Quicquid praecipies, esto brevis, ut cito dicta Percipiant animi dociles teneantque fideles :

Omne supervacuum plena de pectore man at.

ALLYN AND BACON ~o1Ston an't1 Qtbicago

Reprinted by Global Language Press. 2006.


First edition printed February, 11;<)5.

Reprinted April and September, .895; April,1896; July, 18,}?; April, 1898; May and September, 1899; April and November, 1<)00; October, 19°1; March, 1902; April and November, 1<)03; July, 1904; April, 19°5; April and November, 1906.

Revised edition printed March, 1<)08; April and October, 1909; May, 1910; March, 1<)11; March, 1912; March, 1913.

Copyright 2006 Global Language Press. Covers and new front matter.

Reprinted by Global Language Press

Suite 613-1755 Robson Street Vancouver, B. C. V6G 3B7, CANADA

http://www.language-press.com ISBN 1-897367-04-X Hardcover ISBN 1-897367-03-1 Paperback

Printed in the United States of America


THE present book is a revision of my Latin Grammar originally published in 1895. Wherever greater accuracy or precision of statement seemed possible, I have endeavored to secure this. The rules for syllable division have been changed and made to conform to the prevailing practice of the Romans themselves. In the Perfect Subjunctive Active, the endings -is, -imus, -ttis are now marked long. The theory of vowel length before the suffixes -gnus, -gna, -gnum, and also before j, has been discarded. In the Syntax I have recognized a special category of Ablative of Association, and have abandoned the original doctrine as to the force of tenses in the Prohibitive.

Apart from the foregoing, only minor and unessential modifications have been introduced. In its main lines the work remains unchanged.

C. E. B.

ITHACA, NEW YORK, October 16, 1907.


THE object of this book is to present the essential facts of Latin grammar in a direct and simple manner, and within the smallest compass consistent with scholarly standards. While intended primarily for the secondary school, it has not neglected the needs of the college student, and aims to furnish such grammatical information as is ordinarily required in undergraduate courses.


iv From tIle Preface to the First Edition.

The experience of German educators in recent years has tended to restrict the size of school-grammars of Latin, and has demanded an incorporation of the main principles of the language in compact manuals of 250 pages.' Within the past decade, several grammars of this scope have appeared which have amply met the exacting demands of the full Gymnasial Latin course, - a period of study representing quite as much reading as that covered by the average American undergraduate.

The publication in this country of a grammar of similar plan and scope seems fully justified at the present time, as all recent editions of classic texts summarize in introductions the special idioms of grammar and style peculiar to individual authors. This makes it feasible to dispense with the enumeration of many minutiae of usage which would otherwise demand consideration in a student's grammar.

In the chapter on Prosody, I have designedly omitted all special treatment of the lyric metres of Horace and Catullus, as well as of the measures of the comic poets. Our standard editions of these authors all give such thorough consideration to versification that repetition in a separate place seems superfluous.

ITHACA, NEW Y()HK, December J 5, J 894.

lane of the most eminent of living Latinists, Professor Eduard Wolfflin, of Munich, has expressed the opinion that the essentials may be given within even smaller compass than this. See his Preface to the Schmalz- Wagener Lateimsch« GrammafiJ.·, 1/;91.


. ---



The Alphabet. . • • Classification of Sounds Sounds of the Letters Syllables.

Quantity •••••

, Accent • • • • , Vowel Changes

3 Consonant Changes

4 Peculiarities of Orthography 4

5 6

7 7



CHAPTER I. - Declension, C. PRONOUNS.
A. KOUNS. Personal Pronouns 48
Gender of Nouns • 10 Reflexive Pronouns 49
Number. /I Possessive Pronouns. 49
Cases. II Demonstrative Pronouns 50
The Five Declensions 12 The I ntensive Pronoun • 51
First Declension The Relative Pronoun 5'
Second Declension '4 Interrogative Pronouns. 52
Third Declension. 18 Indefinite Pronouns • 52
Fourth Declension 28 Pronominal Adjectives • 53
Fifth Declension 29
Defective Nouns 30 CHAPTER II. - Conjugation.
Verb-Stems. 54
B. AIl]ECTIYt:S. The Four Conjugations. 55
Adjectives of the First and Second Conjugation of SI.m • 56
Declensions 34 First Conjugation. 58
Adjectives of the Third Declen- Second Conjugation. 62
sion , 36 Third Conjugation 66
Comparison of Adjectives • 4C Fourth Conjugation 70
Formation and Comparison of Verbs in -io of the Third Conju-
Adverbs 43 gation 74
Numerals 45 Deponent Verbs . 76 vi

Table of Contents.

