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Translated & Edited by
claudine cohen & andre wakefield
The University of Chicago Press
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P|oTOGAEA Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz .
48-1992. Earth— History—Early works to 1800. 2. p. I. 1646 –1716. III. 3. Myths. also published by the University of Chicago Press.L513 2008 551— dc22 2007033903 ⬁ The paper used in this publication meets 䊊 the minimum requirements of the American National Standard for Information Sciences— Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials. Geology—Early Works to 1800. QE25. II.. Paris. cm. Gottfried Wilhelm. Wakeﬁeld. and History. Historical geology—Early works to 1800. translated and edited by Claudine Cohen and Andre Wakeﬁeld. English & Latin] Protogaea / Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz . [Protogaea. Paleontology—Early works to 1800. isbn-13: 978-0-226-11296-1 (cloth : alk. Ltd. Title. Freiherr von. Chicago 60637 (1646 – 1716) The University of Chicago Press. . Claudine. and the author of The Printed in the United States of America Fate of the Mammoth: Fossils. Includes bibliographical references and index.gottfried wilhelm leibniz The University of Chicago Press. Cohen. paper) isbn-10: 0-226-11296-9 (cloth : alk. Andre 17 1 16 15 2 3 14 4 13 12 11 10 09 08 5 Wakeﬁeld is assistant professor of isbn-13: 978-0-226-11296-1 (cloth) history at Pitzer College. ansi z39. Published 2008 Sociales. Andre. 4. London Claudine Cohen is professor at the © 2008 by The University of Chicago École des Hautes Études en Sciences All rights reserved. paper) 1. isbn-10: 0-226-11296-9 (cloth) Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Leibniz.
For Zachary. Xenia. and Eli .
Products common to laboratories and mines / 30 xi. What was the source of the water that covered the earth? And where did it go? / 14 vii.contents Acknowledgments / xi Introduction / xiii protogaea / 1 i. Sea salt. and are not games of nature / 50 . Some bodies coalesce in the waters / 38 xvi. Some things arise from the combined action of heat and water / 40 xviii. Earthquakes. Different opinions concerning the creation of the globe / 4 iv. ﬁres. The generation of precious stones. and other things show that there is ﬁre inside our globe / 48 xx. natural and artiﬁcial / 33 xii. Bructerus and the origin of springs / 18 viii. volcanoes. The ﬁrst formation of the earth through ﬁre / 2 iii. and cycles of precipitation / 8 v. The forms of ﬁsh imprinted on slate come from real ﬁsh. Preamble / 2 ii. Kinds of tuff stone formed by dripping water / 38 xvii. The generation of minerals explained through chemistry / 26 x. The many changes in our globe after its initial creation / 10 vi. Deposits of metal in the earth and a description of veins / 20 ix. Where do the shapes of various ﬁsh imprinted on slates come from? / 42 xix. Some bodies owe their form to the movement of waters / 36 xv. Natural sublimations and the preparation of sal ammoniac / 34 xiii. It is through ﬁre that metals appear in their proper forms / 36 xiv.
The origin of mountains and hills explained through waters. But it is wrong to include the polygonal shapes that can be found in crystals among these / 70 xxix. In which a certain lazy ingenuity. In ancient times. The unicorn’s horn. and an enormous animal unearthed in Quedlinburg / 100 xxxvi. Belemnites. etc. as is evident from their forms and positions / 60 xxv. Where can the Lüneburg glossopetrae be found? / 76 xxxi. which invents things alien to truth. The different layers of the earth. On the nature of amber. Sea and marsh once covered Venice and Este / 120 viii con t e n t s . The excavated shells and bones of marine animals can be identiﬁed as the parts of real animals / 64 xxvi. are the remains of marine animals. is rejected / 72 xxx. and not games of nature / 68 xxviii. and earthquakes / 56 xxiii. Glossopetrae. especially the kind found in our region / 114 xxxix. Changes wrought by rivers and the vestiges of upheavals in our region / 116 xl. The Baumann Cave and its contents / 108 xxxviii. and fossil ivory / 86 xxxiv. skulls. The struggle between sea and land / 118 xli. jaws. Glossopetrae are sharks’ teeth / 78 xxxii. and the origin of salts and salt waters / 54 xxii.. The medical use of glossopetrae / 84 xxxiii. Bones. nearby seas contained animals and shellﬁsh that are no longer found there / 64 xxvii. trochites. Marine shells are found throughout our region and elsewhere / 58 xxiv. osteocolla. The various kinds of shells were not created inside the stone. asterias.xxi. Sharzfeld Cave and the bones that have been found in it / 104 xxxvii. and teeth found in our region / 96 xxxv. shell-ﬁlled stones. winds. their locations.
On trees buried underground / 138 xlviii.xlii. The marvelous fountains of Modena / 122 xliii. How Modena’s fountains are produced / 126 xliv. The layers of earth observed while digging a well in Amsterdam / 138 Appendix: Text from Friedrich Lachmund’s Oryktographia Hildesheimensis (1669) / 143 Glossary / 151 Bibliography / 155 Index / 165 c o nt e nt s ix . near Göttingen / 128 xlv. Peat and its origin / 134 xlvii. On buried trees and petriﬁed wood / 130 xlvi. The layers of earth in Rosdorf.
W. William Rodarmor. In addition.C. The project received other support from Princeton’s Institute for Advanced Study. and we warmly thank James Herbert for his kind support. the Forschungsbibliothek Gotha. We wish to express our gratitude to the editors at the University of Chicago who have seen this project through to its conclusion. and Annelies Wouters helped in various ways with the Web site and translation. provided us with research fellowships and hosted several meetings on Protogaea. William Newman and Lawrence Principe graciously offered their much-needed expertise at various points. Michel Fichant. Honnold Library Special Collections. and A. Paul Mueller. the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles. and Pitzer College in Claremont. For access to collections and archives. For permission to reproduce plates and images. This book was made possible by a collaborative research grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities (RZ-20765-01). our students and colleagues at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales and the Claremont Colleges have provided valuable encouragement and criticism. California.acknowledgments This book project beneﬁted from the generosity of many people. Ernst Hamm. David Oldroyd. Susan Abrams offered crucial support for the project. Ryan Boynton. Massachusetts. November 2007 . Roger Ariew and Daniel Garber offered invaluable advice and criticism. John Holloran. Peter Gay. we thank the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Bibliothek in Hannover and the Huntington Library in Pasadena. Martin Gierl provided research support in Germany. and Christie Henry has guided things to a successful conclusion. Finally. especially during the early stages of research and writing. Catherine Rice saw it through the middle stages. The Dibner Institute for the History of Science and Technology in Cambridge. Kenneth Taylor. and Rhoda Rappaport. C. we would like to thank the Landesbergamt Clausthal-Zellerfeld. Molly Ierulli. and the Burndy Library. We would also like to express our gratitude to others who helped us along the way: Luca Ciancio.
authentication. Leibniz hypothesized about the origins of mountains. therefore. volcanoes. drawing on the same methods that Leibniz used in his historical works.introduction Protogaea. Finally. This project. and springs. It was. He demonstrated the organic origin of fossils and tried to explain their presence on mountaintops. collection. He contemplated the classiﬁcation of minerals. In it. . into the mines of the Harz and the secret archives of the Hannoverian dukes. drawing on a range of evidence that relied not only on theories and textual arguments but also on the practices of excavation. It would be wrong. Leibniz. Leibniz grappled with contemporary works on the earth. Nicolaus Steno’s Prodromus. reconstruction. and ambition of Leibniz the court historiographer. and he included a series of engraved plates representing both the fossil remains of animals and cross sections of the caves in which they had been discovered. worked intensively— obsessively even—to introduce wind power as a driving force in the silver mines of the Harz Mountains. that is. and experiment. which took him away from Hannover to the towns of the Harz for months at a time. Descartes  1983. and Agostino Scilla’s La vana speculazione disingannata dal senso. sensibility.1 He quoted at length from Georgius Agricola. to read this text as an abstracted scientiﬁc 1. Thomas Burnet’s Telluris theoria sacra. But the sources and context for Protogaea spilled out well beyond the conﬁnes of philosophy and natural history. provided privileged access to the minerals and fossil objects of Lower Saxony. was one of several works from the late seventeenth century to offer a conjectural history of the earth. after all. Athanasius Kircher. intended as a preface to his monumental history of the House of Brunswick. including René Descartes’s Principia philosophiae. Burnet 1681. The work also echoed major themes in Leibnizian philosophy. Protogaea is imbued by the knowledge. Scilla 1670. and Johann Joachim Becher. Though deeply committed to general laws and causal explanations. Protogaea also relied on the careful examination of fossil objects as “documents” for the history of the earth. seeking even in geological catastrophe and cataclysm the order and meaning of that best of possible worlds. written between 1691 and 1693.
xxvii. however. “it will be easier to recognize universal origins. See Ritter 1938. the journey from Hannover to the mountains was arduous. Aiton 1985. Scheel 1991. suffering through the heat of the summer and cold of the winter to 2. and Leibniz made it repeatedly. written sometime between his two projects in the Harz. That balance between particular and universal. 4. The German Academy edition of Leibniz’s writings. In recent years.4 In the late seventeenth century. which treats the Harz material as a special case. Ritter estimates that Leibniz spent a total of 165 weeks in the Harz between 1680 and 1686. xiv in t roduct ion . he described the formation of the globe in terms of mining and smelting operations. reﬂects Leibniz’s detailed knowledge of the region and its mines. Protogaea. between 1680 and 1686. In it.” 2 These words. Though Leibniz invested countless hours and much of his own money in these projects. And yet the universal is always lurking just behind these particulars.” Leibniz in the Harz “We occupy the highest region of lower Germany.or philosophical treatise concerned only with universal questions. is present from the very ﬁrst section of Protogaea: “When everyone contributes curiosity locally. scholars have emphasized the signiﬁcance of mines and mining for Protogaea. suggest the ambitions that ﬁrst drew Leibniz to the Harz silver mines in 1679. one that is especially rich in metals. and he returned there in 1693 to begin a new series of experiments. and Hamm 1997. 108. from the mining towns of the Harz to the wells of Modena. See Ritter 1938. the text is thoroughly embedded in a series of local contexts. and he drew on detailed local knowledge of the Harz to fashion a plausible history of the earth. but the detailed history of Leibniz’s ambitions in the Harz has received less attention. xxviii–xxix. Leibniz visited the Harz Mountains more than thirty times and spent almost three full years there. but his efforts ultimately failed. For some six years. reproduces only a fraction of available archival sources on Leibniz’s activities there. from the Weser River near Minden to the caves of Quedlinburg. The virtue and the promise of the work lie largely in the way Leibniz weaves these worlds together. In fact. from the ﬁrst section of Protogaea. Duke Ernst August ﬁnally called the whole thing off in 1686. 3. Leibniz never gave up on the Harz. Protogaea. Cohen 1996. between local and global. he worked tirelessly to install his inventions there. See Elster 1975.” Leibniz wrote. §I.3 Between 1680 and 1686.
in Leibniz’s hand.figure 1 Page from the “A manuscript” of Protogaea.) . (Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Bibliothek. §VIII. See Protogaea. with original sketches. Hannover.
Still. The ﬁrst mention of Leibniz’s mining venture appeared in a 1678 memorandum to Duke Johann Friedrich. which collected rainwater at high elevation for use during dry spells. and in 1679 he secured Duke Johann Friedrich’s support for a new windmill technology that would supplement waterpower in the mines. 1938. 1. when many productive veins had to be abandoned. ser. 79– 89. By the 1670s and 1680s. the Harz mines had fallen on hard times during the Thirty Years’ War. the pumps would remain in constant operation and mining could continue during all seasons. Leibniz suggested that he had a plan to increase dramatically the output from the Harz mines and explained that he wished to visit them. but during dry seasons work could stall entirely. and 195–196. Leibniz  1923–. By 1679. created diplomatic strategy for the House of Hannover. 2. Leibniz had clariﬁed the plan in writing. worked on reconciliation between the Catholic and Protestant churches. water shortages continued to plague the Harz mines well into the nineteenth century. It is difﬁcult to overstate the importance of Harz silver to the dukes of Hannover and Brunswick.6 Mentioning few speciﬁcs. thanks to his inventions. Aiton 1985. the Harz presented a perfect testing ground for his inventions. and composed the Discourse on Metaphysics. For Leibniz. 6. 53–54. vol. He hoped that.spend time in the mining towns there. successive governments in Hannover and Brunswick had ﬁnanced and constructed a complex system of holding ponds..7 Leibniz came from a family with old ties to the 5. In order to mitigate the problems caused by chronic water shortages. These were productive years for Leibniz: he published papers in the Acta eruditorum.5 During wet seasons the water supply was more than adequate to power the wheels and pumps that kept things running. Ritter. reinvestment in the mines had started to reverse that trend. xxxiv. 78 – 89. 87– 88. But none of these activities demanded as much time and energy as his efforts to harness wind power for the Harz silver mines. Long the backbone of the sovereign’s ﬁnances. developed the differential calculus. 7. and ambitious entrepreneurs imagined a return to the legendary silver yields of the sixteenth century. If Leibniz could develop a reliable wind-based technology in the Harz—and he promised that he could—it would add tens of thousands of taler to the treasuries of Hannover and Brunswick. xvi in t roduct ion . Ibid.
101–110. Experiments in 1684 proved indecisive or failed. had served as a mine accountant (Bergzehntner) in Eiland. In 1617. 37– 44. had risen to 2. 4. in 1680 to begin his experiments with wind power at the Catharina Mine. By the middle of 1683. for it was there that he saw the windmills used to drain ﬂooded lands. and difﬁculties with translation.mines. For an overview of mining terms. who had studied in Leiden. He complained that they were obstructing his plans. ser. Leibniz hoped to improve the entire water management system in the Harz by supplementing it with his windmills. i nt r o d u c t i o n xvii . It was not long before he had angered and alienated many of the local miners and ofﬁcials there. 10. they complained that his work was impractical and would waste money. largely because of a lack of wind. Heinrich Dauerlein (d. that is. Christoph Leibniz (1537– 1587) had been a mine overseer (Bergmeister) in Berggießhübel. he would then use the force of the wind to pump that water back up to the holding ponds. for example. There had been other experiments with wind power in Germany too. to capture water as it drained from higher elevations. 61. Horst and Gottschalk 1973. Leibniz’s novel twist involved using wind to reclaim the force of falling water. In short. 1. Cf. where it could be stored for future use. which were to be shared evenly between the duke. A trip to Holland in 1676 got Leibniz thinking about wind power. He hoped. like the mining councillor Peter Hartzingk. 286. Heinrich the Elder. and even sabotaging his work. though he may have been an outsider to the Harz.10 Leibniz arrived in Clausthal. 9. 36. and the mining ofﬁce. Leibniz’s grandfather. 1595). Ambrosius Leibniz (1569–1617). more sensitive horizontal windmill. Leibniz then developed a new. See Horst and Gottschalk 1973. had served as a Saxon mining ofﬁcial. Leibniz. see Hamm 2001. so that miners would not asphyxiate. had served as a mining scribe (Bergschreiber) in Altenburg.270 taler—about four times Leibniz’s annual salary.9 Windmills had long been used in the mines to pump air into the shafts. Leibniz 1923–. Other ofﬁcials. his great-grandfather. Calvör 1763. his family connections offered access to the peculiar culture of central Europe’s silver mines. and another greatgrandfather. vol. were building models and conducting experiments with wind power during the early 1680s. During 8.8 Thus. and Leibniz probably knew about it. the total costs of the project. 53. administrative center of the Hannoverian mining administration. Even Leibniz’s great-great-grandfather. the famous Clausthal mining ofﬁcial Georg Engelhard von Löhneyß had described a machine driven by the wind.
“Introduction. 3. 1. Finally. The wind machines seemed to be improving. after ﬁve years. 114. the mines of the Harz were the big technology of seventeenth-century central Europe. Acta 27. 12. 126 –128. vol. his metaphysics of force and work takes on new meaning in the context of the Harz. ser. vol. and.1684 and 1685. With their massive waterwheels constructed hundreds of feet below the earth. who might be employed in these regions.” 14 11. after all. concerned to harness the work of water and wind in the most efﬁcient possible way. in April of 1685. On Leibniz’s deﬁnition of “natural geography” see below. than with twenty of the most learned savants in Europe. 1. Leibniz was an outsider from Hannover seeking to impose his impractical innovations on seasoned experts who knew better. xxix. and the duke wanted Leibniz back in Hannover to attend to his ofﬁcial duties as court librarian.” xxxiii. housed today at the Oberbergamt in Clausthal and still largely unpublished. my lord. but the mining ofﬁce insisted that Leibniz should now. I consider myself able to discover more with ﬁve or six men of practice. At the time. It had been a costly and bitter affair for everyone involved. Perhaps. the battle between Leibniz and the Clausthal mining ofﬁce intensiﬁed. Oberbergamt Clausthal-Zellerfeld.” 11 The archival record of the battles between Leibniz and Clausthal’s mining ofﬁcials. Can it be any wonder that an ambitious young savant like Leibniz wanted to be involved? As he wrote Duke Johann Friedrich in 1679. 2. Acta 27 and 35. the duke ordered Leibniz to stop further work on his wind machines. 14. 13. as the mining ofﬁcials there started to demand real results. presents us with another possibility. “his optimism remained undiminished.12 The frequent references to mines and miners in Protogaea make it clear that Leibniz’s failed project in the Harz had lasting signiﬁcance for his “natural geography. the Berlin Academy published a comprehensive supplementary volume on Leibniz and the Harz for the years 1692 –1696. Cf. as Clausthal’s mining ofﬁcials suggested. ser. “the Harz is a true source of experiences and discoveries in mechanics and physics.” writes one of them. Aiton 1985.”13 Moreover. Fach 761. either put up or shut up. for Leibniz was. and Fach 762. xviii in t roduct ion . Leibniz’s biographers have mostly created the impression that a group of small-minded mining ofﬁcials stubbornly blocked Leibniz’s promising innovations. “Though he had been beaten by the nature and obstinacy of men. and their large holding ponds built near the tops of mountains to maximize the force of the water. they represented huge capital investments and were the pride of princes and dukes. See also Ritter 1938. In 1991. Leibniz 1923–.
16. See Roger 1968. he withdrew it from publication after hearing about Galileo’s condemnation in Rome. more or less rooted in empirical observation. many writers offered accounts of the formation of the earth based on rational. Indeed. opaque spots spread across the surface of the globe. For his more detailed conjectural account of the formation of the earth. Though Descartes wrote Le Monde in 1633. Ellenberger 1988 –.Leibniz’s “Theory of the Earth” and Its Metaphysical Implications The years between 1660 and 1720 witnessed an extraordinary efﬂorescence of speculations. Following Descartes’s lead in the Principia philosophiae (1644). until a crust formed around it. i nt r o d u c t i o n xix . from initial chaos to the present day. and debates about the formation of the earth and its material history. The development of these systems. hypotheses. Rudwick 1972. after his death. and the place of human beings in the universe. 17. Descartes’s narrative was powerful. 181–219 (IV). It was ﬁrst published in 1664.” tracing them through the eighteenth century and investigating their role in the constitution of geology during the nineteenth century. as did the apparently futile debates over “shells and systems built on shells. such seemingly mundane issues had serious religious and philosophical implications. Rossi 1984. Over time. Gould 1987. ﬁrst in Le Monde (1633) and then parts 3 and 4 of the Principia philosophiae (1644).17 Descartes envisioned the earth as a sun in a universe of vortices. Laudan 1987. see Descartes  1983. the permanence of this creation. he argued. the creation of the earth and its inhabitants.16 Descartes. scholars have produced a rich body of scholarship on these “theories of the earth. in which he derided these geological speculations. and Cohen 2008. animated by circular motion in a plenum. English diluvialists like Thomas Bur15. After that. observations. relying on three elements and a few principles to describe the development of the universe.” 15 At stake were several fundamental questions: the status of the biblical narrative as literal truth. distinct concentric layers formed. had explained the formation of the earth in mechanical terms. mechanical principles. included problems ranging from the origins of mountains and the causes of earthquakes to volcanic eruptions and the motion of the sea. During the past few decades. Descartes  1979. eventually collapsing under their own weight to create oceans and mountains. This is the title of an article in Voltaire’s Dictionnaire philosophique (1768). and it attracted others who wanted to write “theories of the earth” in both historical and physical terms. Paolo Rossi (1984) linked debates over terrestrial history with those about human history. Morello 1979.
upon collapsing. becoming harder as it cooled. this violent early history gave way to a more peaceful epoch. Like Descartes’s Principia. These ﬂoods. and volcanic eruptions followed in the wake of these great events. through this method.19 Protogaea thus contained many criticisms of Cartesian physics and cosmology. Leibniz follows a continuous succession of terrestrial layers from present to deep past. The cooling process produced enormous “blisters. resulting in great ﬂoods. Leibniz’s approach transformed the differ18. evaporation. the biblical ﬂood became the main cause of terrestrial events like the collapse of the earth’s crust and the formation of mountains and oceans. smaller ﬂoods. based upon observable evidence and particular detail.” in Leibniz 1960. which combined with the salts to form the seas. the “great bones of the earth”—resulted from this initial fusion. Finally. to reconstruct the sequence of events that occurred as the earth formed. Other parts of Protogaea introduce a different narrative. 19. “Vitreous” materials— rocks and sands. condensation— involved in such transformations. in turn. the early sections of Protogaea reconstructed the formation of the earth from its beginnings. vol. combustion. sketching what we would today call “stratigraphy. Leibniz intended his account of the earth’s formation to be both logical and historical.18 In their hands. Earthquakes. The globe had originally been a molten mass. Burnet 1681. “aqueous vapors” condensed into water. “Animadversiones in partem generalem Principiorum Cartesianorum. While telling of the well diggers of Amsterdam or Modena. By the end of the 1680s Leibniz had already read and annotated the Principia philosophiae. 4. for example. some explicit and some implicit. xx in t roduct ion .net took Descartes’s conjectural history of the earth and wove it together with the narrative scheme of Genesis. suitable for humanity. The weight of the waters then caused sections of the earth’s crust to collapse. criticizing the foundations of its physics and metaphysics and pointing out speciﬁc errors and weaknesses. left behind sediments that hardened as the waters subsided.” It was possible. Unlike Descartes. Leibniz provided detailed descriptions of the physical and chemical processes—ﬂooding. one in which Leibniz focuses on the history inscribed in different layers of the earth.” ﬁlled with air or water. As the earth cooled further. however. which. yielded mountains and valleys. Protogaea constituted both a continuation and a criticism of Descartes’s project. 350–392.
21 Leibniz. Descartes  1983. Leibniz also stressed the similarity between his theses and those of Burnet and Steno. For us. nature stands in place of history. Leibniz was troubled by the relationship between Descartes’s account and the biblical narrative of creation. Using knowledge gleaned from his experiences in the Harz mines. he proposed to verify his claims about the formation of the earth. §XLVIII. and Cavaillé 1991. at a depth of more than one hundred feet. i nt r o d u c t i o n xxi . He turned to the Bible for support. retreated for a time. 84 – 85 (III). and not without beneﬁt for piety. The sea. see Grene 1985. 22.ent episodes represented in this spatial succession into a temporal and causal narrative. 20. and of fossil objects through chemical experiments. insisting on its right. Rather. ﬂooding the lands and ﬂattening the forests. presented his account not as a ﬁction but as the framework for a real history. Moreover. they appear in Protogaea as mechanical phenomena. he looked for evidence in the folds and layers of the earth. driven back. §VI. explaining that the causes he invoked were at once true and false: true with regard to mechanical laws and false with regard to revelation. 21.” 20 Here an archaeological and historical perspective allowed Leibniz to reconstruct the events of the past by reading the earth through the excavations of the present. Protogaea. both before and after the appearance of man. Leibniz wrote of several great ﬂoods in the earth’s history.” 22 But his account also differed from those of the diluvialists. “In all likelihood. Repeated ﬂoods and catastrophes have thrown all the layers of clay and sand upon this ﬂoor. while the deposits of earth arose during the intervening periods. But ultimately. of minerals. therefore. While they regarded the biblical ﬂood as the pivotal event in terrestrial history. Protogaea. to a belief in the sacred history and the universal ﬂood. On the problems raised by the Cartesian ﬁction. the sea once again burst the dams. in the disposition of mineral ores. and in marine fossils. Descartes presented his history of the earth as a ﬁction or fable. supernatural punishments inﬂicted by God upon humanity. insisting that their writings contributed “through natural arguments. These were not miracles. there was once a seaﬂoor where shells now lie. who considered such an attitude theologically dangerous and methodologically ﬂawed. ﬁnding justiﬁcation there for his notion that the earth had formed through the alternating actions of ﬁre and water. whose ruins are now revealed during excavations.
where it is impossible to distinguish the order observed there.24 It was the starting point of Protogaea. collapsing the distinction between animate and inanimate worlds. Leibniz 1960. I do not at all intend to say that our globe or other bodies have never been in a state of external confusion: for this would be contradicted by experience. or better. In this way. 25. force was the protagonist of terrestrial history. 143–153. 3. no chaos and no confusion except in appearance. is such a chaos.27 As he wrote in the Monadology (1714). Leibniz 1989. See letter to Louis Bourguet of 22 March 1714 in Leibniz 1960.25 In Leibniz’s view. The status of matter. and then. see Garber 1995. On force in Leibniz. almost as it looks in a pond 23. for that threatened to eliminate God’s role in creation. 565–566. For it is impossible that one creature is capable of penetrating everything simultaneously in the smallest parcel of matter. vol.26 Protogaea reveals a living earth. . 281–298. double-vaulted earth. 26. sterile. The young. or dead in the universe. he rejected any suggestion of primordial chaos. 565–566. ﬁlled with layers of water and air. revisiting a central theme from the Discourse on Metaphysics (1686). . xxii in t roduct ion . itself the proximate cause of appearances in the physical world. 24. all the forces that would ruin and transform it. limited observers of this process could not comprehend its global necessity: When I afﬁrm that there is no chaos.If Leibniz shared the Cartesian vision of an earth in ruins. 3. later. since the subdivision goes on inﬁnitely.23 “God makes nothing without order. for example. 55. from that ﬁrst day. The mass Vesuvius expels. since history revealed the unfolding of God’s plan in time. Cf. As Leibniz explained to Louis Bourguet in 1714. substance. bristling with potential energy. is the subject of considerable debate. 27. Cf. and its relationship to body. . Paolo Rossi’s comment in Rossi 1984.” he wrote. “there is nothing fallow. but I mean that anyone who had sense organs penetrating enough to perceive the smallest part of things would ﬁnd everything organized. 39– 40 (§6 –7). See Rutherford 1995. as in an army viewed from afar. vol. For Leibniz. contained within itself. the apparent chaos is but a sort of distance: as in a pond full of ﬁsh. and monads. a ruined earth whose history is written in its fossils and strata. God had quite literally infused the world with force. Leibniz often rejected the notion of dead matter.
He dared to draw the bones of the great mother and the veins running through her body. Leibniz sometimes treated the earth itself as a kind of living organism. Protogaea. the world too had a physical destiny inscribed in its beginnings. issues that bore directly on Leibniz’s metaphysical system. 4. and rock slides. “that I endeavor to elucidate these things by comparison taken from pure mathematics. that it became very difﬁcult to recognize. Leibniz 1989. Like preformed living beings.at a distance.” 29 . which carried in embryo all the marks of their future development. was a conjectural history of force infused with Leibnizian dynamics. 31. . i nt r o d u c t i o n xxiii . though it is unclear how literally he meant it. See the letter to Louis Bourguet of 22 March 1714 (Leibniz 1960. 30. §VIII. Virgil.” 28 In Protogaea. Leibniz used a mathematical image to stress that the history of the world could reveal only the gradual unfolding of God’s plan. it was also ﬁlled with ruins. vol. Not many years ago a certain soldier and traveler appeared. Important philosophical issues were at stake here. which is like a skin. its history represented the disclosure of God’s plan. as the only one among mortals. so to speak. and that a ﬁnite. where everything proceeds in order. as if he had inspected the naked earth and. which one could read like artifacts or archives to recreate its violent history. replete with catastrophic collapses. 222 (§69). had scrutinized “all streams beneath the mighty earth that glide.” he wrote. ﬂoods. without discerning the ﬁsh themselves.366. 44 – 46). But this got so confused and distorted by ﬁ res and ﬂoods and collapses in the earth’s surface.30 But if the earth could be compared to a plant or an animal. who called himself Alexander Achilles.31 In his Theodicy (1710). “It should be no cause for astonishment. See also §13 of the Discourse on Metaphysics (Leibniz 1989. Here. 3. in the collapse of massive rock domes and cataclysmic ﬂoods. There is no doubt that something like the formation of plant or animal occurred when the creator wove the ﬁ rst fabric of the tender earth. 29. where we might see the confused and. Georgics. 565). . teeming motion of the ﬁsh in the pond. partial observer could not hope to understand the global necessity of that divine plan. and where it is possible to fathom 28.
so to speak. Ibid. with the deductive 32. and the separation of the moist from the dry marks the effects of inundations. with all its monstrosities and disasters.. Moses hints at these changes in few words: the separation of light from darkness indicates the melting caused by the ﬁ re. as he brieﬂy sketched the origins of the planet: the ﬁery globe and its burnt crust. was like a series of numbers: it might appear irregular and unlawful even as it conformed to a deﬁnite formula.them by a close contemplation which grants us an enjoyment. for Leibniz. it was really a matter of perspective. Years later.35 Both perspectives appear in Protogaea. 126 (§245). These disorders passed into order. disorder. But these upheavals ceased at last. This mathematical image served as the prelude to a brief summary of Leibniz’s theory of the earth. 124 (§241). But who does not see that these disorders have served to bring things to the point where they now are.. Floods and earthquakes had their purpose in the eyes of God. Leibniz  1966. Ibid. Sundry deluges and inundations have left deposits. Leibniz’s so-called optimism would be ridiculed by Voltaire in Candide. terrestrial history could be written either as a succession of contingencies or as the product of natural laws at work. Kant  2004. 35.34 The lesson was clear: destructive episodes and catastrophes had meaning from a universal perspective. After the horrors of the Lisbon earthquake in 1755. and that through their agency this globe became ﬁt for cultivation by us. 34. Leibniz suggested. whereof traces and remains are found which show that the sea was in places that today are most remote from it.33 Moreover. In other words. and possible worlds. that we owe to them our riches and our comforts. in Theodicy he explicitly linked the themes of Protogaea to his ruminations on order. and the globe assumed the shape that we see. and history itself. might in principle be reduced to a mathematical formula that reﬂected the divine plan. And yet. xxiv in t roduct ion . 3– 6. 33. 125–126 (§244 –245). the great rains that washed over the cinders of the earth. Immanuel Kant would emphasize this distinction between a description of nature from the present (based on the human view) and a history of nature from its origin (based on the divine view). and the salty oceans that then gathered in the cavities of the earth. of the vision of the ideas of God” 32 The universe.
traditionally regarded as petriﬁed snakes’ tongues. of plants. While in Florence. and probably met. [that] they had been formed.narrative from general causes and natural laws taking precedence in the ﬁ rst chapters. and by layers and kernels enclosed in the ﬁssures of the earth. and artifacts wrapped in a new coat of stone. but successively. Thus. and it agrees with the general laws of bodies that solids harden out of liquids. Steno concluded from “the enclosure of a solid inside of another solid. analyzing the region’s geological features. Steno demonstrated that glossopetrae. Leibniz adopted Steno’s method. as early as 1678. 137–140. fossil shells and fossil ﬁsh had existed as such before being embedded in layers of the earth. Just as Steno had studied the formation of Tuscany. In Protogaea. often far from the sea? In his Prodromus. And then there are the scattered vestiges of old things. where he served as physician to Grand Duke Ferdinand II. as witnessed by solids enclosed in solids. what we now perceive as hard appeared only later and must certainly 36. and the inductive historical approach dominating the later chapters.” 37 In other words. The Nature of Fossils In his discussion on the nature of fossils and the formation of the earth. Leibniz now used the “natural geography” of Lower Saxony to construct a general theory of the formation of the globe. How could they have been inserted into layers of the earth. and that one could use the fossil remains embedded in these layers as clues to the past.36 Steno. When he dissected the head of a shark in 1666. if the earth was liquid at the beginning. This spatial relationship of enclosure thus expressed a temporal relationship of succession. whom he read. Leibniz was deeply inﬂuenced by the works of the Danish anatomist and naturalist Nicolaus Steno. it would have been uniform. As a result. a follower of Descartes. studied anatomy in Amsterdam and eventually moved to Florence. See Roger 1968. 37. like veins in rocks and gems in stones. animals. This simple principle also suggested that one could explain the formation of the earth’s layers on the basis of their spatial disposition. were in fact sharks’ teeth. Steno traveled widely in Tuscany. not simultaneously. formed inside the earth. i nt r o d u c t i o n xxv . as many believed. Steno 1669. he concluded that these objects had not been. “Certainly. so that time became implicated in the formation of fossil objects.
have been liquid once.” 38 Here Leibniz quoted Steno’s title directly, while
reiterating the principle articulated in Prodromus. The presence of solid
bodies—minerals, gems, plants, and animals—inside other solid bodies
implied the importance of time as an operative force. Fossil objects that
resembled living beings, therefore, arose neither from chance nor from
“games of nature,” nor even from some mechanical process that shaped
them under the earth. Rather, their existence and position implied successive episodes of burial and sedimentation.
Leibniz stressed the importance of distinguishing among different
kinds of objects found in the earth. On the one hand, there were inanimate bodies, such as crystals and “polygonal shapes,” the formation of
which could be explained by “external contiguity”; on the other hand, he
strongly criticized writers who claimed to see mythical or even religious
scenes in stones, such as “Christ and Moses on the walls of the Baumann
Cave; Apollo with the muses in the agate of Pyrrhus; the pope and Luther
in the stone of Eisleben; and the sun, moon, and stars in marble.” Leibniz considered these as “games not of nature, but of the human imagination.” 39 Finally, images that looked just like real creatures, like “the coppery shapes of ﬁsh upon schistous stone . . . whose contours have been
traced precisely, as if an artisan had inserted carved metallic material
into the black stone,” required a particular explanation.40 They were the
remains of actual animals. Therefore, they could be viewed as the documents of nature, that is, as evidence for a history of the earth.
Armed with this new “historical” perspective, Leibniz broke with the
approach inspired by the hermetic and symbolist tradition of the Renaissance, of which Athanasius Kircher’s Mundus subterraneus had given, as
late as 1665, a particularly striking example.41 In fact, Leibniz seems once
to have been a follower of Kircher and to have accepted the “plastic virtue” of the earth and the “vegetation of stones.” In an undated manuscript,
originally written in French and recently discovered among Leibniz’s
papers in Hannover, he wrote:
I ﬁ nd it hard to believe that the bones that now and then turn up in
ﬁelds, or that are found while digging, are the remains of real giants;
or that the stones of Malta, generally called snakes’ tongues, are part
38. Protogaea, §II.
39. Ibid., §XXIX.
40. Ibid., §XVIII.
41. Kircher 1664, bk. 8, 53– 62.
xxvi in t roduct ion
of ﬁsh. Or that shells found far from the sea are sure signs that these
places were once covered by sea and that the shells were left behind
when the waters receded, to petrify later. If this is so, the earth must
be much older than the Bible indicates; but I propose by means of
a rational process of reasoning, to show that this is not the answer.
What I believe is that these shapes of animals and shells are usually
nothing more than a game of nature: in other words, that they were
created independently and have no relation to animals. For it is a fact
that stones grow and take on many odd shapes; for proof of this we
have only to look at the stones that R. P. Kircher accumulated in his
In this early text, Leibniz apparently denied the organic origin of “petriﬁcation” because of theological concerns. By the time he wrote Protogaea,
though, Leibniz viewed certain fossil objects as organic remains; no mention was made here any more of the “plastic virtue of the earth.”
In Protogaea Leibniz emphasized the astounding similarity between
fossil objects and real animals. One could, for example, recognize different species of ﬁsh from their imprints. “I have here in my hands a barbel,
a perch, a bleak, sculpted in stone. . . . I have also seen sea ﬁsh like the ray,
the herring, and the lamprey, the last one sometimes lying crosswise with
a herring.” The impression of life that emerged from the sharp precision
of these imprints was all the more convincing. “Not long ago an immense
pike was dug out of a quarry, its body bent and its mouth open, as if it
had been caught alive and turned to stone by the power of the Gorgon.”
To identify fossil objects as the remains of real creatures was to view
them not as mere images, but as clues to a forgotten and buried history.
Fossils provide us with an enduring language through which to reconstruct the past. This approach has much in common with Leibniz’s interests in etymology, an interest reﬂected in Protogaea itself. 43
Several related questions thus remained open: was it possible, as Bernard Palissy had surmised a century earlier, that certain species of animals had disappeared? Could the several varieties of “Ammon’s horns,”
which Leibniz reproduced in the engraved plates accompanying Protogaea, have been “lost species”? Leibniz assumed instead that these species
might exist in distant seas, or in unexplored ocean depths—perhaps at
the bottoms of oceans—but he stressed that the world had been created
42. For a study of this manuscript, see Cohen 1998.
43. Protogaea, §XVIII.
i nt r o d u c t i o n
complete, so that it was impossible to conceive of species that no longer
existed. The “chain of being” had been created at once, as an immutable
hierarchy. Though he sometimes entertained the notion that creatures
had transformed themselves, gradually adapting to the environments in
which they lived, Leibniz quickly pushed these notions aside as theologically unsound. “There are those who take the freedom to conjecture so far
that they have imagined how once, when the ocean covered everything,
animals that now live on land were aquatic; then, as the water departed,
these animals became amphibians, until their descendants eventually
left that original home.” 44 Leibniz prudently added: “But that conﬂicts
with the sacred writers, with whom it is impious to disagree.” He must
have been aware of the dangerously materialist character of this thesis,
later systematized by “freethinkers,” such as the French consul Benoît
de Maillet, whose clandestine manuscript Telliamed asserted that all terrestrial animals had their ancestors in the sea, that birds came from ﬁsh,
and that men and women came from mermaids.45
Leibniz did not calculate the timescale implied by his history, though
he did recognize that if fossil shells were the true remains of animals, the
earth itself must have been much older than the Bible claimed. In fact,
there were prominent controversies about biblical chronology around
1700. Several freethinkers had dared to estimate the age of the world in
hundreds of thousands, or even billions, of years.46 Though Leibniz may
well have been aware of these calculations, he did not take an explicit
position about them in Protogaea.
Leibniz also shared with Steno the notion that human experiments
could unmask natural processes. “I believe,” wrote Leibniz, “that whoever more carefully compares the productions of nature with the fruits
of the laboratories—that is indeed what we call the workshops of the
chemists—will collect a reward, because an amazing similarity between
natural and artiﬁcial things is often evident.” 47 Steno wrote much the
same thing in his 1667 essay on the dissection of a shark’s head: “We owe
44. Ibid. §VI.
45. Benoît de Maillet’s Telliamed was written between 1692 and 1720. It was distributed clandestinely after 1720 and printed for the ﬁrst time in 1748 in Amsterdam. See
Maillet 1748. On Telliamed and its possible relationship to Protogaea, see Cohen 2008.
46. See Marana 1710, bk. 3, 127. Some manuscripts of Benoît de Maillet’s Telliamed
place the earth’s age at more than two billion years.
47. Protogaea, §IX.
xxviii in t r oduct ion
he compared the process of fossilization. 112 –113. having served as the secretary of 48. ﬁ nally. for I gladly compare the secrets of nature with the visible works of men. When the shell is removed. They cover a spider or some other animal with suitable material.” 48 This image of nature’s workshop pervades Protogaea as well. by pouring in mercury. one could comprehend the petriﬁcation of living creatures through human art. §XVIII. they pour silver in the same way. hairs. Leibniz certainly saw a useful purpose not only for productive chymists.these experiments to Chemistry. and ﬁbers. though leaving a small opening. Leibniz himself had demonstrated early interest in alchemy while he was still a student at Altdorf. i nt r o d u c t i o n xxix . And although he frequently criticized the superstition of simpletons. and bake this material to stone in the ﬁ re. Then. used the properties of natural bodies in its own operations. The chemical workshops of Leibniz’s time represented one especially concentrated site of experimentation dedicated to reproducing nature’s products.” 49 Protogaea thus stressed the human ability to reproduce nature’s products by using nature’s methods. and. For example. with its entire complement of feet. they drive the animal’s ashes out through the hole. which. to the technique of reproducing insects out of silver. Protogaea. Steno stressed the analogy between nature’s underground laboratories and “art performed above the Earth. which are wonderfully imitated. 49. he nevertheless drew parallels between the hidden operations of nature and the technical processes of human art. they provided greater insight into her methods. If Leibniz rejected alchemical notions about the gestation of minerals. Similarly. like divine creation. Skillful artisans could ape nature in the production of cinnabar or orpiment. “We ﬁnd something similar in the art of the goldsmith. and I do not doubt that Nature operates in a similar way in the bosom of the Earth. they uncover a silver animal. Leibniz referred repeatedly to the ways in which human art recapitulated terrestrial history. in which heat and time combine to leave the imprints of ﬁsh on sedimentary rock. thereby suggesting that one might reconstruct the logic of the past through experiment in the present. Steno  1969. but even for the Holy Roman Empire’s many chemical projectors and charlatans: by aping nature.” As he argued for the organic origin of petriﬁed teeth.
he committed to write a history of the House of Brunswick. Though he encountered some unpleasant court politics during his ﬁrst years in Hannover. Leibniz eventually secured himself a good situation there. xxx in t roduct ion . In 1680. though Leibniz stayed abreast of developments in chemistry—as in almost every other ﬁeld of knowledge—it does not seem that he did much laboratory work.50 He did not stay there long. and Ross 1974. using volcanoes as furnaces and mountains as alembics. but it would never appear during his lifetime. What the work does demonstrate. It would be misleading to regard Leibniz either as a precursor to modern chemistry or as a disciple of the alchemists. and he treated the society’s activities with some skepticism. it would be better to speak about “chymistry. §X. and therein lay its attraction. The chemical laboratory. 53. As historian for the dukes of Hannover.53 Leibniz’s efforts did result in the publication. smelting masters. 51. however. has accomplished in mighty works what we play at with our little models. and Protogaea does not contain evidence of original chemical experiments or discoveries. See Newman and Principe 2004. and even swindlers. Protogaea.” a rich ﬁeld of knowledge and practice that relied on techniques from the alchemical laboratory while producing everything from pharmaceuticals and dyes to saltpeter and perfume. 1974. See Smith 1994a.a secret alchemical society in nearby Nuremberg. Rather. 52. Leibniz had to establish the legitimacy of their dynastic claims. of treatises and docu- 50. See Robinet 1988. As he put it in Protogaea: “nature. Writing at the end of the seventeenth century. could experimentally re-create the world in miniature. he believed. as part of this charge. 5– 6. for he traveled in the same circles as alchemists like Johann Joachim Becher and Johann Daniel Crafft. ix–xvi. and.” 52 From Natural History to Human History Leibniz arrived in Hannover in 1676 as ofﬁcial court librarian and counselor to Johann Friedrich. the duke of Brunswick. he traveled extensively between 1687 and 1690 in Germany and Italy to look for sources in archives and libraries. he did not clearly distinguish between chemistry and alchemy.51 Nevertheless. and he retained a serious interest in the subject. but it would be unfair to claim that Leibniz rejected alchemy. See Ross 1984. is his strong interest in the chemical literature of his time and his willingness to gather new information from travelers. between 1701 and 1711.
