows race as one factor in university admissions
How did Carter try to solve the nations economic problems?

4) A Human Rights Foreign Policy
a) Advancing Human Rights
i) Carters foreign policy promotes human rightsbasic freedoms
ii) Cuts off aid to some, not all, allies that mistreat own citizens
b) Yielding the Panama Canal
i) Panamanians resent having country split in two by foreign power
ii) 1977 treaty gives control of canal to Panama on Dec. 31, 1999
iii) Agreements improve relations between U.S., Latin America
c) The Collapse of Dtente
i) Carters insistence on human rights strains relations with U.S.S.R.
ii) SALT II talks delayed; Carter, Brezhnev finally sign June 1979
iii) SALT II meets sharp opposition in Senate
iv) December, Soviets invade Afghanistan; Carter lets SALT II die
5) Triumph and Crisis in the Middle East
a) The Camp David Accords
i) 1978 Carter hosts talks between Anwar el-Sadat, Menachem Begin
ii) Camp David Accords forge peace between Israel, Egypt:
(1) Israel withdraws from Sinai Peninsula
(2) Egypt recognizes Israels right to exist
b) The Iran Hostage Crisis
i) Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeinileads overthrow of shah
(1) establishes Islamic state
ii) Carter supports shah; allows him entry to U.S. for cancer treatment
iii) Students seize U.S. embassy, take 52 hostages; demand shah back
iv) Carter refuses; standoff ensues; intense secret negotiations follow
v) Captives released Jan. 1981, shortly after Ronald Reagan sworn in
Name one success and one defeat in the Middle East for Carter?

Section 4: Environmental Activism
Main Idea: During the 1970s, Americans strengthen their efforts to address the nations environmental problems.
Why it matters now: The nation today continues to struggle to balance environmental concerns with industrial growth.
1) The Roots of Environmentalism
a) Rachel Carson and Silent Spring
i) Rachel Carsons Silent Spring warns against use of pesticides
(1) argues poisons kill food, harmless animals as well as pests
(2) chemical companies claim book inaccurate, threaten suits
2) Environmental Concerns in the 1970s
a) The First Earth Day
i) Earth Daycelebration highlighting environmental awareness
ii) First observed 1970 by communities, thousands of schools, colleges
b) The Government Takes Action
i) Nixon not an environmentalistactive protector of environment
ii) Signs Clean Air Act, creates Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
(1) main government arm on environmental issues
iii) 1970s, Congress passes 35 laws on conservation, clean up
c) The Debate over Nuclear Energy
i) Many think nuclear power good alternative to foreign oil
ii) Opponents contend nuclear plants, waste potentially harmful
d) Three Mile Island
i) March 1979, reactor at Three Mile Island nuclear plant malfunctions
ii) Low-level radiation escapes; 100,000 people evacuated from area
iii) Incident rekindles debate over safety of nuclear power
iv) Nuclear Regulatory Commission strengthens safety standards
(1) also improves inspection procedures
What did the government do after the accident at a nuclear reactor on Three Mile Island?

3) A Continuing Movement
a) Environment or Employment?
i) 1970s, environment movement gains popular support
ii) Opponents protest loss of jobs, revenues
iii) 1980s, 1990s, attempt to balance environment with jobs, progress
What issue faces Americans today regarding the environment?