Semi-Deponents • Periphrastic Conjugation • Peculiarities of Conjugation Formation of the Verb-Stems

78 List uf the Most Important Verbs

78 with Principal Parts 83

79 Irregular Verbs 95

80 Defective Verbs • 102

Impersonal Verbs 104



Adverbs 106

Prepositions 107

Intcrjections 108





• • lJ4

Nouns Adjectives Verbs •••

109 III

II. Coxn-ouxns.

113 Examples of Compounds •




CHAPTER I. - Sentences,

CHAPTER III. - Syntax oj

A di«tiv~J.

Agreement of Adjectives • • • '53 Adjectives used Substantively 154 Adjectives with the Force of Ad-

Classification of Sentences. 117 Form of Interrogative Sentences 117 Subject and Predicate • 119 Simple and Compound Sentences 119

verbs • • " 156

CHAPTER I1.-Syntax of Nouns. Comparatives and Superlatives 156

Other Peculiarities • • " 156

Subject 120
Predicate Nouns 120
Appositives. 121
The Nominat ive 122
The Accusative J22
The Dative. 129
The Genitive 134
The Ablative 142
The Locati ve 152 CHAPTER IV. - Syntax of


Personal Pronouns • Possessive Pronouns. Reflexive Pronouns • Reciprocal Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns

Table 0/ Contents.

Relative Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns Pronominal Adjectives

CHAPTER V. - Syntax of Verbs.

Agreement of Verbs. Voices


Of the Indicative Of the Subjunctive Of the Infinitive

Moods • • • •

In Independent Sentences.

Voluive Subjunctive . Optative Subjunctive . Potential Subjunctive • Imperative

In Dependent Sentences Clauses of Purpose. Clauses of Characterist ic . Clauses of Result

Causal Clauses • Temporal Clauses

Introduced by Posrquam, VI, cs; et«.

Cum-Clauses •

Introduced by Anteouam and Prittsquom • Introduced by Dum, DJ, lIee, Quoad ••• ' Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volilive •

Developed from the Opta-

t ive

Of Result .

After lIiil1 dubilo, dc, Introduced by Quod I ndirect Questions •

Conditional Sentences Use of st, Nisi, Sin •



Conditional Clauses of Com-

parison • 203

Concessive Clauses. 203

Adversative Clauses with Quamuis, Quamquam,

etc. 203

Clauses of Wi,h and Proviso 205

Relative Clauses 205

Indirect Discourse. 206

Moods in Indirect Dis-

171 course 206

174 Tenses in Indirect Dis-

176 course 208

176 Conditional Sentences in

176 Indirect Discourse • • 209

178 Implied Indirect Discourse, 211

179 Subjunctive by Attraction 212

180 Noun and Adjective Forms of the

181 Verb • 212

lSI Infinitive. 213

182 Participles 217

IS4 Gerund 220

185 Supine 223


CIIAPTER VI.- Particles,
187 Coordinate Conjunctions
188 223
Adverbs. 227
CHAPTER VIl.- Word-Ordl'
191 (111,1 Sentence-Str uctnre,
192 Word-Order 227
Sentence-Structure 232
~I-IAPTF.R VlIL-Hi.,ts on
194 Latin Styl«.
195 Nouns 233
196 Adjectives 235
197 Pronouns 236
Ig8 Verhs. 236
202 The Cases 238 viii

Table of Contents.




Quantity of Vowels and Syllables. .

The Dactylic Hexameter 240 The Dactylic Pentameter 243 Iambic Verses. • .


1. Roman Calcnuar. • • • 247 [ III.

II. Roman Names • • • • 249

Figures of Syntax and Rhet-






1. The Latin Alphabet is the same as the English, except that the Latin has no w.

I. K occurs only in Kalendae and a few other words; y and z were introduced from the Greek about 50 B.C., and occur only in foreign words -chiefly Greek.

2. With the Romans, who regularly employed only capitals, I served both as vowel and consonant; so also V. For us, however, it is more convenient to distinguish the vowel and consonant sounds, and to write i and u [or the former, j and v for the latter. Yet some scholars prefer to employ i and u in the function of consonants as well as vowels.


2. I. The Vowels are a, e, i, 0, u, y. The other letters are Consonants. The Diphthongs are ae, oe, et, au, eu, ut, 2. Consonants are further subdivided into Mutes, Liquids, Nasals, and Spirants.

3. The Mutes are p, t, 0, k, s: b, a, s: ph, th, oh. Of these, -

a) p, t, 0, k, q are voiceless,' i.e. sounded without voice or vibration of the vocal cords.

b) b, d, g are voiced," i.e. sounded with vibration of the vocal cords.