In France. Its plates represent and reconstruct these objects. remnants of the earth’s ancient past. The task of the historian. Thanks to the efforts of Christian Ludwig Scheidt. and discussing their authenticity in order to trace origins. and Davillé  1986. a paleographer and philologist. it ﬁnally appeared in print around 1750.” He collected glossopetrae. for example. The present appearance of a region thus provided clues about a time before memory and chronicle. and material life. Cf.55 Others focused on antiquity using the same methods. 236. similar to the challenges of writing human history. Protogaea. but this work remained unﬁnished and unpublished during his lifetime. Barret-Kriegel 1988.57 54. Montfaucon 1719. 57.56 These included representations of gods.54 Leibniz intended Protogaea as a preface to his monumental history of the House of Brunswick. classifying them. for Leibniz employed the methods of a historian in Protogaea. 56. The links between human and natural history were more than incidental. “Ammon’s horns. Protogaea enumerates and describes the objects discovered underground and in the caves of Lower Saxony. the Origines Guelﬁcae. dealt with “the ﬁrst face of the earth” and studied the remains of its most ancient history. the Annales ordinis sancti benedicti of 1703. On the political context of Leibniz’s historical work. see Meyer 1952. gathering “documents” from strata and caves as if from the “archives of nature. The challenges of reconstructing a general history of the earth were.” and bones from cave deposits. i nt r o d u c t i o n xxxi . Schnapp 1993. During this same period. sources. Bernard de Montfaucon. The great Maurist compilations were built on this foundation. involved gathering these scattered documents. historians debated about whether to emphasize the establishment of historical evidence or the construction of narrative. shortly after Protogaea. and the Gallia christiania of 1715. provided illustrations of a wide range of objects from antiquity in his Antiquité expliquée et commentée en ﬁgures. in some ways. then. 55. as Leibniz saw it. His method consisted of gathering testimonies and ofﬁcial documents. These included the Acta sanctorum ordinis sancti benedicti of 1688.ments related to the House of Brunswick. publishing inventories. religious practices. verifying them. the Querelle des anciens et des modernes debated the character and construction of history. “Antiquarians” distanced themselves from literary forms of history. and chronologies that did not aim at universal narratives.
it would be a prodigious work to collect them all. xxxii in t roduct ion . François Fénelon. Under these circumstances we would be likely to produce different plans of the building that had almost nothing in common with the original. Fénelon [1710s] 1897. the waning years of the seventeenth century witnessed a tension between fragmentary and universal accounts in the narratives about the formation of the earth. for example.59 Indeed. from the author of a history “chopped into little pieces without any beneﬁt from a lively narrative. should be primarily concerned with constructing a narrative. 79–90. of our most ancient history. others presented partial histo58. This is the state. emphasized the difﬁculties created by the construction of a historical system of the formation of the earth. which have been scattered over a large area of land. it would be even harder to imagine the structure. This “monumental” history.In contrast to such erudition without narrative. distinguishing the historian from the compiler. for his part. should there be some pieces missing. that is. narrative without erudition had as its aim the celebration of the sovereign.” 58 History. illustrated the relationship between history and literature at this time. 59. which used the epic style. Should such be the case. or to come up with an accurate idea of the entire structure of this palace just by looking at them. and if we were certain no piece was missing. Bernard de Fontenelle. Moreover. at present.” who “cannot see anything but chronology. Critical of the chronologists’ attempts. Indeed. Though some diluvialists succeeded in giving a complete narrative of terrestrial history. the more fragments that were missing the more difﬁcult it would be. was written by men of letters (Jean Racine and Nicolas Boileau were appointed historiographers to the king in 1677) and was dominated by moral concerns and the demand for eloquence. according to Fénelon and the moderns. Fontenelle  1766. he emphasized the difﬁculties posed by any effort to reconstruct the past from the inevitably partial traces of the present: Let us assume that we were able to ﬁnd the fragments from the ruins of a huge palace. which could join them together” and from the “dry and sad record maker. which could end up being even more dubious and unreliable than a philosophical system. which in turn linked it to ﬁction.
61 In the same way. like Lower Saxony. one small region of the globe. Steno’s Prodromus. In fact.62 Though rooted in sweeping causal deductions about the development of the “great bones of the earth. Leibniz writes that “our homeland is the source of remarkable speculations. went much farther. But he imagined a more complete history. Local knowledge lies at the heart of Leibniz’s “new science called natural geography. and the rays of a public light emanating from here will also advance the exploration of other regions. it will be easier to recognize universal origins. Protogaea is itself a fragmentary text.ries.” which he announces near the beginning of the work. and mining practices. §I. more like a succession of notes than a coherent systematic exposition. but also showed interest in its curiosities. fragment and totality played a central role in Leibniz’s metaphysics. It dwells on the identiﬁcation of fossils. §62). 61. It reﬂects the tension between the criticism of local “documents” (fossils. mineral wealth. Leibniz 1989. terrain. partial and fragmentary. as Leibniz labors constantly to situate an abstract theory of the earth within the material circumstances of one particular region. on the other hand. but Steno limited himself to a succession of earth layers in Tuscany. §V. particular and universal. Cf. by exploring the Harz region in all its particularity. curiosities) and the systematic attempt to construct a global narrative. Leibniz intended Protogaea as a model for others. might mirror the general history of the earth. Protogaea. it is true. in which correspondents from around the globe would pool local knowledge in an effort to create a more accurate whole. histories. 221 (Monadology.” 60 The relationship between part and whole. and even the etymology of local names. A New Science Called “Natural Geography” In the preamble to Protogaea. He not only wrote about its appearance. by his own admission.” Leibniz’s natural geography 60.” Much of the work’s originality stems from this opening commitment. Protogaea. and the legends of the Nibelungen. Leibniz’s history of the earth was. 62. since “when everyone contributes curiosity locally. the description of springs and curious mineral formations. local legends. Leibniz. i nt r o d u c t i o n xxxiii . was also like this.
. he pauses to consider the Latin word Ardosia. properly called slate”. since after excavation of the superﬁcial clay earth and the subsequent rocks. and its Upper German variant. each side of which is imprinted with the image of a different ﬁsh. or even the superstitions of miners in the Harz. especially when he had personal experience of them. but the narrower the mass. For Leibniz. Ibid. involved demonstrating the organic nature of fossil ﬁshes. But Leibniz does much more than that. Here. though sometimes it gets as thin as a knife blade. This layer is about sixteen inches thick. by con63. They are found in a hanging vein. like the structure of ore veins at Osterode or Ramelsberg. the petriﬁcations of Eisleben and Lüneburg. §XVIII. The vein is enclosed on each side by walls of the hardest stone. natural geography had to rest on the solid foundations of painstakingly accumulated local knowledge. displayed disconnectedly in some cabinet of curiosities. the richer it gets. Leibniz had observed many of the curiosities and particulars described in Protogaea himself. and this one is especially well suited to the ﬁre. . and the gift for ﬁnding universal relevance in the smallest local features. for example. This attention to detail. its German equivalent. We then discover that Laya “is also the common name of the famous de Petra family. Leibniz’s reﬂections about ﬁsh imprinted on slate. Laya. we go spelunking with him and share in the wonders of the adventure. which (a very rare example) in our time simultaneously produced two brothers as electors along the Rhine. apparently rambling passages like this one. xxxiv in t r oduct ion . there occur in Eisleben various layers of coppery schist. “a Saxon town in the region of Mansfeld. near our Harz town of Osterode”. referring to the “ichthyomorphic stones” found in Eisleben. But only one layer has ﬁsh. for no other copper ore obeys the smelter more easily. He thus grounded the analysis of ichthyomorphic stones with a personal reﬂection: I own a fragment of such a stone. Lagen. it would seem.” Protogaea is ﬁlled with strange.63 The main point here.rested on myriad particular observations. prompted Leibniz to dwell on particular specimens and speciﬁc sites. In his account of the Baumann and Scharzfeld caves. for example.. Consider. he lingers over the “black foliated stone . Leibniz’s method allowed him to move beyond the isolated specimen.
” stones. concrete. each contributing detailed. But the local works of more obscure German naturalists. i nt r o d u c t i o n xxxv . Some of the more prominent European ﬁgures. is a full. “earths. 67.” metals. See Ogilvie 2006.trast. they shared some striking similarities. descriptions. that Leibniz relied on Agricola’s writings as he turned his attention to mines and minerals. together with the second edition of Bermannus. Leibniz often moved abruptly from the most abstract considerations to the smallest local details— Cartesian metaphysics to Harz homunculi. and in general anything “that people dig up. and explanations inherited from this work. appears later in the same folio volume. were no less important. The productive tension between particular and universal also manifested itself in the striking blend of literature that Leibniz drew upon in constructing his argument. in ten books. Comparison with De natura fossilium (1546) reveals the terminological continuity between Agricola and Leibniz. then. Though Leibniz took issue with many of the classiﬁcations. In fact. situated knowledge about particular things. Descartes. Froben published several of Agricola’s works in Basel. The ﬁrst of these was De ortu & causis subterraneorum. Protogaea shows the lasting impact of its terminological structure. Agricola 1546. in a single folio volume in 1546.67 64. The ﬁrst English translation of De natura fossilium. like Steno.” 66 It was also in De natura fossilium that he established a technical vocabulary for mines. detailed account of the petriﬁed ﬁsh together with an account of its situation.65 For it was in this latter book that Agricola turned his attention to minerals. Both men hailed from the German silver states and traveled often to Italy. De natura fossilium. 65. Bandy. left their mark upon Protogaea. and both had personal experience of the great German mining districts that inspired their writings. and Burnet. though Leibniz and Agricola were separated by more than a century. 145–150. by Mark Chance Bandy and Jean A. like Valerius Cordus and Friedrich Lachmund.64 Still. minerals. “congealed juices. metals. It should come as no surprise. in ﬁve books. 66. appeared in 1955. If Agricola’s posthumous De re metallica (1556)—provided an essential source on mines and mining. his earlier work De natura fossilium (1546) was more important for Protogaea. and fossils that would persist for several centuries. Natural geography demanded thousands of local observers. it was Agricola who combined an international reputation with detailed local knowledge. 1.
whose 1669 Oryktographia Hildesheimensis provided detailed accounts and descriptions of local discoveries.71 It contained a series of plates illustrating the fossils. miraculous marble images. and cellars of Hannover. Ibid. “the distinguished physician of Brunswick and Hildesheim. §XXIII. In several cases. as with Agricola’s work. he did not simply accept Agricola as an authority. the smell of ostracites. Cf.But if Leibniz owed much to De natura fossilium. and investigation. when it came to the Harz and its surrounding region. Instead. as Agricola and his followers liked to claim. For example. Protogaea. that is. 71. and other terrestrial wonders of Hildesheim. Admirandorum fossilium. using what he could and discarding the rest. Leibniz argued that there never had been alum mines of consequence in Lüneburg. and the character of petriﬁed wood.. 69. the earth is salty or aluminous and not as rich as Georgius Agricola described it. and the appendix. comparison.” 70 He also relied on another Hildesheimer. §XXX. The full title was Oryktographia Hildesheimensis. All editions (starting with Scheidt’s in 1749) have included both a series of plates and extensive pieces of text from the Oryktographia. and thus unsuitable for making bricks. and Ammon’s horns. Friedrich Lachmund. almost sandy. xxxix–xl.” from Valerius Cordus. He even called into question Agricola’s physical description of the area: “Near Lüneburg. In fact. like trochites. 72. ibid. osteocolla. exposes it to the rain and sun.. Oryktographia is ﬁlled with the kind of miraculous and superstitious claims that Protogaea sought to dismiss. Friedrich Lachmund (1635–1676). Leibniz concluded that Agricola was mistaken. Leibniz showed himself the pragmatist. and §XLV. §XXX. after consulting other authors or visiting the sites himself. like the origin of glossopetrae. it is thin. sive. §XXXI. See below. at the foot of a mountain upon which a brickworks has been built. Leibniz seems to have treated Agricola’s work like any other source. and especially of Hildesheim.” 68 Leibniz also relied on his own observations and on Steno’s work to criticize Agricola on a number of issues.72 Interestingly.69 Leibniz believed that “Agricola received most of his knowledge about our fossils in the quarries. xxxvi in t r oduct ion . graves. and moistens it properly until it toughens. unless one digs the earth out of deeper shafts. Here. Leibniz valued the 68. 96 –97. wells. like seeing religious images in rocks and caves. as something subject to criticism. which Leibniz wanted to include in Protogaea. 70. stones.
where it had been “consigned to a long oblivion” under piles of paper and books. In short. Scheidt counseled. Protogaea was. xiii.authority of local witnesses. i nt r o d u c t i o n xxxvii .” Leibniz’s immediate successors. only the beginning. He rejected the notion that violent upheavals and catastrophes had created the mountains and the seas. had been appointed historian and librarian for the House of Hannover. Leibniz 1749. But it did not appear in print until 1749. Manuscripts and Editions Leibniz wrote Protogaea between 1691 and 1693. it came with a disclaimer: though interesting. Scheidt did not much like Protogaea. and it was in this capacity that he obtained exclusive permission to “edit all of Leibniz’s unpublished works for publication. the book’s method was ﬂawed and dangerous. rather than allow cleverness to lead us astray. In fact. impious.” 73 Ironically. Scheidt.” Scheidt explained. had eventually brought the monumental work to conclusion. quite literally. It would be better.” Interestingly. “and I consider it a worthy text with which to inaugurate the ofﬁce that has been conferred upon me. this should come as no surprise. v–vi. he denied that the Great Flood could be attributed to natural causes. when Christian Ludwig Scheidt rescued it from the “moths and the dust” of the Royal Library in Hannover. he disavowed Leibniz’s “conjectural” approach to history. Scheidt considered Leibniz’s leaps of reason. above all. following in Leibniz’s footsteps. “then this treatise would have been the preliminary effort in a much larger work. it was as a preface to the massive history of the House of Brunswick that Leibniz had initiated some seven 73. Johann Georg Eckhart and Johann Daniel Gruber. Given Protogaea’s emphasis on the importance of local knowledge. to follow the modest path of Augustine and confess our ignorance. “For if things had gone according to Herr Leibniz’s will. When Protogaea appeared in 1749. and. through which he tried to trace terrestrial history back to its origins. Now Scheidt intended to produce a luxurious edition worthy of its subject. with a staggering wealth of material at his disposal—most of Leibniz’s writings were unpublished in 1749—Scheidt turned to Protogaea ﬁrst. “This treatise is well suited to the efforts of a historian. when Protogaea appeared some ﬁve decades after Leibniz had written it.” he explained.
Sticker 1967. which appeared in that same year. sumptuous volumes between 1750 and 1753. the three volumes of the Origines Guelﬁcae.” was published by the Berlin Academy in 1710. on the other hand. after 1693. Rappaport 1997a. Leibniz 1693. Though Protogaea never appeared in print during Leibniz’s lifetime. a commentary on Philipp Jakob Spener’s fossil “crocodile. 75. Scheidt 1750–1753.75 The second. that Leibniz’s ideas would become a major source for Georges Buffon’s 1749 work Theorie de la terre. §242 –§245. and his views also circulated through his considerable network of correspondents.decades earlier: the Origines Guelﬁcae.76 A transcription of the third appeared in abridged form in the Paris Academy’s Histoire of 1706. Leibniz  1966. 78. costly. who had been at Leibniz’s disposal to illustrate the Origines Guelﬁcae. and we know that Leibniz had organized and arranged these for publication with the text. appeared in three massive. Leibniz distributed many extracts of his text. a letter of 1697 to the Royal Society in London.74 The physical appearance of the various editions reveals Scheidt’s priorities. which included Louis Bourguet and Bernard de Fontenelle. long before its actual publication. 79. 76. 6 –11. Leibniz 1710. ofﬁcial engraver for the Royal Library in Hannover. relatively unassuming volume (even with its appended copper engravings).” which appeared in the Acta eruditorum in 1693. The most famous of these was the ﬁrst. Cf. Nicolaus Seelander. made these copper engravings. Seelander’s illustrations were not abstract sketches of the earth and the phases of its transformation—the kind of thing we see in Descartes’s Prin74.78 Moreover. published in the same year. 77. he did submit for publication three or four shorter papers on similar subjects between 1693 and 1710. but also in France. It should not be surprising. His 1749 edition of Protogaea was a slim. then.77 The last. This circulation of summaries and excerpts meant that Protogaea’s theses became well known not only among German scholars. Scheidt’s edition of Protogaea. xxxviii in t r oduct ion . included a series of illustrations. may have been intended for the Philosophical Transactions. “Protogaea. See also Rappaport 1991 and 1997b. Leibniz included several paragraphs on the history of the earth in his Theodicy.79 Thus.
and different shells arranged according to their shapes. See Abel 1925. 82.81 Interestingly. reproduces an engraving from Steno’s essay on the dissection of a shark’s head. Did Leibniz. 10. Ammon’s horns. 5.cipia. it seems likely that they were copied directly from Lachmund’s book.80 Steno took his illustration. While some of the engravings reproduced objects from the library’s collections in Hannover. 9. among other things. The plates presented. mayor of Magdeburg and inventor of the air pump. Moreover.82 In describing the remains of this animal. As in other contemporary works dealing with fossil objects. based on specimens from Lachmund’s own collection. and the appendix. 81. since the engravings for Protogaea retain the same labels as the sketches in Oryktographia. have direct access to Lachmund’s collection? We have found no evidence for that. See Lachmund 1669. the engravings for Protogaea were of much higher quality than the originals. Figure 7. 8. Guericke recounted the discovery of the unicorn skeleton. The illustrations in Oryktographia. i nt r o d u c t i o n xxxix . Protogaea’s copper plates represented “petriﬁcations. or his engraver. Steno  1969. which sought to demonstrate the organic origin of glossopetrae by representing them in the shark’s mouth. Leibniz explained that his description was borrowed from Otto von Guericke. and the tooth is that of a mammoth. 4. Figure 12 in Protogaea is a reconstructed “unicorn” skeleton. were really nothing more than sketches.” and these were meant to offer various proofs or arguments about terrestrial history. others attest to the wide circulation of images during this period. which provided material for six of the twelve plates that Leibniz planned to include in his work (ﬁgs. from Michele Mercati’s unpublished Metallotheca vaticana. 41. Rather. But the single most important source for illustrations in Protogaea was Friedrich Lachmund’s Oryktographia Hildesheimensis (1669).” This illustration has been sometimes viewed as the ﬁrst vertebrate reconstruction in the history of paleontology (albeit a curious one): it seems to be composed of fossil proboscid and rhinoceros bones. This engraving appeared as plate 12 in Scheidt’s 1749 edition. together with the “tooth of a marine animal. and it indicates where individual fossils and mineral formations were found (see ﬁg. for example. the ﬁrst engraving in Protogaea reveals a cross section of the Baumann Cave. 11). and Cohen 2002. 14). 80. In the same treatise that described experiments with the air pump. ﬁsh imprinted on slate.
Eduard Bodemann’s 1895 catalog of Leibniz’s papers mentioned two manuscript versions of Protogaea. Though the unicorn may seem fanciful to us. We have also followed Scheidt in providing headings for each section. includes the so-called “A manuscript. served as the source for Scheidt’s 1749 Göttingen edition. The “A” version. somewhat masked the fragmentary and disconnected ﬂavor of the original manuscript. but these headings. Leibniz considered it a sound visual argument for his history of the earth. §XXXV. some of the sketches that appear in Leibniz’s A manuscript have been reproduced here. later revised by Eckhart. features Eckhart’s revised version of the original B manuscript. after that. It was probably Eckhart who inserted new text and images (especially from Lachmund) into the existing manuscript. Moreover. which reﬂects the paragraph structure of the original. a sketch that had circulated in contemporary periodicals.The remains of the unicorn had been discovered in a gypsum quarry near Quedlinburg in 1663. We have also interleaved the 83. Scheidt divided the work into numbered paragraphs with subtitles. Eckhart and Scheidt. an argument authenticated by the authority of its witness. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Bibliothek.” 83 But this image does not appear in Guericke’s book. Guericke 1672. but with a raised head and carrying on its forehead an extended horn about ﬁve yards long. Protogaea. which here appear only in English. The result. xxxiv–xxxvi. Ms XXIII. demonstrates the considerable impact of their revisions. “with the rear part of its body bent back. 23b). served as the basis for Wolf von Engelhardt’s 1949 German translation. Eckhart’s revised B manuscript (Ms XXIII. for example. which Leibniz revised himself. 23b. 23a. Though the A manuscript (the basis for our translation) has survived. as is common with animals. Handschriftenbestand. the original B manuscript was lost during World War II. 84.” Ms XXIII. Hannover. xl in t roduct ion . 23a and 23b. have been bracketed to indicate their absence in the original. and it is likely that Leibniz had his engraver reproduce and improve upon an existing drawing. Bertrand de Saint-Germain’s 1859 French edition. and Jean-Marie Barrande’s 1993 French edition. and all that remains of it is Eckhart’s revision.85 We have adopted Scheidt’s division and numbering of sections.84 The structure of the 1749 Latin edition of Protogaea—and all subsequent editions of the work— owed much to the editorial work of Leibniz’s successors. 85. with its discrete sections and chapter headings. Ms XXIII. The “B” version. Leibniz 1749.
) . Hannover. on the wells of Modena. in Leibniz’s hand.figure 2 Page from the “A manuscript” of Protogaea. (Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Bibliothek. See Protogaea. with original sketches. §VIII.
This reﬂects our conviction that these illustrations are central to the argument of Protogaea. and moved it to the appendix. the revised B manuscript had very clear indications about where to insert the various plates. which Eckhart inserted directly into the body of Protogaea. rather than simply appending them to the end of the work. Moreover. Claudine Cohen and Andre Wakeﬁeld xlii in t r oduct ion . but Scheidt’s 1749 edition ignored these instructions and put the illustrations at the end of the work. we have taken the text from Lachmund’s Oryktographia. as in other editions. Finally.engravings with the text and placed them adjacent to relevant paragraphs.
B: antiquissimo. postea natum est. et animalium. et soli natura contentisque. B: Deus enim incondita non molitur. dum contra corrodentes liquores. [ii] Globum terrae. Et certe si liquidus initio fuit. 3. tunc vero adhuc ﬂuidum fuisse oportet. 2 p r ot og ae a . et velut radii nascuntur publicae lucis. Porro ipsa ﬂuiditas ab intestino est motu.3 et quicquid per se formatur. 4. gemmae in saxis. Quod et solida intra solidum clausa testantur.[i] Magnarum rerum etiam tenuis notitia in pretio habetur.4 generalibus autem corporum legibus consentit. Nam editissimmum2 Germaniae inferioris locum tenemus. plantarum. Quodsi minus assequimur destinata. sub novo et lapideo involucro. insensibiliter aut concrescit per particulas. quibus horret facies orbis. Itaque ambiens quod nunc durum cernimus. ﬁrma ex liquidis induruisse. (“B” denotes variations that appear in the B manuscript but not in the A manuscript.) 2. maximeque metallis foecundum. et domi nobis insignes conjecturae. etiam aequabilis fuerit. Itaque ab antquissimo1 nostri tractus statu orsuro dicendum est aliquid de prima facie terrarum. ut omnia nascentia. B: aequabilis fuerit necesse est. saltem exemplo proﬁciemus: Nam ubi in suo quisque curiositatem conferet. venae in rupibus. regulari forma e naturae manibus exiisse sapientibus placet: Nam nec deus incondita molitur. et tanquam gradu caloris. et arte factorum. facilius origines communes noscentur. postea supervenit. Itaque asperitas montium. et ab occulto motu fortes. aut pro sese disponentium delectu conﬂictuque tornatur. stratis quibusdam nucleisque in suos angulos limitesque persaepe decircinatis. difﬁculter 1. unde ad caeteras regiones aestimatio procedat. B: editissimum. quod indicant experimenta: Nam imminuto calore etiam aqua in glaciem consistit. Sed et rerum veterum spolia passim extant.
and artifacts wrapped in a new coat of stone.[i. and everything that forms itself develops imperceptibly out of small parts. in contrast. it would have been uniform. animals. But if we do not completely achieve our goal. then we will at least have a model. as is indicated by experiments. Furthermore.” 2. Cf.1 Moreover. heat 1. like veins in rocks and gems in stones. That is why the jagged mountains. water hardens to ice. like everything that has been born. Therefore. and about the nature of the soil and what it contains. appeared only later. [ii. and it agrees with the general laws of bodies that solids harden out of liquids. arose in regular form out of the hands of nature. or is shaped by the separation and collision of these parts. Now this same ﬂuidity arises from an inner movement and a certain degree of heat. pr o t o ga e a 3 . acidic liquids and those animated by a hidden motion harden with difﬁculty. which bristle on the face of the earth. of plants. For in the presence of reduced heat. The ﬁrst formation of the earth through ﬁre] The philosophers like to argue that the globe of the earth. while.2 And then there are the scattered vestiges of old things. Certainly. those who would trace our region back to its beginnings must also say something about the original appearance of the earth. Thus. See introduction. if the earth was liquid at the beginning. and the rays of a public light emanating from here will also advance the exploration of other regions. our homeland is the source of remarkable speculations. for when everyone contributes curiosity locally. what we now perceive as hard appeared only later and must certainly have been liquid once. For we occupy the highest region of lower Germany. The Harz Mountains.” xxv–xxvi. as witnessed by solids enclosed in solids. it will be easier to recognize universal origins. “Leibniz in the Harz. For God makes nothing without order. where Leibniz served as a mining consultant for the dukes of Brunswick. one that is especially rich in metals. and by layers and kernels enclosed in the ﬁssures of the earth. See “Introduction. Steno 1669. Preamble] Even a slight notion of great things is of value.
exurgentibus a fusione scoriis. arsisse initio. seu luce. Atque ita ad motricem causam perventum est. aut nostri solis modum per se lucerent. Omnes enim terrae et lapides igne vitrum reddunt. Inde nascebatur opacum sidus jam alienos radios remissurum. induruitque post fusionem.congelantur. nostra aetas reperta oculi armatura pervidit. sive5 scripturarum traditione. Nam omnis ex fusione scoria vitri est genus. veluti si sol maculis invalescentibus velaretur. id est tenuissimo spiritu permeante. Nempe globos quosdam mundi ingentes cum ad ﬁxae stellae. B: sive Sacrarum Scripturarum propagatione ac traditione. mox excocta ac spumescente materia. B: sacris etiam Scriptoribus. sed tanto 5. id est agentium et patientium. Calor autem motusve intestinus ab igne est. Talem vero esse globi nostri superﬁciem (neque enim ultra penetrare nobis datum). scoriae autem assimilari debuit crusta. id est liquidorum discessio a siccis. quibus inﬁci aliquando eum. Talem Vulcanum nos habitare vel suspicantur vel ﬁngunt. Itaque incendiis et inundationibus varie transformata sunt corpora. Quibus consentanea quidam sapientiae mystae statuunt in hypotheseos formam. secundus patientium inter se discriminatio. Sane plerisque creditum. 7. Excessu autem collectae materiae fractus calor internus. 4 prot og ae a . quae fusi globi materiam7 velut in metalli furno obtexit. mox aquis hausta fuisse. B: fusam globi materiam. et crusta in ambitu refrigerata consistebat. Et quae nunc opaca et sicca cernimus. Mosaico illo lucis ac tenebrarum divortio factum. [iii] Quousque ergo pertingere hominum notitia potest sive ratiocinatione. distinctiusque explicant separandi modum. separatio lucis et tenebrarum. et a Sacris Scriptoribus6 insinuatum est. tandemque secretis elementis in praesentem vultum emersisse credi par est. 6. fuisse obductos. Adjuvant conjecturam extantia adhuc vestigia primi naturae vultus. quin et obscurari subagnoscebent veteres. quae duo distinguuntur pro diversa in patientibus resistendi facultate et gradu ﬁrmitatis. ut planetae. unde Sacra quoque Historia Cosmogeniae initium capit. reapse experimur. aut ex sole suo ejecti essent. conditos in abdito telluris ignis thesauros. aliquando iterum erupturos. primus est formationis rerum gradus.
And so we have arrived at the motive cause which sacred history takes as the beginning of cosmogony. they suggest that there were once huge globes. and ﬁnally. whether through reasoning or through the tradition of the scriptures. In other words.4 Similarly. Different opinions concerning the creation of the globe] Insofar then as it is possible for human knowledge to reach back. as the ancients supposed. The second step involves the differentiation of passive things from one another. like the ﬁxed stars or our own sun. that there are secret chambers of ﬁre buried deep in the earth that will 3. they assumed their present appearance. that is. Bodies are therefore transformed by ﬁres and waters in different ways. §2 –3). 4. vol. to explain more distinctly how such a separation of elements might have occurred. after the invention of the armed eye. Then their matter boiled and foamed until they were ﬁnally covered by the slags extruded during fusion. most believe. of the wet from the dry. are separated from one another by their power of resistance and degree of ﬁrmness. after the separation of elements. 181–182 (IV.and inner motion come from ﬁre or from light. in turn. 565–566. This conforms to what certain priests of wisdom have constructed. 222 –223. the sun would be veiled by increasing numbers of spots that would darken and eventually obscure it. then they were swallowed by the waters. with a cooled crust hardening all around. Cf. 3. that is. from a very subtle and penetrating spirit. In all likelihood. after the invention of the telescope. as is suggested by the sacred scriptures.5 Still.3 Indeed. Agricola  1912. Thus was born an opaque star that would reﬂect external rays. as Moses wrote. Leibniz 1960. just like the planets. of the active from the passive. Leibniz here draws on well-known processes of smelting for base and precious metals. Cf. something actually observed in our time. Certainly. in the form of hypotheses. pr o t o ga e a 5 . that is. through the division of light from darkness. the ﬁrst step in the formation of things is the separation of light from darkness. 5. [iii. the accretion of accumulated material extinguished the internal heat. Descartes  1983. Wet and dry things. those that now seem opaque and dry were initially ablaze. that either produced light or were jettisoned by a sun. They either suppose or imagine that we inhabit a volcano fashioned.
speculo in vitrum domatur. ipsaque materies per se ubique similis sibi quamcunque formam induere potest. et subinde res novas inauditasque proferat. partim solutione agitationeque aquarum. 6 prot og ae a . quas variis corporibus foetas esse constat. tandem fundantur. et simplicissima pars terrae est. et fundum maris opplet. et postremo vitrescit. quam in facilem adhuc materiam exercuit ignis naturae? Is enim nostrorum furnorum efﬁcaciam immenso gradus durationisque excessu superans. et in volatilem quoque naturam eveheretur. Ipsa magna telluris ossa. quam lapillos. alendis plantis et animalibus convenientem. quid nisi concreta sunt. et littora. et naturam ejus sub caeterorum plerumque corporum larvis latere. propius intuenti quid aliud refert. ex fusis olim corporibus a prima illa magnaque vi. et velut vitrum. nudaeque illae rupes. altius productis transformationibus posse terrestria et vitrescentia gigni ex aquis. immensaque deserta. immo etiam ad magnam aliquando duritiem provehat corpora igne suo fusa. aut alias comminutum? Quod et facili ignis opera reddit. efﬁcacissimo agentium igne. quae non avolant in auras. et compagi ipsi rupium afﬁne. qui nec initio defuere. Cum igitur omnia. si sales accedant. cum tota fere in vitrum abeant. si tunc produxit. quae magna. partim repetitis in vapore elevationibus et destillationibus. humana arte. terrestria in vitro ﬁniri. hinc facile intelligas. quae nunc homines imitari non possunt: quanquam et ars quotidie proﬁciat. donec accedente salium opera ad vim caloris. Nam et calcarius lapis. atque immortales silices. Quin et arena. quid mirum est. seu ﬂuores perlucidos. Sed nobis hoc loco satis est.8 et speculorum inprimis urentium ope vitri naturam sumant. neque ulla sunt ultima incommutabiliaque elementa. quanto propius ad rudis saxi speciem accedunt. summoque calore funditur. et meliori solo glaream substernit. vitrum esse velut terrae basin. Interim quo quidque in tellure magis nudum aut primitivum est. Neque interim negaverim. 8. B: funduntur. motu aut in ipsa fusione.magis. particulis varie corrosis atque subactis. hoc magis persistit in igne. qui furnis resistit. in limum corrumperetur saxea durities. admoto.
it is easy to see that glass forms the basis of the earth and that its nature lies hidden behind the mask of most other bodies. 3. Leibniz 1960. Tschirnhaus. both through a much longer duration and a much greater degree of heat. through human art and its most effective agent. thereby eroding the hard rocks to a fertile soil. It is no wonder. bk.7 But for us it is enough to note that. earth turns to glass. and. partly through repeated evaporation and distillation. Cf. chap. But the crust itself must have been like a slag that covered the molten earth mass. unchangeable elements. as if in a blast furnace. 3. continually producing new and surprising things. Burnet 1681. For all earths and rocks return to glass through ﬁre.erupt again sometime. all things that do not ﬂy away in the winds are eventually melted. partly through the dissolving inﬂuence of moving waters.8 For it was divided and kneaded into little particles in a variety of ways. Burning mirrors were a subject of intense interest throughout the seventeenth century. almost all change to glass. since there are no ultimate. and this volatile element would also have been carried upward. which could nourish plants and animals. See Tschirnhaus 1697. therefore. can take on any form. and sometimes even rendering the bodies melted in its ﬁre extremely hard. particularly. This same material. 7. if the ﬁre of nature made something that people cannot imitate now. as everyone knows. eventually hardening after fusion. 3. through further transformations. the more anything in the earth is naked or primitive and 6. We actually experience that the surface of our globe has been made in this way (and of course it is not granted us to penetrate any further). then.6 They support this conjecture through the existing vestiges of nature’s ﬁrst face. which is teeming with divers bodies. until the action of salts was added to the force of the heat. vol. which worked the then still tender material with the ﬁre of nature? This ﬁre greatly surpassed the power of our own furnaces. earth and glass could be produced out of water. naked rocks and immortal sands. ﬁre. How were they formed if not through the prior melting of bodies by that ﬁrst great force. pr o t o ga e a 7 . 1989. 132 –133. 398 –399. the more so as they approach the appearance of raw stones. 8. even though art progresses every day. Nor would I deny meanwhile that. For all slags produced through fusion are a kind of glass. which is everywhere identical with itself. since all things take on the nature of glass through the use of burning mirrors. Leibniz would have been acquainted with the famous “burning machine” of his friend Ehrenfried F. The great bones of the earth. Since. At the same time.
deinde verum destilationum exemplo renatum. sub rerum initiis. quae fusione porosiora ﬁunt. ubi refriguere. supremum locum tuerentur. Nam ut perusta. Postremo credibile est. et cum a congelascente terrestris superﬁciei massa resorberetur. ut in metallis. alterum alcalicum. B: observata. ita pronum erit credere. unde olea per deliqium10 Chemicis nascuntur in cella. cum partes ﬁrmiores. id est. mox remittente aestu in aquosos vapores iterum fuisse densatum. in aquam denique rediisse. nondum separato a luce opaco. ducta voce ab herba.[iv] Ex hac genesi rerum jam inobservata9 hactenus procedit salis marini origo. Unde natum est lixivii genus. sub vastis fornicibus cavitates. quod deinde in mare conﬂuxit. Sane ex plantarum analysi11 compertum habemus. 8 pr ot og ae a . duo salis ﬁxi genera in lixiviis restare. bullas reliquisse. tum etiam in folia quaedam discessisse. cum globus noster adhuc arderet. quin et dissiluisse passim fragminibus in declivia vallium inclinatis. alterum marinum. ut loquuntur artiﬁces. quae terrae faciem abluens vasta recentis empyreumatis vestigia salemque ﬁxum in se recepit. contrahentem se refrigoratione crustam. quibus inclusus fuit aer humorve. humorem attrahunt. 10. et aliis. B: ut jam in Parisiensium Academicorum observationibus notatum est. et varietate materiae calorisque inaequaliter subsedisse massas. B: deliquium. ingentes pro rei magnitudine. 11. 9. magisque ad acidum inclinantem. et velut columnae. pulsum ab igne humorem abiisse in auras. quam nostri sodam. Arabes Cali appellant.
that is. in the beginning. it is plausible that the crust. For even limestone. and ultimately turn it to glass. Yes. like glass that has been ground into pieces through motion. which resists the ovens. which enclosed air and moisture. [iv. or in some other way? And the action of ﬁre can easily do this if salts are added. which then ﬂowed into the sea. tarry material that appears toward the end of a distillation at high temperature. the more it resists ﬁre. before light was separated from darkness and while our globe still burned. Sea salt. ﬁres. hollows under huge vaults. with the broken fragments tumbling into sloping valleys. and cycles of precipitation] From this previously observed genesis of things comes sea salt. pr o t o ga e a 9 . as the cooled surface of the earth swallowed the moisture. Then the crust separated into certain sheets and. and in fact salts were not absent at the beginning. from the analysis of plants. an alkali. according to differences of material and heat. which is more acidic. Last of all. it reverted to water. The burnt-smelling. even the sand. ﬁnally. after that. just as in distillations. which ﬁlls the deserts and the beaches and the bottom of the sea. the other is sea salt. and which the Arabs call kali. changes to glass by means of burning mirrors.related to rocks. it would have ruptured in places. came together unevenly in clumps. thereby drawing into itself the vast vestiges of the empyreuma9 and the ﬁxed salt. an important and indeed the simplest part of the earth. through melting. This produced a kind of lye. and which forms the gravel under better soil: What does it reveal upon careful inspection other than little stones or clear streams. shrinking as it cooled. escaped into the winds. left behind great bubbles proportional to its size. that there are two kinds of ﬁxed salt in lye: the one is. whose name comes from the plant that we know as soda. 9. the regenerated moisture soon condensed back into watery vapors as the heat subsided. as the artisans say. thrust out by ﬁre. We certainly know. indeed. which washed the face of the earth. only the highest degree of heat can melt it. For just as burnt materials attract moisture when they cool—whence oils are generated per deliquium in chemists’ cellars—so will one easily believe that. as happens with metals and other things that become more porous through melting. the moisture.
una. consistentior emergeret status rerum. tentare tamen potius. quorum alia varias terrae species formarunt.unde jam tum montes superfuere. Et licet conspirent vestigia veteris mundi in praesenti facie rerum. vel erumpente spiritu. humore cavitatibus per ruinas expulso. Neque vero omnem terrae scabritiem aut fundi naturam primae concretioni imputavero. novata est saepius facies adhuc teneri orbis. quam astruere audemus. ut per regiones procurrentia soli genera et strata describant. tamen rectius omnia deﬁnient posteri.13 tamen illis judicium deferimus. et velut ossamenta terrae exterioris. altera cum reconcrescerent ex solutione aquarum. ex ramentis subactis ingentem materiae vim deposuisse. redeunte mox simili causa. nec dubito. cum ab ignis fusione refrigescerent. quam Geographiam Naturalem appelles. ubi curiositas mortalium eo processerit. Possunt 12. maximaeque. quae cum deinde rursus sedimenta deponerent per intervalla. atque his indurescentibus. ad alveum sibi parandum in molli adhuc fundo. secutae inundationes. alia in saxa induruere. Denique vel pondere materiae. 13. seminaque contineant scientiae novae. postea materiam liquidam in superﬁcie telluris procurrentem. aut sponte montibus efﬂuente. Sufﬁcit a generalibus causis duxisse sceleton ipsum. B: teneri adhuc orbis saepius novata est.12 Donec quiescentibus causis atque aequilibratis. fracti fornices. 10 p rot ogae a . quibus interpretandi jus est. Neque igitur putandum est lapides ex sola esse fusione. quiete mox reddita. et totius structurae summam. e quibus strata diversa sibi super imposita diversas praecipitationum vices atque intervalla testantur. Nam etsi faveant sacra monumenta. Accessit pondus aquarum. B: sacra divinorum oraculorum monumenta. Unde jam duplex origo intelligitur ﬁrmorum corporum. Id enim potissimum de prima tantum massa accipio ac basi terrae. strata subinde diversa alia aliis imponerentur. [v] Haec vero utcunque cum plausu dici possint de incunabulis nostri orbis.
For this really is possible. deposited sediments at different times. if you ask how the vast hollow of the ocean and the huge mass of the mounpr o t o ga e a 11 . And even if the vestiges of the old world conform to the present appearance of things. The face of the then still tender globe often changed in this way. and with the return of similar conditions. That is why there were mountains even then. eventually. Nor do I want to attribute every roughness of the earth. though I certainly accept this as the basis of the earth and the principal part of its initial mass. Then came the weight of the water. which. so that the water in the hollows was pushed out through the ruins. either the weight of the material or the bursting forth of the air smashed the vaults. It is enough to have deduced its skeleton—like the ﬁrst bones of the outer earth—and its whole structure from the most general causes. [v. to that ﬁrst hardening. that they hardened again after being dissolved by water. in turn. Finally. there emerged a more settled state of things. occupied the highest place. After these hardened. or quality of the land.so that the harder parts. as these conditions subsided and came into equilibrium. seeking itself a bed in the soft ground. and another part hardened to stone. The many changes in our globe after its initial creation] This theory about the newborn globe may be plausible. like columns. I do not doubt that. we nevertheless defer judgment to those who have the right to interpret. that they cooled after being melted by ﬁre. One part of it formed different kinds of earth. but we venture to explore rather than to build. our descendants will be able to explain everything better when human curiosity will have advanced far enough to describe the kinds and layers of earth that extend through the various territories. This explains the twofold origin of solid bodies: ﬁrst. For even if the sacred monuments favor this reading. it deposited a huge quantity of matter in the pulverized debris. later. or ﬂowed down the mountains of its own accord. second. until. Nor should one therefore suppose that stones arose through melting alone. there followed the greatest ﬂoods. as soon as the liquid material rushing over the earth’s surface came back to rest. with various layers superimposed on one another. different layers would have been placed on the ﬁrst ones. testifying to the different cycles and intervals of precipitation. and it may even contain the seeds of a new science called natural geography.
et Alpes a Pannonia pene ad Hispaniae ﬁnes Italiam praecingentes. et maximus editissimorum cacuminum per Americae longidutinem tractus. unde immanis Oceani cavitas. terras in voraginem absorptas. lateque sparsos pumices. ut nunc. vocamus Harzicum nemus. nunc destituta. et in Europa nostra inconditi Scandinaviae scopuli. oppressa loca inferiora. B: horum enim apud nos quoque. et vestigia incendiorum impressa. aut publicis causis. 12 p r ot ogae a . freta alicubi perumpente mari effracta. minores exustiones. explorata melius humani generis sede.enim haec vera esse. et terrae motus. velut Imai continuatum Caucaso et Tauro jugum. Nec dubium est. Sed quid privatis imputandum sit. quorum apud nos quoque14 vestigia mox dabuntur. facilius aliquando statuet posteritas. 14. Atlasque Africam protegens. si quaeras. et privatas eluviones et sedimenta restagnantium aquarum supervenisse. et insanae montium moles sint natae. vicissim erumpentes via vi facta lacus. quo illa contra utrumque Oceanum obﬁrmata est. et postremo noster in Saxonia excelsissimus Melibocus in eo tractu. cujus potissima pars Brunsvicensi ditione continetur. et angustias ruinis montium interclusas. intercepto aquarum cursu. et Lunae montes. quae magnos saepe tractus obtinerent converterentque. natos Vulcanios montes. nunc inundata littora. et stagno mutatas. quem a resinosis arboribus non obscuro Hercyniae vestigio. quibus Aethiopia habitabilis facta est. Sed non ideo negamus. et excavatas ad efﬂuxum valles. solidato jam. globo. et denatos.