1 For' voiceless,' I surd: I hard.' or I tenuis ' are sometimes used. ~ For' voiced: • sonant,' . soft: or • media' are sometimes used.


Sounds, Accent, Quantity.

c) ph, th, ch arc aspirates. These are confined almost exclusively to words derived from the Greek, and were equivalent to p + h. t -"- h. c -"- h. i.e. to the corresponding voiceless mutes with a following breath, as in Eng. loop-hole, hot-Iwuu, block-holtse.

4. The M utcs admit of classification also as


Dentals (or Linguals), Gutturals (or Palatals),

p, b, ph. t, d, tho

e, k, q, g, eh.

5. The Liquids are 1, r,

6. The Nasals are m, n.

These sounds were voiced.

These were voiced. Besides

its ordinary sound, n, when followed hy a guttural mute, also had another sound, - that of ng in sing, - the socalled n adultcrlntun ; as,-

anceps, d(l"bll'. pronounced angcepa,

7. The Spirants (sometimes called Fricatives) are f, 8, h.

These were voiceless.

8. The Sernivowels are j and v. These were voiced.

9. Double Consonants arc x and Z. Of these, x was equivalent to cs, while the equivalence of z is uncertain. See § 3· 3·

10. The following table will indicate the relations of the

consonant sounds:-
VOlC~L1~SS. Vf)lCED. ASPIR.'\:rES.
{ p, b, ph, (Labials).
Mutes, t, d, th, (DenIals) .
c, k, q, g, oh, (Gutturals).
Liquids, 1, r,
Nasals, m,n,
{ t, (Labial).
Spirants, a, (Dental).
h, (Guttural).
Semivowels, j, v. a. The Double Consonants, x and z, being compound sounds, do not admit of classification in the above table.

Sounds of the Letters.



S. The following pronunciation (often called Roman) is substantially that employed by the Romans at the height of their civilization; i.e. roughly, from 50 B.C. to SO A.D.

I. Vowels.

I as in father ; ~ as in they;

J as in machine; 6 as in l1ole;

ii as in rude;

y like French 11, German U.

l as in the first syllable of ahd; 6 as in met ;

! as in pin;

lS as in obey, melody; d as in pllt ;

2. Diphthongs. ae like ai in aisle; oe like oi in oil;

ei as in rein;

au like ow in how;

3. Consonants.

eu with its two elements, i! and tl, pronounced in rapid succession;

ui occurs almost exclusively in cui and huic. These words are pronounced as though written kwee and wheek.

b, d, t, h, k, I. m, n, p, qu are pronounced as in English, except that

bs, bt arc pronounced ps, pt. c is always pronounced as k.

t is always a plain t, never with the sound of sh as in Eng. oration.

S always as in get; when ugu precedes a vowel, gu has the sound of gw, as in anguis, Iangutdus.

has the sound of y as in yet.

r was probably slightly trilled with the tip of the tongue.

s always voiceless as in sin; in 8ulde6, 8uiivls, BU~IIC6, and in com-

pounds and derivatives of these words, IIU has the sound of sui. v like to.

x always like ks; never like Eng. gz or s.

z uncertain in sound; possibly like Eng. zd, possibly like s, The latter sound is recommended.

The aspirates ph, ch, th were pronounced very nearly like our stressed Eng. p, c, ,- so nearly so, that, for practical purposes, the latter sounds suffice.

Doubled letters, like 11, mm, tt, etc., should be so pronounced that both members of the combination are distinctly articulated.


Soumis, Accent, Quantity.


4. There are as many syllables in a Latin word as there are separate vowels and diphthongs.

In the division of words into sylbbles,-

I. A single consonant is joined to the following vowel j as, vo-Iat, ge-rit, pe-rit, a-dest.

2. Doubled consonants, like tt, ss, etc., are always separated j as, vit-ta, mre-eus.

3. Other combinations of two or more consonants are regularly separated, and the first consonant of the combination is joined with the preceding vowel; as. ma-gis-tri, dig-nus, mon-atrum, sis-te-re.

4. An exception to Rule 3 occurs when the two consonants consist of a mute followed by I or r (pI, cl, t1: pr, cr, tr, etc.), In such cases both consonants are regularly joined to the following vowel; as, a-gri, vo-Iu-cris, pa-tris, ma-trfs , Yet if the lor r introduces the second part of a compound, the two consonants are separated; as, ab-rumpo, ad-Iatus ,

5. The double consonant x is joined to the preceding vowel j as, B.Z-is, ti!x-i.

QUANTITY. 5. A. Quantity of Vowels.

A vowel is long or slwrt according to the length of time required fer its pronunciation. No absolute rule can be given for determining tluquantity of Latin vowels. This knowledge must be gained, in large measure, by experience j but the following principles are of aid:-

1. A vowel is long,l-

a) before nf or ns j as, inf1ins, Inferior, consiimo, censeo, insum.

b) when the result of contraction; as, nilum for nihilum. 2. A vowel is short,-

a) before nt, nd; as, amant, amandus. A few exceptions occur in compounds whose first member has a long vowel; as, nondum (non dum).

b) before another vowel, or h; as, meus, tr aho. Some exceptions occur, chiefly in proper names derived irom the Greek j as, Aenl!1is.

lIn this book. long vowels are indicated bv a horizontal line above them; as, I!., I, l). de. Vowels not thus marked are short. Occasionally a curve is set above short vowels; as, 6, 11.



B. Quantity of Syllables.

Syllables are distinguished as long or short according to the length of time required for their pronunciation.

I. A syllable islong,l-

a) if it contains a long vowel; as, mUer, rl!gnum, dius.

b) if it contains a diphthong; as, causae, foedus.

z ) if it contains a short vowel followed by x, z, or any two consonants (except a mute with 1 or r); as, axis, gaza, resto. 2. A syllable is short, if it contains a short vowel followed by a vowel or by a single consonant; as, mea, amat.

3. Sometimes a syllable varies in quantity, viz. when its vowel is short and is followed by a mute with 1 or r, i.e. by pl, 01, tl; pr, or, tr, etc. ; as, llgri, volncrts.? Such syllables are called common. In prose they were regularly short, but in verse they might be treated as long at the option of the poet.

NOTE. - These distinctions of long and short are not arbitrary and artificial, but are purely natural. Thus, a syllable containing a short vowel followed by two consonants, as ng, is long, because such a syllable fCquires more lime for its pronunciation; while a syllable containing a short vowel followed by one consonant is short, because it takes less tilllc to pronounce it. In case of the common syllables, the mute and the liquid blend so easily as to produce a combination which takes scarcely more time than a single consonant. Yet by sepa· rating the two elements (as ag-ri) the poets were able to use such syllables as long.


6. I. Words of two syllables are accented upon the first; as, t6git, morem.

2. Words of more than two syllables are accented upon the penult (next to the last) if that is a long syllable, otherwise upon the antepenult (second from the last) ; as, amAvi, amautta, mfserum,

3. 'When the enclitics -que, -ne, -ve, -ce, -met, -dum arc appended to words, if the syllable preceding the enclitic is long (either originally or as a result of adding the enclitic) it is ncccntcd ; as, miBeroque, hominisque. But if the syllable still remains short after the enclitic has been added, it is not accented unless the word originally took the accent on the antepenult. Thus, p6rtaque; but mfseraque,

1 To avoid confusion, the quantity of syllablts is not indicated hy any sign.

2 But if the 1 or r introduces the second part of a compound, the preceding syllable is always long; as, abrumpO.


Sounds, Accent, Quantity.

4- Sometimes the final -e of one and -ce disappears, but without affecting the accent; as, tanton, isdc, Ulnc, viden (for videane).

5. In utrlique, each, and pl6rllque, most, -que is not properly an enclitic; yet these words accent the penult, owing to the influence of their other cases, - uterque, utrrimque, plerumque.


7. 1. In Compounds,-

a) il before a single consonant becomes I; as,-

coUigo for con-Iego,

b) l before a single consonant becomes I; a5,-

adigo for ad-ago.

c) li before two consonants becomes ~; as,-

expers for ex-pars.

tI) ae becomes i; as.-

conqutro for con-quaerd,

e) au becomes ii, sometimes 0; as,cOllcHld5 for con-cfaudd ;

explodo for ex-plaudO.

2. Contraction. Concurrent vowels were frequently contracted into one long vowel. The first of the two vowels regularly prevailed; as,-

tr~s for tre-es;

malo for ma(v)elo; amasti for am:l(v)istij debeO for di!(h)abeo;

nil for nihil;

capia for co-opia; c6go for co-ago j comO for co-amo ; junior for ju(v)enior.

3. Parasitic Vowels. In the environment of liquids and nasals a parasitic vowel sometimes develops j as,-

vinculum for earlier vinclum.

So periculum, aaeoulum,

40 Syncope. Sometimes a vowel drops out by syncope j as,ardor for addor (compare arid/I>') ;

valdli for validli (compare validlts)_

1 Only the simplest and most obvious of these are here treated.

Peculiarities of Orthography.