11 which protects Africa. We know them today as the Rwenzori Mountains of Uganda. Ptolemy wrote in 150 CE that the “Mountains of the Moon” provided the lakes of the Nile with snow water. that pumice stones were thrown far and wide. the Mountains of the Moon. that volcanic mountains arose and passed away. the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg. were based in Hannover. pr o t o ga e a 13 . The Geography. the Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel line. The Imaus. or Imaus. forms a barrier between the coastal plain and the northwestern Sahara Desert. earthquakes. 4. Leibniz’s employers. The great alpine zone believed to traverse Asia from west to east was sometimes referred to as Taurus. See Ptolemy. and deposits from ﬂoodwaters. that these waters then erupted onto a path fashioned by force. which often occupied and changed large areas. Caucasus. which extend through the Caucasus and Taurus ranges. which made Ethiopia habitable. exceeds ten thousand feet at its highest point. 10.8. The Atlas chain of mountains in northern Africa. The main ridge of the chain. called the Great Atlas. that the land was torn deeply and transformed into a sea. 11.10 Atlas. which one ﬁnds around us.13 But we do not therefore deny that the globe. and whose greatest part belongs to the House of Brunswick.tains came into being: the Himalayas. the highest mountain in Saxony. or snow hills. 12.12 the greatest extent of the highest peaks across the length of America. and ﬁnally our own Melibocus. then already solid like today. 13. posterity can determine that better after the seat of humanity has been investigated further. the rough cliffs of Scandinavia and the Alps. which lies in the mountain range that we name after resinous trees—whose still discernible traces are in the word Hercynia—which we call the Harz. and that the traces of conﬂagrations impressed themselves upon the earth. But as to what can be attributed to special and what to general causes. which fortify it against the ocean. There is no doubt that sea ruptures ripped open channels in certain places. that lower-lying places were buried and channels were blocked by rubble from the mountains (so the ﬂow of the waters was thus interrupted). below. experienced smaller ﬁres. in our Europe. that coasts were sometimes ﬂooded and sometimes emptied of water. which stretch almost from Hungary to the ends of Spain. which extends from southwestern Morocco to northeastern Tunisia. correlate roughly with the Himalayas. isolated ﬂoods. We will detail the traces of these events. Between 1635 and 1788. they shared revenues from the so-called “Communion Harz” with their relatives. surrounding Italy.
[vi] Quemadmodum autem omnia initio ignis corripuit. Et sunt. Res sacris nostrorum monumentis15 traditur. prope Lüneburgum eruuntur. ita restincto incendio omnia deinde aquis mersa censentur. quam expedito commento rem sola mutatione centri terrae peragunt: ita gravium inclinationem alio versam. et servata licet superﬁcie. 14 p r ot ogae a . paulatimque. a quibus discedere reigio est pugnent. de quibus omnibus mox dicemus distinctius. 18. succinum. Sed pugnat ista18 cum sacris Scriptoribus. quod istae non per se sed centri vicinia aestimentur.17 qui eo usque licentia conjectandi procedant. ut arida19 sibi redderetur. quae montes superaret. praesertim si quaedam centri vaccilatio20 intelligatur in diversas partes. tamen altitudinem et humilitatem locorum permutatas. antequam lux a tenebris secessisset. consentiunt antiquae gentium narrationes. B: Equidem haut ignoro esse quosdam. a quibus discedere religio est. quod in marinis legi solet. hoc est canum marinorum dentes. ita enim ab omni latere erit vicissitudo elevationis et depressionis. aliquando aquatica fuisse arbitrentur. Illud nunc dispiciendum. Quamquam et hic intelligi possit quaedam centri vacillatio in diversas partes. unde suppeditata tanta moles aquarum. B: Quibus forte aliquis daretur locus. Sunt. quae nunc terram habitant. Quidam ingenioso magis. et quo deinde delata. 20. 16. Et glossopetrae Melitensibus similes. B: sacris religionis nostrae monumentis. amphibia. ita enim ab omni latere erit vicissitudo elevationis et depressionis. B: si ab his recesseris. ut tegente omnia oceano animalia. et ut nostra attingam. B: Sed praeterquam quod ista cum Sacris Scriptoribus. Nam et cochleae in montibus peregrinantur. 15. nonnunquam procul a pelago et in nostris quoque oris effossum est. postremo in posteritate sua primas sedes dedidicisse. 17. hypothesis ipsa in spectata immensis difﬁcultatibus laborat. B: arida terra redderetur. qui magneticae variationis experimentis adducti in tellure nostra aliud corpus ingens. nec in eodem haemispherio permiscerentur. destituente elemento. sed maxime16 mediterranea maris vestigia adjuvant ﬁdem. si maria et montes separatim in deversis globi partibus consisterent. 19.
with whom it is impious to disagree. they cannot therefore be measured for themselves. ﬁre seized everything. There are those who take the freedom to conjecture so far that they have imagined how once. And there are those who. and where it eventually ﬂowed when they became dry again. everything was plunged under water. These things have been passed on through our sacred histories. Bernier  1992. so that there will be alternating elevation and depression on all sides. having no ﬁxed place. misled by the experiments on magnetic variation. but the inland vestiges of the sea offer the best support. But that conﬂicts with the sacred writers. but only according to their distance from the center.[vi. Cf. within our own borders. glossopetrae (that is. these animals became amphibians. sharks’ teeth). then. would believe that there is another great body inside our earth. by means of a scheme more clever than it is clear. like the kernel of a nut. though the surface was preserved. the descent of heavy things changed direction and. pr o t o ga e a 15 . animals that now live on land were aquatic. is also sometimes mined far from the sea. explain the matter purely through a shift of the earth’s center. What was the source of the water that covered the earth? And where did it go?] As in the beginning. Moreover.14 according to this theory. particularly if a certain vacillation is perceived in different parts. which one usually ﬁnds near the seashore. Now. which agree with the old stories of other peoples. have been unearthed near Lüneburg. just so does one reckon that later. and (to touch upon our region) amber. 2. which is not without its own motion. We now have to investigate the source of so much water which rose above the mountains. until their descendants eventually left that original home. yet the height and depth of places changed completely. doesn’t one have to think as much about the attraction of weight at the center as at the magnetic poles? Which could lead one to believe that the body. like those from Malta. swayed back and forth. the water could have 14. after the ﬁre had been extinguished. Namely. 323–331. when the ocean covered everything. Some. as the water departed. But there are easier ways to understand where the extra water went. before the light had separated itself from darkness. and how the earth was freed of it. We will speak about all of these things in greater detail later. if one takes such a body into consideration. vol. For seashells have been transported onto the mountains.
quorsum pervenerit aquae superﬂuum. ita priore rupto aqua in montes ascenderit. alia adhuc molitio accersenda est. ut Cometae transitum in vicinia. ut terra exoneraretur. Facilius intelligitur. sufﬁcit unus fornix. cum quicquid aquarum olim montium praesentium cacumina tegere potuit. Quodsi obviis insistendum est. 16 p rot ogae a . quicquid nunc siccum cernitur denuo deseruere. et in globi interiora penetrare. quo tempore massa mollis tenaxque erat. quam ad centrum pro gravium attractione? Quod aliquando21 cum corpore suo non satis adhuc certa sede nutasse credi posset. ingentem massam nudatis cacuminibus in subjectum anteaque inclusum mare procubuisse. sin montes nova eluvione oppressit bis fornicata erat. aut Lunam propiorem. ut Scythae objiciebant Aegyptiis. nil propius videtur. interior aere farta. Externa. et Vulcani regnum. mox posteriore fracto in abyssum ulteriorem penetrarit. donec reperto novo in Tartara aditu. nisi aer olim multo quam nunc aquasior fuit. comminiscuntur. quae jam non aeque vaporibus temperaretur. Sed si aqua ﬁrmata jam tellure. aut si pars altior jam ante exstabat. Pluviae per se non sufﬁciunt. si miliaribus Germanicis quatuor maris aequore superiora credantur. in duram jam et fragilem crustam non cadit. ubi inﬁrmioribus fulcris sustentabatur. emersisse. quibus attrahentibus aquae emicuerint. ut celebratam Mosi vallem Sinear descendisse: forsan cogente etiam frigore. non magis respiciendum ad polos ejus pro magneticorum. Oceanum spiritu ex terra circum erumpente velut fornice sustentatum undique surrexisse in orbem parum credibile est: intumuisse velut inﬂatam ipsam telluris superﬁciem ad pristinum fusionis tempus pertinet. accersere non ausim.22 In quibus sane 21. B: et hoc aliquando cum corpore suo. quod si ergo in illo quaerendum. quam ut credamus fracto telluris fornice. Ita nihil prohiberet. cum recessu maris ad inferiora ipsi quasi in altiorem aeris regionem sublati viderentur. exteriorque cavitas aqua. 22. a depressiori loco in ipsos altissimos montes naturali causa ascendit in diluvio. terrestribusque habitatoribus iterum indulserit in sicco locum. nondum sexuagesimam faciat partem reliqui globi. in novas sedes. Neque mutatae gravium directioni centrove conﬁdo. tum demum homines a summis jugis. refractisque repagulis claustrorum interioris adhuc terrae. Ita aquas antris expressas supra montes exundasse. Itaque si aqua telluris crustam semel inde a formatione texit. suo quodam motu non destitutum.tanquam nucleum in nuce. quam nunc. B: locum veresimile est. Potuit enim per caecos aditus tum primum diruptos recipi cavernis immanibus. quae nunc cernimus.
2. water covered the earth’s crust once after its formation. bk. but if water submerged the mountains with a new ﬂood. as the sea receded.penetrated to the inner depths of the globe through hidden passages that were just then ripped open for the ﬁrst time. lifted as if on a vault by vapor that burst forth all over the earth. for Shinar see Genesis 11:1–2. likewise swollen. people came down from the highest mountain ridges. then. The rain by itself does not sufﬁce. the water probably 15. or a moon that was closer than today. a single vault sufﬁces. then we need to introduce yet another contrivance. during the reign of Vulcan. for the amount of water necessary to cover the peaks of today’s mountains—assuming that these lie four miles above sea level— does not even constitute the seventieth part of the rest of the globe. But if. the waters ﬂooded the highest mountains until. since. Leibniz refers here to M. It does not suit the then already hard and brittle crust. one is to take the direct path. then. like Moses’s famous plain of Shinar. that a huge mass then crashed into the sea which lay under it and had previously been enclosed. in Philippic History. So when the ﬁrst vault ruptured. it was as if they had been lifted into a higher part of the sky that was no longer tempered by the moisture. I do not dare to adduce accidents. “Account of the Scythians and of Their Actions. they withdrew once again from what we now perceive as dry. unless the air was once much wetter than it is now. nothing appears more sure than our belief that the vault of the earth collapsed at the point where it was buttressed by weaker supports. whose attraction could have caused the water to gush forth. Having thus been forced up out of the caverns. Nor do I trust a change in the direction or the center of heaviness. Justinianus. when the material was supple and pliant. Nothing. with the discovery of a new entry to Tartarus and the destruction of the barriers to the previously closed interior of the earth. and that the mountain peaks were thereby exposed. precludes the possibility that what we see now emerged from the water. pr o t o ga e a 17 . the water rose in a ﬂood from a lower place up to the highest mountains by natural causes. therefore. after the earth had already hardened. is hardly believable. such as the near passage of a comet.17.” 1. If. belongs to the initial time of the melting. That the ocean rose everywhere across the globe. as the Scythians argued against the Egyptians. if a higher section had already protruded. J. or that. then the earth’s crust was double vaulted: the outer hollow ﬁlled with water. If. before being swallowed up by vast caverns. The bulging of the earth’s surface. the inner one with air. to settle in new places.15 Maybe they were also driven out by the cold.
ut memini. quasi praeter ipsum naturale ﬂuentium pondus alius mo23. et fractorum fornicum vestigiis passim notatis. populis apud verteres memoratis. qui argumento fontium in celsissimis montibus nascentium refellere sperant originem ﬂuminum ex coelesti aqua. fornices ex fusione. pari conditione terrae. ut saepe ipsum nobis narrantem audire memini. utili indicio opera molientibus. substat majori Bructerus minor (Kleine Brocken). Christianus Ludovicus Dux24 muniri curaverat viam. cum aquae decursum. sed ab eadem tamen causa. Sed nobis altius iri visum est. quae his nomen dedit. non a Bructeris. [vii] In nostro tractu nihil est extantius Meliboco monte. Nec abhorrentia quaedam de ruinis et sedimentis cogitaverat jam ante Stenonius. Summum Bructerum ob nives non nisi media aestate ascendas. astrueret. B: valles ex ruinis formavit. et in paludem vergens: Quale solum hujus montis. non sine pietatis fructu. 24. Broeck enim Saxonibus terra est humida. et scio esse. ac gratulantem sibi. vulgo Brocken. Duae autem causae paludosum fundum facere solent: una manifesta aspectui. non habent. scriptaque nonnulla eruditorum hominum. Supra rivulus occurrit. Accolae Bructerum vocant. hujus cacumen maxima anni parte inaccessum et strigium choreis apud credulos infamatum. altera nostris. qui nuper sacram telluris theoriam dedit. cum sub limo superﬁciario occultatae rupes aquis percolaturis ad interiora aditum negant. maria deliquio salium vapores aqueos resorbentium esse formata. fossoribus metallorum notata. montesque etiam et valles23 ex ruinis formavit. nisi lentum.explicandis juvare nos possunt aliquae ingeniosi Scriptoris meditationes. quod sacrae historiae et generalis diluvii ﬁdem naturalibus argumentis. Et quominus dubites. ipsa scilicet (quod minus rere) ﬁrmitas soli subjecti. non contemnenda Europae parte lustrata. B: Serenissimus Dux Christianus Ludovicus. quorum ille studium excitavit. 18 p r ot ogae a .
12. Duke Christian Ludwig provided for the construction of a path. And to remove any doubts. it might have penetrated into the abyss farther below. we can turn to some thoughts from the clever writer who recently offered a Sacred Theory of the Earth. a useful sign for those toiling at work. a people well known among the ancients. through natural arguments. the waters have nothing but slow drainage. after visiting a considerable part of Europe and noting the vestiges of broken domes in various places. by reason of springs that originate on the highest mountains. when stones hidden beneath the shallow mud keep the percolating water from reaching the interior. and I know there are those who. The locals call it Bructerus or. [vii. hope to reject rain as the source of rivers. as I recall. which is inaccessible for most of the year. chap. Burnet 1681. with the same kind of earth. Not averse to such things. lies beneath the bigger Bructerus. Its peak. Bructerus and the origin of springs] In our region. This name does not stem from the Bructerites. to a belief in the sacred history and the universal ﬂood. I argue that the vaults were formed through fusion. But. nothing is higher than Mount Melibocus. but rather from the same source to which they owe their name: for the Saxons. and that he rejoiced in contributing. thereby affording the denizens of the earth a dry place again. 1. I remember hearing him tell us about this often. was observed by our miners and consists in (what is less obvious) the ﬁrmness of the underlying ground. next. is notorious among the credulous for witch dances. and not without beneﬁt for piety. Broeck is a damp earth tending toward the swampy. as though 16. and to the works of several other scholars whose diligence he inspired. the other reason. For a sound explanation of these things.16 and who would construct mountains and valleys out of collapses. after the destruction of the second vault. pr o t o ga e a 19 . Steno had already thought this way before about collapses and sediments. just like the ground on this mountain. commonly. Brocken. Two causes tend to make the ground swampy: the ﬁrst is obvious—that is. At the top is a little stream. a smaller Brocken (Kleine Brocken). going further. bk. while the seas were formed when salts reabsorbed watery vapors through deliquescence.moved up the mountains.
nec melius quam conicarum sectionum similitudine illustratur. sed loco multo inferiore. sed mediocribus Hercyniae jugis. Sed rivulus Bructeri non in ipso apice nascitur. et artiﬁciis aqua in jactus exprimitur. ruinisve orbis. nec nisi de superiore adhuc loco exonerat superﬂuum humentis terrae: idemque alibi contingere vix ambigo. Et propria cuique generi jura sunt in portionibus assignandis. sive stratum. sub terra longe lateque procurrens. dicuntur. schwebende Gänge. Cellerfeldae. Nec id mirum accidere potest Geometricas rationes accersenti. Jam credibile est. et prospicit in Germanicum mare. cum fornices telluris in sua integritate perstabant. aliqua et sub pedibus montium fodiuntur. quae olim horizontalia erant. Nam in eadem regione Hercyniae. Vena est velut folium quoddam. licet mineralium rerum haud experte. ut in animalibus sanguis calore elevatur. propriae fodiendi rationes. [viii] Metalla autem non in ipso Bructero. crassitiei mediocris. cum erecti esse non possint. eae terminantur in circuli aut Ellipseos modum. fallende Gänge. Krummhälsse accepere ab operis modo. Et qui pendentes angustiores exercent fodiendo. saxi aut metalli ab ambientibus divisum. ut Hyperbolae parabolaeve Geometris notae. Late autem prospicitur mons. Nam quae nostris venae pendentes. quae vero cadentes. multa strata. Unde putei cadentium venarum jus profunditatis habent in inﬁnitum. caeterarum nihil minus. postea subsidente crusta.tor salientibus interveniret. quantam alibi vix hodie monstres uno loco nostri continentis. incendium ante aliquot annos ex Hamburgi propugnaculis noctu visum accepimus. tantaque eorum copia est. ut nuper Osterodam Islebia vocati. torticollarum nomen. oppidi metallariis habitati. in quo peculiare genus terrae. eae quasi in inﬁnitum descendunt ad inferiora. inclinata fuisse in de20 p rot ogae a . Nam vel plumbi nigri solius intra leucae Germanicae spatium quotannis incredibilis copia ex venae materia eliquatur.
19 the vein lodes yield an incredible amount of black lead ore alone each year. in quantities so great that one hardly ﬁnds such in another place on our continent today. or schwebende Gänge. Descartes  1983. 19. A German mile was equivalent to between four and ﬁve English miles. For what we call hanging veins. stone. or metal that is separated from its surroundings. which is not at all the case with the other kind. 20. I hardly doubt that the same thing also happens in other places. like the hyperbolas and parabolas known to the geometers. A vein is like a sheet or layer that stretches far under the earth. some years ago in the same Harz region. Deposits of metal in the earth and a description of veins] But metals are not excavated on Bructerus itself. or fallende Gänge. The A manuscript contains sketches in which Leibniz illustrates the point (to himself at least) with conic sections. but what we call falling veins. it only unloads the spillover from the damp earth. 213–214 (IV. or propelled water forced upward with machines—had to be at work in springs. and contains a special kind of earth. the shafts have the right to proceed to inﬁnity. Rather. The North Sea. The mountain is visible from far away. [viii. 18. which is not lacking in minerals. For we heard that. but rather on the intermediate ridges of the Harz. For within the space of one German mile. but in a much lower place called Zellerfeld—a town inhabited by miners— one saw a night ﬁre from the outskirts of Hamburg.18 This is no wonder. is of middling thickness. if one employs geometric measurements. It cannot be illustrated any better than in its similarity to a conic section. with falling veins. §64 – 65).17 But the little stream on Bructerus does not originate on the peak itself.20 And each kind has proper rights. So. pr o t o ga e a 21 . and also at the foot of the mountains. and from it one can see to the German Sea. descend into the depths as if to inﬁnity. which are allotted in shares according to the special accounting of the mines. are bounded like an ellipse or a circle. We have reproduced these with the Latin text. And the miners who work the narrower 17. Cf.some motor other than the natural weight of the ﬂowing water—like blood lifted through heat in animals. which itself comes from an even higher place.
Meminique cum non ita pridem Osterodae in Hercyniis pendens vena ardosiae aeriferae ferro aperta esset. diligenti observatione principia constitui posse aliquando. Non tamen facile simplex jam solidi ruptio venam fecit. Nam quae genera in ipsa terrae superﬁcie exeunt in lucem (zu Tage ausstreichen) aut in fodina innotuere. tandemque in stamina oculis imperceptibilia evanescunt. Ita galena in spatho frequens habitat. sive aquarum afﬂuxu oppletas.scensum. unde nascantur regulae conjiciendi de abditis sub terra. cujus aequabilitatem deinde vis major concussis fundamentis deformavit. sive vi ignis colliquantis. prorsus ut in animalibus vel plantis vasa majora in capillaria ﬁlamenta discedunt. Nec sane dubito. et in centro plurium quasi nodum quendam metalli cumulati intumescere (Stock) quo vastum aliquando spatium occupatur. ab utroque latere oppositos parietes montium. Persaepe etiam subterranei metallorum procursus vallibus et rivis sub dio respondent. foliorum ingentium terminatrices. aut alio impetu effractae vel excavatae. magis traditione quam successu celebrantur. Et ratio per se valida praesenti oculorum testimonio intenditur. Quid enim naturalius. Passim etiam valles aquarum vi. et praesertim ex mundi plagis receptae inter fossores. Et peculiares sibi matrices unum quidque genus amat. separationis lineamenta coepere. quam in ipsa formatione ex liquido. quasi vicini tractus opes olim vi ignis aut humoris in unum conﬂuxissent. ut in Goslario monte Rammelo. et ad libellam composita horizontis planum affectasse lege ﬂuidorum. Saepe etiam notatum est. post ditioris metalli nidum sterilescere venam. Ubi conjicias telluris rimas supra in vallem dilatatas intus venarum cadentium forma descendisse. Videmus et concursu ditescere aut dilatari. ut in monte S. ut primaria superiorum Hercyniae fodinarum linea rivo Cellae. Andreae. Certe rubricam fabrilem alicubi manifeste notavimus inter schisti lapidis hiatus ab aquis insinuatam. metallo deinde aut saxo. Audio in Norvegiae promontoriis ex praeruptis et velut ferro abscissis passim immensis rupibus prodeuntes in mare notari strias. specularis lapis saepe Alabastritae 22 p rot ogae a . et ﬁbrae in minimas saxi commissuras disperguntur. aut terrae genere aliquo. suum quaeqe locum a pondere cepisse. ea ex stratorum procurrentium legibus indicia in viciniam extendent. quae passim ex levi causa. nam venae utroque latere in ﬁbras abire solent. sive cum inundationes magnae postea sedimenta deponebant. simili stratorum genere variegatos ostentant. contra divaricatione minui venas. longe illis meliores. Sed plerumque inter indurescendum cum crusta haec telluris formaretur. sive cum terrarum orbis primum concrevit. continuationem in opposito vallis latere notatam. nec aliter boli colliguntur. velut foliis metallorum.
which opened into valleys above. Sometimes. is strengthened by the testimony of the eyes. these are the ends of enormous sheets. As Leibniz suggests here. Andreasberg was as famous for its dramatic bust. The Zellbach runs directly between the Harz mining towns of Clausthal and Zellerfeld. scattered cliffs that have been broken apart and smashed off. 22. or smaller as they diverge. Rich silver ores were discovered at Andreasberg in the Harz at the end of the ﬁfteenth century. stretched out like falling veins below. the main line of the most important Harz mines with the Zellbach. whose continuation was found on the opposite side of the valley. because they could not stand up straight owing to their manner of working. as it formed from a ﬂuid— either when the earth ﬁrst hardened or later. for example. respectively. or Krummhälse. as. which once lay horizontal when the vaults of the earth still stood in their entirety. Sometimes valleys. the administrative mining centers for the House of Brunswick-Lüneberg and the House of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. as if with a hammer. a hanging vein of copper-bearing schist (Kupferschiefer) was discovered in the Harz at Osterode. as at St. when rich deposits dried up. as in Rammelsberg near Goslar. reveal facing mountain walls with similar kinds of variegated layers. itself already valid. Andreasberg. pr o t o ga e a 23 . to form a horizontal plane whose regularity was later destroyed by a powerful force that disrupted the foundations? This reasoning. as if the riches of the surrounding area had once.22 One can therefore assume that crevices. and that a knot of accumulated metal (Stock) swells up in the center of most. not long ago. I hear tell that in the promontories of Norway there are places where striations stretch into the sea from huge. It has often been observed that a vein turns barren after passing through a rich metal nest. when great ﬂoods deposited sediments—assumed its place according to weight or was deposited according to water level? And what could be more natural than that each layer sought.21 Very often the subterranean ore veins coincide with the valleys and rivers aboveground. through the force of ﬁre or moisture.hanging veins were called the crooked necks. all ﬂowed into a single place. this knot occupies a considerable space. broken open or hollowed out by the force of the water or some other violent impulse. 21. For what is more natural than that each layer. Now it is likely that many layers. We see that these veins become richer and wider as they run together. like those recently summoned from Eisleben to Osterode. as it was for the great discoveries of the early years. in keeping with the laws of ﬂuids. sank toward the deep along with the collapsing shell and ruins of the globe. And I also recall that.
quasi vegetatione crevissent: scilicet quia delineatas a mensoribus hanc speciem aliquando praebere vident. aliquid formationi animalis aut plantae simile contigisse. sed incendiis et eluvionibus et ruinis nunc ita detortum perturbatumque in hac superﬁcie. et velut cute. 24 p r ot ogae a . schistum quoque ardosium aes diligit. argentum vivum in cinnabari latet. quod longo saeculorum studio quaeri mereatur. perlustrassetque unus mortalium. Omnia sub magna labentia ﬂumina terra. quasi retectam tellurem perspexisset. pyrites cum aere et sulphur praebet.conterminus jacet. homo militaris et peregrinator: is quod votis magis. Prodiit ante annos non ita multos quidam Alexandri Achillis nomine sumto. cum prima telluris tenerae stamina duceret conditor. quam spe praecipimus. delineare ausus est magnae parentis ossa et procurrentes per corpus ejus venas. ut aegerrime nosci possit. Nec dubium est. Metallurgi passim vulgari notione venas pro truncis ramisque habent. Sed tamen vel cogitasse laudandus est.
Prussian nobleman. 23. Not many years ago a certain soldier and traveler appeared.These then ﬁlled up with water.24 He dared to draw the bones of the great mother and the veins running through her body. a vein is not merely a straightforward. 4. Thus. ore. And every kind loves its special mother.” 25 But he ought nevertheless to be praised for speculating about something whose acquisition merited many centuries of study. or some other kind of earth through the melting power of ﬁre or ﬂowing water. For those kinds reaching up to the earth’s surface (zu Tage ausstreichen). or talc. that veins are stems and branches. Certainly we once observed red ocher that had clearly been washed into the gaps between the schist rocks. stone. as the earth’s crust was forming. as if he had inspected the naked earth and. There is no doubt that something like the formation of plant or animal occurred when the creator wove the ﬁrst fabric of the tender earth. it will be possible to construct principles that can yield rules governing what is hidden under the earth. in common fashion. selenite. just as the larger vessels in animals and plants divide into hairlike ﬁlaments and then ﬁnally disappear into threads that are invisible to the eye. and these ﬁbers scatter into the smallest rock seams. more through tradition than success. according to the laws of projecting layers. and above all because the miners of some regions apply them. as if they had grown like plants— evidently because they see how these veins sometimes look like that in the drawings of subterranean geometers. galena frequently abides in spar. Virgil. died 1675. specular stone23 often lies near alabaster. like metal ores. and I believe these rules can be far better than those generally praised on weak grounds. 25. schist also likes copper ore. simple rupture in something otherwise uniform. and quicksilver is hidden in cinnabar. distinct lines arose during the hardening process. who called himself Alexander Achilles.366. which is like a skin. But this got so confused and distorted by ﬁres and ﬂoods and collapses in the earth’s surface. Miners generally believe. pr o t o ga e a 25 . pyrites promise both copper and sulfur. Georgics. And I do not doubt that someday. 24. Species of gypsum. through careful observations. had scrutinized “all streams beneath the mighty earth that glide. mica. Rather. Still. One collects bolus stones in no other way. will leave signs throughout an area. For the veins generally dwindle into ﬁbers. or those that are observed in the mine. that it became very difﬁcult to recognize. as the only one among mortals.
Nam etsi ejusdem rei plures causas in potestate habeat ditissimus rerum parens. quod in Rammelo prope 26 p rot ogae a . an aurum argentumque aut hydrargyrum. Neque uspiam compertum est nostris fossoribus excisum spathum cum plumbo suo rursus vegetasse. Auri semina Corbachii Waldecciorum. et tamen ubi oculos obligaveris. Praeterea ubi similia instrumenta et vasa occurrunt. aliave id genus. qui homunculos aut monachos plutonios laboris subterranei socios vident: qui virgula divina abditos tellure thesauros ruspantur. nec maximas notissimasque venas micantis baculi indicio agnoscunt. vel salem etiam de novo produxerit. communia et nostris et naturae ofﬁcinis. et genera terrarum lapidumve. quae narrant aliqui de nascente iterum auro in expositis ad solem arenis jam tum elotis. aut ferri in Elva insula nequicquam quaeras. quam diversam nullo experimento cognitam ex ingenio ﬁngas. et viae portaeque arctantur.[ix] Operae pretium autem facturum arbitror. ignis cum sulphuribus. aut etiam vere destruxerit quisquam. Et magnum est ad res noscendas vel unam producendi rationem obtinuisse: quemadmodum Geometrae ex uno modo describendi ﬁguram omnes ejus proprietates derivant. nec satis dicere ausim. puto tamen. nec refert eandemne rem Daedalus aliquis Vulcanius in furno inveniat. quando mira persaepe in natis et factis similitudo apparet. ubi denuo agnascitur minera. aquae cum salibus. an lapicida ex terrae visceribus proferat in lucem. qui credulitate sua alienave fallere fallive morem fecerunt. Non tamen nego puteos esse aut cuniculos. Et quanquam de nova per artem generatione metallorum aut corporum similarium simpliciorum nihil afﬁrmare velim. Temere ﬁditur narrationibus hominum. cum non renascantur. non minus etiam rarum esse ipsammet naturam deprehendere edentem hos foetus: plerumque enim dudum alibi conceptos colligit tantum detegitque. quae sapienter Iureconsultus Romanus in usufructu esse negavit. tutius similem cognatis corporibus originem assignes. Plinianae autoritati Stenonii diligentiam oppono. aut de rejectamentis minerarum vel laminis tegularum ipsa temporis longitudine ditatis. qui naturae effecta ex subterraneis eruta diligentius conferet cum foetibus laboratoriorum. sic enim Chemicorum ofﬁcinas vocamus. quam ars quaedam magna: nec semper toto genere a nativis factitia distiguuntur. ut ﬁdem tueantur. amat tamen et constantiam in varietate. non magis quam marmor erutum lapidicinis. Neque enim aliud est natura. Vereor enim.
waters with salts. One blindly believes the stories of people who have accustomed themselves. and who search the earth for hidden treasures with divining rods.26 26. And it is a major step into the knowledge of things when one has established a single method for producing them. and the varieties of earth and stone—all common to both our workshops and to those of nature—you might more safely attribute similar origins to kindred bodies than if you cleverly invented a different account. or whether anything was ever really destroyed. Cf. Agricola  1912. pr o t o ga e a 27 . Further. 38 – 41. Nevertheless. to deceiving and being deceived— people who see homunculi and Plutonic monks nearby while they work underground. he nevertheless loves permanence within multiplicity. The generation of minerals explained through chemistry] I believe that whoever more carefully compares the productions of nature with the fruits of the laboratories—that is indeed what we call the workshops of the chemists—will collect a reward. In this way the geometers derive all the properties of a ﬁgure from a single method of describing it. where similar instruments and vessels occur. And the entire class of artiﬁcial things is not always distinct from natural productions. through their own credulity and that of others. even though. because an amazing similarity between natural and artiﬁcial things is often evident. For nature is nothing other than a great art. or about similar simple bodies. For I fear one cannot trust those who report that gold is reborn after sand that has previously been washed is exposed to the sun. as ﬁre with sulfurs. when you bind up their eyes. or salt was ever produced de novo. Neither do I wager to say whether some gold. they do not ﬁnd the largest and most famous veins through the sign of the quivering rod. or whether a stonecutter brings it to light from the bowels of the earth. it is no less unusual to catch nature in the act of producing her fruit. silver. quicksilver. For even if that wealthiest author of things has many causes for the same thing at his disposal. one not known through any experiment. or that the slags from mines or the plates of roof tiles were enriched over time. for it is all the same whether some Vulcanius Daedalus discovers a thing in his furnace. for she mostly only gathers and reveals what has already been conceived elsewhere long ago. And I do not want to maintain anything about the artiﬁcial generation of metals de novo.[ix.
dum salibus a plumbo absorptis vis coercendi spiritus retinendique retunditur. sed tenue nitrum igni superstes novam habitationem incrustat. Itaque mineras. id est varias metalli larvas quotidie produci video. neque arcanis rerum temere praejudicium interpono. Resuscitationes primi corporis facilius agnosco. sed de ipsis metallis nihil afﬁrmo. Et cum nitri Spiritus ex alcalico sibi corpus resumit. 28 p rot ogae a . Quemadmodum credibilius judico. et cum regenerari dicitur. Satis constat. recolligitur tantum.Goslariam temporis lapsu contingere scimus: Sed ibi aquae chalcanthum et mistam metallo materiam vehentes sedimentum deponunt. nec gignunt aes plumbumve. sed afferunt. quam spiritum vini veterem interire. et scio simplicia illa genera non aegre minus destrui quam produci: usque adeo facile reviviscunt. fortasse verum. nullis Chemicorum torturis Mercurio confessionem mortis expressam. sepultum in aceto liquorem ardentem ex saccaro Saturni resurgere. et novum velut miraculo de metallico corpore nasci. sive ab arte sive a natura.
are the various masks of metal that I see produced every day.29 27. about metals themselves. I afﬁrm nothing. I weigh Steno’s careful observation against the authority of Pliny: nowhere have our diggers observed that hewn spar generated new lead. which carry along copper vitriol and material mixed with metal. the vinegar’s power of conﬁning and retaining spirits is weakened. and the solution evaporated. is born anew from a metallic body. I will not. pr o t o ga e a 29 . whether through art or nature. Minerals. as reported by Robert Boyle in his “Essay on Nitre. and I know that simple kinds are no less hard to destroy than they are to create: they always recover so easily. or for seeds of iron on the island of Elba. Rammelsberg was already legendary in Leibniz’s time as the mountain that had bankrolled the ﬁrst Holy Roman emperors. then maybe a true but tender niter. And if the spirit of niter takes up its body again from out of an alkali. acetone is produced. it is actually just being reassembled. 29. so that the paths and entrances become narrowed. rather than that the old spirit of wine perishes and then. by means of the salts absorbed by the lead. however. With slag heaps dating back to the ninth century. I more readily acknowledge the resuscitation of original bodies. a substance called sugar of lead is produced. 28. having survived the ﬁre. no more than did the marble excavated from quarries or other things of this kind.28 Similarly. are depositing sediment. This refers to the regeneration of saltpeter from the spirit of niter and ﬁxed alkali. which we know is happening over time in Rammelsberg near Goslar.You will search in vain for seeds of gold in Korbach or Waldeck. they are merely transporting the copper or lead. can build the crust of a new home. “A PhysicoChymical Essay. not wanting to meddle in arcane things with blind prejudice. which. containing an Experiment with some Considerations touching the differing Parts and Redintegration of Salt-Petre. as if by a miracle. When this salt is destructively distilled in a retort. and when one says that it is reconstituting itself. deny that there are shafts and tunnels in which a mineral forms anew. because they would not grow again. The silver mines of Rammelsberg were among the oldest and most famous in all of Europe. ﬁltered. The editors would like to thank Lawrence Principe for his help with this section. were quite reasonably excluded from usufruct by Roman jurists. I judge it more likely that the ﬂammable liquid buried in vinegar reemerges out of the sugar of lead when. It is well enough known that no torture by chemists has yet coerced mercury into a death confession. Here Leibniz refers to the fact that if lead calx (lead oxide) is dissolved in vinegar. then. and water tunnels dating from the twelfth. however.” See Robert Boyle. not generating them.” in Boyle 1669.27 But the waters there.
Vulcani pro furnis. Et Amiantho similem materiam igne indomitam ex Pyrita Goslariae tertium usto exsudasse in summo. quod nos in ofﬁcinis facimus. Zincum fumo evectum intus adhaeret. moxque eximitur. Nostro instituto suffecerit aliqua in specimen attulisse. Cinannabarin nativam Hydrargyri venae praebent. nam et antimonio verum sulphur non deest. alii arte tentant. Interim aiunt Zincum nativum ex remotissimo Oriente a Batavis afferri. cui montes sunt pro alembicis. jam Georgius Agricola notavit. cujus fragmina dudum abjecta nunc pro lapide calaminari adhibentur. 30 p rot ogae a . Et calaminarem lapidem etiam in Germania effodi constat. Nemo autem ignorat. Cinnabarin etiam ex sulphure et hydargyro per artem parari. nec id in Idria tantum compertum prope Adriaticum mare. eliquatur venae genus. etiam arte eliciendum: magno indicio. Sed alius fumus parietem fornacis lentius incrustat. bismuthum autem nihil aliud quam ejusdem cobalti regulum seu corpus esse scimus. quem vocant calaminarem. naturam magnis operibus executam. minus mirum est. quas Brunsvicenses magistri exercent ad Indistrae ﬂumen. id est cobalti fumo imitari licet. et rubram sandaracam ex proprii generis minera educendam etiam sulphure et arsenico. et nunc quoque reliquiae leguntur. quod exiguis speciminibus nos ludimus. sed et in nostris oris juxta Walkenredam. quod orichalcum appellamus. naturam suo quodam modo in ipsis terrae recessibus egisse. Auripigmentum quod in Turcica ditione copiose eruitur. Illic duo insignia naturae imitamenta visuntur: Zincum et minera lapidis. et aeri colorem aureum tribuentes faciunt.[x] Cum ergo plerumque res magis larvas sumant. quam naturam deponant. quod plumbum atque aes praebet. Unde prona suspicio est. ut produnt Annales. sunt qui jactant. fortasse et a natura alicubi eliquatum. ut de antimoniali illa nil dicam. quales et a Bructero a se afferi. In vicinis Goslariae fornacibus Langesheimensibus. tam multa laboratoriis et fodinis communia prodire. Sublimatione enim utriusque parentis per vim caloris constat pulchellam sobolem nobis nasci.
which can be drawn out of it through art. The pyrites of Goslar. and whose pieces. Idrija (the name derives from the same root as hydrargyrus. Certainly. This has been observed not only in Idria. pr o t o ga e a 31 . A kind of asbestos. today. in the hidden recesses of the earth and in her own way. using volcanoes as furnaces and mountains as alembics. Agricola  1912. calamine stone is also mined in Germany. Calamine was an important ore of zinc in England. but also in our own region. discarded in former times. it is enough to offer some examples. 32. Cf. as was noted by Agricola. a kind of vein is smelted that produces lead and copper. Products common to laboratories and mines] Since.[x. Yet. 33. Veins of native cinnabar yield quicksilver. when burned for the third time. what we make in the laboratories. In the furnaces of Langelsheim near Goslar. secrete a ﬁre-resistant material similar to amianthus32 onto their surface. provided a rich source of mercury. they were controlled by the Austrian Habsburgs. Two extraordinary imitations of nature can be seen there: zinc. things generally assume disguises rather than changing their nature. For it is common knowledge that the sublimation of both parents through the force of heat yields the most beautiful offspring. In Leibniz’s time. operated secretly by the masters of Brunswick. are now used as calamine stones. not to mention cinnabar of antimony.33 One is thus inclined to suspect that nature. where one can gather bits and pieces even today. the Latin for mercury) lies inside the borders of Slovenia. this is an important sign that nature has already produced. Insofar as they yield a golden yellow-colored copper. these stones make what we call brass. since antimony does not lack true sulfur. about thirty miles from Trieste. near Walkenried (as the histories relate). has 30. 6.30 near the Adriatic Sea. and a mineral called calamine. and is eventually removed.31 Zinc is carried up with the smoke. But everyone knows that cinnabar is prepared artiﬁcially from sulfur and quicksilver. But there is another kind of smoke that coats the walls of the furnace more slowly. they claim that zinc was carried from the farthest reaches of the Orient to Holland. bk. For our purpose. it is not so surprising that laboratories and mines produce many similar things. The mines of Idria. there are even those who claim to have brought such things down from Bructerus. 31. adheres to the inside of the furnace. then.
cujus natura mollior non aeque duravit. qui hausto tantum calore lucet). Est igitur ubi nudae.[xi] Ex auripigmento vi ignis attollitur Rubini quoddam seu carbunculi genus. Unde nescio. qui sit pluris. et in Drusis. sed igne solvuntur. quam vacca. quod proverbio vulgi nostri jactatur. ubi fortasse fusa aliquando vix seculorum refrigeratione induruere: constat autem facilius frangi. Neque ego abnuerim. quo alumen et vitriolum in vase. ipsique adamantes saepe reperiuntur in cavitatibus saxorum. ut verissimum sit. certe qui quaedam rudimenta gemmarum. postquam pars humoris calore fugata est. quam Vulcanus hypogaeus. Utrumque enim modum ars imitatur. sunt tamen quae non tantum aqua. et decurrentes guttae bullaeve generationi ex liquoribus favent. est ubi saxo inclusae deprehenduntur. ﬁguras accipiunt. ﬂuores appellarunt (qualis ille est caeruleus. sed et ex fumo in corpus recollecta geometrico naturae artiﬁcio ﬁgurantur. nihil generale adhuc constitui potest. cum a magna materiae liquentis 32 p rot ogae a . nec tam diuturnos. quae promtius constitere subita extinctione caloris. ad eum modum. ut vocant fossores. sed nos nec tam magnos adhibere ignes possumus. Quanquam fortasse spectabiles intra crystallum montanam animalculorum aut graminis formae. Utrum autem ignis. materiam solutam mox cristalliﬁco frigore ﬁguras angulosque accipere. ut vulgo sibi persuadent. nec tantum ex liquore. de quibus mox aliquid dicemus. aliaeque gemmae. Cristalli montanae. Verissimum esse fateor. ex quo phosphorus smaragdinus paratur. fusionem in mente habuere. ab ignaro lapidem in vaccam jactari. in quo natae erant. multa etiam saxeae durietiei corpora tunc nata videri. Apud Golcondam adamantes egregios aiunt a sabulo praeberi. an omnis gemmarum origo ab aqua sit. ut vi aquarum confricatuque glareae diuturno et violento evolverentur gemmae putamine. sed ﬁeri potest. an aqua formaverit. fragilius quidem nativo.
37 But it could be that these gems were torn out of the envelope in which they were formed—an envelope whose softer nature was not equally durable—by the power of the water.accomplished in her mighty works what we play at with our little examples. as is generally believed.35 which one draws from a certain kind of mineral. or body. other gems. about which we want to say something later. Others have attempted to produce orpiment. pr o t o ga e a 33 . and the latter glows as it absorbs heat). The sands around Golconda are supposed to yield excellent diamonds. is blue ﬂuorspar. more brittle than the native kind.36 as the miners call them. to be sure. See glossary. once it is melted. natural and artiﬁcial] A kind of ruby or carbuncle is created out of orpiment and with the force of ﬁre. for example. or realgar. that bismuth is nothing other than the regulus. it is certain that whatever has hardened through the sudden extinction of heat breaks more easily. or red orpiment. however. a fume of cobalt. and that it was perhaps smelted by nature herself in some places. I do not know. Tavernier 1768. through other means. We know. I consider it absolutely true that dissolved material eventually develops angles and shapes owing to the crystallizing action of the cold. Red sandarach. Orpiment (auripigment). known also as yellow arsenic. but of course we cannot use such great or lasting ﬁres as the underground Vulcan. may not harden through cooling for centuries. a naturally occurring disulphide of arsenic. See glossary. was used as a pigment. and by the violent and extended chaﬁng of the 34. It is. commonly known as red arsenic. [xi. some materials are dissolved not only by water. therefore. those who called certain simple gems ﬂuorspar had melting in mind (of this kind. One often ﬁnds rock crystals. whether all gems have their origins in water. 36. Of course. occurs naturally in soft. but also by ﬁre. 37. gold-colored masses. where something.34 which is abundantly extracted in the Turkish empire. On the other hand. that is. of that same cobalt. And red sandarach. can be imitated with sulfur and arsenic. The generation of precious stones. Doubtless. out of which emerald phosphorus is prepared. others are gathered into a body not only from liquid but also from smoke and then formed by the geometric art of nature. and even diamonds in the rocky chambers and Drusen. Geodes. 35.
volatilem esse mineralis regni salem. 34 p r ot ogae a . ex lotio Camelorum in arena cum sale marino. 25. sulphuri socium. unde et subterraneo calore eliciatur. Interim et de talco ambigere cogor. [xii] Habere naturam sublimationes suas non minus quam artem. et prope Neapolim Campaniae vidimus in phlegraeo quodam campo ex foraminibus terrae exhalantem operculis capi. Et suspicamur similem ei originem esse. De Ammoniaco certe jure dixeris. jam vero et igne chemico praestatur aliquid simile sine crystallismo. qualem vulgo narrant. dubitari non potest. quod crystallo afﬁne est. rudes hodie. Sane passim sulphureae naturae rivi gravem et quasi urinosum Ammoniaci odorem spirant. B: et amicus. Sane qui mittunt populi. quasi coeuntibus tribus naturae regnis. tametsi haec folia ad naturalium durabilitatem non accedant. cum terra tartari foliata sulphure inde sublimato paratur. et (ut aliqui addunt) fuligine mista. suspecto mihi artiﬁcio.solutione ad ﬁrmitatem natura imminuto humore vel aestu regrederetur. et amicus meus25 in fornacibus quibusdam casu notavit. et totum ex foliis consistit. Eundem tamen salem arte parare quidam spondent. nihil artiﬁciosae compositionis promittunt. qui ex Oriente dicitur allatus. prostatque in ofﬁcinis.
for which reason it is expelled by subterranean heat.38 But whether the ﬁre or the water formed gems cannot be generally determined yet. we saw how sal ammoniac. streams of a sulfureous nature give off a strong urinous odor similar to sal ammoniac in some places. there are those who claim to prepare the salt artiﬁcially. At least. Regardless. Popular proverb from the Upper Palatinate. In fact. In Campania. 38. as some add. The one usually reported— camel urine in sand with sea salt and. pr o t o ga e a 35 . which supposedly comes from the Orient. we cannot expect any such skillful manufacture from those now uncultivated peoples who send the sal ammoniac. perhaps favor a formation from liquids. nature. through a lessening of moisture or through heat.gravel. even if these leaves do not attain a natural hardness. the shapes of little animals or grasses. that it is a volatile salt of the mineral kingdom and a relative of sulfur. which is related to a crystal and consists completely of leaves. near Naples. was captured with lids. [xii. One can certainly say of sal ammoniac. returned to hardness through a great dissolution of liquid material. For all that. seems to me a suspicious piece of art. ashes—as if the three kingdoms of nature had come together. on the so-called Phlegraean Fields. There are thus some places where one ﬁnds gems in the open. and the running drops and bubbles that one can see in rock crystal. For art imitates each method. Natural sublimations and the preparation of sal ammoniac] There can be no doubt that nature. I will also not deny that many bodies that are now hard as stone seem to have arisen in the same way that alum and vitriol in a vessel take on shapes after part of the dampness has been chased away by heat: that is. In fact. has her sublimations. breathing out of the earth’s hollows. and a friend of mine happened to notice it in certain furnaces. And we suspect that the sal ammoniac offered for sale in the chemical workshops there. no less than art. and with justice. so that our common proverb is very true: the stone that the fool throws at a cow is worth more than the cow. and others where one ﬁnds them enclosed in stone. Nevertheless. I have my doubts about talc. is of a similar origin. something similar is obtained through chemical ﬁre and without crystallization when one prepares foliated earth of tartar by subliming sulfur from it.
Nil dico de silicibus torrentium diuturna provolutione tornatis. ut curiosos fallant. 36 p rot ogae a . certe nihil prohibet. Ita natura pro homine imponit. magno indicio. Memini quasdam massulas metallicas recentes ex fodina ad me delatas. Certe in Alabastrite Nordhusano non ita pridem argentum granulatum repertum est. postquam diuturna aquarum provolutio attriverat. B: accidit. ipsisque Alpibus a natura caementati. mutata terrarum facie interversum. [xiv] Interea fatendum est. non sine vi ignis in metallicum corpus ivisse. aut alio metallo. B: assumpsisse. Ut saccarata Virdunensia cum aliquandiu agitantur. 26. Unde etiam intelligitur. grana metalli cursu attrituque rotundata esse. docentque artem naturae.26 suspicari pronissimum est. 27. in foculo imitantur: ita prosunt decipiendo. et vitriforme et capillare. quas fusione nuper paratas esse Iovem lapidem artiﬁces juravissent. quaedam indigere opera utriusque. usque adeo ut alicubi ambientis quasi catini fusorii ﬁguram asumsisse27 videatur. quod statim suum est vel certe Obryzo accedit. ut calorem advocare necesse non sit. Cernuntur passim politi silices in montium parietibus. cujus effecta expressere. saxiﬁcabili terrae haesisse. quaedam formas accipere solo motu aquarum. velut argentum rude rubrum. post novis ruinis iterum detecta apparuisse.[xiii] De argento aurove. illic olim vel superiore alio loco ﬂumen vel torrentem fuisse. Contra subtiles quidam mangones mineralium rariores formas.
nothing keeps grains of metal from being rounded through movement and rubbing. in that spot or a higher place. Sometimes one sees ﬂattened pebbles in mountain walls. these metals seem to have taken on the shape of their surroundings. skilled connivers imitate rare mineral forms.[xiii. And certainly. and teach the art of nature. which have been rounded through prolonged rolling in the streams. deceives. as if in a crucible. like coarse red. vitriform. whose effects they copy. and one ﬁnds them naturally cemented in the Alps. I do not want to speak of pebbles. granular silver was discovered in Nordhausen’s alabaster not too long ago. freshly mined. I recall that someone brought me small metallic pieces. or that are at least similar to ﬁne gold. instead of humanity. a clear proof that petrifying earth stuck them together after long rolling in the waters had abraded them. the adepts would have sworn to Jupiter that they had been prepared through smelting. like the sweets of Verdun when one shakes them for a while. or ﬁbrous silver. or other metals that appear unchangeable in their own form. in order to deceive the curious. gold. Certainly. so that it is not necessary to include the heat. It is through ﬁre that metals appear in their proper forms] One must assume of silver. one must admit that some things assume their form solely through the movement of the waters. They are thus useful in their deception. while others demand the action of both. Nature. One also recognizes from this that once. Some bodies owe their form to the movement of waters] Nevertheless. that they did not become metallic bodies without the force of ﬁre. [xiv. there was a stream or a torrent that moved elsewhere with the transformation of the earth’s surface. pr o t o ga e a 37 . and that they became visible again after being uncovered by new collapses. Thus. On the other side.
38 p r ot ogae a . in mari natum. [xvi] Guttis cadentibus in cavernis tophaceum lapidem relinqui constat. innatantem materiam in medium contrusit. stiriarum specie. et totam cavernae materiam vastosque28 parietes quasi guttatim collectos29 Tropfstein vocant. B: collectos. huc referre licet. Ita memini videri velut orbem quendam exiguum ex terra ﬁctilem inter rupes Sueciae ante Stockholmam. an dicere 28. immo et in superiora acuminentur.30 id est Stalactitem. 30. 31. Vestiuntur intus ambientibus totam parietum superﬁciem ingemmamentis: sic enim merito appellaveris illas acumina sibi obvertentes pseudocrystallos adamantiformes. 32. sed et in latus saepe. ut potius motu suo tornasse censeatur. ingentes illas columnarum massas. insensibiliter incrementa assumit in circuitum. Et in nostrae Hercyniae celebri antro. 29. strias in omnes plagas protendant. Unum ipse frustum de caverna in lucem proferri mecum jussi. B: Vulgo Tropfstein vocant. quales in Spatho fodinarum detectos et saepe peramplos metallicolae nostri Drusas vocant. B: et Spathi. nec semper. sed (ut ruptis fragminibus apparuit) radios. quod Spathi31 mollioris genus videtur. velut ex altiore loco. B: vastasque. Nam ad festucam aut paleam aut simile quiddam adhaerescens materia ab aqua advecta natansque. folia. quas Scaras vocant. quod a Baumanno quodam nomen accepit. Itaque non satis scio. ecce ostendunt sese alveoli quidam in ipsa saxi superﬁcie ad cavernulae modum introrsum recedentes. quanquam in ipsa caverna non deorsum tantum respiciant.[xv] Quin et concrescentia quaedam in mediis ﬂuctibus non eo minus regularem ﬁguram assumunt. B: accuratius. accumulatae consistant partes. dum aqua fortiori gyratione a centro recedens. percussu sonitum campanae aemulantes. adeo non disturbante ﬂuctu. cumque acuratius32 inspicerem.
between the Swedish cliffs before Stockholm. which is carried in by the water. for this is the name that the diamond-shaped pseudocrystals. it seems to have fashioned this rounded form through its motion. they often taper to the side and even upward. near Alfeld. with their tips pointed at one another. grows gradually and imperceptibly all around. cavities appeared on the surface of the stone. I remember how. there is a stream whose water pr o t o ga e a 39 . It appears to be a kind of soft spar that looks like icicles. in spar from the mines. rather. The tide does not disturb this at all. which sound like bells when they are struck. and stripes extend in all directions. leaves. in the town of Langenholtensen. which likewise have been formed drop by drop. For the ﬂoating clingy material. since the water. They are gem-encrusted across the whole surface of the inner wall. often on a very large scale. I do not rightly know. however. are called Tropfstein. Moreover. that was formed in the sea. and the entire material of this cave and the vast walls. has forced the ﬂoating material into the middle. made of earth. The stalactites in this cave are. covered on all sides. and is like straw or chaff or something similar. therefore. On the contrary. similar to what one ﬁnds.[xv. were formed by slowly falling drops of water. whether one can claim that these caves. called Scaras. Instead (as one notices from the broken pieces) rays. The enormous columnar masses in a famous Harz cave (named after a certain Baumann). Some bodies coalesce in the waters] Some things actually grow together in the midst of waves and assume a regular form. where our miners call them Drusen. I had one piece carried out of the cave and into the light. which withdrew into the interior like little caves. or stalactite. receding in ever stronger eddies from the center. the parts are not always formed from above. For example. for such would be more likely to result in a continuous pile. Thus. Kinds of tuff stone formed by dripping water] It is well known that falling drops in hollows leave behind tuff. not all pointed downward. formed grain by grain. not even to mention that the stone left behind by ﬂowing or dripping water tends to be much less hard than ordinary rock. merit. [xvi. one sees something like a small circle. When I examined it more carefully. and more like tuff.
sed metalli jam sui forma. ut33 quaedam igni soli. 35. et topho simile. ignotam antiquis artem. eam subinde ingentia antra in ipsis montibus produxisse. [xvii] De Baumanni antro.34 ita interdum caloris et aquae junctas operas requiri. ut terebrae fossorum metallis insistentium in caecum hujusmodi foramen saxo conclusum delatae operam ludant. et quasi fusionis imitamento subsidere: adeo ancipitis consilii est de rerum generationibus ex vultu externo pronuntiare. Illud quoque dignum memoratu bufones aliquando reperiri in profundissimis puteis ipsoque saxo. quod aqua ﬂuens stillansque reliquit. Et contingit interdum. B: deberi diximus. B: esse declaremus. paulatim obducit. 33. quibus rumpi saxa solent. Et scimus ante annos non ita multos vaporem erupisse. quibus allabitur. Ita prope Alfeldam. 34. quod miliaribus aliquot abest a fodinis. ex quibus facilius orietur aliquid. Sane mediocria passim occurrunt. sed adeo stupentes. qui ﬂamma ad lucernam concepta operarios foede ambussit. Ut taceam.liceat. in villa Langerholtensen. per quod muria tenuior decurrere jubetur.35 Nam scimus quaedam ex solvente praecipitari non pulveris. vivos quidem. nostri leccaria opera Leckwerk vocant. qui aqua materiam crassiorem secum ducit. mox rursus erit dicendi locus. quod velut arenulatim concrescens unum continuum cumulum componat. ut a sole et aere vice coctionis aquae pars consumitur. neque in laxiore spatio ictus ratio sibi constaret. rivus est. alia soli motui aquarum et sedimentis debentur. neque enim pyrii loculi tunc recte adhiberentur. has cavitates quaquaversum incrustatas a labentibus diu guttis factas. Nunc illud absolvamus. Credibile est quam causam cavernula ingemmata habuit in exiguo saxo. Et similem crustam candidam alicubi Saliﬁcia stramini circumdant. B: ut quemadmodum quaedam. alicubi variantibus causis ambiguum judicium esse. quae in lapidem cinereum topho similem versa rotas molendini aliaque. longe mollius esse saxum solere. 40 p r ot ogae a . ut multorum mensium spatio vix locum mutasse deprehendantur. Aliquando aqua intus inventa est. imo et aperto aditu noxii non raro halitus prodierunt.
[xvii. which forms a gray stone like tuff that gradually covers the mill wheels and other things that it bathes. nor would the action of the explosion be effective in a larger space. so that all work is hopeless. where the causes vary. as certain things owe their formation to ﬁre and others purely to the movement and deposits of the waters. For we know that some things are precipitated by solvent not as a powder. Saline works. indeed. these are. some of a middling size exist as well. have stumbled upon such a hole hidden in the rock. We call this operation of graduation Leckwerk. searching for ore. and harmful vapors have not infrequently come out of the opening. Cf. which is some miles from the mines. a gas that was ignited by the ﬂames of the lanterns erupted and burned the workers horribly. Actually. salted waters coat with a similar white crust the straw. alive but so torpid that they seem hardly to have moved in many months. through which one lets a thinner salt solution drain. but in the form of a metal. not too many years ago. Some things arise from the combined action of heat and water] There will soon be an opportunity to speak again about the Baumann Cave. It is also worth noting that one sometimes ﬁnds frogs in the deepest shafts and even in the rock. And it has happened that the gimlets of the miners. 40. sometimes the combined action of heat and water is required. Thus. Protogaea.40 Now we want to establish that.carries a denser material. so that a portion of the water will be consumed through sun and air instead of through boiling. so that it is dangerous to pronounce about the generation of things on the basis 39. because neither can they properly apply the powder with which one generally blasts the stones. In some places. we know that. the same cause that produced shimmering cavities in small precious stones generated large caves in the mountains. §XXXVII. pr o t o ga e a 41 . Sometimes water has been discovered inside.39 In all likelihood. the verdict is ambiguous. and settle as if in imitation of melting. an art unknown to the ancients.
jam ille36 imitatores haberet. B: Ardesiam. 2 appears here. 42 p r ot ogae a . praecipitatio aut crystallismus dominentur: quando crystallos sublimationibus. sed diversa. 23b. B: affabre. 39. ut constet. [xviii] Sed illustriora omnia exemplo erunt inquisitionis in memorabile apud nos opus naturae. 40. quid aquis tantum. pl. quae rarissimo exemplo. utrum sicco opere fusio aut sublimatio rem peregerint. idque 36. In eo crebrae visuntur piscium formae. exacte et a fabre39 delineatae. super scissili lapide aerosas piscium formas exhibentis. quid calori tantum. B: ardesiam.37 effoditur lapis niger foliatus.41 Reperiuntur in pendente vena. diligentia. quasi artifex nigro lapidi sectilem metalli materiam inseruisset. varia schisti aerosi strata Islebiae occurrunt. quem merito. 41. Talis lapidis unum mihi fragmentum est ab utraque parte piscis imagine. 38. ditionis Mansfeldicae. apud Superiores Germanos. Philosophi Delphensis. quidam Ardosiam. Saxoniae oppido. unde et lapidi huic nomen Layae est. Teutonice vocamus Lagen. Constat Ardosium40 ﬁssilem esse et ex foliis ac velut tabulis constare. quod et illustri Familiae de Petra vernaculum. quae aperire oculos. 37.38 semilatino verbo vocant. ut saepe indigner humanae ignaviae.Attente omnia excutienda sunt. B: jam passim ille. (licet alio quam vulgo sensu) schistum appelles. nam ubi terra suprema argillacea et proximae ab ea rupes perfossae. In Hannover Ms XXIII. Nimirum in Islebia. quid utrique tribuendum. fusionem praecipitando suppleri dictum est. signatum. Nam si saperemus. et nuper prope nostram Hercyniae Osterodam. sed in uno tandem pisees. quibus tantum praestitit sagax Leewenhoekii. Et velim microscopia ad inquisitionem adhiberi. an humidi solventis interventu. et in paratam scientiae possessionem ingredi non dignatur. ichthyomorphum aliqui indigitant. B: Hercyniae municipium. nostro tempore duos ad Rhenum Electores fratres simul dedit.
[xviii. I own a fragment 41. a black foliated stone is mined. who do not bother to open their eyes and take possession of an already completed science.42 Namely. which is why this stone is called Laya in upper Germany. I also wish that the microscope. with which the Delft philosopher Leeuwenhoek has shown so much wisdom and care. For if we were that clever. Rudwick 1972. One often sees in these stones. which (a very rare example) in our time simultaneously produced two brothers as electors along the Rhine. It is well known that Ardosia. or whether a wet solvent intervened and settling. but by 1692 the organic nature of “fossil objects” was accepted by many European scholars. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek had discovered “spermatic animalcules” with the help of a microscope in 1675.41 And I am often upset by the idleness of humans. or crystallization predominated. probably because his own “conversion” to this “truth” was relatively recent at the time of writing. and how much to both together. a Saxon town in the region of Mansfeld. and Cohen 1998. which is properly called slate (though in another sense than the common one).of their outward appearances. and which some. the shapes of ﬁsh whose contours have been traced precisely. In German we speak of Lagen. near our Harz town of Osterode. using a half-Latin word. Cf. Leibniz ﬁnds it necessary to take up the whole argument again. pr o t o ga e a 43 . which is easy to split. Here begins a long discussion. 42. he would already have many imitators. in Eisleben. call Ardosia. Where do the shapes of various ﬁsh imprinted on slates come from?] But everything will be clariﬁed by a local example: the investigation of a remarkable work of nature that produces the coppery shapes of ﬁsh upon schistous stone. this is also the common name of the famous de Petra family. how much to ﬁre alone. For it was said that sublimation can replace crystallization and that deposition can replace fusion. on the nature and meaning of “fossil objects. were used for this investigation.” The belief that they were “ﬁgured stones” or “games of nature” was widespread during the sixteenth century. One ought to examine everything carefully. whether the thing has traveled to dryness through melting or sublimation. so that it is certain how much to assign only to waters. Cf. as if an artisan had inserted carved metallic material into the black stone. mostly inspired by Steno. Leeuwenhoek 1677–1678. consists of sheets and also of tablets. which some call ichthyomorphic.
vel terrae motu. ut manifestiorem constantioremque causam suspectemus. 43. adduxeritque metallum in cavitates.44 et in cavitates illas sese colligente. Crassities strati ad sedecim pollices. vel aquarum vi. Paulo ante erutus erat ingens lucius. Hujus enim volatilis materia dudum tempore aut calore consumta facile 42. et haec aliquando halece decussata. Visi et marini generis. conchylia. etiam caetera controversa ﬁrmare sperant. neque ulla aeris minera facilius fusori paret.genus prae caeteris ignem meretur. ﬂexo corpore. petrae insculptos. B: ardesiam. dentes atque ossa animalium. 44. alburnam. nostri lapidis exemplo usi. vel alia magna causa dicamus obrutum terris. quas reliquerat piscis. halex et lampreta. in quibus magnam archetectatricem velut per jocum. qui et ichthyomorphi. neque unquam a symmetria abit animal. vi caloris exudante. Habui ipse ibi in manibus mugilem. Quoties enim eo argumento premuntur. quae toto limo dispersa erat. Durissimi lapidis parietes utrinque claudunt venam. quam aut casum ludentem aut seminales. Tanta piscium simulatorum cum veris convenientia est. tantaque imaginum frequentia in eodem loco visitur. ne. et postremo consumtis dudum animalis reliquiis metallica materia oppletos servarunt? Nec jam valde disputo. ore aperto. molli ante massae impressos. ad nostros lapides provocant. Hic plerique ad lusos naturae confugiunt. B: exsudante. metallica interim materia. nescio quas ideas. pinnis ipsis squamisque ad minutias usque expressis. quae causa ex terra ardosium42 lapidem fecerit. interdum tamen contrahitur in tenuem laminam velut cultelli: sed tanto ditior in angustiis massa est. ut raja. inania philosophorum vocabula. aliudve petrae genus. Nam plerumque genus piscis agnoscas primo obtutu.43 nunc alabastritem fecerit. serpentesque imitatam volunt. Fieri potest. Sed vereor. tanquam indubitato oblectantis se rerum genii specimine. aut magnitudinem non habet suam. Quid ergo si lacum ingentem cum piscibus suis. quod rudes tantum adumbrationes rei animalis extra animal nasci consentaneum sit. ubi fatendum est. percam. 44 p r ot ogae a . ita nimiae similitudinis argumentum in contrarium valeat. ut quemadmodum in fornacibus ex argilla coctiles lapides humana arte formantur. uti nimis validi ictus in autorem repercutiuntur. quasi sic deprehensus vivus gorgonia vi obriguisset. quae deinde in lapidem duratae impressi piscis vestigia. B: ardesiam. ita magnus naturae ignis pro variis terrarum generibus atque misturis nunc ardosium. delineationi nihil perfectionis adjici posse. et velut ectypos.
I have also seen sea ﬁsh like the ray. the richer it gets. as if it had been caught alive and turned to stone by the power of the Gorgon. they adduce our stones as evidence. or by the force of the water. When pressed with the argument that. The vein is enclosed on each side by walls of the hardest stone. pr o t o ga e a 45 . either by an earthquake. that when the 43. Alphonso Borelli. the last one sometimes lying crosswise with a herring. Johann Joachim Becher. right down to the ﬁnest details of their ﬁns and scales. but the narrower the mass. I have here in my hands a barbel. See Adams 1938. was articulated in the seventeenth century by scholars such as Michael Ettmüler. But I am afraid these overly strong blows fall back upon their authors. only crude outlines of an animal could arise outside the animal realm. The belief in the “generation of stones” was widespread during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. 283. Not long ago an immense pike was dug out of a quarry. trying to use our ichthyomorphic stones as an indubitable example of the playful genius of nature. and at the beginning of the eighteenth by Herman Boerhaave and Joseph Pitton de Tournefort. reasonably speaking. shells. and the animal lacks neither symmetry nor proportion. its body bent and its mouth open. and their followers. together with its ﬁsh. Cf. for no other copper ore obeys the smelter more easily.of such a stone.43 But what if we suggest that an immense lake. since the argument of close resemblance supports just the opposite position. a bleak. though sometimes it gets as thin as a knife blade. Such a great number of these images is seen in the same place that we suspect a more obvious and uniform cause than playful accident or some ideas about generation. In most cases. the herring. in which they claim the great architect. or by some other great cause. That is. as if in jest. where one has to admit that nothing can be added to the perfection of their shapes. The idea that “seeds” could have produced petriﬁed organisms. a perch. the kind of ﬁsh can be recognized at ﬁrst glance. For the imitated ﬁsh perfectly resemble real ﬁsh. Ariew 1998.]. sculpted in stone. the arguments of Athanasius Kircher. 3. the empty words of the philosophers. This layer is about sixteen inches thick. and hope thereby to resolve other controversies. among others. was ﬁlled with earth. since after excavation of the superﬁcial clay earth and the subsequent rocks. But only one layer has ﬁsh. there occur in Eisleben various layers of coppery schist. and Cohen 2002. or snakes. Here most take refuge in games of nature. and Ferrante Imperato. They are found in a hanging vein. had imitated the teeth and bones of animals. each side of which is imprinted with the image of a different ﬁsh [ﬁg. and this one is especially well suited to the ﬁre. or fragments of organisms. 53–54. and the lamprey.
46 p r ot ogae a .
images of ﬁsh imprinted on slates. According to Leibniz. the caption marked “Cb” reads. “Side view of a ﬁsh from another slate. pr o t o ga e a 47 .” that is. where it appeared as plate 2. §XX). “Slates bearing the most perfect ﬁsh”.figure 3.” This ﬁgure is reproduced from Scheidt’s 1749 edition (as are the ﬁgures from 2 to 12). The original captions marked “Ca” and “Cc” read. This unsigned engraving reproduced specimens from the Royal Library in Hannover. Fish Imprinted on Slate This plate shows several “ichthyomorphic stones. the similarity between these stones and real ﬁsh offered the best proof of their organic origin. enabling him to reject the notion that they resulted from “games of nature” (see Protogaea.
48 p rot ogae a . cum plerique credant. aditu tamen exiguo relicto. et terrae motus46 validissimi pyrios intus cuniculos innuant. [xix] Neque adeo mirari oportet calorem terras coquentem in lapidem. quae et mineras nostras 45. postremo pro illis eadem via argentum infundunt. quanquam Visurgim non transgressa. 47.locum fecit. Certe nupera terrae concussio anni 169148 ab Italia ad nostros usque ﬁnes pervenit. cujus vix crusta nobis explorata est. aut remittente solutione atque aestu deponentem in crystallos. aut materiam in ﬁgurata corpora sublimantem. Araneum aut aliud animal materia apta obruunt. 46. B: Sed terrae etiam motus. materiam igne coquunt in lapidem. Habentur et passim fodinae lithanthracum. ﬁbrillisque ad stuporem assimilatis. aut metalla in minerales massas fundentem. B: anni hujus 1691. Habemus aliquid simile in aurifabrorum artiﬁciis. materiaque sulphuris. libenter enim occulta naturae manifestis hominum operibus confero. 48.45 ignem esse inclusum huic globo. et Vulcani igentes47 late patentia pyrophylacia ostendant. B: ingentes. ita demum remoto putamine inveniunt argenteum animal omni pedum et capillamentorum apparatu. B: cum non solum eruditorum plerique. inde hydrargyro immisso cineres animalis per foramen eliciunt.
44 Nor is it 44. even though we call it Apyron. as if it had already encountered the ﬁre of nature. though it did not cross the Weser River. here and there. easily provided room for it.“without ﬁre. volcanoes. ﬁnally. though leaving a small opening. and huge volcanoes reveal ﬁre dungeons extending far and wide. long since consumed by time or by heat. and bake this material to stone in the ﬁre. for I gladly compare the secrets of nature with the visible works of men. Meanwhile. Earthquakes also may clearly indicate that there are tunnels of ﬁre. and ﬁnally that. the spaces they left were ﬁlled with metallic matter? I will not discuss here in detail what turned earth into Ardosia and drew metal into the cavities. and. [xix. collecting itself in the cavities left behind by the ﬁsh. they pour silver in the same way. whose crust we have hardly explored. It could be that nature’s great ﬁre formed schist. and ﬁbers. that it sublimes matter into fashioned bodies or deposits it as crystals when the heat of a solution is reduced. or other kinds of rock according to the different kinds of earth and their mixtures. which also ﬁll our Goslar ores. There is also beautiful native sulfur—transparent and the color of ruby or gold —that is extracted somewhere in our region of Lauenstein. From the Greek ␣˘ ´ . the metallic matter. was separated out by the force of the heat. One ﬁnds. after the remains of the animals were long gone. When the shell is removed. with its entire complement of feet. For most believe that there is ﬁre contained in this globe. which are wonderfully imitated. They cover a spider or some other animal with suitable material. We ﬁnd something similar in the art of the goldsmith.earth later hardened to stone it was imprinted with the remains of the ﬁsh which. alabaster. by pouring in mercury.” pr o t o ga e a 49 . that it melts metals into mineral masses. they drive the animal’s ashes out through the hole. had initially been stamped upon the soft mass. like copies. Earthquakes. and other things show that there is ﬁre inside our globe] Nor should one wonder that heat turns earths to stone. deposits of pit coal and sulfuric material. hairs. For the volatile material. Then. which was scattered all through the mud. just as bricks are formed out of clay in the ovens through human art. they uncover a silver animal. The recent earthquake of 1691 reached from Italy to our borders.
Nec absurdum est. Et alicubi nativum sulphur pulchellum et translucidum rubini aut auri colore ex nostro Lauensteinii tractu eruitur. inquit. limum pisces obvolventem vel ipso tempore ex natura materiae. quasi jam ignem naturae expertum. nisi quod nobis satis est. et materiam metallicam in piscis modulos. quod rustici in axungiam absumunt. Idem mox repetit. ignota annalibus. et in campanarum aut tympanorum pulsibus quas vult modulationes 50 p rot ogae a . Arsisse hos tractus Agricola (credo post Cordum nostratem) non dubitavit. utraque urendo. nec in Sicilia tantum et Campania. aut postea etiam penetrabili vapore advectam (quanquam haec minus facile intelligantur) non repugno. quae in nubibus acies videt. privata incendia etiam magno diluvio posteriora extitisse. de nescio quibus aliis formis in petra Islebiensi delineatis jactant. quem aliqui Lyncurium vocant.Goslarienses implet. ita dictum a testae similitudine. ubi bitumen gignitur. et in Brunsvicensi tractu. Ipse Agricola apud Mosellae conﬂuentes et Grani Aquas talia agnoscit. Agricola merito judicat. nec aliquid certe constituere audeo. Nam quae de Triregno Pontiﬁcio. Cui consentit. non jam naturae sed imaginationis humanae. aut initio cruda et molli adhuc massa. ars ex magnete. vel aliunde. inquit. haec vere inter lusus habeo. Nam cum Belemniten. et potissimum inter urbem Hildesiam. cum materia combustilis adhuc per terram uberius disseminata esset. Naphthae autem aut bituminis liquidi fontes etiam apud nos ﬂuunt. in ripa Leinae amnis ad Neapolin oppidum duodecim ab Hannovera passum millibus. arsisse multa indicant. Firmant sententiam et multidudo piscium uno eodemque loco conclusa. Pumices esse ex locis qui arserunt. etsi nobis apyron dicatur. quod superius annotaverat: Natura. lapidiﬁco quodam spiritu. de Luthero. [xx] Si quis tamen coctile naturae saxum aegrius admissurus malit. quod a nanis appellant. sed etiam in Germania constat reperiri. circa idem Hildesheimii antrum reperiri narrasset. cum Ostraciten. et quod ibi nil nisi pisces. hunc locum. aliave causa. et arcem Marienburgum in marmore antri. pisces aerosos ex veris expressos. reperiri dixisset. quale est prope Burgdorﬁum. in petram abiisse. ex Ostracite in Hildesheimio tractu facit haematiten.
which some people call lynx stones. Agricola  1955. Agricola himself identiﬁed them at the mouth of the Mosel and along the Hron River. 48. Agricola (following our own Cordus. See Ogilvie 2006. 47. Cf.unreasonable to suppose that particular ﬁres. in both cases. 34 –35. 5. 49. See glossary. someone does not want to accept that nature burns rocks.” is a reddish mineral composed of iron compounds. however. 46. traveling from Neustadt to Hannover along the Leine covers a distance of about thirty-three kilometers. 5. occurred after the Great Flood. In fact. 45. Cf. twelve thousand double steps47 from Hannover in the region of Brunswick (where bitumen is produced)—and above all that they were found between the city of Hildesheim and the Castle Marienburg in the marble of the so-called Cave of Dwarves—he then says that there is much to indicate that this region once burned. The forms of ﬁsh imprinted on slate come from real ﬁsh. either through time alone and according to the nature of the material. Agricola was right that pumice stones come from places that have burnt. German physician and botanist. One Doppelschritt (double step) was about 148 centimeters. Valerius Cordus (1515–1544). bk. which makes this about eleven miles. Hematite. after having reported that one ﬁnds ostracites (so called because of their resemblance to oyster shells) in the vicinity of the same Hildesheim cave. pr o t o ga e a 51 . Agricola  1955. or “bloodstone. just as art makes hematite49 from a magnet. this happens through burning. He repeats the same thing not much later. and prefers to think that the mud enveloping the ﬁsh turned to stone. unrecorded in our histories. makes a hematite from an ostracite in the region of Hildesheim. and it is well known that they are found not only in Sicily and Campania.45 Even springs of oil or liquid bitumen also ﬂow in our region. or twenty miles. bk.46 For after declaring that belemnites. 145–147. and are not games of nature] If. I believe) did not doubt that these regions had burned. This is the case near Burgdorf. were found along the banks of the Leine River near Neustadt. he says.48 This agrees with what he noted earlier: nature. [xx. when combustible material was more abundantly spread across the earth. but also in Germany. where peasants use it to grease their wheels.
Nam venam ardosii pisciferi pendentem esse diximus. non procul abest Seeburgum. ejusdem stagni pisces a superincumbente mole pressos. Certe in vicino Islebiae agro insignes lacus nunc quoque extant. quas nisi admoneare. ut stupenda de nostris regionibus dixisse videar. 52 p r ot ogae a . non est meum. et squamas. quem Hala Saxonum octava ab Islebia lapide fundit. ubi ingens aquae salsae stagnum. id est in strati prope horizontalis modum procurrentem per aliquot miliaria. quae vulgo in Baumanni antro ostendunt: Mosem scilicet. et sub terra esse conditiora salis fontes aquarum salsarum docent. ut cum nostris fossoribus loquar. et caetera omnia statim fatebere. ex quibus illustris inprimis est. Et talia sunt multa. Augere rerum species in miraculi ﬁdem. quem Chattis olim et Hermunduris materiam bellandi quidam putarunt. et Ascensionem Christi. aliasque ex lapide ﬁguras. nec piscem tantum sed et genus piscis et veram magnitudinem et commensurationes partium.agnoscit. Accedit magnum argumentum ab ipsa constitutione loci. Et quo minus marinos in petra pisces mirere. Sed piscium Osterodanorum atque Islebiensium summa est manifestaque in repraesentando ﬁdes. ut jam facile appareat. non agnoscas.
and that there are nothing but ﬁsh there. or also later as a penetrating vapor. but of the human imagination. that coppery ﬁsh are the imprints of real ones.or through some petrifying spirit. This opinion is supported by the fact that there are many ﬁsh enclosed in the same place. of Luther. And of this kind is much of what is commonly displayed in the Baumann Cave. except one thing. Some believe it was once the cause of war between the Chatti and the Hermunduri. or through another cause. since there is an immense sea with salt water not far from Seeburg. As to the supposed appearance of the pope’s tiara. The Seeburger See. I consider these to be games not of nature. then I do not oppose it. and all sorts of other shapes etched in the stone of Eisleben. Protogaea. Especially well known among these springs is the one that ﬂows at Halle in Saxony. or to make miracles out of them so as to say extraordinary things about our regions. it extends for several miles like a horizontal layer. Nor should one wonder at the existence of petriﬁed saltwater ﬁsh. 51. though I ﬁnd it harder to understand. the saltwater springs demonstrate that there is salt buried beneath the ground. and other stone ﬁgures that you would not recognize unless you were forewarned. and if one wants to assume that the metallic material was driven into the molds of the ﬁshes. either in the beginning when the mass was raw and soft. from which it would clearly appear that the ﬁsh in one and the same lake were buried by a covering mass. which is eight miles from Eisleben.50 that is. roughly eight hundred meters wide and ﬁve kilometers long and one of the largest lakes in Lower Saxony. supports a large variety of ﬁsh to this day. and all the rest. its scales. In addition. the disposition of the place provides an important argument. Cf. For we said that this ﬁsh-bearing schist vein is a hanging vein. the Ascension of Christ. In fact. It is not my purpose to increase the varieties of such things. which sufﬁces for us here: namely. one recognizes immediately not only the ﬁsh. §VIII. but also the kind of ﬁsh.51 moreover. which sees battles in the clouds and hears its favorite melodies in the sound of bells or the beating of drums. like Moses. there are still prominent lakes near Eisleben. its true size and the dimensions of its parts. But the best and most obvious proof comes from the depiction of ﬁsh in Osterode and Eisleben. to speak as our miners do. pr o t o ga e a 53 . I do not dare to assert anything with certainty. 50.
Nam aquam pluviam aut nivalem facere fontes. B: Eo enim inclinabat. atque his demum argilla superjecta. et in mediis locis ab aqua in ima penatrante desertum haesisse. in inferiora procubuisse. lacus illos antequam obruerentur subterraneos fuisse. ruptis fornicibus deﬂuxisse cum ostreis limum fundi.51 Quin et credibile est. Mare autem olim et in excelsissimis locis fuisse arbitrabatur ille. Et licet velimus. postremoque in lapidem abiisse. ex superfuso inter ruendum liquido limo post indurato. Quidam Hispanus de duplici viventium terra olim conjecturas edidit. quae tunc fuit. Et consentaneum est. colles medios. pro comperto est. ut in Tirolensium Alpibus. ut in Cracoviensibus fodinis. vel terra sale gravida. aliam super priores ruinas structuram stratorum horizontalium natam. ac postremo communis terra nigricans nata est. passimque ejus vestigia habentur. ut ita dicam apud nos terram. sive tempore ipso in diversa lapidis scissilis strata secessit. sive gorgonio vapore aut salibus. B: testari docuerit. Ita tres quasi telluris contignationes statuemus. ut olim per summorum montium juga telluris planitiem incessisse. qui deinde per salis gemmei rupes aut terram saturatam in montium angustiis ﬂuentes. summa montium juga. 51. inclinata passim strata initio ad libellam composita. tractusque imos litorales. Sed omnia altius expenderat vir egregius. B: unam. Quae strata et ipsa deinde posterioribus ruinis interrupta apparent. cum muriae rivos emmittit. Et facile ﬁeri potuit. 50. unde Halenses illi immissa aqua dulci eliciunt vires.[xxi] Hinc iam intelligas duplicem. ubi minus ﬁrmi erant. Unde plena conchyliis strata visuntur. casum testari. eoque50 inclinabat: ut olim per summorum montium iuga telluris planities incesserit fractos deinde fornices. alteram postquam obrutis opposita est ingens materiae mollis moles. quam nunc homines colunt. ut aqua salsa alicubi intercepta haereret in cavernis vel pura vel terrae ﬂuitanti permista. cui impositae rupes durissimae. qui de solido intra solidum scripsit. quae tandem sive igne. necesse est tamen supremam terrae superﬁciem. assumto sapore in 49. prorsus convulsam commutatamque intercidisse. Idemque naturam facere credibile est. 54 p r ot ogae a . unde dissipato humore vel sal gemmeus superfuit. una49 cum pisces in suo lacu essent.
These layers were covered with very hard rocks. that the sea had once reached even the highest places. the hills the middle. the sea-bottom mud ﬂowed away. as in the Krakow mines. salts. a certain Spaniard published conjectures about the two-tiered earth of living things. after the wetness had dissipated. Some time ago. González de Salas 1650. petrifying vapors. was trapped somewhere and caught in the hollows. their locations. three ﬂoors of earth: the mountain ridges form the highest ﬂoor. 1. and sunk into the depths. it left behind either rock salt. pr o t o ga e a 55 . and clung to the places of middling height. 53. the second arose after an immense mass of soft material covered them and then collected upon them. and the coastal regions the lowest. either pure or mixed with silty soil. while the water left it for the depths. The different layers of the earth. or time itself. Steno 1669. One thus ﬁnds layers full of shells. which people cultivate today. we can distinguish. that the vaults then broke at their weak points. we would still have to recognize that the onetime surface of the earth had been entirely transformed and ultimately scraped away. and the origin of salts and salt waters] From this you now understand that around us the earth has two tiers. rose above the initial ruins. or soil impregnated with salt.[xxi. And it could easily happen that salt water. Even if we suppose that these lakes were under the earth before they were ﬁlled in. It is also likely that another series of horizontal layers. Thus.” 53 considered everything better. Steno also believed. whether through ﬁre. and we have signs of it here and there. and that evidence of this collapse is to be found everywhere in the twisting of the layers of the earth. Later. and ﬁnally with common black earth. It ﬁnally hardened into several layers of splittable stone.52 But that eminent man who wrote on “solids enclosed within other solids. He inclined toward the conclusion that the smooth surface of the earth had once stretched across the highest mountain peaks. then with clay. where it eventually turned to stone. so to speak: the one was formed while the ﬁshes were in their lake. so to speak. composed of the liquid mud that poured down during the collapse and hardened afterward. And it is likely that after the vault had broken. as in 52. however. which were initially formed at the water level. together with the shells. These layers were themselves clearly broken apart by later collapses.
qui brevi tempore gyrum facientes plagarum mundi. Cum ergo alterutrum factum oporteat. qualis apud Cedrenum. Hala. credibilius multo arbitror. lapides veros. Ego ut facile admittam. quo pluisse praeter veteres memorant Carinthii prope Victringam Cisterciensis disciplinae coenobium. ingentem in aere luctam testantur. eruptione surrexerint. qui e caelo cecidisse creduntur. monticulum factum. quam ingentem terrarum partem incredibili violentia tam alte ascendisse. quae in Saxonia est. et non procul a Luneburgensibus salinis dentes monstrorum marinorum eruuntur. Ventorum certe quanta sit vis. terras evertunt. terrae motu aliquando vel ignivoma eructatione. Sed ut vastissimae Alpes ex solida jam terra. deﬂuxisse aquas spontaneo nisu. erupisse insulas ex mari. luctante spiritu superﬁciem varie intumuisse. ﬁrmatis licet rebus. quos in Americae insulis uracanos vocant. quaero an triticum quoque in nubibus natum arbitretur. Scimus tamen et in illis deprehendi reliquias maris. initio cum liquida esset massa globi terrae. habet vicina sibi stagna salsa. ut supra in cumulum suspenderetur. ut credibile sit. Certe. ventis venisse. cujus solito illic statoque cursu interrupto mare confundunt. Rhodani aquam ventos stitisse. plumbeaque tecta ad millia multa passuum tulit. Nam si quis in aere coagulatos putet ex vaporum materia. unde illi mox indurescenti primaeva inaequalitas. et qui nuper turbo in Veneto tractu homines rapuit. memorat historia Genevensis. quemadmodum dictum est. Sed nihil illis terribilius est. 56 p rot ogae a . et in historia miscella memoratur insula nata sub Leone Iconomacho. neque etiam difﬁtear. minus consentaneum puto. intra sicco alveo transiri posset. Typhones declarant. Sane pagum integrum terra vento advecta oppletum vidit Cardinalis Bellarminus. [xxii] Scio quosdam suspicari intumuisse aliquando terram ab erumpente spiritu. surrexisse montes ex planitie. et tubae marinae aquam haurientes navesque evertentes.lucem erumpunt.