8. I. Rhotaoism. An original 8 between vowels became r j as,arb os, Gen. arboris (for arbosia) j

genus, Gen. generis (for genesis) j

dirim6 (for diB-em6).

2. dt, tt, t8 each give a or a8; as,pllnsum for pend-tum j veranm for vert-tum j mneB for mftet-s ; Be8SUS for 8edtus; pasaus for pattus,

3. Final consonants were often omitted; as,-

cor for cord;

lao for lact.

4. A88imilation of Consonant8. Consonants are often assimilated to a following sound. Thus: aoourre (ado-); aggere (adg-) aSBerO (ad8-); alHltu8 (adl-); apportO (adp-); attull (adt-) arrldeo (adr-); affero (adf-); ocourro (obc-); 8uppOno (subp-) offero (obf-); corrue (comr-)i colllltus (ooml-); etc,

5. Partial Assimilation. Sometimes the assimilation is only partial. Thus:-

a) b before s or t becomes p; as,-

8cripBi (scrib-Bi), scrIptum (sorlb-tum).

b) g before B or t becomes 0; as,actus (ag-tus).

c) m before a dental or guttural becomes n; as,eundem (eum-dem); prlnoepa (prim-oeps).

PECULIARITIES OF ORTHOGRAPHY. 9. Many words have variable orthography.

I. Sometimes the different forms belong to different periods of the language. Thus, quom, voltus, volnite, volt, etc., were the prevail-

1 Only the simplest and most obvious of these are here treated.


Sounds, Accent, Quantity.

ing forms almost down to the Augustan age; after that, cum, vultue, vutnue, vult, flo'. So optumus, maxumua, lubet, lubido, etc., down to about the same era; later, optimua, maxim us, libet, libido, etc.

2. In some words the orthography varies at one and the same period of the language. Examples arc exspectd, expecto ; exsist6, existo; epistula, epistoia; adulescens, adol~sc~lls; paulua, paulIus; cottidie, cotidi~; and, particularly, prepositional compounds, which often made a concession to the etymology in the spelling; as,-

ad-gero or aggerb j ad-lido or allici5;

ad-sere In-Iatus

or assero j or ilHitus;

ad-rogans or arrogans ; sub-move5 or summove5;

and many others.

3. Compounds of jacio were usually written liici5, deici5, adicio, obtcio, ctc., out were probably pronounced as though written adjicio, objicio, etc.

4. Adjectives and nouns in -quus, -quum; -vus, -vum; -uus, -uum preserved the earlier forms in -quos, -quom j -vos, -v om ;

-uos, -uorn, down through' the Ciceronian age; as, antiquos, anti-

quom; saevos; perpetuos; equos; servos. Similarly verbs in the jd plural present indicative exhibit the terminations -quont, -quontur; -vont, -vontur; -uont, -uontur, for the same period j as, relinquont, loquontur; vivont, metuont.

The older spelling, while generally followed in editions of Plautus and Terence, has not yet been adopted in our prose texts.



10. The Parts of Speech in Latin are the same as in English, 'viz. Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections; but the Latin has no article.

11. Of these eight parts of speech the· first four are capable of Inflection, i.e. of undergoing change of form to express modifications of meaning. In case of Nouns, Adjectives, and Pronouns, this process is called Declension; in case of Verbs, Conjugation.

CHAPTER I. - Declension .


12. A Noun is the name of a person, place, tMng, or quality; as, Caesar, Caesar; Roma, Rome; penna, feather; vIrtus, courage.

I. Nouns are either Proper or Common. Proper nouns are permanent names of persons or places; as, Caesar, Roma. Other nouns are Common; as, penna, virtus.

2. Nouns are also distinguished as Concrete or Abstract.

a) Concrete nouns are those which designate individual objects; as, mons, mountain; p~s, foot; di~s, day; m~n8, mind.




Under concrete nouns are included, also, collective nouns; as, legi6, /ci,'Z{J/l; comitatus, rcttn ue,

b) Abstract nouns designate qualities; as, conatantfa, steadfastuess ; pauper taa, poverty.


13. There are three Genders, - Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter. Gender in Latin is either natural or grammatical.

Natural Gender.

14. The gender of nouns is natural when it is based upon sex. Natural gender is confined entirely to names of persons; and these are -

I. Masculine, if they denote males; as,-

nauta, sailor; agricola, farmer. 2. Feminine, if they denote females; as,miter, mother; Iligina, queen.

Grammatical Gender.