I ask whether he believes that wheat arose in the clouds as well. winds. Cardinal Bellarmine saw a whole village buried by soil that the wind had carried. they lash the sea and gouge the land. they acquire a salty taste by the time they emerge into the open. [xxii. 680–741 CE). The history of Geneva recounts how winds stopped the ﬂow of the Rhône River. For if one thinks that they coalesced in the air from the material of vapors. Leo the Isaurian (ca. Such an island. the struggle of the wind inﬂated its surface in various ways. and one ﬁnds the teeth of sea monsters not far from the salt springs of Lüneburg. which is mentioned by Cedrenus and in the Historia miscella. there are salty lakes near Halle in Saxony.54 Typhoons and sea tornadoes. 54. Nature probably does the same thing when it ﬂushes salty ponds with brooks. it is well established that rainwater or snow form springs. which are believed to have fallen from the sky. show how great the force of the wind can be. pr o t o ga e a 57 . since the Carinthians report. that it rained down from the sky at the Cistercian monastery near Victringa. I gladly admit that at the beginning. In any case. contrary to the ancients. Indeed. when the earth’s mass was liquid. in the region of Venice. and earthquakes] I know that some suspect the earth was swollen by the bursting forth of the wind. a whirlwind snatched men away and carried lead roofs several thousand feet. came its youthful unevenness. on the islands of America. But nothing is more terrible than what. as has already been said. Byzantine emperor (717–741 CE). soon afterward. and when these springs ﬂow into mountain crevices and over rock salt or salt-laden earth. arose during the reign of Leo the Iconoclast.the Tyrolean Alps. and that mountains rose up from the plain. If their usual and regular course is interrupted. Recently. which swallow up the water and capsize boats. and islands erupted out of the sea. The origin of mountains and hills explained through waters. piling its waters into a heap and making it possible to walk across the dry riverbed. which in a short time spin in every direction of the compass and produce an immense wrestling match in the air. are called hurricanes. It is also plausible that real stones. with hardening. where the people of Hall extract it by bathing the soil with fresh water. were carried by the wind. I would also not deny that sometimes.
B: observavit. Sed idem passim tota Europa deprehendi constat. et manifesta sepulti animalis argumenta agnoscere.52 Et longe altiori loco. Et Figueroa. in Hannoverae et potissimum Hildesii latomiis et puteis. 58 p rot ogae a . Praestat rem ipsam intueri. Legatus Hispanus ad Schachabassum Persam. ex adverso Ibergi monte Hercyniae nostrae.[xxiii] Itaque ut caetera apud nos oceani vestigia prosequamur. prope Grundam. nec dubitavit vestigia maris fateri. insignis Medicus Brunvicensium et Hildesiensium. neque hujus loci est compilare pervulgata. oppidum metallicolarum. idemque juxta Alfeldam notari. in excelsis Caramaniae montibus Ostrea et durissimo caemento insertas velut suae Galloeciae conchas miratus est. 52. dicendum est de conchyliis. de nostris fossilibus. Sed eadem jam dudum veteres dixere. quibus passim et nostra saxa implentur. velut scopulus quidam (dictus Hupkenstein) sese attollit ex spathi genere (quale et Baumanni specus componit) in quo varia concreta conchylia visuntur. a quo plurima accepit Agricola. Jam olim Valerius Cordus. eademque juxta Alfeldam inveniri. fossisque ipsis et cellis observavit rem frequentem esse. marina in nostra regione frequentia esse. unde praestantissima ferri minera eruitur. Ormusio veniens.
graves. we have to speak about the shells that ﬁll our stones in various places. was amazed to ﬁnd oysters on the high mountains of Caramania56 and. But I ﬁnd it less reasonable that the mighty Alps could have risen out of the already solid earth through eruption. We know. in southern Turkey. Valerius Cordus. observed that this was common in our region. He did not hesitate to recognize them as vestiges of the sea. and this is not the place to compile things that are common knowledge. near the mining town of Grund. Since one or the other must have happened.after things ﬁrmed up. pr o t o ga e a 59 . 56. Figueroa. [xxiii. shells encased in the hardest cement. a small mountain was formed by an earthquake or by a volcanic eruption. wells. and especially of Hildesheim. it is much easier to believe that the waters sank of their own accord than that a huge part of the earth was raised so high with incredible violence. between 1614 and 1624. however. and he observed the same thing near Alfeld. At a much higher place. across from Mount Iberg in our Harz. Marine shells are found throughout our region and elsewhere] In order to continue with the other vestiges of the ocean in our region. there rises a cliff—the so-called Hupkenstein— made of a kind of spar (just like what holds together the Baumann Cave) in which one sees various petriﬁed shells. But it is well known that one ﬁnds the same thing in various places throughout Europe. where an excellent iron ore is excavated. To the north of Cyprus. Don Garcia de Silva y Figueroa served as the Spanish ambassador to Shah Abbas I. from whom Agricola received most of his knowledge about our fossils in the quarries. But the ancients already said the same thing long ago.55 the Spanish ambassador to the Shah of Persia. and cellars of Hannover. 55. King of Persia. as in his own Galicia. that one discovers the remnants of the sea even in them. coming from Hormuz. It is better to look upon the thing itself. and to recognize the obvious arguments of a buried animal. the distinguished physician of Brunswick and Hildesheim.
spinae. fracta et imperfecta apparent conchylia. ﬁlamentaque propagant. ne dubites extrorsum venisse. et cochleam. vel consumtum prorsus. minora tamen semper foramine echini. quae in unum saepe confusa spectantur: ita ut aliquando idem frustum lapidis ex Melita et echinum. quasi illic nata. Aliquando perfecta ﬁgura margae post induratae impressa testatur. deinde translatum videatur. et steriles arenae grumi componunt. turbines. in unum omnia cumulum pari fato collecta iisdem vinculis caementata cohaesisse. buccinae. quas curiosorum musea ostendunt. B: Primo igitur aspectu passim summa similitudo se prodit. conchylium forcipe premens. dentes manifeste imagines produnt nautili. Nec marga tantum. turbines. et fragmina conchyliorum intra echinum cum marga deprehensa. et milleporum. et omnia ad verum modum. animalium spoliis interstincti. 60 p r ot ogae a . lineamenta. histricis. ut in illis testis saxeis. ut species ipsas. propriaque ac saepe polita superﬁcie terminantur.[xxiv] Primo igitur aspectu passim summa similitudo se prodit. histricis et aliorum animalium marinorum. sed saepe totum saxum. insigni testimonio non ibi a natura. Testacea porro non saxo ingenita. spinae. valvae. ut facile intelligas. ceu curiosorum Musea ostendunt. echini marini. glarea et varii coloris lapilli. lineamenta. quod nunc vel pro parte tantum superest. 53. sed velut insulam faciunt sui juris. nautili. ut species ipsas. dentes animalium marinorum. atque ita omnia ad verum modum accurate referunt. buccini. aut certa terrae genera hos velut fructus ferunt. valvae. ut prius impletum. color. vertebrae. sed limo immista. Aliquando contusa. color. vertebrae. integrum fuisse prototypum. quae doctis aereae aut fallaces appellantur. Visus est astacus in saxo. dimidiata. sed a casu collocata esse. vel ipsa varietas eorum loquitur. antequam lapidi includerentur. Neque ossea illa corpora radices agunt in matricem saxeam. Aliquando materia inclusa conchylio ab ambiente diversa est. et dentem magni piscis ostendat.53 in Saxo advertas. Echini.
is evident from the confused variety of species that one often observes in the same place. cemented by the same bond. In one rock was seen a sea crab. and teeth of sea animals. striking evidence that they were not placed there by nature. but the whole stone is often ﬁlled out by gravel. was once complete. squeezing a shellﬁsh in its pincers. and they are bounded by their own. and the tooth of a large ﬁsh. the spines. folds. Sometimes the perfect shape. nor do they extend ﬁlaments as if they were born there. the same Malta stone sometimes reveals an urchin. a millepore. but they were always smaller than the urchin’s opening. or broken and imperfect before being enclosed in stone. not only by clay or other kinds of earth. cut in half. rather. You can easily see then that the same fate brought everything together in a single heap. the urchin. as is evident from their forms and positions] At ﬁrst glance. as they are shown in cabinets of curiosities. in the stone. but were mixed together with the mud. Thus. so that you see the species themselves. which now only remains partially. and one found shell pieces mixed with clay inside sea urchins. almost as if it was ﬁrst ﬁlled up and then carried away.[xxiv. Sometimes it appears that the shells were crushed. and the hystrix. a snail. And these bony bodies are not rooted in the stony matrix. twists. and all of it in true fashion. so that they could only have come in from the outside. or piles of barren sand. demonstrates that the prototype. often polished surfaces.] pr o t o ga e a 61 . small stones of various colors. Sometimes the material inside the shell is different from what surrounds it. That these shells did not arise in the rock. they form an island with its own law. printed in clay that hardened afterward. coils of the nautilus. vertebrae. [See ﬁg. of the trumpet. And these shells are borne like fruit. or has been entirely consumed. features. The various kinds of shells were not created inside the stone. 4. the most striking similarity is obvious everywhere: the color. but by chance. This is the case among those shells that scholars call airy or deceptive. checkered with the remains of animals.
62 p rot ogae a .
arguing that the animals represented by these petriﬁed shells. But Buffon also ventured beyond Leibniz by suggesting that they might be the remains of extinct animals. no longer found in the natural world. 5. Ammon’s Horns This engraving depicts various “Ammon’s horns.figure 4. The question of the nature. might be living in the ocean depths. 297). This unsigned engraving (plate 4 in Scheidt’s 1749 edition) was modeled on the sketches in Lachmund’s Oryktographia (Lachmund 1669. 34 –35).” today recognized as cephalopods. origin. Buffon took up Leibniz’s argument in his Histoire naturelle (1779. and disappearance (after they were recognized as animal remains) of Ammon’s horns was widely discussed during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. pr o t o ga e a 63 . vol.
ut similia credantur. Analysis diligentior ostendet. Ita cornua Hammonis. Nulla ergo ratio est. quasi balsamo conditum. B: aliquando. quas vel in orbe cognito. B: Cornua Ammonis. et in cellulas distingui. eo minus de origine dubitabis: neque enim refugiunt examen. (quoties scilicet a lapidea materia magis tecta. non rupea minus. et velut suturis consistere. quod apud incolas a Pygmaeis denominatur. 64 p r ot ogae a .) et aliqando54 margaritas intus repertas. Postremo prope Volaterram Tusciae. quas praebet mare. cur non eandem originem judicemus. Aegre sibi persuadent quidam. et diluvium omne non nisi a pluviis petunt. [xxvi] Quae contra ingerunt viri docti. ubi terra in lapidem versa est. in aceto quoque dissolvi. ut ludicra illa in marmoribus imitamenta hominum aut domorum.55 quae ex Nautilorum numero habeantur. passim et forma et magnitudine (nam et pedali diametro aliquando reperiuntur) ab omnibus illis naturis discrepare dicunt. vel saltem in vicinis locis frustra quaeras. sine ulla petriﬁcatione. aliquando magnae abyssi ruptos fontes exundasse. et prope Rhegium Calabriae manifestae cochleae nihil omnino mutationis praeferentes repertae sunt in terrae stratis. Alii mirantur in saxis passim species videri. parum gravant. 55. Quemadmodum et animalium spolia apud nos ex limo eruuntur in antro prope Scharzfeldam. quam penetrata sunt. mare in summis montibus fuisse. non satis considerantes. aut illic res marinas extitisse: Scilicet quia nimis ex praesenti facie aestimant veterem terrae vultum. quae ex longinquo spectare oportet. animalque ipsum in sua concha saxi succo.[xxv] Quanto exactius introspicies ipsas corporum partes. Sed quis absconditos ejus recessus aut subterraneas 54. quam littoralia testacea eodem texturae genere ex quibusdam crustis et ﬁlamentis.
Others wonder at the species one sees everywhere in stones. or that marine things were there. that they can also be dissolved in vinegar. unlike those playful imitations of people or houses in marble. and even the animal itself. See glossary. no less than those from the seashore. In ancient times. are composed of the same textures.57 which many consider a kind of nautilus. that they are divided into chambers. crusts. or at least in our local places. they bear up under scrutiny. Similarly. Some ﬁnd it hard to persuade themselves that the sea was on the highest mountains. Thus. and they would explain every ﬂood only by the rains. without considering enough that the springs of the great abyss once burst open and overﬂowed. so to speak. Obviously. they say that Ammon’s horns.[xxv. and. and they display absolutely no change and were not at all petriﬁed. nearby seas contained animals and shellﬁsh that are no longer found there] What the learned oppose to these observations carries little weight. The excavated shells and bones of marine animals can be identiﬁed as the parts of real animals] The more closely you observe these body parts. pr o t o ga e a 65 . There is thus no reason we should not assume the same origin where earth has turned to stone. they judge the earth’s ancient aspect too much by its present appearance. remains of animals are dug out of the mud in a cave near Sharzfeld that the locals call the Cave of Dwarves. insofar as they are covered with stony material more than penetrated by it. In fact. seams. whose likeness depends on seeing them from afar. for which you would seek vainly in the known world. as if it had been embalmed in its shell by the juice of the stone. A more careful examination will show that petriﬁed shells. The goatlike horns of Jupiter Ammon call to mind the spiral shape of these fossil cephalopods. in our region. Moreover one has found what are clearly shells in layers of the earth near Volterra in Tuscany and near Reggio in Calabria. ﬁbers. the less you doubt their origin. [xxvi. sometimes differ in form and size (for some have been found that are a foot 57. and that one sometimes ﬁnds pearls in them.
66 p r ot ogae a .
. 49–51). The engraving illustrated the process of petriﬁcation itself.figure 5. This fossil object was discovered in a gravel quarry. The shapes of the shells. are bound by their own. as Leibniz put it. were. pr o t o ga e a 67 . but “form an island with its own law. § XXIV). not themselves rooted in the stony matrix. This unsigned engraving (plate 5 in Scheidt’s 1749 edition) was modeled on Lachmund’s sketches (Lachmund 1669. as explained by Leibniz and Steno. The third image depicts a “stony mass with molds of grooved snails. . Petriﬁcations The ﬁrst two images illustrate a shell and its stony matrix. partly hidden and partly visible” (Lachmund 1669). often polished surface” (Protogaea. and . which ﬁts it like a mold. imprinted in clay that hardened later.
Raius.56 Sed de his amplius disquirit diligens naturae operum investigator Joh. Nec dubito in tanta rerum perturbatione ex longinquis oris saepe advecta maris spolia. Ita necesse fuit. quae advehebat. Qui baculi Sancti Pauli a Melitensibus appellantur. novo semper oneratoque spoliis afﬂuxu mox cis angustias ingentem marinarum rerum molem accumulari. destituit. In Hannover Ms XXIII. 57. quemadmodum in una Melita sub glossopetrarum nomine inﬁnitos marinorum canum dentes miramur. pl. cum nunc quoque constet. Anglus.abyssos pervestigavit? Quam multa nobis animalia antea ignota offert novus orbis? Et credibile est per magnas illas conversiones etiam animalium species plurimum immutatas. Prorsus quemadmodum in crystalliﬁcio salium diversorum in eodem liquido solutorum cognatis sine confusione adjungi videmus. Plerumque autem. Et quos illi serpentes 56. esse piscis lupi. ut arbitror. Et oculos serpentum apud eosdem. Cornua Ammonis nostra exhibet Lachmundus in fossilibus patriis. spinae sunt ad57 histricibus marinis avulsae et saxo inclusae. passim tempestates in littoribus ejicere genera conchyliorum. 4 appears here. quae motu ac pondere conspirabant. quae piscatores ex vicino mari non educunt. [xxvii] Postremo magis magisque in dies observationibus naturae consultorum vera lapidum prototypa deteguntur. Et quod immensa similium massa in uno loco concrevit. quem vocant lapidem. dentes quorundam piscium esse breves et rotundos compertum est. B: ab. unde ﬁguras huc transtulimus. ubi post multas agitationes ea potissimum collecta in unum deponi oportuit. aqua per angusta loca viam reperiens. non inepte aquarum vorticibus tribuas. 23b. 68 p rot ogae a . Jam superiore saeculo notatum est glossopetras esse dentes Lamiarum. Non ita pridem deprehensum accepi bufonium.
and not games of nature] The true prototypes of these stones are ﬁnally being uncovered more and more through the observations of natural philosophers. it is also well known that storms sometimes cast shells up onto the coasts of a kind that no ﬁshermen haul out of nearby seas. 33–35. Lachmund displays our Ammon’s horns in his Fossilia patria. the spoils of the sea were often carried from distant coasts. which 58. as in Malta. whose images we have reproduced here.59 Nor do I doubt that with such a great disturbance of things. though. we see how different salts dissolved in the same liquid come together without confusion. called glossopetrae. often left behind what it was carrying. What the Maltese call “St. Ray 1692. And what they believe to be snakes. 59. are the remains of marine animals.in diameter) from all other creatures found in the sea. It thus necessarily came to pass that. etc. on the basis of the combined action of movement and weight. where one admires endless sea dog teeth. an immense quantity of marine objects soon accumulated above the narrows. trochites. pr o t o ga e a 69 .58 But the careful English investigator of nature John Ray has examined these issues in greater detail. one attributes them not without reason to the whirlpools. those things are gathered and deposited in one place. Their “snake eyes” are the short. it was recognized that glossopetrae were sharks’ teeth. Already in the last century. Lachmund 1669.. Glossopetrae. given a ﬂow constantly renewed and always pregnant with remains. with crystallization. Paul’s sticks” are castoff sea urchin spines enclosed in stone. But who has thoroughly explored the ocean’s secret recesses and subterranean abysses? How many previously unknown animals did the New World give us? It is also conceivable that many animal species were transformed by these great upheavals. asterias. 4. I heard that the so-called toadstone was discovered to belong to the wolf ﬁsh somewhat later. Similarly. When an immense mass of similar objects is assembled in one place. Mostly. like attracting like. I think that the water. where. having found its way through narrow passages. [xxvii. See ﬁg. round teeth of some ﬁsh. after much agitation.
de quibus omnibus extant eruditorum conjecturae. sine usu. Paulo in saxa versos. et ex his conﬂatos Entrochos vertebris similes cum processibus seu apophysibus Lachmundus prope Hildesiam invenit. nitroque et sale de cornu cervi et regulo martis stellato. quantoquisque59 in observando diligentior. in granato.ipsos arbitrantur a D. Et suspicatur Gassendus. et cum natura familiarior fuit. sunt vermes marini incrustati. ut peritissimi viri merito animalium exuvias. in reliquis gemmis et ﬂuoribus. in vitriolo etiam et alumine. 59. Lapis est Asterias dictus. aut aliarum rerum reliquias putent obrutas. Lapides Iudaici piciformes apud Bethleem a peregrinatoribus notantur. ex spoliis atque incisuris qorundam58 vermium formari. quarum multae sibi impositae columellam striatam componunt. B: quorumdam. nosque ipsi satis credibile. Sunt et quaedam hujus generis. et communi sale. tum in sexangula nive. quam sanctam appellant. Valerius Cordus nostras meminit Iudaici lapidis vertebrae piscium similis. Etenim haec externis appositionibus commode explicantur. caeteramque omnem naturae inanimae geometriam. et in terra glutinosa inter Alfeldam et Einbeccam urbes. superfuisse. ubi et Cordus olim apud Agricolam vidit in commissuris marmoris e cinereo candidi. fecimus. Cuthberto cognominatus caudam animalis referens ex plurimis articulis continuatam. et variis mineris. nescio qua plastica facultate natas. qui ex insula affertur in littore Northumbriae. 70 p rot ogae a . 58. stellae pentagonae specimen referens. ut in crystallismo. ni fallor. ineptis matricibus. Sic lapis est Anglis a S. organica corpora sine exemplo. Nempe Trochitas quoque. nec facile persuaderi sibi patiantur. in apum alveolis. B: quanto quisque. praeter naturae consuetudinem in limo saxove. quae ad corallii articulati ramos saxo incrustatos referuntur. eo proniorem in nostram sententiam visum. pisces in scissili lapide ex veris animalibus velut ectypos. sine seminiis. Nam removere hinc oportet radiata quaedam corpora polygonorumque ﬁguras regulares in crystallis. [xxviii] Et sane plerumque video.
The learned have conjectures about all of these things. that the remains of animals or of other things have indeed been buried: they are reluctant to believe that organic bodies. who. according to Agricola. turns it into stone as punishment. when many of them are superimposed.St. together with swollen entrochites made of them and looking like vertebrae. 61. There are also other things of this kind which belong to the petriﬁed branches of articulated corals. Cuthbert. There is another stone called asterias.62 which displays a ﬁve-cornered star. with good reason. particularly with the traditional image of the St.60 The pilgrims ﬁnd pine-shaped Jewstones61 near Bethlehem. Paul. But if I am not mistaken.” See glossary. But it is wrong to include the polygonal shapes that can be found in crystals among these] The more careful in observation and familiar with nature people are. 60. have long been associated with local legends. [xxviii. to the point that the most experienced people think. as “the backbone of a ﬁsh. so named because of their abundance near Palestine. Paul turned to stone. they were used as medicine for the expulsion of kidney stones. reveals the tail of an animal with many articulated segments that are joined together.” 62. with their processes and apophyses. The term “asterias” does not refer here to starﬁsh but to trochites. or “wheelstones. are the fossil spines of large sea urchins. bitten by a snake. When crushed into powder. which comes from an island on the coast of Northumberland called the Holy Island. That is where. Marine fossils. Lachmund also found trochites near Hildesheim. 161–174. Valerius Cordus notes a Jewstone in our region which is like the backbone of a ﬁsh. the more they are inclined to adhere to our judgment. Similarly. the stone that the English named after St. Cordus once saw them in the cracks of ash-gray marble and also in claylike earth between the Alfeld and Einbeck.e. Leibniz here follows Agricola by interpreting this invertebrate fragment as the spine of a vertebrate. found in abundance on the island of Malta.. without precedent and without utility. we have made a plausible enough case that the ﬁsh in slate are the imprints of real animals. they form a little grooved column. i. Gassendi suspected that they were formed out of the remains and fragments of certain worms. Lapides judaicos. are petriﬁed marine worms. See Gould 2002. pr o t o ga e a 71 .
B: fabulasque: utpote qui. et Reginae Christinae admirationi fuit. quae post diligentem inquisitionem hactenus non nisi per similium seminia. credo quo melius ferirent. Apollinem cum Musis in Achate Pyrrhi. explosa putredine proliﬁca et quicquid generationis aequivocae non barbare minus. 61. partesque eorum in saxis vident. quam falso memorabatur. in clavae aut securis specimen formatos. sed et historias fabulasque60 Christum et Mosen. in Islebiensi petra. Neque enim animalia tantum. narratiunculis seducuntur. in crusta Bumannianae specus. 72 p r ot ogae a . aut Becherum. aliosque id genus credulos aut vanos scriptores de miris naturae lusibus et vi formatrice in magnam speciem verbis ornantur. Quidam campos integros ostendunt tibiis gigantum stratos.longeque ab operosiore illa structura animalium plantarumque absunt. velut praeformata nasci constat. quae apud Kircherum quendam. B: in marmore deprehendisse sibi visi sunt. icon visenda extabat. [xxix] Qui contra sentiunt. cum granis aureis intra uvas. alii aurum referunt ex vite Hungariae fruticescens. et plantas. His adde quas vocant iridis scutellas. et solem cum luna stellisque in marmore. Papam et Lutherum. quasi a coelesti arcu lapsas vel excussas: 60.61 Et meminimus vultus magnorum aliquot nostri temporis principum in una gemma ante aliquot annos passim monstratos ab Eilero Hamburgensi quodam ubi inprimis Alexandri VII. et lapides passim celebrant cum tonitru dejectos. quantum hominibus observare datum est.
which invents things alien to truth. Cf. For these things can be explained easily by external contiguity.without seeds and against the rules of nature. about which one knows. 63. when examined carefully. such as Christ and Moses on the walls of the Baumann Cave. and the sun. 6. and myths. of garnets and other gems. who describe the wonderful games of nature and its formative power. and of other credulous or vain writers of this sort. and stars in marble. 8. bk. star regulus of Mars. moon. Some people speak of entire plains spread with the leg bones of giants. also hexangular snowﬂakes and beehives. that until now they have only arisen from the preformed seeds of similar beings. one could admire the inscribed portraits of Alexander VII and Queen Christine. Apollo with the muses in the agate of Pyrrhus. [xxix. plants. and of various ores. The notion of productive putrefaction and everything that was said. about spontaneous generation have been overthrown. In which a certain lazy ingenuity. 2. of ﬂuorspars. arose in the earth or in stone—as in some absurd womb—through some kind of plastic faculty. common salt. as far as human observation can ascertain. For one should exclude certain radiated bodies and the regular polygonal shapes of crystals. and all the other geometry of inanimate nature. the pope and Luther in the stone of Eisleben. with grains of gold among the grapes. but fables. after careful examination. no less barbarous than false. 64. all embellished with a great display of words. is rejected] Whoever believes the contrary is seduced by the fairy tales of Kircher or Becher. pr o t o ga e a 73 . as in crystallization.63 In fact. saltpeter. hartshorn salt. chaps.64 We recall that a few years ago. bk. Becher 1681. and parts of these. Kircher 1664. stories. bk. what they see in stones are not so much animals. Agricola 1546. vitriol. Others report that gold sprouted from the vines in Hungary. a certain Eiler of Hamburg displayed the faces of some of the great princes of our time in a gem in which. and they often speak about stones that tumble down with thunder and are shaped like a club or an ax. alum. But they are far different from the more artful structures of animals and plants. 8 –9.
Quibus pictorem doctum oppono. videbis inaequali discursu varias rerum formas simulari. Caeteroqui rudia passim lineamenta. Solent superstitiosae mulierculae certo anni die ovum exonerare in cyathum vitreum aqua plenum. ut eam factam a Scopa diceres. quod quotidie colunt. vana spe divinandi. B: afﬁxum. 62. aut vident. In nostro monte S. Sed haec imaginationis judicia sunt. Quod si mox. multa talia ostentata sibi. non dissimilem rebus ﬁguram aliquando apparere. quam vocant. qui nuper libello edito asseveravit. cum contra in veris exuviis. 74 p rot ogae a . res sibi lautas spondent. et. fodina Samsonis nomine. supplet credulitas. Et subtilius artiﬁcium circumforanei habent. velut domuncularum species. Et alia fodina. Plerumque etiam ars adjuvat naturam. si duae tabulae politae subito invicem distrahantur. longitudine digiti. inquit. quibus Crollii imaginatio in rerum signaturis ludit. ut nunquam perfecte veritatem casus imitetur. eo manifestiora origines argumenta suppeditentur. Itaque ad genios superiores in formis saxorum jocantes cum doctissimo quodam viro (Conring) confugere. ut crescendo ipsa sese in hominis speciem absolvat. ex argento hominem cunicularium praebuit habitu fossoris. liquorem impositum velut ﬂores delineasse. Andreae. portantem alveum metallo plenum. quos Mandragoram. et illis similia. ut saepe ﬁt. cui nomen a Gratia Dei. cruci ﬁxum62 Salvatorem cum spinea corona ex puro argento elaboratum exhibuisse fertur. Christianis et fossoribus facile occurrit animo. Sic enim profecto se res habet. eo longius a similitudine abfuisse. suam ita praeformare ex bryoniae radice scimus. at non talem. totiesque deceptum se magniﬁcis narrantium verbis non facile amplius ﬁdem habere. quo scrutabere diligentius. Sed sapienter Romanae eloquentiae princeps: Credo.ﬁcta pleraque aut semivisa. Adimitur aliquid ubi addi non potest. quae nunc quoque colitur. Ita si ligneae tabulae oleosum humorem illinas. aut turrium in aqua apparent. quae casus formavit. sed quanto attentius aspiceres. non oculorum. ne lepidae narrationis argumentum pereat. nihil necesse est.
one is supposed to have discovered our Savior on the cross with a crown of thorns.65 To these you can add the so-called cups of Iris. physician and hermetic philosopher. with which Crollius’s imagination plays. Most of these are ﬁctions or things half seen. 66. which are supposed to have fallen. In our St. naturalist. pr o t o ga e a 75 . We know that traveling merchants have an especially clever trick: they prepare their so-called mandragora from bryony root. they promise themselves riches.the better to strike. were believed to have fallen from the sky. painter. human art helps nature to concoct an appealing story. as often happens. the liquid placed on them will trace something like ﬂowers. what they worship or see everyday comes easily to the mind. Oswaldus Crollius (1560–1608). though he had been shown many such things. the more carefully and thoroughly one examines them. called God’s Grace. credulity ﬁlls in the rough outlines shaped by accident. and author of the widely read and translated book La vana speculazione disingannata dal senso (1670). so that it forms itself into the shape of a man as it grows. And if. something like an image of little houses or towers soon appears in the water. fashioned of pure silver. Similarly. wrote the Treatise of Signatures of Internal Things.66 To these I oppose a learned painter. But these are products of the imagination. even when one has been misled so many times by the magniﬁcent words of those who tell these stories that it is not easy to retain one’s faith. Agostino Scilla (1639–1700). before they were identiﬁed as ﬂint axes Cf. Superstitious little women like to break an egg into a glass full of water on a certain day of the year. 67. I think a form 65. the more carefully one observed them. or been shaken out of.67 With true remains. dressed in his miner’s uniform and carrying a basket full of metal. rainbows. and similar to the signatures of things. Often. if you smear a wooden tablet with oily liquid. Laming-Emperaire 1965. But as the prince of Roman eloquence wisely says. who declared in a recently published book that. Something is taken away when it is not possible to add anything. the clearer are the arguments furnished for their origin. For Christians and miners. Andreasberg. Another mine. yielded a ﬁnger-sized miner of silver. in a mine by the name of Samson that is still in operation today. I believe. on the contrary. “Thunder-stones. As for the rest. the more tenuous the similarity.” or ceraunia. you will see the shapes of various things in the uneven streaking of the oil. And if two polished tablets are suddenly separated from one another. not the eyes. in the vain hope of divining the future.
non intellecta vulgo appellatio) atque in Italia primum exercitam serius in Germaniam penetrasse: satis manifestum arbitror. qui peculiarem libellum impendit. nec aut Corneri chronicon vetus.63 Ibi ergo accidit subinde. recentes satis (si quae fuissent) aluminis Luneburgici ofﬁcinas esse debere. (unde aluminis Roccae. 64.64 nullas fuisse. B: pluviae denique per aliquod tempus et soli exposita. nisi profundior actisque cuniculis effossa. et humido probe irrigata. Itaque prope Luneburgum ad radices montis. aut ebur et lignum fossile. trochoides. brontiae. aut potius. Agricola aliique eum secuti ex fodinis aluminis Luneburgenses Glossopetras petunt: sed has ager iste omnis ignorat.[xxx] Quoniam autem Glossopetrae Luneburgicae inprimis celebrantur. et tantum non alicubi sabulosa. non intempestive dabimus aliquid descriptioni earum. qualis apud Georgium Agricolam describitur. ineditum aut alia loci monumenta aluminis uspiam meminere. et annotantium diligentiam non efugisset. utemurque observationibus viri eruditi. donec pluviae solique exposita et humido probe irrigata lentescat. 63. B: effugisset. Et cum constet ejus coquendi artem vix trecentis abhinc annis a Rocca Syriae in Europam rediisse. cui lateraria ofﬁcina superstructa est. turbines. terra est salsuginosa sive aluminosa. illustre Oceani terras operientis monumentum. ut a fossoribus in terrae visceribus meatibusque conchylia et unicornu. nec ad lateres ducendos apta. nec modum aluminis parandi novit. post Melitenses. 76 p r ot ogae a . quod vocant. ac Glossopetrae denique reperiantur. nec pinguis adeo. sed macra. quia res propinqua et celebris memoriam hominum.
Hermann Körner. almost sandy. and that it was ﬁrst 68. De divinatione. it often happens there that miners ﬁnd shells. and ﬁnally glossopetrae in the viscera and veins of the earth. In this reﬂection on glossopetrae. Leibniz follows a long tradition that started in the Italian Renaissance and culminated in Steno’s demonstration (Steno 1667) that so-called petriﬁed snake tongues were sharks’ teeth (after he dissected the head of a shark). 1. at the foot of a mountain upon which a brickworks has been built. it is thin. turbines. along with those from Malta. in higher powers that play their jokes in the shapes of stones. and moistens it properly until it toughens. Thus. little known in his lifetime. and thus unsuitable for making bricks. that chance never perfectly imitates truth. unless one digs the earth out of deeper shafts. pr o t o ga e a 77 . toadstones.68 And this is the way things are. Where can the Lüneburg glossopetrae be found?] Since the glossopetrae of Lüneburg. it will not be inappropriate for us to offer a description of them. 71. Steno’s dissertation. trochoids. as a certain learned man (Conring) does. Agricola and those who follow him seek glossopetrae in Lüneburg’s alum mines. Scopas was a Greek sculptor of the late classical period. nor do the old unpublished chronicles of Cornerus71 or other records from this region mention alum anywhere. is viewed today as a classic of early paleontology. See Morello 1979. One does not know how to prepare alum there. 70. [xxx. born 1402 in Lübeck. It is well known that the art of alum roasting came to Europe hardly three hundred years ago from Rocca in Syria (hence the name. what they call unicorn or fossil ivory and wood. exposes it to the rain and sun. 69. 70 But that whole region lacks such mines. bk. are especially renowned for providing clear evidence that the ocean once covered the earth.not dissimilar to real things sometimes appears. but never such that one could say it was produced by a Scopas. using the observations of a learned man who has produced a special pamphlet on the question. alumen rocae. 6. Agricola 1546. the earth is salty or aluminous and not as rich as Georgius Agricola described it. Cicero. Instead. which is commonly misunderstood). This is why it is not at all necessary to seek refuge.69 Near Lüneburg. bk.
quem de his scripsisse dixi. maxillam piscis consumtam tempore. longiusque provecti. scabra. cum dentibus inﬁxis. Praeterea pronum est. ut jam Agricola noster observavit. quod maxillae ipsae non comparent. 7 appears here. atque introrsum versus gulam ﬂexi. id est fossili dente. quales interdum terrestrium animalium ex Baumanni antro aut Scharzfeldensi specu eruuntur. Nostris fere nigricans aut subcineritius. interdum nudae. 23b. In Hannover Ms XXIII. sed pici potius. aut canum marinorum dentes esse. ut vulgo volunt. Et quemadmodum in his animalibus dentes plurimi incurvi sunt. ita in Glossopetris. etiamsi una mansissent. 6 appears here.[xxxi] Glossopetrae autem Luneburgenses nihil a Melitensibus differunt. Linguam repraesentant non serpentis. aut vi ambientis. nam serratae persaepe comparent in margine. nec ut illae in saxo. agnosci posse Scylla pictor notarit. Caput etiam canis carchariae ex Stenonis delineatione cum dentibus subjiciemus in comparationem. In Hannover Ms XXIII. contra postica et crassior ad radices. quasi cornea. Lamiarum dentes non aeque in ore ﬁrmos esse. ut dextra. cetacei generis piscium. qui Lamiarum dentes videre. pl. pl. credo ab ambiente. credere. Interim ossa marinarum 65. vix jam amplius dubitatur.66 Nec mirum esse debet. mollior est. quam nihil intersit. 78 p r ot ogae a . sed membranae tantum haerere. dentes prae caeteris animalis partibus inprimis aevum ferre. Itaque evulsi motu aquarum. 23b. Pars acuminata. arbitrentur. Nam et in sepulcris constat. maxillas suas facile deseruere. obscuriorque. ut in ipsis animalibus. Variant forma. spongiosa. Color diversus. et nostrarum et Melitensium. nisi quod minores nostrae esse solent. 66. ipso oculorum judicio.65 ut. laevis et polita et dura est. an sinistra parte sederint. Placet ﬁguras subjicere. eadem ﬁgura apparet. Lamiarum. Nam dudum observatum est a curiosis. etsi aliter sentiat vir doctus. sed in terra.
which is thicker toward the root. 6. that there never were any. what is even more likely. It is therefore possible. are not found in stones but in the ground. I think. See ﬁg.72 One hardly doubts any more that they are teeth from some kind of whaleﬁsh or from sea dogs. They do not look like a snake’s tongue. has written about them—sees it differently. would have to be very recent. as our Agricola has already noted. as the common people claim. The pointed end is smooth and hard. bk. like horn. by way of comparison. I would like to append images of our glossopetrae and of the Maltese. And just as these animals have mostly curved teeth that are turned toward the inside of their mouths. just as with the animals themselves. but 72. for the edges of the glossopetrae are often jagged and sometimes smooth. spongy. to recognize whether they sat on the right or on the left. with fossil teeth. as the painter Scilla noted. so it is with glossopetrae. that one sometimes digs out of the Baumann or Sharzfeld caves. from a drawing by Steno [ﬁg. pr o t o ga e a 79 . One should not wonder that the jaws themselves are unlike those of land animals. Ours are often blackish or almost gray. 6. unlike the latter.practiced in Italy and entered Germany later. since something so prominent and so recent would not have escaped human memory and the careful attention of chroniclers. rough and darker. I am therefore quite certain that any alum workshops in Lüneburg. with the teeth still planted in them. the head of a great shark with its teeth. as I said. Their color varies. 7]. is softer. but the back end. For it has long since been observed by the inquisitive that sharks’ teeth are not ﬁrmly ﬁxed in their mouths. from their surroundings. Glossopetrae are sharks’ teeth] The Lüneburg glossopetrae do not differ from the Maltese. except that ours are usually smaller and.73 I would also like to append. Their shapes vary. so that whoever has seen shark teeth can testify as an eyewitness that there is no difference. [xxxi. if there ever were any. 73. which stems. that is. but rather like that of a woodpecker. even if the learned man—the one who. Agricola 1546. or.
80 p rot ogae a .
The issue ﬁgured prominently. in which this discovery was communicated (Protogaea. thus providing evidence that the ocean had once covered the earth (Protogaea. depicts glossopetrae from various places—Malta (a). and Lüneburg (c)—with engravings based on the original specimens. a more unusual tooth from Lüneburg. a shell from Lüneburg. Ghent (b). of dark color.” pr o t o ga e a 81 . such as “(e).” and “(f ). Leibniz referred to Steno’s “A Carcharadon-Head Dissected” (1669). This ﬁgure (plate 6 in Scheidt’s 1749 edition). Nicolaus Steno demonstrated that glossopetrae. signed by the engraver Nicolaus Seelander. Glossopetrae When he dissected the head of a shark in 1666. because glossopetrae were often found in landlocked places like Lüneburg.figure 6. §XXX). and tube shells (Entalia) from Lüneburg. It also displays other specimens with some similarity to glossopetrae. traditionally regarded as petriﬁed snakes’ tongues. were sharks’ teeth. In Protogaea. §XXXI).
82 p rot ogae a .
The Great Shark Leibniz chose this illustration for Protogaea. pr o t o ga e a 83 . The image. suggests the importance of Steno’s work for Leibniz. which appeared in Nicolaus Steno’s “A Carcharadon-Head Dissected” (1669). Leibniz pointed out that. shark’s teeth were “not ﬁrmly ﬁxed in their mouths” (Protogaea. even though it was quite fanciful.figure 7. §XXXI). Steno himself borrowed this image (plate 7 in Scheidt’s 1749 edition) from a sixteenth-century manuscript by Michele Mercati. Nicolaus Seelander made the ﬁnal engraving. which appeared later under the title Metallotheca vaticana (1717). demonstrating the organic origin of glossopetrae by representing them both inside the shark’s mouth and outside it. This explained why individual glossopetrae were often found. unlike the teeth of land animals. based on Steno.
84 p rot ogae a . quam ad dentifricia. quod ex contusis pulvis duritie sua. auro argentoque inclusam hanc. Ex omnibus autem Glossopetrae usibus nullum certiorem arbitror. ac dens denti minus noxius videatur. 67. nescio quas. Glossopetras tamen non a terra tantum ambiente. quod ebur fossile. quod gammarorum lapilli oculiformes. aggredi ac sorbere. atque ita liberatis spiritibus movere sudorem deprehenduntur. sed et Melitenses publicis programmatibus venditant. sed et per se posse arbitror. et D. pustulisque ab acri humore excitatis mederi. contra fascinationes. B: vis quaedam Medica iis negari nequit. Inde passim reperias. B: ut ab illis. [xxxii] Porro Glossopetrae magni in Medicina usus habentur. et dentes ex Scharzfeldensi specu eruti. etiam virtute eminere arbitrentur. sed et in salutem mortalium verterit. Scilicet non tantum colicae et faucium erosioni. et materia Medica fabulis inﬂata. naturae inimicum. quem non tantum veteres praedicarunt. et quadam asperitate commendetur.69 quae deinde a credulis usque adeo in majus attollitur.beluarum cum dentibus piscium in Luneburgensi agro aliquando fuisse effossa Agricola in literas67 retulit. ut ita dicam. linguis in lapidem alexipharmacum mutatis. ut jam quae malignitati lentae restistunt. Inde tot de viribus gemmarum narrationes. sive ut collo appendatur. qui serpentum non exarmarit tantum vim noxiam. totaque Germania expetiti in Medicinam. sed et intus acidum. Paulo adscribunt. quod cornu cervi. B: litteras. 68. inﬁmam gemmarum. belluarum. communi errore in naturalium rerum arbitrio civiliumque. etiam praesentissimum venenum in poculo obtundere aut prodere credantur. ut quicquid specie aliqua praestat. Unde vis quaedam medica. sive ut a68 scypho insertis antidotum bibatur contra venena. Ita scilicet facti homines. 69.