15. Grammatical gender is determined not by sex, but bythe general signification of the word, or the ending of its Nominative Singular. By grammatical gender, nouns denoting things or qualities are often Masculine. or Feminine, simply by virtue of their signification or the ending of the Nominative Singular. The following are the general principles for determining grammatical gender:-

A. Gender determined by Srgnification.

1. Names of Rivers, Winds, and Mouths are Masculine; as,-

Sl!quana, Seine ; EUIUS, east wind; Aprilis, April.

2. Names of Trees, and such names of JOW1ZS and Islands as end in -us, are Feminine; as,-

quercus, oak; COIinthuB, Carinth ; Rhodus, Rhodes.

Number. - Cases.


Other names of towns and islands follow the gender of their endings (see B, below); as,-

DelphI, m.; Leuetra, n.; Trbur, n.; Carthllg6, f.

3. Indeclinable nouns, also infinitives and phrases, are Neuter; as,-

nihil, nothing; nefAs, wrong; amAre, to love.

NOTE.- Exceptions to the above principles sometimes occur; as, Allia. (the river), f.

B. Gender determined by Ending of Nominative Singular.

The gender of other nouns is determined by the ending of the Nominative Singular.'

NOTE I. - Common Gender. Certain nouns are sometimes Masculine, sometimes Feminine. Thus, saeerd06 may mean either priest or priestess, and is Masculine or Feminine accordingly. So also elvis, citizen; parens, parent; etc. The gender of such nouns is said to be common.

NOTE 2. - Names of animals usually have grammatical gender, according to the ending of the Nominative Singular, but the one form may designate either the male or female; as, anser, m., goose or gander. So v ulpes, £.,fox; aquila, f., eagle.


16. The Latin has two Numbers, - the Singular and Plural. The Singular denotes one object; the Plural, more than one.


17. There are six Cases in Latin:-

Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Vocative, Ablative.

Case of Subject;

Objective with of, or Possessive; Objective with to or for;

Case of Direct Object;

Case of Address;

Objective with by,from, in, with.

1 The great majority of all Latin nouns come under this category. The principles for determining their gender are given under the separate declensions.



I. LOCATIVE. Vestiges of another case, the Locative (denoting place where), occur ill names of towns and in a few other words.

2. OBLIQUE CAses. The Genitive, Dative, Accusative, and Ablative are called Oblique Cases.

3. STEM ANI) CASE-ENDINGS. The different cases are formed by appending certain case-endings to a fundamental part called the Stem.' Thus, portam (Accusative Singular) is formed by adding the case-ending -m to the stem porta-. But in most cases the final vowel of the stem has coalesced so closely with the actual case-ending that the latter has become more or less obscured. The apparent caseending thus resulting is called a termination.


18. There are five Declensions in Latin, distinguished from eaeh other by the final letter of the Stem, and also by the Termination of the Genitive Singular, as follows:-






a ~

{ ., consonant i\



-r ·Is



Cases alike in Form.

19. I. The Vocative is regularly like the Nominative, except in the Singular of nouns in -us of the Second Declension.

2. The Dative and Ablative Plural are always alike.

3. In Neuters the Accusative and Nominative are always alike, and in the Plural end in -a,

4. In the Third, Fourth. and Fifth Declensions, the Accusative Plural is regularly like the Nominative.

1 The Stem is often derived from a more primitive form called the Root.

Thus, the stem porta- goes back to the root per-. por-, Roots are usually monosyllabic. The addition made to a root to form a stem is called a Sufftx. Thus in porta- the suffix is -ta,

First Declension;




20. Pure Latin nouns of the First Declension regularly end, in the Nominative Singular, in -Ii, weakened from .1l, and are of the' Feminine Gender. They are declined as follows:-

Porta, gale; stem, portio.
Nom. porta a gate (as subject) -Ii
Gen. portae of agate -ae
Dat. portae to or for a gale -ae
Ace. portam a gate (as object) -am
Voc. porta o gale! -ll
Abl. portll with, by,jrom, in agate _Il
Nom. portae gates (as subject) -ae
Gen. portllrum of gates -llrum
Dat. portIs to or for gates -Ie
Ace. portIs gates (as object) -Ils
Voc. portae o gates! -ae
Abl. portfs wz/h. by,from, in gates -Is 1. The Latin has no article. and porta may mean either a gate or the gate; and in the Plural, gates or the gates.

Peouliarities of Nouns of the First Deolension.

21. 1. EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER. Nouns denoting males are Masculine j as, nauta, sailor; agrioola,jarmer; also Hadria, Adriatic Sea.

2. Rare Case-Endings,-

a) An old form of the Genitive Singular in -liB is preserved in the combination pater familHiB,jather of a family; also in mIter familill.s, filius tamiliie, filia familHls. But the regular form of the Genitive in -ae is also admissible in these expressions; as, pater familiae.

b) In poetry a Genitive in -Iii also occurs j as, auUII.


/ njlectiolls.

c) The Locative Singular ends in -ae; as, Romae, at Rome.

d) A Genitive Plural in -um instead of -arum sometimes occurs; as, Dardanidum instead of Dardanidiirum. This termination -um is not a contraction of -arum, but represents an entirely different case-ending.

e) Instead of the regular ending -Is, we usually find -iibus in the Dative and Ablative Plural of dea, l{"ddcss, and filia, dallt;hter, especially when it is important to distinguish these nouns from thc corresponding forms of deus,god, and filius, son, A few other words sometimes have the same peculiarity; as, libertabus (from liberta, freedwoman), aquabua (mares), to avoid confusion with libertis (from Iibertus, frudmtlll) and equls (from equus, horse).

Greek Nouns.

22. These end in -~ (Feminine); -as and -lis (Masculine).

In the Plural they are declined like regular Latin nouns of the First Declension. In the Singular they are declined as follows:-

ArchHis, Arch/as. Epitome, epitome. Coml!tl!s, comet.
Nom. Archias epitome cometes
Gen. Archiae epitomes cornetae
Vat. Archiae epitomae cornetae
Ace. Archiam (or -an) epitomen cometen
Vae. Archiii epitome cornete (or -I)
Ab/. Archia epitome COJ1H:!tE! (or -3.) I. But most Greek nouns in -e become regular Latin nouns in -a, and are declined like porta; as, grammatica, grammar; musica, music; rhetorica, r lretorsc,

2. Some other peculiarities occur, especially in poetry.



23. Pure Latin nouns of the Second Declension end in -us, -er, -ir, Masculine; -um, Neuter. Originally -us in the Nominative of the Masculines was -08; and -um of the Neuters -om. So also in the Accusative.

Second Declension. IS
Nouns in -us and -um are declined as follows:-
Hortus, garden ; Bellum, war;
stem, horto-. stem, bellC5-.
Nom. hortus -us bellum -um
Gen. horti -I belli -I
Dat. horto -6 bello -0
Ace. hortum -11m bellum -um
Voc. Iwrte -e bellum -um
Abl. horto -0 bello -0
NOIll. horti .r bella -a
Gen . hortorum -Orum bcllorum -orum
p,«. hortis -Is bellis -is
Ace. hortos -os bella -a
Voe. horti -i bella -a
Abl. hortis -is bellis -is
Nouns in -er and -ir are declined as follows: -
Puer, boy; Ager,jidd; Vir, mall;
stem, puero-. stem, agr(S-. stem, virc-,
SIl"(GULAR. TBR:\ltS.\TJO:-l.
Nom. puer ager vir Wanting
ce«. pued agrI viri -r
Dat. puero agro viro -0
Ace. puerum agrum virum -urn
Voe. puer ager vir Wantin~
Abl. puerd agro viro -0
Nom. pucrt agri viri -r
Gen. puerorum agrorun; virorum -orunl
Vat. pucrfs agris virfs -is
Ace. pueros agrOs viroa -55
Voe. pucrf agri viri -I
Ab!. pucrts agria virts -Is
I. Note that in words of the- type of puer and vir the final vowel
of the stem has disappeared in the Nominative and Vocative Singular. 16


In the Nominative and Vocative Singular of ager, the stem is further modified by the development of e before r.

2. The following nouns in -er are declined like puer: adulter, adulterer; gener, son-in-laio ; Libel', Bacchus; socer, father-in-law; vesper, euening ; and compounds in -fer and -ger, as signifer, armiger.

Nouns in -VUS, -vum, -quus:

24. Nouns ending in the Nominative Singular ill -vus, -vum, -quus, exhibited two types of inflection in the classical Latin, - an earlier and a later, - as follows: -

Earlier 11IIledion (inc/udin/[ Caesar and Cicero).

Servos, m., slave. Aevom, n., age. Equos, m., horse.
Nom. servos aevorn equos
Gen, servi aevi cqui
/Jat. servo aevo "quo
Ace. servorn aevom equorn
Voc . serve aevom eque
Abl. servo aev5 equo Later Inflection (alter Cicero).


Nom. servus aevum equus
G~JI. 5CTVi acvi equi
Dal. servf aeVQ equo
Ace, servurn aevum equum
Voc. serve acvum eque
AN. servo aevo cquo I. The Plural of these nouns is regular, and always uniform,

Peculiarities of Inflection in the Second Declension.