Paul. [xxxii. as Leibniz claimed. the eye-shaped stones of crabs. in graves. and promote sweat by liberating breath. 75. They not only heal colic. Still. Agricola reported in his letters that the bones of sea monsters with ﬁsh teeth had been dug up in the area around Lüneburg. which has been so ex74.74 Thus. pr o t o ga e a 85 . canis carcharias.only hanging by the skin. In this section Leibniz uses various terms for sharks. they could be used. From this come many stories about the powers of gemstones and also materia medica exaggerated by fables. As petriﬁed snakes’ tongues. The medical use of glossopetrae] Moreover glossopetrae have great use in medicine. while canis carcharias and lamia referred to larger animals like the great white. or placed in a cup as an antidote to poisons. they also attack and absorb the inner acid. torn out by the motion of the water and carried far away. one often ﬁnds this lowest of gemstones. coming not only from the surrounding soil but also from themselves. even if they had remained whole. Hence. a medical interpretation that still relies on the doctrine of analogy or signatures. by changing snakes’ tongues into a stone with healing powers. The term “sea dog” was used to denote smallersharks. a belief justiﬁed by the Maltese legend of St. it possesses excellence as well—a common error in matters of nature and of state. who not only destroyed the harmful power of the snakes but even turned it to the beneﬁt of mortals. From this stems a certain healing power. and lamia. glossopetrae were considered antidotes to poisons and animal bites. For it is human nature to believe that if something looks remarkable. Later identiﬁed as shark teeth. I nevertheless believe that glossopetrae have the same capacity. which are demanded for medicine in all of Germany. and the teeth excavated from Sharzfeld Cave. to clean teeth. teeth last much longer than all other animal parts. as hartshorn. including canis marinus (sea dog). who was said to have trasformed snakes into stone. it is easy to believe that the jaws would have been devoured by time or by the force of their environs. which is hostile to nature. Besides. which not only was proclaimed by the ancients but is also advertised by the Maltese in published pamphlets. they easily become separated from their jaws. sore throat and the little blisters caused by sharp juices. fossil ivory. encased in gold or silver to be hung around one’s neck against all kinds of magic arts. For it is also well known that.75 They attribute it to St. as I would like to call it. Paul.
pl. quae Germanis Ossifraga dicitur. id est Carchariae dentem peculiariter exposuimus. dactyli etiam idaei appellantur. 72. Sed quia generatim de marinis exuviis lapide inclusis diximus. qua ﬁt. See “Introduction. De Osteocolla. observatis: (p. 40 Strombites etc. crassitie brachii. ad p. placet et lapides nostri tractus conchyliis foetos exhibere. 41 Lachmanni) 70. 8 appears here. et ossis specie cum inclusa velut medulla reperitur prope Alfeldam.” xiii. praesertim cum pellucet. et Glossopetram. Alpschos. comperendinare adhuc malim. cui Oryctographiam Hildesheimensem debemus. Figura est sagittae. Medici quidam Lyncurium nominant.71 De cornu Hammonis dictum est supra. In arena reperitur forma interdum corallii. quod contra noctis ludibria et oppressiones valere dicantur. ut suspicio sit. ut facilius in longitudinem difﬁndantur. 86 p rot ogae a . ex72 diligentis in vicinia Medici. Beinbruch. Saxonibus composita voce ab Ephialte et sagitta. intus terram. et saepe cornu ustum olet. In Hannover Ms XXIII. Paleas ut succinum allicit. B: ex Friderici Lachmanni. 71. and the appendix.[xxxiii]70 Belemnitae sunt lapides a jaculo dicti. arenam aut alium lapidem claudit. intervenisse aliquid ex animali regno. nam ex ampla radice plerumque in aciem desinunt. passim prope Hildesiam et prope Neostadium ad Leinam inveniri. 23b. Et jam diximus. fere omnibus a natura inest quaedam quasi rima. Nitet plerumque ut cornu.
In petrifactions. like amber. Some doctors call them “lynx stones. because they are said to be powerful against the illusions and oppressions of the night. here and there around Hildesheim and near Neustadt on the Leine River. the sufﬁx “-ite” indicated something stony. Leibniz.” especially when they are transparent. In English. goes beyond resemblance in attempting to identify the actual origin of these different objects. the powder from crushed teeth is recommended because of a certain hardness and roughness. Almost all of them have by nature a kind of inner cleft. 77. they were often just called “ﬁnger stones. etc. internally it encloses earth.79 One ﬁ nds them. ␤´.” 78.77 They are also called “ﬁ ngers of Ida.”78 The Saxons call them “Alpschos. [xxxiii. From the Greek. Belemnites. According to the doctrine of analogy. These objects puzzled naturalists until they were recognized in the nineteenth century as the skeletons of an extinct species of cephalopod resembling a squid.aggerated by the credulous that they believe what can withstand a slow malady would also weaken or reveal the strongest poison in a cup. But of all the uses of glossopetrae.” a word combining nightmare and arrow. or another stone in itself. and because tooth against tooth seems the least harmful. and fossil ivory] Belemnites76 are stones named after the javelin. ctenites resemble combs. They have the shape of an arrow. Belemnites resemble javelins. mostly with a wide root ending in a point. so one might suspect that something from the animal kingdom has 76. sand. which makes it easy to split them lengthwise. I believe none is more reliable than for cleaning teeth. or “dart. smooth cylindrical and oblong fossils. It usually glistens like horn and often smells like burnt horn. while the root of the word denoted what the object resembled (without asserting anything about its actual essence). Belemnite attracts straw. however. osteocolla.” 79.” since they were viewed as coagulated lynx urine. pr o t o ga e a 87 . shell-ﬁlled stones. were also called “lynx stones. as we already said. trochites look like wheels. Belemnites. they were considered helpful in breaking up kidney stones and were believed to help against nightmares and witchcraft.
88 p r ot ogae a .
See the appendix. §XXXIII). or “lynx stones. This unsigned engraving (plate 8 in Scheidt’s 1749 edition) was modeled on the sketches in Lachmund’s Oryktographia (Lachmund 1669. Belemnites This engraving presents a series of belemnites.) Leibniz guessed that these “ﬁngers of Ida” came from the animal kingdom. (See Huxley 1880. on the basis of some of their physical properties (Protogaea. belemnites puzzled naturalists.” Until the nineteenth century. 26 –28).figure 8. pr o t o ga e a 89 . when they were recognized as the internal skeletons of extinct cephalopods.
90 p r ot ogae a .
myites. The plate was reproduced from Lachmund (1669). mussels. petriﬁed. and oysters). trumpetlike shells. Shells in Stone This engraving depicts a number of shell-ﬁlled stones and other petriﬁcations. 43– 46).figure 9. a town many miles from the sea. §XXXIII). and ostracites (that is. It provided a visual demonstration of the large number of seashells present in and around Hildesheim. to whom we owe the Hildesheim Oryktographia” (Protogaea. The unsigned engraving (plate 3 in Scheidt’s 1749 edition) was modeled on sketches from Oryktographia (Lachmund 1669. Lachmund provided a detailed key to the engraving (see the appendix). It includes images of stony conchites. pr o t o ga e a 91 . whom Leibniz described as “a diligent physician from the region.
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see the appendix. . Lachmund’s plate. a kind of petriﬁed aquatic snail. . “it runs from wide to thin and ends in a spiral wound from the right. showed a wide variety of shells collected within a single stony matrix. Strombites This engraving depicts a wide array of “strombites. demonstrating once again that they “did not arise in the rock. For Lachmund’s original key to the images. §XXIV). 40). pr o t o ga e a 93 . This unsigned engraving (plate 9 in Scheidt’s 1749 edition) is modeled on sketches from the Oryktographia (Lachmund 1669. later reproduced in Protogaea. sometimes nine inches long.figure 10. and in a new part of the city when digging the cellars where wine and beer are usually kept” (Lachmund 1669. It is found in the quarries of Galgenberg. but were mixed together with the mud” (Protogaea. As Lachmund explained.” that is. 45– 48). Sometimes it is short. .
94 p r ot ogae a .
This unsigned engraving (plate 10 in Scheidt’s 1749 edition) was modeled on sketches from the Oryktographia (Lachmund 1669. its round part is smooth. For Lachmund’s original key to the images. pr o t o ga e a 95 . 53–55). the trochite has “the shape of a wheel. later identiﬁed as the joints of fossil crinoids. and from the center of its cross section spokes reach toward the outside of the disk. and they jut out so much that grooves are created” (Lachmund 1669. Trochites This engraving shows a selection of trochites. see the appendix. just like those of a wheel. 52). As Lachmund noted.figure 11.
(a p. 9. B: belluarum. 3. 41. aliquando non tam ex Elephanti cornu esse. neutiquam ibi nata. 96 p r ot ogae a . sed translata illuc ex Oceano. inquit. See the appendix. violentia aquarum. mon73. ex specubus nostris celeberrimis. aut similis de Phocarum ingentium genere animalis (Walrossen). et candoris servantiores censentur. 52 ad p. In Hannover Ms XXIII.Sequuntur ﬁgurae cum adjecta explicatione qualicunque:73 (I. placet tamen hic oculis nostrates subjicere. loco prope Luneburgum erui dictum est. 74. et parati ex dentibus capuli eburnis etiam praestantiores. Medicus Hildesiensis. pls.) Quanquam autem de Trochitis et multos Trochitas continente Entrocho aliquid jam ante attigerimus. and 10 appear in the insterted Lachmund text that follows this phrase.74 aliorumque ignoti orbis animalium ossa integra frequenter erui. Baumanniano et Scharzfeldensi marinarum beluarum. p. ad p. 56) Ebur quoque fossile eodem. [xxxiv] Conringius mihi testis erit. quorum greges in Oceano Septentrionali piscatoribus balaenarum occurrunt. Balaenae vertebram petriﬁcatam in Musaeo habuit laudatissimus Lachmundus. 23b. Ac de ebore quidem suspicio venit. quo Glossopetrae aliaque marina. 50 ﬁn. quam a Rosmari dente. Conchites cinereus striatus etc. Equi scilicet marini. Et vero possim ego.
which the Germans call Beinbruch. see the appendix.. professor of law in Helmstedt. 56)83 It is also said that fossil ivory is extracted near Lüneburg. 5. suggesting that it may sometimes come not from elephants but from rosmarian teeth. and about entrochites that contain several trochites. bk. to whom we owe the Hildesheim Oryktographia: (see p. pr o t o ga e a 97 . coral-shaped and as thick as an arm. and which one ﬁ nds near Alfeld in the form of bones that contain something like marrow. 81.. I would also like to describe the shell-ﬁlled stones of our region on the basis of the observations of a diligent physician from our neighborhood. and 10. who also made signiﬁcant contributions to politics and medicine. Conchites cinereus striatus. [xxxiv. Lachmund 1669. 84. Agricola  1955. 11. to p. 41 to the end of p. on p.intervened [ﬁg 8]. 9. One sometimes ﬁ nds them in the sand. 41 in Lachmund)81 There follow the ﬁgures together with explanations: (I. 83. 52 to p. sharks’ teeth) in particular. skulls. But since we have spoken in general about seashells enclosed in stone. had the petriﬁed vertebra of a whale in his museum. 50)82 Although we already said something earlier about trochites. See ﬁgs. Hermann Conring (1606 –1681). I would nonetheless like to offer those of our region here for observation. etc. etc. For Lachmund’s accompanying text. and since we explained glossopetrae (that is. 5. Cf. and teeth found in our region] Conring84 will be my witness that entire bones of sea monsters and of other animals from an unknown world are often excavated from our 80. schools of which are seen by the whale hunters in the Northern Ocean. jaws. physician at Hildesheim. But some doubts have been raised regarding ivory. a kind of very large seal (Walrossen). (from p. For Lachmund’s accompanying text. 40. Bones. are valued because they are even more prestigious and keep their white color better. 82. I would prefer to withhold judgment about osteocolla. For it is clear that sword hilts made of ivory teeth from the marine horse or a similar animal. See ﬁg. from the same place as glossopetrae and other marine bodies. see the appendix.80 Ammon’s horn was spoken of above. The very esteemed Lachmund. strombites.
malim Conringio assentiente vastae inundationes colluviem credere. quos apud Mexicum effossos tradunt. Moschis Mammotekoos dici. peregrina animalia ad nos undarum vi advecta esse.76 Sive olim latius sparsa per orbem fuerint haec animalia. qualis erat in Hierapoli Syriae hiatus immensae profunditatis apud Lucianum de Dea Syria. 98 p rot ogae a . Idem de ponderosis illis dentibus dixerim. sive aquarum impetu longissime a patria abrepta credamus. In quo diluvii aquas absorptas narrabant Sacerdotes. deseruere in vestibulis. cum nulli hodie in America Elephanti deprehendantur. Nec tamen obstinate obnuerim. quam hodie. quando aquae per angusta foramina et specuum exitus aditum in subterranea reperientes. nisi magna parte humoris subterraneis locis recepta. Verisimillimum enim est. quo tempore huc Oceanus perveniebat. qualia esse potuerunt haec antra. et populi credebant. vera Elephantorum ossa reperiri. Quales forte fuerint. B: belluarum. mutata aut ipsorum aut soli natura. Witsenius tradit. orbem aquis mersum naturaliter detegi non potuisse. quae alius animalis. Addit talia ossa interdum et rapida vi Leinae ﬂuvii egesta esse. 76. Itaque nihil prohibet. in quem stato anni die vicinae gentes certatim aquam quasi impleturae frustra fundebant.strare volentibus et crania et maxillas inferiores belluarum cum insertis dentibus. nam ad Rosmarum referri posse. paulo ante judicavi. ut penitus tollatur error de dentibus ex terra natis. Cum vero terrestrium quoque animantium spolia deprehendantur. quasi beluarum75 ossa. quanquam Elephanti dentibus minus ﬁdam. 75. Et vero Phocarum et Narwallorum greges stabulari simul constat in cavitatibus litoralium scopulorum. quae advehebant. certe velut partem tibiae ex Scharzfelsae antro vidi. B: Certe dentes et velut partem tibiae aliaque ossa ex Scharzfeldensi antro vidi. quam Elephanti esse nemo dixerit. qui ad Elephantum referuntur. sive olim latius sparsa per orbem fuerint haec animalia.
85. bk. pouring water in as if they wanted to ﬁll it. the neighboring peoples competed. when the ocean stretched to here. they deposited what they were carrying at the gate. chap. however. Since. show anyone who wishes the skulls and lower jaws of huge animals. He adds that such bones were also sometimes ejected by the swift force of the Leine River. was the ﬁrst in Western Europe to report about the mammoth from northern Asia in his travel narrative Noord en Oost Tartaryen (1692). I could. 7. and the people believed it. as Witsen reports. completely submerged underwater. could not have reemerged naturally unless a great part of the water was absorbed by underground spaces. Cf. that they could be attributed to a walrus. saw something like part of a shinbone dug out of Scharzfeld Cave. I just stated above. since no elephants are found in America today. and that the Muscovites call Mammotekoos as the bones of large animals. carried there by the violence of the waters. like these caves also might have been at that time. Burnet 1681. the vestiges of terrestrial animals are also found. pr o t o ga e a 99 .85 Nevertheless. We can assume either that these animals were once more widely distributed across the globe than today. in order to refute the false notion that teeth are born in the earth. I prefer to believe. The teeth that reportedly have been unearthed in Mexico are probably of the same kind. because their own nature or the nature of the ground has changed. I will not completely deny that real elephant bones are found. 1. I would also say the same about those massive teeth that are attributed to elephants. They did not arise in those places but came from the ocean. that they were brought together by a great ﬂood. so he says. It is well known that schools of seals and narwhals gather together in the caves of seaside cliffs. Of this kind was the incredibly deep ﬁssure in Syrian Hierapolis. I certainly have less faith in the elephant teeth. mentioned by Lucian in de dea Syria. on a certain day of the year.most famous caves: Baumann and Scharzfeld. so that when the waters found an entrance to the underworld through narrow holes and openings of caves. It is in fact very likely that the earth. or that they have been carried very far from their homeland by the strength of the waters. I in any case.86 The priests said that this abyss had swallowed the waters of the Great Flood. Nicolas Witsen. with teeth still in them. a Dutch magistrate and traveler who possessed a rich collection of antiquities and curiosities. Therefore nothing keeps us from supposing that these foreign animals could have been brought to us by the force of the waters. 86. with Conring.
et spina dorsi atque ossibus Principi Abbatissae loci allata fuere. per quam vasis aer educitur. Magdeburgensis consul. capite vero sursum levato.[xxxv] Cum cornua Monocerotis. qua deinde a Roberto quoque Boilio. Eadem ad me perscripta sunt. sed proportione quadam decrescens. coram Caesare edita sunt. Ignorantia fossorum contritum particulatimque extractum est. pl. primusque mortalium antliam reperit. 12 appears here. et nunc quoque plebeii oculi in stuporem dantur. quam subjicere non alienum erit. Terestris quoque animalis speciem magis referebat sceleton. quibus passim superbiebant olim conditoria rerum peregrinarum. quod nostrae quoque regiones praebent. qui nostram aetatem novis inventis illustravit. Anglo.77 77. pro summo viri ingenio miriﬁce exculta. Lusitanis. additaque est ﬁgura. 23b. Dissimulare tamen non oportet. ut bruta solent. 100 p r ot ogae a . Gerikius igitur libro de vacuo edito. credere fas est. Testis rei est Otto Gerikius. ejusdem originis fuisse. a piscibus septentrionalis Oceani esse demonstrarit Bartolinus. in vicini nobis Quedlinburgi monte Zeunickenberga intra rupem anno saeculi sexagesimo tertio detectum. si credimus Hieronymo Lupo et Balthasari Tellesio. ante frontem gerens longe extensum cornu quinque fere ulnarum. per occasionem narrat. reclinatum. Monocerotem quadrupedem equi magnitudine reperiri apud Abyssinos. miraque spectacula ab inventore in Comitiis Ratisbonensibus anni 1653. novo experimentorum thesauro locupletati sumus. unicornu fossile. Corkiorum in Hibernia Comitis fratre. repertum sceleton unicornis in posteriore corporis parte. crassitie cruris humani. In Hannover Ms XXIII. postremo cornu cum capite et aliquibus costis. cum calcis materia effoderetur.
the horn was the width of a human leg and tapered gradually. as is common with animals. which were in the past the most celebrated ornaments in the displays of cabinets of curiosities. An illustration was included. see Cohen 2002. to the advantage of this man’s genius. brother to the count of Cork in Ireland. Because of the ignorance of the workers. The same thing was reported to me. Eventually. which was later translated and shortened by Jean de Thevenot. from which he quotes extensively. but with a raised head and carrying on its forehead an extended horn about ﬁve yards long. Nevertheless. The unicorn’s horn. 12]. these demonstrations were wonderfully improved by the Englishman Robert Boyle. it was broken and brought out in pieces. a Portugese historian and Jesuit. Otto Guericke. we should not disguise the fact that a four-footed unicorn the size of a horse has been found in Abyssinia. together with the head. witnessed the thing. Guericke 1672. which also appears in our region. and which today still amaze the eye of the crowd. so that we have been enriched by a new treasure of experiments. which it will not be inappropriate to append here [ﬁg. dorsal vertebra. 89. who has enriched our age with new inventions.89 In 1653. wrote a collection entitled General History of Ethiopia (1660). pr o t o ga e a 101 . several ribs. if we can believe the Portuguese Hieronymus Lupus and Balthazar Tellesius. 1595). and an enormous animal unearthed in Quedlinburg] Bartolinius has demonstrated that the horns of the unicorn. the mayor of Magdeburg. Guericke mentions in passing that the skeleton of a unicorn was found with the rear part of its body bent back. 88. the horn. was of the same origin.88 The skeleton that was found in 1663 near Quedlinburg on the Zeunickenberg in the rock. On the myth of the unicorn in early paleontological literature. Cf.[xxxv. while lime was being excavated. In his book about the vacuum.87 It is right to believe that fossil unicorn. this inventor conducted wonderful demonstrations at the Reichstag in Regensburg in front of the emperor. come from ﬁsh of the Polar Sea. and bones were brought to the town’s serene abbess. See Bartholin 1645. also looked more like a land animal. and who was the ﬁ rst of all mortals to discover a pump that removes the air from a vessel. then. 87. Balthazar Tellesius (b. Leibniz relies entirely on Guericke’s narrative.
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“Image of a skeleton dug up near Quedlinburg. Leibniz refers to the account provided in Otto von Guericke’s 1672 Experimenta nova (ut vocantur) Magdeburgica de vacuo spatio. The Unicorn The remains of a “unicorn” were discovered in a gypsum quarry near Quedlinburg in 1663. an existing drawing that was circulating in contemporary periodicals. The caption at the top reads. and improve upon. The image here does not appear in Guericke’s book. Note the dotted lines.” pr o t o ga e a 103 . which hypothetically restore the missing parts of the animal in this odd skeletal reconstruction. “Tooth of a marine animal unearthed from a hill of clay at Tidae. Leibniz probably had his engraver reproduce. which includes the image of a mammoth molar tooth (top) and a collection of bones (bottom). Nicolaus Seelander made the engraving (plate 12 in Scheidt’s 1749 edition).figure 12.” The lower caption reads. near Stederburg. Paleontologist Othenio Abel called the illustration. but its source remains a mystery. the ﬁrst attempt to reconstruct a vertebrate in the history of paleontology (Abel 1925). Leibniz describes Guericke’s discovery in §XXXV of Protogaea.
B: oportet. ﬁlius. Porro antri ingressus est ulnarum circiter quinque altitudine. per quod in laxius iterum spatium aditus detur. quo si oculos vertas. quod incolae a nanis appellant. nam ambas ipse sum ingressus. nimirum in Ducatus Grubenhagii extremo. celebratur. in quo antrum est. Per 15. 79. memorantur homuncunculi.[xxxvi] Sed res admonet. Inter collem et arcem alius stat collis paulo minor. Foramen est in latere collis. Limo nigricante vel fusco infectum est solum. immensarum opum custodes. qualis Nibelungus nominatur in carmine. sed ut partem corporis facile distinguas. 80. sed sub ampliore fornice ad rotundum foramen perveniri. ubi vivo saxo velut templum incisum. et in eo paululum progressis foramen occurrit ex superiore loco aerem admittens. mox denuo contrahitur locus.78 inaccessis montium cavernis habitantes. quo Sifridus Corneus. Dentes quoque multiplices varii coloris. et duo longe dissita castella prospicies in montibus gemellis. B: ac. Porro in toto antro multa sunt saxorum fragmina tenui crusta obducta. Subtus terra est nigra. sed et multis animalium ossibus. dextra Hertzbergam. qua villa Scharzfeld respicit. cantionibusque antiquis. Nihil enim ultra magnopere visendum offerri aiebant ductores. Postremo ad angustias ventum est. in monte arx est Scharzfelda Comitibus propriis olim habitata. B: homunculi. plenaque non tantum fragminibus margae at80 fornicis. id est pares. ruptis quidem fere aut disjectis. sed longius repere non placuit. si credimus. qua ex Brunsvicensibus ad Thuringos tenditur. historiae nostrae memorandis. quod porro in montem ducit. in mollem lapidem indurata octonum aut duodenum pollicum strato. latitudine trium et semis. 78. Sexaginta ultra passibus manente latitudine contrahitur altitudo. ut de specubus nostris distinctius dicam. ubi velut stiriae concretae. Collis assurgit in vicinia. Si fodias sub primo limo occurrit marga. Wangionum Regis. 104 p r ot ogae a . qui Germanis dicuntur Gleichen. ibi velut atrium est. ubi pronum incedere opportet:79 Inde rursus aperitur. pedes recta descenditur. Credo quod homini non pygmaeo intus rependum est: Et vulgi fabulis. laeva Scharzfeldam arcem habebis. ibi specus terminum esse.
and farther in the distance you see two castles on twin mountains. once occupied by its own counts. pr o t o ga e a 105 . The ground is covered with black or dark brown mud. of whom our history will speak. you encounter marl that has hardened into a layer of soft stone eight or twelve inches thick. which in German are called Gleichen. 4. “With his hand he slew a dragon. the earth is black and ﬁlled not only with pieces of marl and cave vault. bk. one encounters a hole through which air enters from above. Between this hill and the castle stands a somewhat smaller hill. so that it is necessary to proceed bent over. But I did not want to go any farther. chap. These are 90. On a mountain at the border of the Duchy of Grubenhagen. One goes straight down ﬁfteen feet. After sixty steps the width remains the same and the height decreases. Throughout the whole cave there are many pieces of rock covered by a thin crust. Moving a little farther along. Scharzfeld Cave and the bones that have been found in it] But it is time that I speak in more detail about our caves. From there. adventure 3. turning your eyes. Cf. like the Nibelung named in the poem that sings of Siegfried the Horned. for I have visited both of them. The entrance to the cave is approximately ﬁve yards high and three and a half wide. 8. because someone who is not a dwarf must crawl in it. I think. Nearby there rises a hill. in which there is a cave that the locals have named after dwarves. if we believe it. If you dig through the initial mud. that his skin is as horn. Then it opens up but soon constricts again.90 The cave’s entrance is on the side of the hill that faces the town of Scharzfeld. Herzberg is to the right. sits Scharzfeld Castle. one would come to a round hole that again offered access to a roomier space. a son of the king of the Vangionen. where there was something like hardened icicles. probably. because they are the same.[xxxvi.” Nibelungenlied 1999. where there is a kind of atrium that leads farther into the mountain. upon which something like a temple is cut into the natural rock. Kircher 1664. Folktales and old songs mention homunculi who live in inaccessible mountain caves and guard great riches. which stretches from Brunswick to Thuringia. because the guides said that there was not much more to see: passing through a higher vault. and bathed him in its blood. Underneath it. where the cave ends. Finally comes a narrow passage. on the left you have Scharzfeld Castle. but also with many animal bones.
106 p rot ogae a .
The original caption at the top reads. Bones and Teeth from Scharzfeld Cave This engraving shows vertebrate fossil remains—skull parts and two canines. they are often shiny and.” pr o t o ga e a 107 . but you can still easily distinguish the body parts. These were discovered in Scharzfeld Cave.. kept in the Royal Library.g. ivory from the fossilized tusks of Proboscidea (e. “Teeth and bones from Scharzfeld Cave. Hannover. but also with many animal bones. which Leibniz described this way: “The earth is black and ﬁlled not only with pieces of marl and cave vault. elephants). Because of their value as medicines. are still inserted into pieces of jawbone. §XXXVI). not infrequently. probably those of a cave bear. that is. these remains were widely collected from caves. along with so-called unicorn horns.figure 13. There are many kinds of teeth of various colors. This unsigned engraving (plate 11 in Scheidt’s 1749 edition) was modeled on specimens from the Royal Library in Hannover. Some are so large that they cannot be ascribed to any animal known to us” (Protogaea. These are indeed broken in pieces or scattered about.
23b. Prope Rubeland rudera spectantur veteris arcis Berckefeld. Sunt et ferrariae ibi. Post quas in edito monte antrum est Bumanni dictum. Postero die Brunlaegam itum. 83. [xxxvii] A Scharzfelda porro in Hercynias nostras valles ingressi ad Luderi montem venimus. facillime in pulverem abit fricando. ferri venas quaerente. pl. aut certe celebratum est. pl. 11 appears here. Ex eo ossa ac dentes tota Germania in usum medicum circumferuntur. Fuit olim sedes Comitibus propriis.81 Sub terra nigra ﬂavus est limus. B: quinquaginta. quae viciniam olim infertam83 habebat. saxo nonnihil ab aquarum sedimentis incrustato stratum. 108 p r ot ogae a . Ubi montem ascenderis primum subitur fornix naturalis. 85. ubi ferri minera eliquatur. et non raro portionibus maxillorum inserti. quibus fodinarum cuniculi exeunt. In Hannover Ms XXIII. Ibi est Bumanni specus. 82. B: infestam. cui par quiddam in minerarum quarundam ustionibus attoli dictum est. arctior illis. quem extincta lampade post aliquot dierum errorem egressum non diu supervixisse aiunt. sed inaequalem. quam incolae Stenomargam appellant. aliqui tantae magnitudinis. quos nostra Historia non silebit. Guelferbytani. Caeterum vix qinquaginta82 annos esse audio.85 Inde ad sinistram nonnihil descendenti aditus antri occurit. sed dum quisque pro arbitrio fodit. etsi alii alia narrent.et saepe nitidi. atque inde ad locum Rubeland. 23b. Elbingerodae pernoctavimus. a primo exploratore. 84. quam nil solis egentes vesperi ingressi sumus. 1 appears here. Totam specum 81. sed ossium expers. ut ad nota nobis animalia referri non possint. In Hannover Ms XXIII. jam fere exhaustum intelligo angusto in spatio materiam curiositatis. omnes Guelfebytani84 juris. Inde ex angusto non sine difﬁcultate eluctandum est in locum amplum. quod antrum Scharzfeldense detectum. In hoc loco novissimo ipse vidi materiam alumini plumoso similem. quod inquirentium curiositatem ﬁnivit. et subtus saxum. quod oppidum est fodinarum haud expers.
one comes upon the entrance to the cave. wandering around. where Baumann Cave is located. [xxxvii. with walls composed of rocks that have been coated by sediments from the water. it is said that he did not survive much longer. they are often shiny and. Behind these. are still inserted into pieces of jawbone. one comes into a wide but uneven cave. Otherwise. before emerging again. Some are so large that they cannot be ascribed to any animal known to us. I saw a material similar to plume alum. forcing oneself not without difﬁculty through the narrow passage. which 91. and he spent several days in the cave. In this last place. and from there to the village of Rübeland. but it is without bones. Bones and teeth from it are sent throughout all of Germany for medical use. named after its ﬁrst explorer. pr o t o ga e a 109 . it easily turns to powder. There are also iron mines there. I hear that it is hardly ﬁfty years since Scharzfeld Cave was discovered. Beneath the black soil is a yellow mud. Near Rübeland.91 It is said that one gets something similar by burning certain minerals. It was once the seat of certain counts. But since everyone digs as he pleases. and all of them are subject to the jurisdiction of the Guelphs. whom our history will not omit. The following day we went to Braunlage. and beneath that is rock. since we did not need the sun. or at least much visited. where iron ore is smelted. not infrequently. which the local inhabitants call Steinmark. but you can still easily distinguish the body parts. I believe that this limited space is today already exhausted of interesting things. From there. which once menaced the area. We entered the cave in the evening. which is somewhat narrower than a mine tunnel. Descending a little to the left from there. A kind of feather alum. is the Baumann Cave. we entered our Harz valleys and reached Lauterberg. we saw the ruins of the old Berkefeld Castle. The whole cave is divided into ﬁve cavities. There are many kinds of teeth of various colors. you ﬁrst encounter a natural vault. See glossary. We spent the night in Elbingerode. When you ascend the mountain. Others tell it differently. When one rubs it. on a high mountain. a city not without mines. which puts an end to the curiosity of seekers.indeed broken in pieces or scattered about. It is said that his lamp went out while he was looking for veins of iron ore. The Baumann Cave and its contents] Moving on from Scharzfeld.
110 p rot ogae a .
The engraving (plate 1 in Scheidt’s 1749 edition) is unsigned. However. such as stalactites and stalagmites. like a fragment of tuff stone (lapis tophaceus) from the ﬂoor of the cave (top left). pr o t o ga e a 111 . located near the towns of Elbingerode and Blankenburg in the Harz. the nearby ruins of the Berkefeld Castle. The cross section that appears here—most unusual in its time— carefully notes the cave’s orientation and displays various features: the entrance (introitus in antrum Baumannianum). and a piece of petriﬁed bone enclosed in stone (bottom). The plate also contains several details that are mentioned in the text. §XXXVII). The Baumann Cave Cross section of the Baumann Cave.” The plate includes depictions of fossil objects discovered in the cave. petriﬁed straw encrusted with salt crystals (top right). several ladders in the narrow passages. The original caption (top center) reads. not far from Blankenburg. In his ﬁrsthand account of his visit to the Baumann Cave (Protogaea. the successive chambers. Leibniz noted the different details and curiosities he discovered along the way.figure 14. given the way it illustrates in detail the text of Protogaea. “Sketch of the Baumann Cave. the plate was most likely produced according to Leibniz’s own speciﬁcations. in precise locations. and curious mineral formations.
quales in arboribus annos deﬁniunt. et. ut ab animali fuisse nemo spectator dubitare possit. quod me vidente volenteque in antro abruptum erat. Qui vero in his antris monstrantur naturae lusus imaginationis auxilio egent: Nam ascensionem Christi saxo expressam ostendunt. in altera Mosen bicornem videre se putant. Non procul a Mose. Sunt et stiriae anserini calami crassitie. quales si frangas. et nescio quae alia. sed angustiis communicantia partiuntur. cui ex eo nomen Caballi. in quo et cavernulae. Prae ceteris elegans est tabulae species. quam ut in eodem loco reliquum ossis. atque inde ulterius penetratur. textura. in qua variae concretae ﬁgurae ac velut ﬂores. aliquando tripedalis. Organon quoque musicum. Sed nunc iter commodius redditum est. velut totidem antra. ut amygdali nucleos aut coriandri semina saccaro obducta putes. vestigare nobis liceret. interquiescente scilicet natura. inclusa pars ossis. ibi aliquot ex saxo columnas monstrant tanquam stillicidio aquarum formatas. Adsunt et columnae ingentes. Spathi esse genus non dissimile nostro fodinarum. plane geminum priori. quod etiam in belemnitis observes. occurrunt ossa belluarum et silices ﬂuviatiles uno velut caemento involuti. 112 p rot ogae a . quae percussae ingentem sonum et velut campanarum aemulum edunt. quae domi per otium examinarem. Sed maxime me delectavit uni frusto. et utrinque apertum est. hisque interspersi lapilli jacent incrustati. ingemmatura quadam circumquaque obductae. et sylvam. in summo liberae. jussi frusta quaedam abrumpi. et alibi passim. et in una monachum. superﬁcieei folio et colore. radii apparent candidi. saxum saxo inclusum. ut oculus alterutri foramini admotus videat diem. si quid aliud belluae restare poterat. qualis a recenti aquae illapsu lapidi inducitur. quemadmodum jam supra notatum est: Illud vero memoratu dignum visum est. Inde transmissuro in cavitatem sequentem. Spithamae habet longitudinem. Serius animadvertimus. quod manifeste terminabatur crusta tenui obscure ﬂavescente. Ea considerans reperi. crystallini a columnulae ambitu ad axem tendentes. denique et gustu prorsus suo. et post per novam illuviem opus resumente. quae amplissima est. rupi acutae inequitandum erat. Caeterum ut saxi naturam contemplarer accuratius. Ut appareant velut periodi.in quinque cavitates. variae longitudinis. Stiriae quaedam etiam ad calami modum cavae visuntur. et baptisterium et furni similitudinem. (Plinius pectines vocat). A rupe descenditur per scalam. cui deinde circumdatum erat novo contextu aliud saxum.
73–185. radiating from the perimeter to the axis of the little column. Pliny the Elder. dark yellow crust that is even now still forming as water drips onto the stone. and ﬁnally its taste. To consider the nature of the rock more carefully. For there is a piece of bone enclosed in it. But I found it especially noteworthy that there is a rock enclosed in another rock. Natural History. Moving on to the next cave. in another. though connected by narrow passages. free-standing columns that produce a loud sound. so an eye at either end sees the light. sometimes three feet long. For they point out the Ascension of Christ stamped in the rock. I found that they are made of a kind of spar not unlike that from our mines. If you break them. Not far from Moses. identical to the ﬁrst.93 But what pleased me most was a piece I found and then had broken off. when they are struck. one descends a ladder and then goes deeper inside. There are also stiria as thick as a goose feather quill and of various lengths. enclosed as if by the same mortar. are the bones of large animals and river pebbles. which is the most spacious. and who knows what else. 93. In one column. its surface. the access has been made easier. Upon examination. are also found. no observer can doubt that it came from an animal. From that rock.92 Hollow stiria. It is one span long and open on both ends. Especially ﬁne is a tablet upon which you can see various solid ﬁgures and imitations of ﬂowers. one had to straddle a pointed rock that is called the horse for that reason. There are also huge. an organ. pr o t o ga e a 113 . and strewn among them little encrusted stones that you might take for almonds or sugarcoated coriander seeds. But the games of nature presented in these caves demand the support of the imagination. they think they see a monk. in which there are also small cavities covered all around by sparkling stones. and in various other places. I examined 92. Moses with two horns. since nature rested intermittently and then resumed her work again with a new inundation. something that looks like an oven. Today. This crust is then covered by a new coat of rock. which is clearly bounded by a thin. however. Cf. like a bell. as noted above. its color. Something like the rings that designate years in trees (Pliny calls them pectines) thus appears. a forest. on the basis of its texture. there appear white crystal spokes. a baptismal font. as you might observe in belemnites.are like ﬁve separate caves. 16. The confusion between belemnites and stalactites was frequent in early modern literature. I ordered that some pieces be broken off to examine with leisure at home. and. like reeds. where they point out several columns of rock formed by slowly dripping water.
B: Vidi et ego liquidius. Ad thermas Bellilucanas Galliae. lapidem inter et lacrymam arboris ambigua Succinum est. quod recens advenit. B: et Cimbriae. cui a Billa nomen. Contra reperta intus folia. Repertum est autem non ita pridem in insula Albis. Analysis chemica minerali regno favet. frequentius succinum in paludosa ibi regione fodientibus occcurit. et longius adhuc a mari ante aliquot annos ingens massa succini eruta est in villa Praefecturae Blumenau. non longe ab Hannovera. e regione Hamburgi a fossore cellam sub terra parante. quanquam et Pommeraniae. oppidum. fragmenta succini lapidibus agnati reperit descriptor. et varia inde parata. B: Circa Gartoviam. pene omne.[xxxviii] Res terram inter et mare. caetera quoque naturae consultus. Et Goebelius melanteriam. Et oleum inde petroleo cognatum paratur. ubi nunc succinum effoditur obrutum arenis. Nuper quoque ambram odoriferam in Borussia erutam intelligo. olim mare vicinum fuisse. et insecta. colligiturque. 114 p rot ogae a . aliaque subterranea succino adhaerentia vidit. Hevelius. Friederici Ducis. pro arboreo ortu pugnare creduntur: Sunt autem non nisi residua lineamenta. ad bitumen et gagatae similem naturam inclinabat. ac inter caetera vasculum satis amplum ipse ego saepicule admiratus sum. ut in Borussiae potissimum litoribus. qui Borussiae suae velut haereditarium asseruit Astronomiae decus. Libavius Medicus uno in frusto habuit et hanc ambram (nam et sic vocant) et adnatam illi alteram illam odore pretiosam. et velut umbrae rei inclusae. et muscus. illustriss. Vidi liquidius86 adhuc. et sigilli capax. quae vulgo grisea dicitur. Bernstorﬁi. 88.88 86. itaque valde veresimile est. tempore Ioh.87 Frisiaeque non ignoretur. cum hujus quoque genus ignoretur. sed translata quaestio est. Ducis Cellensis Status Ministri. hic nigra erat. 87. Danorum et Pomeraniae. corpus ipsum dudum consumtum aperientibus nusquam occurrit. Illud certum est. Verum ita non ﬁnita. maris esse ejectamentum.
Johannes Hevelius (1611–1689). Hevelius.97 too.” 96 In this case it was black. a Helmstädt jurist who edited the works of Conring.94 who staked a sort of hereditary claim to astronomical glory in his Prussia and was also a ﬁne judge of nature in other respects. 97. The question is not. Some believe. but Leibniz here notes the distinction between “succin” (i. I have seen softer amber. 95. and “gray amber. and one never ﬁnds it upon opening. But these are merely residual outlines. grown together with it.” which is produced by whales. moss. yellow amber). is unknown. which is a fossil resin. but only postponed. a precious-scented variety that one commonly calls “gray ambra. oil is extracted from it that is similar to petroleum. On the nature of amber. Andreas Libavius (1550–1616).. The physician Libavius95 possessed in a single piece both this ambra (for some call it this) and. amber is a puzzling thing. amber that had grown together with the stones was found and described. answered in this way. commonly known as ambergris. so that I could no longer determine whether more bones or other animal remains were lying in the same place.e. [xxxviii. inclined to the view that the nature of amber was similar to jet and pitch. too. pr o t o ga e a 115 . Therefore. and used to make perfume. that the leaves. on the contrary. Goebelius. into which one could stamp a seal. Near the hot springs of Belliluc in France. however. which is mostly collected in Prussia along the coast—though it is not unknown in Pomerania and Frisia—has been ejected by the sea. for the body is long since consumed. Also. Johann Goebel (1683–1745). like shadows of the things enclosed. The question of the nature of amber was not solved during the early eighteenth century. I hear that aromatic amber has recently been excavated in Prussia as well. especially the kind found in our region] Existing somewhere between land and sea. saw iron vitriol and other things sticking to the amber.it afterward. since the nature of this ambra. it is certain that almost all the amber found today. 96. Not long ago it was even found near 94. between stone and tree sap. and insects found in it argue that it arose from trees. it is very likely that the sea was once in the same area where amber is now dug out of the sand. Still. Chemical analysis favors the mineral kingdom.
Quanquam et apud nos in Blankenburgii tractus montibus. et patrum memoria in Rheticis. si Diis placet. et in Villaci Alpibus. Arelatensem agrum Rhodano deberi. horrentia aspectu. cum Plursii oppidum opprimeretur.89 Aegyptum Nilo. Frisiique quotidie nostris detrimentis ditantur. quemadmodum factum est in ditione Bernensi. quorum aliqua ﬂuminibus imputes. Aristoteles et Peireskius credunt. vicini subsidente terra emersisse putant. quasi a majoribus acceptum posteris tradunt. qualia Gaditanum et Siculum jam Veteribus judicantur. et in Firmano territorio. qualem sub Leone Iconomacho supra memoravimus horribili terrae motu incendioque erupisse. unde in equo regis ﬁliam cum amatore supra Bodae ﬂuminis terribiles cataractas in oppositum montem transsiliisse poetantur. aliisque nil dicam. et alibi passim. nec de montibus subversis. Passim etiam lacus monstrantur a ruinis et terrae motibus nati. et lacu Pilati. cum mons a cryptis dictus anno 1670. B: antiquiora: Non illis tamen immorabimur. quod illis facilius credo.[xxxix] Sed caetera ingentium naturae mutationum vestigia nonnihil tangamus habitatoribus fortasse antiquiora. notam ostendunt impressam rupi. quam quod urbem illic oppressam jacere. praesertim in hoc loco Rostrap. 116 p r ot ogae a . ubi in procurrente scopulo ungulae. Nannius Bataviam munus esse Boreae Rhenique. 89. et ﬂuctuum ejectamentis proditam. manifesta sunt vestigia ruinarum. corruisset. quae in nostris oris expressa non habentur. Ut de Asphaltite Sodomae. nec de fretis a mari effractis. Nec jam dico de insulis natis. Steinhudensem in nostro tractu inter Leinam et Visurgim. Certe ﬂumina materiam advehentia spoliant superiores terras.
as the ancients concluded that Gibraltar and Messina had been. Pieter Nanninck (1496 –1557). See n. as our fathers remember. [xxxix. where. and in the Rhaetian Alps. This is above all the case at the Roßtrappe. Rivers. Nannius99 believes that Holland is a gift of the north wind and the Rhine. which carry material with them. leapt over the terrible waterfalls of Bode from 98. there are clear traces of destruction near us. horrible to behold. the town of Plüos was smothered.Hamburg.100 or about the straits ripped open by the sea. in the Alps of Villach. 52.102 Legend has it that a king’s daughter. Aristotle and Peiresc98 believe that Egypt arose out of the Nile and the region of Arles from the Rhône. pr o t o ga e a 117 . while an underground cellar was being dug up. Leibniz here refers to Gassendi’s effusive tribute to him (Gassendi 1641). in the time of Duke Johann Friedrich. collector. and also in the territory of Firmano. naturalist. Indeed. And some years ago. I will not speak here about newly born islands like the one mentioned above. located southwest of Quedlinburg in the Harz Mountains. not far from Hannover. if the gods please. and some of these can be attributed to rivers. Changes wrought by rivers and the vestiges of upheavals in our region] I would also like to touch on the other vestiges of nature’s great changes. which are probably more ancient than her inhabitants. Peiresc corresponded with most of the literati of his time. where. 100. in the mountains of the Blankenburg region. The Roßtrappe and the Witch Dance Ground. Nicolas Claude Fabri de Peiresc (1580–1637). they reveal a hoof printed in the rock of a protruding ledge. humanist and professor at Leuven. remain popular tourist destinations to this day. 101. 99. where the so-called Mountain of the Caverns101 collapsed in 1670.” 102. The “Grottenberg. which burst forth through a horrible quaking and burning of the earth in the time of Leo the Iconoclast. certainly rob higher terrain. on horseback with her lover. like what happened in the canton of Bern. an enormous mass of amber was dug up farther from the sea. I will also not speak about mountain collapses. in a village in the district of Blumenau. and conseiller in the parlement of Provence. so that the Frisians are enriched every day at our expense. on an Elbe River island called Billa.
sed rupto monte ﬂuvium dextrorsum postea iter fecisse. Oceani portum extitisse Ortelius et Chiﬂetius scribunt. aut repelli. et ubi S. Illud ne nunc quidem insolitum est. Morinorum litus mari olim immersum fuisse. Nec jam de Nordstrandiae inundatione in Holsatia. nisi praesenti aspectu ﬁrmentur. 118 p r ot ogae a . cum mare visum est repetere jus suum.90 90. Quod et Chronica quaedam Mindensia conﬁrmant. atque olim sese infudisse paludibus a mari illuc usque porrectis. lacus Steinhudensis in nostro tractu inter Leinam et Visurgim prodit. aliisque antiquioribus.[xl] Visurgim mutasse cursum in Mindensi tractu. quorum tamen autoritati in remotissimis parum tribuerim. ne passim obvia inculcemus. aquasque et terras invicem permutari. B: Verum ut magis obvia inculcemus. aut Belgica irruptione saeculi superioris dicemus. fere ad hanc usque urbem olim paludes ab Oceano irrugos pertigisse. irrumpere Oceanum. Audomari fanum est. anchoramque etiam magnae navis ibi repertam incolae tradunt. et ab Oceano aditum admittentibus.
however. pr o t o ga e a 119 . emerged as the surrounding earth sank. 104. that a sunken city lies there. passed from ancestors to their descendants. The Frisian island of Nordstrand. This is also what certain Minden Chronicles conﬁrm. which stretched to the sea. The Dead Sea. made the same point. in our region between the Leine and Weser rivers. but from St. as is commonly assumed. whose atlases enjoyed wide circulation during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. I ﬁnd this easier to believe than the tale. In his Portus Iccius Julii Caesaris demonstratur (1626) Jean Jacques Chifﬂet (1588 – 1660) identiﬁed Portus Iccius.that place to the mountain on the other side. One supposes that Steinhude Lake. These days it is not uncommon for the ocean to intrude or be driven back. where Caesar once embarked for Britain. the river changed its course to the right. that it once ﬂowed into marshes. Omer. Chiﬂetius and Ortelius write that the sea once covered Picardy and that there was a harbor where St.103 Pilate’s Lake. Omer now stands. Abraham Oertel (1527–1598). offering access to the ocean. [xl. in which some eight thousand people died. Both Oertel and Chifﬂet argued that Caesar embarked not from Calais. and that the anchor of a large ship was found there. 105. we do not wish to speak here about the inundation of the island Nordstrand in Holstein. lakes that arose through earthquakes or collapses are also shown. as witnessed by debris from the waves. if the present appearance of the place did not support them. 103. located off the coast of Schleswig-Holstein near the town of Husum. In some places. or about other earlier times when the sea seemed to insist on some ancient right. as St.104 So as not to dwell on the obvious. was inundated by the great ﬂoods of 1634.105 about the sea’s irruption into Belgium during the last century. which I nevertheless would consider of too little authority for such remote things. and others. today a town in northern France. The struggle between sea and land] Local inhabitants report that the Weser River near Minden has changed its course. After a rockfall. Omer. I will not speak about Sodom’s Lake of Asphalt. so that sea and land replace each other in turn.
et in aliis urbis locis navium malos. Nunc mare dudum oppletis aes91.[xli] Magis operae pretium est in rem nostram.92 quarum perviam mari lembisque talis adhuc Cassiodoro fuit pro Theodorico Rege scribenti. donec Marcus Scaurus manum admovit. Dani. aggeres et stagna parare constet. B: urbem Venetiarum. 120 p rot ogae a . ut quis hodie posset urbem Venetiarum. ut alicubi videas terram mari. industrium animal. Nunc ars eo progressa est. Inclinante in Occidente imperio erat ibi primaria statio Romanae classis. quod hodie Saxones. et foenum praebet. ancoram quandam repertam Pignoria testatur. quam Brunsvicensium ducum majores tenuere. et aquam velut in aere suspensam. et Athesis. Ut credibile sit. ﬁdem facis oppositus historiae praesens vultus rerum. Quantam autem mutationem tempus attulerit. et Aremorici a Caesare memorati (ubi hodie Vannes) nomine suo communem originem ex paludibus atque illo genere terrarum fateri. easdem apud Italos mutationes recognoscere in Estensium ditione. illa ad Athesin antiqua Estensium possessio. Apud Patavinos cum monasterii S. cujus exundationem longissimus ager91 coercet. Constat magnam Adriatici litoris partem olim mari tectam aut paludibus inviam fuisse. qui passim Italis policinia appellantur a paludibus: ut Rhodiginia. prata ﬂumine depressiora. maris aestuaria aut stagnantia in exitu ﬂumina pervenisse. 92. Fenne. quibus arx Atestis. et Adriatici litoris Venetias (quae regionem olim signiﬁcabant. ubi et sepulcra Majorum in Vangadigia habuere. interdum et Turfam. et qui Aquilegia Bononiam tendebant. caeteraeque illic Alpium et Appenini exonerationes nondum ubique satis certis alveis coercebantur. et mons Silicis incumbunt. Ex eo tempore certatum est cum ﬂuminibus optimique agri extorti. Ravennam ita describit Strabo. arte quadam sua. et vicino Longobardiae et Venetiarum tractu. vocant Veen. B: agger. et Exarchi sedes. magno ad dextram ﬂexu olim usos apparet: Initio scilicet Padus. tametsi et castores. Helenae fundamenta locarentur. ut magnam habitationis suae partem genus humanum credam ipsi sibi debere. Tantum orbis facies mortalium studio mutata est. passimque siccatum in pascua abiit. Belgae. quod commercio navigandi Graeciam Italiae connecteret. Immo talis adhuc Cassiodoro fuit pro Theodorico Rege scribenti. Et satis quidem verisimile est. non urbem). Angli. usque ad Euganeos colles. scilicet perviam mari lembisque.
you see land lower than the sea. when drained in spots. was the southernmost of Venetian districts. from the Latin paludes (marshes). one of the richest agricultural regions of Italy. and Danes call Veen or Fenn which. Ferrara lies some ﬁfty miles southwest of Venice along the river Po. The Polesine. now a village near the Adriatic coast northwest of Trieste. Sea and marsh once covered Venice and Este] It is more valuable for our subject to recognize similar changes in Italy. And whoever wanted to travel from Aquileia108 to Bologna clearly had to make a big detour to the right. not a city—and the Aremorici107 mentioned by Caesar (where Vannes is today) indicate through their names a common origin in marshes and the sort of earth that Saxons. but then Marcus Scaurus109 applied his hand to the matter.[xli. Aquileia. becomes pasture. and the other rivers that drain the Alps and the Apennines were not completely contained in their beds. this is true in Rovigo. in the domain of Este.110 These days art has advanced so far that. 110. Rovigo was capital city of the Polesine. Certainly the sea once covered much of the Adriatic coast. 109. the Adige. in some places. Since that time one has battled with the rivers. For initially the Po. 106. “Aremorici” is a Gaulish term meaning “those who live beside the sea. situated between the ﬁnal stretch of the Po and Adige rivers near the Adriatic.” Armorica is an older name for Brittany. or marshes made it impassable. and Vangadizza was a famous abbey there. which in Italy one generally calls polocinia. pr o t o ga e a 121 . English. 108. It is very likely that the Venetians along the Adriatic coast—for the term Venetias once denoted a region. meadows below a river. Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (162 – 89 BCE) directed construction of the Via Aemilia. 107. was founded as a Roman colony in 181 BCE and later became an important patriarchate of the Roman Catholic Church. which passed through Pisa to Dertona (Tortona). over which the family of Este ruled between the thirteenth and sixteenth centuries. that ancient possession of the House of Este along the Adige. a town situated just west of the northern Apennines.106 a territory near Venice and Lombardy once possessed by ancestors of the most serene dukes of Brunswick. where the tombs of their ancestors lie at Vangadizza. and water that seems suspended in the air. In 109 BCE. yielding hay and sometimes peat. wresting from them extremely fertile lands. The “region of Este” had its center in Ferrara. Belgians. But you can be sure how much change time has wrought by comparing the present face of things to what history describes.
salientem. id est argilla tenax pedum XXIV. velut fornice. immo urbe et agro. Inde creta. rivulum artiﬁcialem. et tesselatum opus stratarum olim platearum. opertum. quos sunt. nec addat hyems. averso et fracto ﬂuminum impetu. quod nescio. vivum. Estensium hodie Principum sedes:93 nec aliquid tota Longobardia temere se offerat dignius describi.tuariis recessit. ut tota urbe. inde simplex terra quattuor aut quinque pedum. Neque aliud postulant Aquileges. Et initio quidem ad decem pedes rudera occurrunt veteris urbis. sub se sentit Mutina. ubilibet liceat fontem facere. et. insigni naturae omnia vertentis miraculo. an alius orbis locus. eandemque temporis injuriam et Veneti timent. [xlii] Ingentem velut lacum terra obrutum. Tantum urbis suis ruinis et terris advectis crevit. perennem. malum auxisse arbitrentur. ut verbo dicam. ut vocant Itali. B: hodie Serenissimorum Estensium sedes. tum iterum rudera in duodecim pedes. quasi urbe plus semel subversa. qui remedii spe. quam putei fodiendi locum. et extra quoque in vicino aliquo usque agro. Tum 93. 122 p r ot ogae a . aliaque subinde antiquitatis vestigia eruuntur. Habet scilicet Mutina. qui septuaginta pedum altitudine deprimitur. cui nec detrahat aestas.
a group of volcanic outcroppings of relatively recent origin. continual and. Helen in Padua. especially Egyptian. throughout the whole city or in the neighboring ﬁelds just outside it.restrained from overﬂowing by a very long dam. lie about twenty kilometers southwest of Padua. The face of the globe has been transformed through the efforts of so many people that I believe humans owe a great part of the land they inhabit to themselves. Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (ca. that estuaries of the sea or lakes formed by rising streams have reached up to the Euganean Hills. also construct dams and ponds according to their own special art. described Ravenna as accessible to the sea and to small ships. pr o t o ga e a 123 . ready-made stream that neither decreases in the summer nor increases in the winter. Strabo described Ravenna just as someone would describe the city of Venice today. while laying the foundation for the monastery of St. at 111. although beavers. 490–583 ad). that he assembled in Padua. Now the sea has receded. aggravated the damage. therefore. in search of a remedy. Silicis rest. and that they found ship masts in other parts of the city. Initially. The well diggers ask only about the location of the well shaft. I know of no place in the world like Modena: wherever one proposes to sink a well. 112. and Cassiodorus. known for the collections of books and curiosities. who wrote for King Theodoric. they discovered an anchor. The Venetians fear the same ravage of time. Nothing in all of Lombardy is more worthy of description. and the seat of the exarch. springing. The marvelous fountains of Modena] Because of a striking wonder of all-changing nature.112 upon which the Castle of Este and Mt. with the estuaries long since ﬁlled. Pignoria111 reports that. present seat of the princes of Este. The Euganean Hills. one has a living. those industrious animals. [xlii. the city served as ﬁrst station of the Roman ﬂeet. a vast lake hidden in the earth. covered by city and ﬁeld as if by a vault. one discerns under Modena. Roman writer and monk who served as councillor to Theodoric the Great. in a word.113 During the decline of the Western Empire. 113. diverted and broke the assault of the waters. and some claim that those who. because it joined Italy to Greece through maritime trade. Lorenzo Pignoria (1571–1631). king of the Ostrogoths. which they sink to a depth of seventy feet. It is likely.
insecuta assurgat ad summum putei labrum. et folia arborum. aeternum est beneﬁcium loci. quem vocant. velut labentium aquarum. ut nec labore hominum exhauriri potuisse compertum sit. hauritur. manifesto inter eos terrae purae et fracidae materiae discrimine. 124 p r ot ogae a . murmurque auditur ingens. terebram. ut vix retracto homine. et prae caeteris ex fonte Abyssi. quam olim detectam fuisse radices arundinum. Postremo mixta arenae glarea occurrit. Hyeme non foditur. quem suasi. usque ad communem alveum omnium fontium urbis. cujus altitudo rursus est XXIV. impurius aliquando ﬂuente aqua. ad quatuor pedes. tecto sub terra cameratoque lapidibus rivulo. ecce aqua prorumpit ex solo. Sub hoc vallo. aut potius falsum esse. ut imposterum thermometro explorent. Aqua purissima est. mox tanta vi. et interspersa passim conchylia fatentur. non inferior Nuceriana. aut postea oppletum est. semper vi actam versus Ferrariam declinare. quasi illuc labentibus sub terra aquis in ﬂuminis modum. Sed hoc minus compertum haberi. quae Bernardus Ramazzinus. multo priore tenacior. Tum vero fossor ita se parat. quem canalem magnum appellant. Puteus semel factus. Ramazzinus notavit. dum forte imum putei os male foratum. et rami truncique. quam ut demissa per medias aquas terebra repetat ofﬁcium. Additur. terra est argillosa iterum. cum aquas attingat. in justum opusculum eleganti mechanicae pariter et naturalis scientiae specimine parat.alia terreni species. attolli promte possit. et mista arenae. pluresve limbi sibi superstrati noscuntur. quanquam saepe tentatum constat. lentior primum. cui valli nomen fecere. insignis doctrinae medicus apud Mutinenses. et fracidi stipites. dum pergit ferrum. Haec coram accepi vidique. Congesta est haec terra foliorum seu pectinum instar. Nec mora. tanta perennitate. ut terebrae insidens suae. pedum. ob molestum putei calorem. et fremitus. indeque erumpens continuum faciat proﬂuentem. ne forte pro Antiperistasi suffocantis in loco non pervio aeras natura imponat. qui ad Panarem ﬂumen ducit. Ubi non aliud remedium habetur aut requiritur.
it is noted that the auger always bends toward Ferrara when it touches the water. Bernardino Ramazzini. Soon.114 describes in a ﬁne little work. a tenacious clay twenty-four feet thick. slowly and mixed with sand at ﬁrst. Then the digger prepares himself suitably.a depth of ten feet. Next come four or ﬁve feet of simple earth. so that it is easy to distinguish between pure earth and rotten matter. often called the founder of occupational medicine. Finally. see the water break out of the ground. then another kind of soil. He taught there for eighteen years before leaving for Padua. which has been called vallus. unearthing the paving stones of forgotten avenues and other vestiges of antiquity. come four more feet of argillaceous earth more tenacious than before. whose depth measures another twenty-four feet. rotten trunks. pr o t o ga e a 125 . Ramazzini observed. driven by force. became chair of medicine in the reopened University of Modena in 1682. so that. which provides a model both for mechanics and natural philosophy. In addition. then debris again twelve feet lower. and one discerns many strips lying upon each other. as if the subterranean waters ﬂowed like rivers. Beneath this vallus. just like rushing waters. as the drill continues. it generates a continual ﬂow through a subterranean stream vaulted by stones and into the general conduit for all runoff from the city’s wells. sitting on his auger. which empties into the river Panaro. they encounter the debris of the old city. twigs and stems. one encounters sand mixed with gravel and hears a mighty growl and roar. however. as if the city had been destroyed more than once. So far did the city rise on hauled earth and its own ruins. Bernardino Ramazzini (1633–1714). that this had hardly been proven. that is. Reed roots. This earth has piled up like leaves. and the shells scattered among them declare that this vallus was once exposed. so I recommended using a thermometer to investigate whether nature might 114. called the Great Canal. Leibniz is probably referring here to Ramazzini’s 1691 work De fontium Mutinensium admiranda scaturigine. After that comes what the Italians call creta. but soon with such force that the man is scarcely drawn back before the water surges up behind him to the highest lip of the well! And springing forth from there. he can be lifted out quickly. I observed this and saw for myself what that exceptionally learned physician in Modena. tree leaves. or the teeth of a comb. One does not dig during the winter because of the unpleasant heat of the well. or rather that it was mistaken.
Ita enim ab eo tempore terreni molem pluviis torrentibusque crevisse facile concipimus. Scimus Romae nunc in Pantheon Agrippae descendi. Qui ﬂuminis labentis impetu expelli suspicantur. in quod olim gradibus aliquot ascendebatur. Multo majore scilicet necessaria velocitate. quam lapis acquireret lapsus ex altitudine eadem.94 Huic inaediﬁcatam veterem urbem subversam irruptione barbarorum atque ab eo tempore terreni molem pluviis torrentibusque crevisse. novo deinde maximo impetu immensam argillae vim advectam. remota non ita pridem terra. Sed aquae salientis. Et. primae glareae ex altioribus locis infusam aliquando argillam.[xliii] De terrae stratis non difﬁcilis conjectura est. non utique sursum verteret directionem. Aquileiae audio plus semel alternantes cum terra ruinas deprehendi. diuturno temporis intervallo. quasi facie urbis toties mutata. 126 p rot ogae a . quanta vi opus sit ad fontes continuos in altitudinem septuaginta pedum propellendos. huic fortasse arundineta et palustrem materiam cum arboribus super increvisse. ut ima columnarum detegerentur. quod diximus. Mutinense miraculum majus negotium facessit. si tanta esset cursus pernicitas. cui inaediﬁcata vetus urbs irruptione Barborum subversa. Praeterea glarea arenisque manifeste impeditur: murmur certe non statim a cursu aquae est. B: vim advectam. non satis attendunt. sed qualincunque ﬂuctuatione circa locum pro94.
vol. because the lowest opening of the well shaft had been dug badly. suffocating places. after that. especially what is drawn out of the so-called Fountain of the Abyss. 111). We know that whereas in today’s Rome one climbs down into the Pantheon of Agrippa. How Modena’s fountains are produced] It is not difﬁcult to conjecture about these layers of earth. on many occasions exalts the degree of heat” (Chambers 1728. conveyed by a strange and most violent impulse. Upon this foundation was built the old city. Clearly. a well provides lasting beneﬁt to a place. present greater difﬁculty. or had become clogged afterward. for the lowest of the columns was only recently excavated. “Thus cold. Then one has or seeks no other remedy than that the borer is lowered through the waters to repeat his duty. which had direction. Cf. and velocity.deceive through antiperistasis115 in poorly ventilated. [xliii. as when. And even if the swiftness of the current were that great. denoted the process in which. The distinction between speed. I hear that one observes alternating layers of earth and ruins in Aquileia. Those who suspect that these waters are ejected by the power of falling water do not adequately consider how much force there must be to drive unbroken fountains to a height of seventy feet. the opposition of the one increased the power of the other. But the leaping waters. the water ﬂowed impurely. though no doubt it has often been attempted. as if the city had altogether changed its appearance as many times. it would clearly not 115. The water is most pure. the requisite velocity116 is much greater than what would be acquired by a stone that had fallen from the same height. 116. say the school-philosophers. which we called the miracle of Modena. was crucial to Leibniz’s physics and metaphysics. 284 –293. occasionally. and ﬁnally came the vast quantity of clay. Antiperistasis. it was once necessary to ascend a few stairs. 1. Garber 1995. Clay from higher places once poured down onto the initial gravel. and of such permanence that human labor can certainly never exhaust it. which the barbarian invasions destroyed. Once made. then perhaps trees covered over reeds and swampy matter during a long interval of time. given two contrasting qualities. pr o t o ga e a 127 . one perceives how rains and ﬂoods heaped earth onto the ruins. a term from Aristotelian physics. which rivals the water of Nocera. a scalar quantity.
Huc usque prima vice perductus est puteus: Sed cum nuper mense Aprili anni supra octogesimum sexti aqua defecisset. quae est lacus. Incola loci puteum ﬁeri curaverat. stipula. non indocti viri. gramine. lente tamen ﬁeri credendum est. Ibi Fossori iterum offertur nigricans et grave olens solum ex putrefactis foliis. ad ejusdem tamen horizontis libellam ubique pervenit aqua. Rem ex Parochi. adhuc integram ex transverso jacentem cum radicibus suis. Unde inaequali licet urbis solo. hunc antiquissimis temporibus ad locum urbis pervenisse. Itaque non video. cujus saepe deprehensa vestigia sunt. sed ita ut per intervalla lapillorum argillam tenacem velut fornice sustentantium communicatio aliqua cum lacu salva perstaret. Nec dubium est. conisque nonnullis juxta repertis. nobilium olim dynastarum sedes. radicumque ﬁbris. multisque conchyliis octonum pedum densitate. Deinde super injektam materiam per partes ex ipso cacumine devectam. [xliv] Ab Estensi Longobardia revocamur in Brunsvicensem tractum non absimili ruina terrarum. deinde nigra ex putrefactis foliis. expleta demum cavitate. ﬁbris. quid aliud restet. Primo humus consueta frugifera duodecim pedes alta perfossa est. sed illustre imprimis documentum nuper vicinum Goettingae Rostorﬁum dedit. quam vicino monte tegi ingentem lacum. ubi glareae fundo incumbebat. vallem arboribus consitam cum nondum frequentia hominum excisa in his oris nemora essent. Et quanquam exonerari aquam non dubitem subterraneis exitibus. Nam superiore urbis loco putei per se exonerantur in apertum. spatio unius pedis: Sub qua margam invenit putearius trium fere pedum altitudine. perviam eanalibus scaturiginosis. eandem scilicet. altius in profundo quaeritur scaturigo. infra vero subterraneos exitus habent. illuvie aquarum per intervalla 128 p rot ogae a . Sub hoc demum ubi argillosus incipit et lubricus fundus in betulam offendit fere putrefactam densamque abietem. musco. multis referta conchis. narratione huc referre operae pretium est. nullo alias hydrophylacio pro tanta latitudine ac celeritate suffecturo.fundum et cavum.
retained some connection to the lake. Under this the well digger found marl three feet thick. it is at least credible that it happens slowly. near Göttingen] Este in Lombardy recalls an analogous ruin of earths. in the region around Brunswick. The layers of earth in Rosdorf. But recently. root threads. There can be no doubt that the valley. ﬁbers. Moreover. grass. gravel and sand clearly hamper the ﬂow. After that. There the diggers again encountered a black stinking soil. And though I doubt not that the water drains through subterranean passages. lying on a bed of gravel. Repeated pr o t o ga e a 129 . moss. in April of 1686. then came dark earth. one hit upon an almost rotten birch and a solid ﬁr. But this happened in such a way that the spaces between the rocks. which supported the tenacious clay like a vault. ancient seat of a noble family. but they have subterranean outlets below. which. a not unlearned man. its source was sought at a greater depth. when it was not yet populated and before the forests within these borders were chopped down. and crammed with many shells. when the water had abandoned the surface. The well advanced this far the ﬁrst time. where argillaceous and slimy ground began. permeated by arteries of spring water. A local inhabitant had a well sunk. Rosdorf near Göttingen. but rather from undulation around a deep and hollow place. stalks. eight feet thick. recently yielded up a particularly ﬁne example. For in the upper part of the city the wells drain themselves openly. [xliv. and composed of rotten leaves. water everywhere reaches the same horizon level. First one dug through the customary twelve feet of fertile soil.reverse its direction upward. whose traces are often discovered. because otherwise. stretched to the site of the city in the most ancient times. no water chamber would sufﬁce to supply such a swift and broad current. and with some ﬁr cones next to it. still whole and lying crosswise together with its roots. the material embedded above fell down from the peak of its own accord. was once ﬁlled with trees. and many shells. composed of rotten leaves. And though the ground of the city be uneven. Under this. Therefore. I see no option except that the neighboring mountain concealed a huge lake. so that it ultimately ﬁlled the hollow. It is worth the effort to report this thing after the account of the pastor there. one foot thick. piece by piece. which is that of the lake. The rumbling certainly does not come from running water.
quae sese velut ruptis nubibus quadriennio ante effuderat. unumque quercus. ad putei locum non pertigerit. et fossile lignum. quasi ex limo productum diceres. Nec memoratu indignum est. deinde vertenda in saxum materia oppressam. Et alium. unde cotes ﬁebant. inter collectanea sua habere mihi signiﬁcavit lapidem ab Augustoburgo Misniae. et ﬁbrae radicum ac folia. diversi generis stratis oppletam. manifesta spolia sint astantium sylvarum. ut species discerneres. quale in Umbria repertum Franciscus Stellutus peculiari opera tractavit. repertam in cuniculo a Barbara Brulla cognominato. quem Schlamstein vocant. Fagus. [xlv] Passim alias occurrunt arbores obrutae. in illo tractu nunc abietes desiderari. alterum salicis faterere. Hunc acceperat ab Ephippio vetere 130 p r ot ogae a . an ruptis terrae veteris fornicibus ex montibus cum massa ambiente in cavitates devolutam putemus? Benjamin Olitschius. anni aerae Christianae millesimi sexcentesimi quinquagesimi sexti ad vallem Joachimmicam. ad profunditatem centum et quinquaginta orgyiarum petriﬁcatam quercum cum radice ramisque. Ex Chronico Montanorum Misniae constat. ut ingens ex imbribus inundatio. cum et marga illic colles abundent. ubi in eodem frusto ita expressa erant duo folia. veras esse. praemature obiit. magno in depressionibus damno dato. oppidum Bohemiae fodinis celebratum. sed et saxo obvolutum scimus. tantum natura loci mutavit. Et nunc deliberandum relinquo. an in tam humili loco natam arborem. Neque ille verorum ex suis arboribus lapsorum vestigia fuisse dubitabat. nec limo tantum mersum. quin et sudem in sepis usum paratam occurrisse. Accepi etiam die Februarii septimo. et vivo olim animali habitatas. sed turbinatarum: nec dubitare fas est. ex ejusdem oppidi fodinis septuaginta orgyiarum profunditate Gesnero et Albino jam olim memorata est. mineralium egregius indagator.redeunte. Conchae non ex bivalvium genere sunt. Nunc locus ita editus est. et cornu uri in profundissimis Thuringiae cavernis. quem agnosceres ex alno factum. fagum cum ramis et foliis in saxo cinereo durissimo sub terra altitudine centum et octoginta ulnarum repertam. qui apud nostros rei metallicae consultus. mox a Batavis Gubernator fodinarum in Orientalem Indiam missus.
there was a beech tree. 118. And now I leave open for consideration 117. 119. was considerably longer than the Flemish ell. seventy Lachter underground in the mines of this same town. 34 –36. It is well known from the Meissen Berg-Chronica118 that a beech tree was found. worked with Frederico Cesi to collect and describe Umbrian fossils. An old unit of measure used in the mines. Nor is it unimportant to recognize that the area now has no ﬁr trees. a famous Bohemian mining town. [xlv. A stake used for fence making was also encountered in the deepest Thuringian caverns. One Lachter was roughly two yards (or two ells). ash-colored stone. 121. His Trattato del legno fossile minerale (1637) argued that petriﬁed woods were minerals. Konrad Gessner (1516 –1565). the English ell. As Gessner and Albinus121 once recounted. in a tunnel called Barbara Brulla on 7 February 1656 in Joachimsthal. next to a bison horn. 120. a. On buried trees and petriﬁed wood] Elsewhere one ﬁnds fallen trees and petriﬁed wood. The shells are not of the two-shelled kind (bivalves) but rather of the conical variety (snail shells). An ell was roughly a yard. especially fossilized wood. Albinus 1590. the place is so elevated that even the huge ﬂood which came pouring out of cloudbursts four years ago and inﬂicted damage on the lower-lying places did not reach up to the site of the well. Cf. one hundred and eighty ells119 under the ground in very hard. and which we perceive not only covered in mud but also enveloped in stone. So much has the nature of the place changed. one hundred and ﬁfty Lachter120 down. a member of the Accademia dei Lincei. while root ﬁbers and leaves are the clear remnants of standing forests. 236 – 240. Petrus Albinus. See Ogilvie 2006.watery deluges then ﬁlled it with different kinds of layers. I also heard that a petriﬁed oak was discovered. Stelluti (1577–1651). and not the remnants of living plants. Swiss naturalist. pr o t o ga e a 131 . Peter von Weisse (1543–15989). but the measure varied widely from place to place. with its roots and branches. which Francesco Stelluti117 discovered in Umbria and described with singular effort.a. for the hills abound in marl. Now. professor in Wittenberg. complete with leaves and branches. from which they made whetstones. for example.k. and one cannot doubt that these are true shells that were once inhabited by living animals.
Idem habet in eadem terra aluminosa lignum quernum petrefactum. quemadmodum et Ostraciten ejusdem loci. de quibus tamen ego nil pronuntiare audeo. cornu usti virus olere. Conringius eos. lignis potius adscripsisse refert. Agricola ad saxeum genus inclinat. Addit e regione arcis Marieburgae collem esse plenum lapideis trabibus. quarum capita interdum eminent. Unde aliquando suspicatus sum. Esse vero perlongas acervatim positas. quodam allii odore in ipsa vena prodi. corruptum Cobolti nomen. ferro aut alio lapide percussas trabes. inque medio earum terram colore nigram. ex Knoblochio. De Ebeno fossili nostrate jam Cordus Agricolae retulerat. Hildesheimii intra terram aluminosam esse lignum in lapidem mutatum. qui coram inspexere. ubi etiam non procul Egra ﬂumine integri arborum trunci in saxum versi deteguntur. quod Germanis allium est. non satis scio. Zafera et Arsenicum parantur (ex uno lapide omnia). unde Bismuthum. Et ne urinosum quiddam spirantes referam sulfureas aquas.(Altensattel) loco Bohemiae. Et fossoribus constat Coboltum. Quod addit Agricola. fodinis stanni celebrem. idque in saxi commissuris reperiri. ac prope Silesiacam Herzbergam. Nam inest aliquando et mineralibus odor ex animali aut vegetabili regno. locaque ubi sal excoquitur. re nondum satis excussa. id cui rem tribuam. scimus saxum esse violas olens prope Altenbergam. 132 p rot ogae a .
and that one found it in the seams of the rock. Nor did he doubt that these were the traces of real leaves. together with the surrounding matter. a piece of the stone had two leaves so clearly impressed on it that you could discern what kinds they were: the one an oak. Agricola was inclined to regard it as a kind of stone. He had another stone they call Schlammstein—just as if. 1. pr o t o ga e a 133 . Olitsch was sent to Sumatra as a mining director (Berghauptmann). Conring relates that those who have inspected the material in person tend to identify it as wood. we also know that there is a rock that smells like violets near Herzberg in Silesia and Altenberg. not to speak of sulfuric waters. where he died prematurely. which had fallen from these trees. the other a willow. it had been formed out of mud. Cordus once told Agricola that our fossilized ebony was wood that had turned to stone inside the aluminous earth of Hildesheim. 563. 591. Leibniz  1923–. with black earth between them. venture to judge about this.124 For there is sometimes in minerals the smell of the animal or vegetable realm. Benjamin Olitsch122 told me he had a stone from Augustusburg in Meissen in his collection that you could recognize as being made out of an alder tree. 123. Agricola 1546. whether it tumbled from the mountains into the depths. 124.whether we should suppose that the tree grew in such a low place before being buried by petrifying material. with almost all the miners who accompanied him. He adds that there is a hill full of stony timbers. vol. They are in truth very long and piled in heaps. and places where salt is boiled. He got the stone from Old Saddle (Altensattel). however. who served as a mining councillor for us before the Dutch sent him to the East Indies as director of mines. the same aluminous earth contains petriﬁed oak wood. Cf. where one uncovers entire tree trunks turned to stone. which give off a certain smell of urine. ser. how I might explain that. a town in the mountainous regions of western Bohemia. Leibniz is probably referring here to Altsattel. 7. He died there. near Marienburg Castle. 3. I don’t really know. I do not. for the thing has not yet been examined enough. Agricola adds that these timbers emit the smell of burnt horn when struck with iron or another stone. or.123 a place in Bohemia not far from the Eger River. bk. in 1682. you might say. rather. Leibniz received word of his death in 1683. a place known for its tin mines. when the vaults of the old earth ruptured. he was an excellent investigator of minerals. And it is well known among miners that cobalt. or Stare Sedlo. whose ends sometimes jut out. Cf. Likewise. 122. just like the ostracites in that place.
Chauci. Torfae artiﬁcialis genus coriariis ex corticum quernorum reliquiis domi suae nascitur. Etsi aliquibus speciebus admista esse possint. quod aliquamdiu prohibitum. Hanc haustam per solum extendunt. exprimunt ad justae consistentiae ﬁrmitatem. diuque durant. interjecto assere. sed materiae vegetabilis colluvies. cujus cineribus sal vescus elici potest. quas ibi Mosswood vocant.[xlvi] Caeterum et sub Torfa. Non omnis tamen Torfae eadem natura: Apud Seelandos Belgas Darvia maris ejectamentum est. eaque perfracta apparuit ustilis cespes. Belgae. quale sicca aestate vix mensis spatio restinctum annales Bremenses memorant anno seculi a Christo duodecimi septuagesimo octavo. Inde in parallelepipeda seu lateres sectam formant. Nec video. arundinibusque terrae paludosae postremo siccatis longissimo tempore concreta. quae non procul Hannovera Cellaque effoditur in urendi usum. veteres passim arborum trunci reperiuntur. etsi aquae advehant in vicinis locis jam natam. Bructeri. ne terra ﬁrmitatem coercendo mari necessariam fodiendo amitteret. Maggenbergae in Misnia. et humorem pedibus. gramine. pro fructu paucorum annorum perpetuum sibi onus quaerunt solvendi de agro inutili census. Longum 134 p r ot ogae a . nec in Anglia deesse audio. ad usum urendi. Torfa autem non terra est. In Batavis vasti passim campi. ad nigrae aquae rivum. quod Plinius exprobravit. Vix apud nos hominis altitudinem excedit ustilis materiae stratum. Videntur usum homines ab incendiis didicisse. quae Veenas vocant. radicibus. cur sulphur et bitumen huic magis quam caeteris foci alimentis inesse necesse sit. Carolus V. soleque siccant et ventis. quarta orgyia venam ferri dedit. forte ex erica. musco. non magis quam sub ea subrutas arbores. pauperum precibus rursus indulsit. et velut ﬁlamenta ligni. Qui terram publicam Torfae commercio sibi vendicant. quae aliquando late vagantur per hoc soli genus. excisam renasci nondum compertum. Picardi Turfa utuntur. Cimbri. Adeo non soli populorum terram nostram urimus. Frisii. quasi lignum sub musco. limosa specie ob aquarum admistionem. ubi remota crusta ad materiam Torfae subterraneam pervenitur.
which was hardly extinguished in the space of a month during a dry summer. like the Cimbri. not all peat is of the same nature. Frisians.” like wood under moss. The Bremenites. and zaffer125 (all from one stone). the layer of burnable material hardly exceeds the height of a person. I do not see why there must be more sulfur and pitch in peat than in other ﬁre-feeding materials. though the waters might convey it. therefore. where one also ﬁnds trees under the earth called “Mosswood. pr o t o ga e a 135 . and one can 125. Near us. bk.127 It appears that the ﬁres. 1– 4. roots. Peat and its origin] Moreover. that the term cobalt is a corruption of Knoblauch. taught people to use it. At Maggenberg in Meissen. the choice of modern equivalents remains somewhat arbitrary.from which one prepares bismuth. which is German for garlic. Since many of these tribes. a practice censured by Pliny. Holsteiners. Natural History. arsenic. The Bremen chronicles of 1278 report such a ﬁre. peat is extracted for fuel not far from Hannover and Celle. So we are not the only people who burn our earth. 127. Westphalians. A pigment (impure cobalt oxide) used to color porcelain and enamel. Pliny. and. woody threads. For a detailed breakdown. and beneath it one sometimes ﬁnds old tree stumps and. and reeds—that accidentally coalesced on swampy ground and then dried during an extremely long period of time. 126. were nomadic. grass. Still. along the brook Schwarzwasser (black water). to nearby places. I once suspected. and Picards126 make use of peat. Belgians. it has not yet been observed that peat grows anew after being extracted. 161 nn. [xlvi. an iron vein was discovered at a depth of four Lachter. there appeared burnable turf. betrays itself through a certain garlic smell in the ore vein. which sometimes range widely through this kind of earth and last for a long time. see Jean-Marie Barrande’s notes: Leibniz 1993. the peat is not earth. and I hear that it is not lacking in England. Leibniz here uses the names of Roman tribes to connote peoples living in seventeenth-century Europe. as it were. already formed. having broken through this. but a hodgepodge of plant material— heather. Still. The tanners generate an artiﬁcial kind of peat in their workshops from scraps of oak bark. even though these materials can be mixed with various sorts of things. 7. the sea spits out a peat called Darvia near Belgian Zeeland. moss.
seseque ad Somam ﬂuvium extendit. a nostris Westfalisque ruricolis. cessantibus tandem incrementis. de nudato sabulo ericetorum abscissa. mox nova inundatio. rursusque in hoc ericae novae stamina ducta.96 quae passim per Chaucos. Turfa97 autem velut replicatione plaggarum accrevit. 136 p r ot ogae a . nec profutura. partim in foci usum. ob terram plantulis herbescentibus interstinctam. cum abduci non possit. Itaque qui negotium in se suspiciunt. nisi in orbe alio post Platonicam rerum revolutionem. 95. Conﬁrmant hypothesin plaggae. et Bructeros. partim ad agros steriles utcunque amendandos. B: Torfa. ex quo ﬂumina sibi viam magis magisque excavantia. Locum ejus interim aqua opplet paludosa. ita calculos ponere debent. Turfa. Nempe semisiccato post aquarum illuviem solo.95 dum Torfa renascatur orbe alio post Platonicam rerum revolutionem. ut praesentanea utilitas non impensis tantum. certiore jam alveo ﬂuere coepere. Nec abhorreo a probabili conjectura inundationem esse foetum. cujus usura annum canonem excedat. et Cheruscos. in praesentem crassitiem ustilis cespes augeretur. B: Torfa. sed et sorti sufﬁcere possit. 96. et Morinos uritur. aliquando et coercita humano labore. Itaque ustilis est ericae superﬁcies. plerumque in aperto est. novique limi subtile sedimentum. donec post multas annorum vicissitudines. 97. tenuis ericae rudimenta velut velatum increvere. id est superior terrae crusta. B: nec forte hoc contingent.esset expectare.
and Flanders. spread it on the ground. the outer crust of earth that one slices from the exposed sand of the heath. which they call Veene. the Weser basin. Of course. which is useless. I do not reject the likely conjecture that it was the offspring of ﬂoods. “Morinos”: The Morini occupied parts of Flanders and Picardy. the rivers carved out their own road. The peat itself grew progressively through repetition of these Plaggen. And those who undertake this business must therefore ﬁx their calculations so that the immediate return not only covers expenditures. cover it with a board. This was forbidden for a time to keep the earth from losing the necessary ﬁrmness to restrain the sea. and partly for use in ovens. in ancient times. the empty space ﬁlls with swampy water. sparse young heath grasses spread like a veil over the half-dry earth. and press out the water with their feet. pr o t o ga e a 137 . Because of the entreaties of the poor. You would wait a long time before the peat was born again. Peat. In Holland there are empty ﬁelds all around. because. after the ﬂood of waters. where. “Cheruscos”: The Cherusci occupied the basin of the Weser River. 48d–57c. but can also furnish a principal whose interest will exceed the annual tax.130 extends to the Somme River and generally lies in the open. because one cannot drain it. 129. until it becomes suitably ﬁrm. until ﬁnally. Plato. so that they began to ﬂow in established beds. one encounters a subterranean peat that is boggy because it is mixed with water. This hypothesis is conﬁrmed by the Plaggen of our farmers and those in Westphalia—that is. At last these increases came to a stop. partly in order to improve the barren ﬁelds as much as possible. the top of the heath is burnable. New heath-grass ﬁbers once again sprouted on this. in another cycle and after a Platonic upheaval of things. more and more. Therefore.make table salt from its ashes. north of the Chatti. Timaeus. soon came a new ﬂood and another deposit of ﬁne silt. sometimes even restrained by human toil. Cf. because its earth is infused with sprouting plants.129 Westphalia. Those who appropriate public land in order to trade in peat assume the burden of paying perpetual taxes on a useless ﬁeld in return for a few years’ proﬁt. after having removed the outer crust. Then they carve it into parallelepipeds or tiles and dry it with the sun and wind for burning. the burnable turf grew to its present thickness. 130. 128. Karl V allowed it again. after many years of such cycles. They draw it out. which is burned all around Bremen.128 In the interim.
conchylia semel. Et memorabile est. argillae duo. magna vi irrupisse terris. agnosci exacte species arborum. arena plus sexies. ubi nunc conchylia jacent ad centum amplius pedum profunditatem. nobis sub argilla latent arbores integrae vel fractae. terra obrutas. integras reperiri sylvas. ubi fossio desiit. turbidae unus. postremo triginta et unus sabulonis pedes. dum interim terrae sedimenta interjecti temporis 138 p rot ogae a . Tum fundus argillae ad centum et duorum pedum profunditatem. fere uno situ jacere plerasque. [xlviii] Cum Amstelodami aliquando puteus foderetur ad ducentorum et triginta duorum pedum profunditatem. sabulonis albi quatuor. et in foliorum serie annos distingui. arenae octo. ante omnem annalium memoriam Oceanum aestu et Caecia Cauroque ventis furentem. argilla rursus quinquies. terrae rursus quatuor. argillae decem. Itaque credunt viri docti. radice inter Septentrionem et Occasum. et arborum cacumina ad Orientem verti. Huic fundo reciprocatae inundationes. ruinaeque tot strata argillae arenaeque invexere. Brugensis. Torfae novem. argillae arenariae tres. terrae quatuor. siccae terrae quinque. hae species terrarum ordine oblatae sunt: Hortensis terrae pedes septem. quibus nunc quoque haec littora infestantur. Ita Torfa semel occurrit. Credibile est olim fundum maris fuisse. pedes decem. quam cum ex altiore loco venisse necesse sit. arenae marinis conchyliis mistae quatuor. crediderim promontorium aliquod. de patria sua: scilicet in fundis nonnullis dum ad decem aut etiam viginti ulnas foditur. arenae cum argilla mistae quinque. arenae. aut naturales aggeres ex argilla mari objectos et tandem perfractos huc incubuisse. Similia de Frisia memorantur et Groningano tractu. argillae novem. super qua domus illic ﬁstucantur. Idemque notavit Bootius. cacumine inter Orientem et Meridiem porrectis. terra quinquies. truncos et folia pro carbonibus adhiberi. unoque impetu totam hanc inferiorem Germaniam invecta materia obruisse. et alibi. arenae quatuordecim.[xlvii] In Luneburgensi quoque agro.
burst onto the land with great force. the kinds of earth were layered as follows: seven feet of garden earth. in certain ground. three of sandy clay. I suppose that a promontory or a natural wall of clay blocked the sea. trunks and leaves are employed as coals. and the tips of the trees point east. nine of clay. fourteen of sand. two of clay. 1550–1634). ten feet of sand upon which the houses there are anchored. And that one assault covered all of lower Germany with debris. ten of clay. it was then broken apart and deposited here. the boiling ocean. four of earth. nine of peat. there was 131. The same is reported about Frisia and the province of Groningen. ﬁve of sand mixed with clay. peat occurred once. with the roots pointed between north and west. pr o t o ga e a 139 . every ﬁeld has whole and broken trees hidden from us under clay. Bootius of Bruges131 observed the same thing in his country: namely. after digging ten or even twenty ells down. eight of sand. This is why learned men believe that in a time before all reported history. [xlviii. the precise species of tree is recognized. The digging stopped there. and ﬁnally thirty-one feet of coarse sand. Then came one hundred and two feet of bottom clay. Since this debris must have come from a higher place. ﬁve of dry earth. one of mud. a physician from Bruges who was also “gem advisor” to Rudolf II. and the tips pointed between east and south. another four of earth. and years are determined in the sequence of leaves. And it is remarkable that most of them lie in the same position. four of white sand. In all likelihood. The layers of earth observed while digging a well in Amsterdam] When a well in Amsterdam was dug to a depth of two hundred and thirtytwo feet. raging from the northeastern and northwestern winds that still attack these coasts today. sand more than six times.[xlvii. clay also ﬁve times. Anselm Boetius de Boodt (ca. earth ﬁve times. four of sand mixed with seashells. Thus. and shells once. On trees buried underground] In Lüneburg and elsewhere. one discovers whole forests covered by earth.
Sic repulsum mare cessit ad tempus. sylvasque prostravit. ne praeclara ejus opera. quarum nunc ruinae a fodientibus deteguntur. Ita rerum natura praestat nobis Historiae vicem.mora nascebantur. Historia autem nostra hanc contra gratiam naturae rependit. sed postea juris sui tenax. quae nobis adhuc patent. sese iterum ruptis aggeribus in terras infudit. posteris ignorentur. 140 p r ot ogae a .
But our written history repays nature’s grace. insisting on its right. at a depth of more than one hundred feet. But ultimately. The sea. ﬂooding the lands and ﬂattening the forests. whose ruins are now revealed by the diggers. retreated for a time. while the deposits of earth arose during the intervening periods.once a seaﬂoor where shells now lie. driven back. which still lie open before us. will not be ignored by posterity. the sea once again burst the dams. For us. so that her brilliant works. pr o t o ga e a 141 . nature thus stands in place of history. Repeated ﬂoods and catastrophes have thrown all the layers of clay and sand upon this ﬂoor.
APPENDIX Text from Friedrich Lachmund’s Oryktographia Hildesheimensis (1669) .
as a separate appendix. since it does not appear in the A manuscript.Editors.1 See the introduction. 40–56. Lachmund 1669. starting with Scheidt (1749). inserted text from Lachmund directly into Protogaea. 1. 144 a p p e n dix . We include the relevant text from Lachmund here.
). 3. or Schneckenstein. is in Gessner. a smaller kind is found near the village of Linden. The larger kind can also be found in the quarries of Galgenberg and does not differ from real oysters. It is found in the city trench but is not wound like the purple sea snail. the former. is extracted from the trench of the city’s north-facing fortiﬁcations (Agricola. It is of two kinds: a larger one that is easily split. The onychite. Its color is mostly ash gray. like the purple sea snail. We have retained them here. There are many grammatical and orthographic peculiarities in Lachmund’s German terms. in German. or Muschelstein. which the Greeks call onychas. as I said. and is dug out from the trench that runs north of the city. Kamstein. the former he calls ein zusammen gedruckter Schnecken-Stein). in Alfeld between the watchtower and the city. in color and shape almost similar to the aromatic claws. (Agricola. (Kentmann calls the latter. The ostreal stone. or Purpur-Schnecken-Stein. gets its name from oysters. The conchite. which it resembles. Sometimes it is short. is spiked with barbs and is gray. but it has lateral stripes (idem). like specular stone. a ppe nd i x 145 . loc. It is of two kinds. It is found in the quarries of Galgenberg. is grooved and looks just like a scallop. about which we have already spoken. which is ash gray. can be found in quarries (idem). is similar to an aquatic snail. cit. looks like a mussel because it is not grooved.3 The myite. The ctenite. The latter. Indeed. Moritz. Ein hoher und erhabner Schnecken-Stein. and in a new part of the city when digging the cellars where wine and beer are usually kept. Johannes Kentmann (1518 –1574).). if one is turned toward Einbeck (Agricola. The Hildesheim ctenite. The porphyroides. it runs from wide to thin and ends in a spiral wound from the right. Another one is found there which is very similar to this one but does not have any barbs. or Steinern Jacobs-Muscheln. or Ostren-Stein. Likewise. in the form of a whale mouth. cit. loc. loc.). like a scallop. either brownish or yellowish. not far from Hannover (Agricola. Found in the quarries beyond the Mount St. sometimes nine inches long. is found in the quarries of our region. p. oblong and spherical. See Gessner 1565–1566. ornamented with curved ridges that converge to the 2. and outside it takes on the color of the earth from which it was extracted. cit.Mineralogy of Hildesheim [Pages 40–56] The strombite. De natura fossilium).2 Inside it is white. 165.
A long and smooth yellowish conchite: ein gantzer langer glatter Muschel-Stein. xi. iii. c) The stone center. with another one embedded in it: zwey halbe. yellowish. very small. 146 a p p e n dix . vii. conchite that has grooves going 4. ii. ix. At the place where it is broken. vi. Another of the same color. yellowish. A gray ridged conchite: eine halbe graue steinerne Muschel mit Strichen. Some of the more unusual ones from my collection are shown here. oblong myite: ein halber langer Muschel-Stein. nor is it included in any subsequent edition. 9 in Protogaea. viii. similar to Rondelet’s grooved mussel: ein gantzer langer Muschel-Stein mit Strichen. A gray.back. smooth ostracite: ein halber glatter Ostrenstein. it is not much different from real shellﬁsh. a) The cochlite with its center. runde Muschel-Steine ineinander. not very different from a real scallop: ein klein Steinern Jacobs Muschel. Another the same color and a little smaller in size. x. xii. A gray. darinn eine gantze runde Muschel. A dark. xiii. iv. A round conchite. A gray and smooth conchite whose center is made of stone and can be removed and replaced again at will. and smooth: ein klein gelber gantzer glatter Muschel-Stein. xvi. and with gold-colored armature. is generally two palms long and one palm wide (idem). A round. xv. with a round shell in it that is partly visible and partly hidden: ein grauer Stein. v.4 i. grooved conchite with a thin shell. smooth myite. it contains black soil. xiv. A smaller one. or in Leibniz 1749. A yellowish rhomboid myite. I have found various stony shells here and there. wrinkled. of the same color and shape. b) The same without its center. A small gray scallop with a thin shell. A gray stone. a little larger. A large. 23b. gray. This note from the Lachmund original does not appear in Ms XXIII. A round and smooth conchite: ein runder gantzer glatter Muschel-Stein. The desciptions that follow apply to ﬁg.
A yellow-brown one. to build a monument to Phoroneus and many buildings in the city of Megara (Agricola. when joined to the snail. made of limestone. iv. A dark brown cochlite. Jan Jonston (1603–1675). vii. Ein brauner Stein. ii. ﬁts it like a mold. similar to a land snail. in der mitte voneinander gespalten. A light red one. A small snail stone.across from one edge to the other: ein gantze runtzlichte runde steinern Muschel. which. A dark stone divided into two parts in its middle. xi. A tube stone is a stone that looks exactly like the tubes of worms: ein Wurmstein. als wenn er doppelt umgewunden wäre. not very hard. stony material. book 7). Is also made of limestone material. vi. x. Another small one of the same color. and used. the same color. stony mass with molds of grooved snails everywhere. with worm tubes: ein Steinern lange Muschel. xvii. und wieder zusammengeleget werden. 5. De natura fossilium. while the other shows its matrix.” because similar stones were once extracted in the Megara region. A gray stone. Differs in size from IV [above]. as Pausanias tells it. calcareous material: ein Stein den rechten Schneckenhaüsern gleich. v. A yellow one. A long gray strombite made of hard. A dark brown. xiii. mit Steinern Würmen. kan voneinander. iii. made of limestone: ein gelbhaffter langer Schneckenstein. one of which shows an elegantly grooved snail. in it one can see the knotty horn of an ammonite. A dark snail stone. It is called by Jonston5 “Megaric stone. long and smooth. a ppe nd i x 147 . which is spread on roads: ein langes graues steinernes Schneckenhaus. friend and patron of Comenius. i. not so hard. either grooved or smooth. xii. composed of hard. as smooth and elegant as if it had been turned on a lathe. It was found in a gravel quarry. ix. viii. in welches einem Theil sitzet eine schöne Krause Schnecke im andern derselben Form. A short strombite (cochlite) is a yellowish stone. A dark brown snail with worm tubes: ein Steinern Schneckenhaus. mit Steinern Würmen. quite hard. which is entirely composed of round shells.
Zwerg-. like astroite. Räder-. or clay colored. The trochite. together with a trochite and an entrochite. They look so elegant that they could not have been better shaped by the hand of the most skillful sculptor. or a little more. 11 in Protogaea. It can be of different colors. 148 a p p e n dix . but they usually get that way because of contact with the earth. width. All their fractures are smooth and shiny. They are of two kinds: either completely cylindrical. It is not unusual to ﬁnd. It varies greatly in size. there always seems to be a twisted belt where the two are connected. Saxony produces those stones at Hildesheim. either gray. beyond Moritzberg. The same can be found between Alfeld and Einbeck. just like those of a wheel. with their middle partly swollen and both ends thinner. One even occasionally ﬁnds some of them that move from their place. inside they are whiter than the others. the trochite having broken away. a shapeless stone that contains the ﬁgure of a wheel. and I show the rarest of them here. remaining as a sort of impression.6 6. I have found them in great abundance. sometimes four. Twenty attached in a group have even been found. or somewhat cylindrical. Trochites are joined together so that the spokes of the one meet the grooves of the other. like astroites. Entrochites are made of trochites that are not yet separated (Spangenstein aneinander). they produce bubbles. Trochites break up kidney stones and are useful for curing urinary problems. Spangen-. Lachmund’s key here corresponds to ﬁg. with the biggest being ten times bigger than the smallest: the biggest is as broad as a ﬁnger and as thick as the third part of it. as with the Jewstone. and they break in the same way in their length. black. nature has given it the shape of a wheel: its round part is smooth. And indeed. and they jut out so much that grooves are created. Those with smaller spokes lack the belt and are completely smooth. and from the center of its cross section spokes reach toward the outside of the disk. oder Mühlstein resembles the Jewstone (as Agricola says) and is called that because it looks like a wheel. in the cracks of gray-white marble and in clay soil. In those with larger spokes. numbering three. or diagonally. Trochites of swollen entrochites generally have quite small spokes. if placed in vinegar. or even more.partly hidden and partly visible.
hollow in the middle but swollen at the ends. ii. a little larger. 4. Composed of ﬁve trochites. Er siehet wie ein klein Mühlstein. Alchem. 1. 4. iii. Another blackish one. i. 2. white one with protruding spokes. 70. The ﬁrst is not in the shape of a wheel. Another. p. 1. Another in the shape of a penis. Gray. but starts with a wide base and ends in a sharp point. the ﬁrst of which lacks the twisted girdle. vii.. in Worm. p. 2. 2 and 3 differ only in size. Similar to the last one in size. viii. Consists of four (trochites). columnetta). Composed of ﬁve. Another swollen in the middle. 2. 2 and 3 differ only by their larger size. One trochite joined to another along its side. 2. Mus. 3. without the twisted girdle. Composed of very large and whitish trochites. without its prepuce. Another of moderate size. A small. 7. some of which are thicker and are alternatingly joined to the others. the same color. 3.1. Composed of six white trochites. iv. v. with a point standing out on the the ﬁrst (trochite). 1. This may be the small Jewstone that is shaped like a cylinder and mentioned in Reeland. A gray one in the shape of a wheel.. Composed of eight. 5. Made of eight white trochites. the ﬁrst of which is broken and has a curved base. but twice as thick. A large. A small one shaped like a column (Ferrante Imperato. 3. A small entrochite composed of two trochites. The same. 283. but the two upper ones are nested differently from the others. ix. vi. A larger one. very pale yellow trochite. 8. 1. Lex. 10. Another in the shape of a rose. with a swollen middle section. 9. An entrochite composed of three trochites. different from the last in thickness and length. 6. a ppe nd i x 149 . 1.
gray. A gray stone with a ctenite joined to a white.x. xii. it has a circle with a spot in its center and is the base of a broken trochite. A gray stone. round conchite. xi. striated trochite. containing several trochites and entrochites. 150 a p p e n dix . A smooth.
argentum vivum. A variety of asbestos.” (A spherical and hollow stone. (A mineral salt. Amber. appear after these. Historical deﬁnitions or equivalents thus appear ﬁrst. Belemnite.) bryonia.) astroites.glossary Like all words. Raw red silver. pearlywhite ﬁbers. like the common starﬁsh. gold-colored masses. Modern deﬁnitions. asterias. where appropriate. Vinegar. ﬂexible. Alabaster. Alum. or mercury. a ﬁne-grained sulphate of lime or gypsum. alabastrita. ardosia. A glasslike silver ore. Used for dyeing and medicinal purposes. ammoniacum.) belemnites. The native ore of antimony. or echinoderm. argentum vitriforme. or any star-shaped mineral or fossil. yellow arsenic. characterized by long. (A salt composed mostly of ammonium chloride. a star-shaped petriﬁcation. Natural silver with a hairlike or capillary appearance. (The endoskeleton of an extinct squidlike cephalopod). Orpiment. (It occurs naturally in soft. bitumen. acetum. a vine used for medicinal purposes. argentum capillare. See succinum. or stibnite. Copper or copper ore. (A coral stone. Argentite. Orpiment was used mainly as a pigment. argentum rude rubrum. brontia.) auripigmentum. ardesia. Bitumen. aes. ambra. or mineral pitch. Asterias. in parentheses. . these terms have discrete historical meanings that cannot be reduced to modern or “correct” deﬁnitions.) amianthus. asphalt. Copper schist. Bryony. a petriﬁcation of oblong and cylindrical shape. See lyncurium. Quicksilver. alumen. (A kind of urchin. auripigment. An astroite. the double sulfate of aluminum and potassium. Sal ammoniac or the salt of Ammon.) antimonium. A “toadstone. A starlike fragment of the stem of a fossil crinoid.
with a shell curved like a ram’s horn. an ore of zinc. The burnt-smelling materials produced during a distillation. especially as it was found naturally in the veins of the Erz Mountains. Cinnabar of antimony.) carbunculus. Petriﬁcation in the form of a trumpet.) cornu ammonis. entrochus. hydrargyrum. vegetable alkali. Entrochite. Ammon’s horn or snakestone. Native lead sulﬁde. cinnabaris. A carbuncle. 152 g l os s ary . Hematite. Calamine. (An animal with ctenoid features. A comblike petriﬁcation. It is the red form of mercuric sulﬁde. or sea lily. canis marinus. (Ammonite. A whelk. (A black form of lignite. Prepared by distilling antimony and a sublimate (mercuric chloride). (A shark.) conchites. (A mollusk or brachiopod. Sea urchin. Blue ﬂuorspar. coboltum. or bloodstone. entale. The fume of cobalt. A sea dog.) ctenites. a bright red stone which is an ore of mercury. A kind of snail. Cobalt ore. an extinct genus of cephalopod. (Fossilized sharks’ teeth.buccina. cobaltum.) echinus. or potash.) butter of antimony.) haematites. (An abundant iron ore naturally occurring in various colors. cobalti fumus. (The twisted and spiral shell of a mollusk. especially red and reddish brown. (Part of the stem of a fossil crinoid.) cali. formed in the process of making butter of antimony. Cinnabar. (A fossil spiral shell or sea snail. petriﬁed snakes’ tongues. cinnabaris antimonialis.) histrix. a ruby or red precious stone. Native blue vitriol or sulfate of copper. empyreuma. gagates. Mercury or quicksilver.) cochlites. A shell shaped like a tromb. a common lead ore. lapis calaminaris. chalcantum. that is.) galena. antimony trichloride. glossopetrae. Kali. The fossil shell of a brachiopod. A snail-like petriﬁcation. Glossopetrae.) ﬂuor caeruleus. (Arsenic that is contained in the ore cobaltite. soda ash. Jet. like a scallop or pecten. (In modern chemical terms.
nitri spiritus. wet place. Hard coal. A Jewstone. mud. often in a cold. Niter. Mandragora. (Murex. Onyx.) onychites. clayey earth. a light and porous cellular rock. shells. plumbum nigrum. like a cellar.) osteocolla.) per deliquium. Osteocolla.) pyrita.” because of its supposed ability to knit broken bones. also known as spirit of saltpeter. (A coral with a large calcareous skeleton.lapis judaicus. rubrica fabrilis. (Nitric acid. See ossifraga. Naptha or liquid petroleum. a petriﬁcation found near Palestine. that is. with yellow veins. White lead ore. Lynx stone.) regulus. porphyroides. ostracis lapis. lithantracum. lyncurium. Clay. (Ammonium carbonate. A ﬁne red or reddish brown clay.) naptha. Spirit of niter. ﬂuorspar that glows when warmed. or quicksilver. (Ferrous iron sulfate. a yellowish stone supposed to have originated in lynx urine. Lye or potash. pyrites. (A variety of marble or alabaster.” was also sometimes regarded as a component of the atmosphere that supplied the world with a principle of life. or cerussite. (Sulﬁdes of iron and copper.) mercurius. saccarus saturni.) myites. A petriﬁcation in the shape of an oyster. Green phosphorus. Red chalk or red ocher. or mandrake. See nitri spiritus. phosphorus smaragdinus. mandragora. Refers to the dissolution of a solid body through humidity. The metallic component of an ore. called “glue-bone stone. Melanterite or iron vitriol. (The fossil spine of a large sea urchin. or “volatile niter. A millepore. milleporum. Pyrites. nitrum. See belemnites.) lapis tophaceus. darkened by galena.) gl o s s a ry 153 . The salt of hartshorn. (A calcareous agglomeration of roots and stems. melanteria. Tuff stone. a marine gastropod. sal de cornu cervi. Often found in sandy ground. Purple sea snail. (A fossilized oyster. Saltpeter or niter. Mercury. (Brachiopods. or ﬁrestones.) ossifraga. limus. marga. Clay or marl. A mussel-like petriﬁcation. The liquid product obtained by leaching the ashes of vegetables and evaporating the solution. lixivium. The sugar of lead.
or talc. turfa. Petriﬁcations with tubes. trochites.) terra tartari foliata. Trochoids or conical shells. (Copper sulfate. selenite. that is. sandaraca rubra. Tuff stone. (An impure oxide of cobalt. of fossil crinoids. Zaffer. A concretion. specularis lapis. stiria. trochita. (A fossil resin of conifer trees. that resembles an icicle.) tophus. Trochites. Schist.) turbo. Red sandarac or realgar. but could also refer to stibnite. Specular stone. A light-colored clay. (Fossilized stromb shells. slate. or wheel-stones. Regenerated tartar. (A species of mica. Vitriol.sal gemmeum. or hornblende. schistus. Strombites. Rock salt. Yellow amber.) succinum. saturnus.) 154 g l os s ary . (The wheel-like joints of encrinites. (Fossil tubular shells. strombites. (Potassium acetate. Peat. torfa. the tubular shells of the shipworms. tubulites.) zafera. vitriolum.) See entrochus. such as a stalactite. trochoides. Generally lead. A mollusk with a whorled shell.) stenomarga.
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135–137 brickworks. gray. 51–55. 69 antiperistasis. 15. xl. xxxvii. xxx. Thomas. dukes of. xxix. 87. 57 biblical ﬂood. 19. 117. Johann Joachim. 121 Agricola. 88–89. xxvi. 101 Baumann Cave. 51. xxxviii. transformation of. xx. 71. 65. 115. 101 Albinus. 103 Achilles. 135 asterias. 77–79. Louis. 117 animals. 61. 121 Adriatic Sea. xxxix. 97. 115–117. Othenio. Petrus. 115 America. 13. 73. 97. unknown. Alexander. xxiii. 13. 99 Ammon’s horns. 97 amphibians. xvi. xxxi. xl n82. 73 belemnites. 85. 129. xxxix. 75. xiii. 127 Ardosia. xxxi–xxxii antiquities. 125. 73. xxvii. 43–49. 129 Apennines. 77 Brocken. xiii. 117 Altdorf. 59. 55. 131 alchemy. 35. xxxvi. 35. 119 Bellarmine. xxx–xxxi. 113 Belgium. 121. See also stones: ichthyomorphic Aristotle. xiii. 139 ancients. 123–125 antiquity. 37. 57–59. 66–67. xxxii. xxviii. 15. xxviii. 45. xxii. Robert. xxxvi. 117 arsenic. xxv. 31. 39–41. 15 Amsterdam. Abel. 105. 59. xxxvi. xxi. 110–111. xxx alum. 121 Aquileia. 148 Alps. 59. House of. 29. xxviii–xxx. 25 Acta eruditorum (Journal). 61. 65–67. xxviii blood. xxxiv. 31. xxxiv. 31. 121. 51. 21 Bodemann. extinct. xxi. 121 . xvi. xxiv. 65–69. xxxvi. Anselm Boetius de. xxxv–xxxvi. 51. 71 Bartholin. xxvi. 115 beavers. 127 antiquarianism. Eduard. xvi–xvii. 87. See Bructerus Bructerus. 33. xxvii. 51. 69. 53. 49. 19–21 Brunswick. 105. 79–107. remains of. 139 Bourguet. xix. 101 Bremen. xx–xxi. 69. 109. xl Boileau. xxxi–xxxii. xxxix Boyle. Georgius. 13. circulation of. Nicolas.index Page numbers in italics denote illustrations. 79. 43. 41. 69. 145. 61–63. xxxii Boodt. 123 Becher. 71. 99 biblical narrative. xxxviii Adige River. 145–147 air pump. 77–79 amber. Robert. See also chemistry Alfeld. shapes of. 135 artisans.
115–117 Cordus. 21 Conring. xx–xxi chemical workshops. 101 curiosity. 15. 49. 77 classiﬁcation. xxiv. 139–141 causes. over fossils. 15. 105 caves. 109 Dauerlein. 117. xxxv. xix–xx. 31–35. 75 crystallization. 43. 69. 27–29. 27. xxxi chymistry. xviii–xx. 3–15. xix. 139 coasts. 147 De re metallica (Agricola). 11–13. . 17 conic sections. 43–47. 41–43. xiii. 59.Buffon. xxii. xxi. 65. Georges Louis Leclerc de. 83. 49. 121. 3–9. 25. 137. 33. See laboratories chemistry. xxxvii. 5–7. 19 chronologists. xxix. xvii–xviii clay. 131. xxxvi. xix–xxii. 59–65. 73. Valerius. 125–129. xxxiv. and ﬁ re. xxxiii–xxxiv. xix–xx. xvi Discourse on Metaphysics (Leibniz). 61. 115 Chifﬂet. xiii. xxv. 119 Christ. xxviii chance. xx. 101 comets. xxix–xxx. 123. xxvi Christian Ludwig. xxxvii. 49. 133 cosmology. xxxiii. xxxvi Clausthal. xxi–xxiv chemical processes. Heinrich. 19 diplomacy. crust. 109. xiii–xiv. 73–77. 55. xxxi. xix. 73–77. René. 73 curiosities. Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Calenberg. 45 Cave of Dwarves. Oswaldus. 19 burning mirrors. xx. Jean Jacques. xiii. 105. 99. 61. 49. 49. 9. 97. 3. 139 collections. xxx craftsmanship. xxxv Descartes. 87. xix n15 diluvialists. 7–9 calculus. xiii. 33–35. over earth’s formation. xxviii. See belemnites ceraunia. 20. xvi. xxii–xxiii divining rod. See also Baumann Cave. 77. 99. 27–29. general. 127. 71. 39. xiv. Cave of Dwarves. xix. 51. xxxv–xxxvi. xix–xxi. of Thuringia. 69. See ﬂ int tools chain of being. 113 crystals. 135 creation. xxix. 33–35. 61. xxi–xii. 5–7 credulity. 37 De natura fossilium (Agricola). 63 Burnet. 77 chaos. xxxix Dictionnaire philosophique (Voltaire). 27 earth: age of. 13. 69. xxvi. 113. xxxv–xxxvi. 61. xvi carcharodon. 45. See chemistry Cicero. 111. xxvi. 25. Hermann. xxxv. conjectural history of. Scharzfeld Cave cephalopods. 105. 111 Crollius. xxix. 17. 55. 19. xxi. xxiii–xxiv. cabinets of. xix–xxi. 133 166 in d e x controversies: over chronology. Johann Daniel. xxxvii. Thomas. 19. 3–5 Crafft. xiii. xiii. xvii n8 deception. 51. See sharks catastrophe. formation of. 71. 17.
43–49. xiii. 31. xxix–xxx. xix–xx. 123 evidence. See also chemistry extinction. 43. xl England. ﬁsh. Lombardy. 41–43. original appearance of. 109. 19. xxxii. xxxix. 123–129. 55. xix. 79. xxxiii. xxv Fontenelle. 73–75 ﬂoods. xxviii Frisia. 139–141. 133 Egypt. 113–114. 59. 85. xxiv. petriﬁcation(s). See also earth Flanders. xxxiv–xxxv. François. 73. xxv–xxviii. 49. ivory. 35 fusion. xxxi. 11. 131–133. 25. organic origin of. xvii. 121–123. 77–79. 53. 127–131. 3. 25. 61. 108–109. 117–119. 3–19. xviii. 62–63. 69–71. 17–19. xxxix–xl. 145. as documents of nature. 131–139. 21–23. xxv. 41–49. in caves. shells. 27. 3–7. xl. theories of. xiii. 59. snakes. Nicolaus. xxvii. See also Agricola. xxiv Eckhart. 121 Euganean Hills. 51–53. 129 etymology. 23. xiii. 5 elephants. xxxix Ernst August. 97. Georgius. 92–93. xiv. 73 Elbe River. xxvi. xxix. 90–91. xl. trees. 23. 7. xxxviii. Bernard de. 105. 101. 105–109. xxvi–xxvii. 105 ﬁ re. 83. xxi–xxii. xvii–xviii Este. xxi–xxiv. 59. xxi. 105. as living organism. and glass. House of. 43–45. 97. xxii. Wolf von. xxxix force. 137 ﬂ int tools. xiii. 73–75. 43–49. 139. 71. 23. 135. xxi. xiii. See fossil objects fountains. See also biblical ﬂood Florence. 109–111 elements. 57. xxxiii–xxxvi. xvii. snails. worms. xxv. 101. 23–25. 69. 77. xlii economy. 139–141 fossil objects. 19. xxvii. 137. 141 experiments. 101. 49 i nd e x 167 . and ruins. 23. xxxii ﬁctions and fables. 131–133. xxv. 148 Eisleben. authoritative witnesses as. 113. 27–29. 141. 25. 97–99. 107 Engelhardt. unicorn fossils. 77. layers of. xxiii. images as. xxi. xiv. 111. 13. 9. 135–137. 123–127 freethinkers. 17–19. 101 excavations. Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Calenberg (Hannover). 139 furnaces. 115. vaults of. 17. 125–129. 3. Lisbon. xviii Eger River. xxxvi–xxxvii. xlii. xxii. 135 engravings. 23. 5–9. xxxiii–xxxiv. 65. 97. 117 Einbeck. 149. Steno. 129 earthquakes. 49. xx–xxi. xl. 13. 9. 57. xxxi. 9. 105. 55. 57.xix–xx. 46–47. 43. 125. xxxvii. 15. xix. 106–107. 3–37. wood. teeth. plastic faculty of. 129–131. xxx. 61. 117 Elbingerode. 55. bones. Johann Georg. xxviii Fénelon. xxxiii. 51–53. 99. 85. xiii. 55. 97–99. 11. 65–69. 48–49. 109. xxxiii. 65. 77. xxxiv. xxxvii. xix–xx. 97. 125–127 forests. xxxix. xxxix. 113. xxii–xxiii.
25–27. 145. method of. 71 gems. 89 ichthyomorphic stones. 131 Johann Friedrich. 107. 79. 9. 53 indiscernibles. 109. 129 Gould. xxxi–xxxii. written. and chronicles. 33. xxxvii–xxxix. 84–87. 148 history. xxxvii. xxx. 31 images. 131 giants. Johann Daniel. Konrad. See stones: ichthyomorphic Idria. 135. 69. 133. 37. 53. 85 generation. Johannes. 47. xvii Harz Mountains. See also nature: games of imagination. xxv. mining administration of. of nature. 35. xix n16 gravel. dukes of. 119. 119. sacred. xvii. 73 hurricanes. 77. xxxvii. 91. xxxvii. 97 Goebel. See history: human Hungary. 117–119 Italy. xx Geneva. 49. xxxi. xxvii. Immanuel. 43. 23. 51. 5–7. xxi. 51. 141. 117. Galileo. See also Brunswick: House of Holland. on rocks and stones. 73 Gessner. 57 Hamburg.Galilei. narratives of. xxvi. 103 Halle. xx. xxxi. xxxiii. spontaneous. 117 hanging veins. 145 . 121–123 Jewstones. xiii. Royal Library. xiii–xiv. 59. Stephen J. xxxvii. Peter. 79. 21. 57. 123 Grubenhagen. 73. 33–35. 51 humans. 115 Goslar. 71. 73 Genesis. See also earth glossopetrae. xiii–xiv. 21–23. 119 Holy Roman Empire. 85 Greece. xx. Ulrich. 49. 105 Gruber. See ore veins: hanging Hannover. 125–127 graves. xxvii. xxx–xxxiii. 57 Huxley. xxiv Kentmann. 80–83. Duchy of. xxvi. xx. xxi. Pierre. 41. 49 Göttingen. xvi. 109–111 heat. xxi. xix n17 games of nature. xl. 139–141. Otto von. 31. xix. 3. xxxvi. 77–79. Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Calenberg. 148–149 Joachimsthal. 59. 113.. xxx. human. xvi–xviii. 137 Holstein. xxxii. 45. xxxvi. 21. 53. xvii n8. 105 Horst. 57 geometry. 117 glass. 101. xxi. 13. religious. 73. 115 168 in d e x Hildesheim. xvi. xxxviii Guelphs. xxix homunculi. xviii. Johannes. 123. 97. 73. 27. 35. 61. See also earth Hevelius. xxii islands. Johann. 39. 45. xvii n10 Hron River. 31. xxiv. 73 Gibraltar. 117 Kant. 117 Hartzingk. 145. 109 Guericke. xxix. xvii. xxxv. See nature: games of Gassendi. 71. Thomas Henry.
115. 71. xxii. 144 lakes. xviii–xx. 25. 101 magic. xiii. and dukes of Hannover. 37. 57. 121–123 Leeuwenhoek. xxxvi. 29. 23–31. 49. iron. xvii n8 Leibniz. origin of. See fusion metals. as court historian and librarian. xxxi. and correspondents. 49–52. 85 mammoths. 31. 77–79. Antoni von. xxii–xxiii mechanics. galena. 53. 81. 69. xiv. xxii. Hermann. 103 mandragora. 37. orpiment. xxvi. alabaster. xviii–xxv. 51. xxxiii–xxxvi. bitumen. 43 legends. 3. 25. 27–29. and metaphysics. 37. silver. Athanasius. xxxiv. See also ore veins microscope. 55 laboratories. physics of. 129 land. 69–71. 125 medicine. xvii. 139 Luther. 25. family of. 43 Minden. hematite. 75 manuscripts. xiii. in Italy. and diplomacy. 29. zinc. 97–121. 65. Christoph. 9. xix Leo the Iconoclast. xiv. 57. xiii. and Harz mountains. 133–135 Melibocus. xviii. xxxvii–xxxviii. xxx–xxxi. 81. xviii. 77–79. xiii. 123. xxxi. 15. 73 Körner. 119 minerals. 85. i nd e x 169 . 29–31. 45. and force. copper. 73.Kircher. 17 Leibniz. xviii. xvi–xviii. Georg Engelhard von. xvii–xviii. philosophy of. 109. 23–25. 119 Le Monde (Descartes). 59. 117 Libavius. Ambrosius. 49. 27–37. xxxiii. xxxiii. 63. 89–97. pyrites. 139 Löhneyß. 27–33. xxiii. 119. 29. xiv. Friedrich. of nature. xxxiii. 21. of human beings. xxxv. 3. 5–19. 27. Martin. xiv. 129 marshes. 9. xvi. xl. See belemnites Magdeburg. 107–109 Meissen. xxxv. Andreas. xvii n8 Leibniz. 99. 33. xxxiii–xxxvii. 25. xxviii–xxx. 33. lead. xvii Lower Saxony. xxii–xxiii Leiden. cobalt. and House of Hannover. xvii Leine River. 105–107. 144 marble. cinnabar. See Bructerus melting. 33. shapes of. xxxiv–xxxv. 55. 119–121 materialism. inventions of. 27–29. 73 lynx stones. 45. gold. xxviii mathematics. 15. xvi. xix. 51. 129–131. Gottfried Wilhelm von: and calculus. 113. xl–xlii. 21. 23–27. xlii. xxxix–xl. ﬂuorspar. 85–87. xvi. 77–79. xxxv–xxxvii. 37. xiv–xviii. 31–37. 85. 73. bismuth. xxix. Benoit de. 43–49. xxxv. 117. 51. 25. 29. xxxiii Lüneburg. xxx–xxxi. 45. 133. 77 Krakow. mercury. 67. 31. xxviii Malta. 37. See also chemistry Lachmund. and mining ofﬁcials. xxxviii–xxxix. 147 local knowledge. 99. See also geometry matter. 27–29. 115 limestone. xxvii. 119. xiii. 73 marl. 85 Maillet.
77–79. operations of. xxvii. 21–23. 77. xxxiv. 73–75. 109. 91. 21 Norway. xxiv. xviii. xx oceans. 23. 57. games of. 119 Olitsch. 69. xxxvi. xxiv. See America Nibelung. 59. 21. xxvi. iron. See also ﬁctions and fables Modena. fossil objects. xxxi. hanging. 3. 133. xxxv–xxxvi. xxvi. imitation of. 123. See also belemnites. Bernard. See also vestiges nautilus. 33–35. 7. 23. 29 North Sea. 131. xiii. 139. 25–29. 131 miracles. xiv. 41. 77. 23–27. 125 nature. 15–17. xvii. xx. 129. xix. 135–139 Peiresc. 31. xxxiii. 113 mountains. 97. xxxvi–xxxvii. silver. 51–53. Bernard de. 21. 23. 59. 41. xxvi myths. 73. 31. xvi. xvii. 66–67. 125 Paris Academy of Sciences. xxxvi. glossopetrae. 27. xiii. 146 Padua. xxx–xxxi. xxxv. 55. iron. archives of. 109. 27–29. frogs in. 3. 49. 117 niter. process of. 53 mines. xxxvi–xxxvii. xxxiv. 3. 23. xxxviii–xxxix Oryktographia Hildesheimensis (Lachmund). 113. xxxvi. 109. 127. Nicolas Claude Fabri de. 133. 63. 41. xxxviii particles. 117 petriﬁcation(s). 121. 11–13. and collapses. 133–135. xxxiii–xxxv. xiv–xviii. 77. 127. 117. 69. 43. salt. xiii. 133. 11 natural history. tin. xxi. xxxiv ostracites. 21. 133 optimism. 55–59.minerals (continued) 25. 11. 73. 19–21. copper. xxv. 45. towns. 103 Palissy. 21–23. smell of. 31–33. 53. xiv. 15–17. xxviii. xv. 41. 21–23. language of. xxiv. 69. xxix. 3 ore veins. beliefs of. 89–93 osteocolla. Benjamin. xxxi Mundus subterraneus (Kircher). xv. 65 Mountfaucon. 109. 141. trochites philology. See also metals miners. xxxix–xl. 51 Moses. xxix. xxvi. 39. 77. xiv–xviii. 53–55. 20. xxxvii. 37. xiii. in caves. 17–19. 20. practices. 97 Osterode. 39. formation of. 17. 53. 65 170 in d e x New World. 35–37. 21. Abraham. See also seas Oertel. 77. marine fossils on. 19. xxvii Panaro River. xiii order. diamond. xlii. 65 peat. xxxv. xxxiv. 55. accidents in. 105 Nile River. 45. xxxi. alum. 135 Origines Guelﬁcae. 75. 5. xxiii Mosel River. xviii. xxxvii. 11 natural philosophy. 63. 113. 31. 97–131. copper. 75–77. 135 Monadology (Leibniz). 123 paleontology. xxxix. xxix. 133 mining: ofﬁcials. xxxvi. 109. 53. falling. 23 observation. xxxi . xxxv. laws of. 17. 7 pearls. xxxiii. 73 natural geography. 53.
137. xix–xx Prodromus (Steno). 39. 39. 23–25. 5. 53. 115. 89–95. xl. 85. Christian Ludwig Prussia. 65–67. Agostino. structure of. 121. See engravings Pliny the Elder. 119–121. 79. 111. 13. 102–103 Regensburg. Jean. 121 Scharzfeld Cave. 35 i nd e x 171 . 69 reconstruction. 13. xxvi. 59. 41 sand. 148 Scaurus. Campania. xiii. 19. 103. 119. 11 sacred texts. 57. xxxviii ruins. 35 Pignoria. xxxix–xl. John. 37. publication of. 109 Scheel. 144 schist. xxxvi– xxxvii. 67. 131 Ramazzini. xxxi. editions of. Bertrand de. 115 Po River. 27. See experiments Scilla. 73 salts. 81–83. 113. xl sal ammoniac. xxxvii–xlii. xlii. xxii–xxiii preformation. 127. xxix–xxx proof. 123–125 rocks. xix. xxi Rhine River. xxxiv. 105. 117 Rhône River. 137 saltworks. xxv–xxvi projectors. 107. 101 quicksilver. xxx Pomerania. 125 Rammelsberg. 97 seas. 5. 17–19. 117. Marcus Aemilius. xx. xxxviii. xxxii rains. xx–xxi. 55–57. reception of. 3–11.Phlegraean Fields. anatomical. and excerpts. The. 121 possible worlds. xv. xl. motion of. xxviii. manuscripts. 53. 15 Sacred Theory of the Earth (Burnet). 23. 139–141 Saxony. xxviii revelation. 75–79 sea dogs. xiii. 123 Ray. 23 sacred history. 29 Ravenna. 63. See metals: mercury Racine. xxxii. xix. 85. 85 politics. xxiii. 62–63. xxxvii. subterranean. 23. xxi. 107. Bernardino. 125–127. 19 Saint-Germain. 9. 106–107. xxxiv. 65. xxxvi. Günter. xxiii. 41. 35. 11. 35 saltpeter. xx. xxi–xxii. xxxvii–xl. xxxvi–xxxix. 82–83. 61 Protogaea (Leibniz): and Descartes. 15 sacred monuments. Christian Ludwig. 135 poisons. 3. xxxvii. xxviii. 115. 115 Quedlinburg. 141 sea salt. 129 Royal Society. 80–81. xli. 135–137. xiii. See sharks sea monsters. xxvii. 57. xxxiv. 77. 57. 65. See also Scheidt. 123 plates. formation of. xiv n3 Scheidt. 73 Principia philosophiae (Descartes). xiii. Lorenzo. 53. 99. xl. 117 rivers. 39. xiv. 47. 27. xvi. xxxvii–xxxviii. 9. 43–49 scientiﬁc practices. xxxvii– xlii. xxiv preestablished harmony. and engravings. 7–9 Rosdorf. 101 religion. ﬁsh imprinted on. xxiv. xiii.
origin of. 39 stones: ichthyomorphic. xxviii–xxix. pebbles. 49. 123–129. 39. 35 tartar. xx strombites. 31. xxv. xvi Thuringia. 105. 77. 55. Philipp Jakob. 3. 11. 148–150 tuff. 71 smelting. 33. See also fossil objects Sicily. xxiii. 19. 35. 3. xxv. in caves. xxviii Tournefort. 79. 123 theology. xxxix. xxxv–xxxvi. See metals: silver slags. xix. 45n43 trochites. xxviii Theodicy (Leibniz). 61. xxi Thirty Years’ War. 39 Tuscany. Francesco. archeological. 7. 19. pumice. 57 unicorn. of nature’s changes. 102–103. 109 snails. 27. 11. 27 slate. xxxix. 137 Spener. 15. 93. xxvii–xxix. xxxviii Theodoric. 129. xxxix. 59 snakes’ tongues. 35. xxix. 61. 101. 73–75. 131 time. 35–37. 5. 80–83. xxxv. 23. See also imagination swamps. Nicolaus. xxxvi. Nicolaus Somme River. 95–97. 7–9. 81. See glossopetrae soil. 23. 111. xxxiii. xxvi sediments. 101 valleys. 29. xxxiv. 109 Seelander. 7. xxix. 129. 99. 33–35. 57. 79. 101 Telliamed (Maillet). 131 Steno. 82–83 sharks’ teeth. xxxiii. 31. xiii. xxi. 115. 5 Tellesius. 105–109 telescopes. 51. 127 Venice. 117 vinegar. 55–57. 55. 51 Silesia. 45. 31. xxx. formation of. 85. 11. 25. xl. xxv–xxvi. 13. xxi. 37. precious. 145–147 172 in d e x sublimation. See also fossil objects: shells Strabo. See glossopetrae shells. 121–123 vestiges. 113 Stockholm. 102–103 urchins. 69 vacuum. See nature: games of springs. 69. 23 veins. 102–103 sharks. See ore veins velocity. 19. Joseph de. xxxviii sports of nature.sedimentation. 85. 43 sulfur. 137 swindlers. xxi. xxxiv. 148 . 57. xxxiii typhoons. xxv. xxxvii. enclosed in solids. 65. xxv. 139. 79. 57. 75 talc. See also Steno. 35 teeth. Balthazar. 43. 133–135 superstition. 43–47. 113. 9. xiii. 139 solids. 19–21. as principle of analysis. 129 stalactites. xiv. Nicolaus. 37. 45. 7. Andreasberg. 33–35. 81. 47. vegetation of. xxv–xxvi. xxxix. 133 silver. 75 Stelluti. 73. king of the Ostrogoths. foliated earth of. 113 St. 123 stratigraphy.
59 Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet). xviii. xxx. 57–59. 15–17 well diggers. 3–5. movement of. 117. xvii–xviii. 97–99. and formation of the earth. xix water: force of. 99. direction of. 36. 7. 137 Westphalia. 137 weight. 37. xxxvi. 57–59 witch dances. xix. 7–9. and formation of gems. xvi. and fossil objects. xx. 123–127. 35. 41–43. 69. 49. 49. 123–125. 19–23. 123–129 wells. See trochites wind. xix n15. 9–11. 25. xvi–xviii waterpower. xvii–xviii. 119. 9–11. 49. xxi. 15–19. and shortages.Virgil. 85. 97 wheel stones. 97. xiii. 13. xxiii volcanoes. 137 whales. 19 Zellerfeld. 99. 129. xvi. xiv. 137–139 windmills. 31. 33. 65 vortices. xiv. xvi–xviii wind power. xviii water pumps. 21 i nd e x 173 . 5. xvi–xviii. xvii. 49. 139–145 Weser River. xx. xxiv Volterra. 79.