25. I. Proper names in -ius regularly form the Genitive Singular in -i (instead of -ii), and the Vocative Singular in -i (for -ie) i as, Vergili, 01 Virgil, or 0 Virf{zl (instead of Vergilii, Vergilie). In such words the accent stands upon the penult, even though that be short. Nouns in -ajus, -ejus form the Gen. in -ai, -ei, as Pompejus, Pompei.

2. Nouns in -ius and -ium, until after the beginning of the reign of Augustus (31 B.C.), regularly formed the Genitive Singular in -I (instead of -ii); as,--

Second Declension.


Nom. Ingenium Gen. lagenl

miUB fIll

These Genitives accent the penult, even when it is short.

3. Filius forms the Vocative Singular in -i (for -ie); viz. ml,

o son!

4. Deus, god, lacks the Vocative Singular. The Plural is inflected as follows:-

Nom. dl (dei)
Gen. deorum (deum)
Dat. dIs (dels)
Ace. de08
Voe. dl (del)
Ab!. dIB (dels) 5. The Locative Singular ends in -I; as, CorinthI, at Corinth.

6. The Genitive Plural has -um, instead of ..orum,-

a) in words denoting money and measure; as, talentum, oj talents; modium, of pecks; Bi!Btertium, of sesterces.

b) in duumvir, triumvir, decemvir; as, duumvirum.

c) sometimes in other words; as, liberum, of the children; aooium, of the allies.

Exceptions to Gender in the Second Declension.

26. I. The following nouns in -UB are Feminine by exception: -

a) Names of towns, iBlands, trees - according to the general rule laid down in § IS. 2; also some names of countries; as, Aegyptus, l:.gyp~.

~) Five special words,-

alvus, belly;

oar baaus, flax;

colus, distaff;

humus, ground; vannus, winnowing-fan.

c) A few Greek Feminines; as,-

atomus, alom; diphthongus, diphthon~

2. The following nouns in -us are Neuter:pelagus, sea;

vIrus, poi SOil ;

VUlgu8, crowd.



Greek Nouns of the Second Declension.

27. These end in -08, -as, Masculine or Feminine; and -on, Neuter. They are mainly proper names, and are declined as follows:-

Barbrtos, m, and f., Androgeos, m., Ilion, n.,
lyre. Androgeos, Troy.
j\T011l• barbltos Androgeos Ilion
COl. barbitt Androgeo, -i lJii
Vat. barbito Alldrngeo I1io
Ace. barbiton Androgeo, -on ilion
Voe. barbite Androgeos Ilion
Abl. barbito Androevo Ilia
b I. Nouns in -os sometimes form the Accusative Singular in -urn, instead of -on : as, Dl!lum, De/os.

2. The Plural of Greek nouns, when it occurs, is usually regular.

3. For other rare forms of Greek nouns the lexicon may be consulted.


28. Nouns of the Third Declension end in -a, -e, -r, -0, -y, -c, -1, -n, -1', os, -t, -x; The Third Declension includes several distinct classes of Stems,-

I. Pure Consonant-Stems.

I I. I-Stems.

III. Consonant-Stems which have partially adapted themselves to the inflection of r-Sterns.

IV. A very few Stems ending in a long vowel or a diphthong.

V. Irregular Nouns.

I. Consonant-Stems.

29. I. In these the stem appears in its unaltered form in all the oblique cases; so that the actual case-endings may be clearly recognized.

Third Declension.


2. Consonant-Sterns fall into several natural subdivisions, according as the stem ends in a Mute, Liquid, Nasal, or Spirant.

A. Mule·Stems.

30. Mute-Stems may end,-

I. In a Labial (p) i as, prIncep -s.

2. In a Guttural (g or c); as, rllmex (rllmeg·s) i duz (due .. }.

3. In a Dental (d or t); as, lapis (lapid.s); miles (mnet·s).

1. STEMS IN A LAlllAL MUTE (pl. 31. PrInceps, m., chief.


Nom. princeps -a
Gen. principis -ia
Dal. principl -I
Ace. principem -em
Voe. princeps '11
Abl. principe -e
Nom. princip1l8 ~I
Gen, principum -um
o«. principibus -Ibua
Ace. prtncipes ~8
Voe. principes -i§s
Abl. prtnciptbus -dbus 2. STE)'{S IN A GUTTUR.AL MUTE (g, e).

32. In these the termination -s of the Nominative Singular unites with the guttural, thus producing-a;

Rl!mex, m., rower. Dux, c., leader.
Nom. remez remigi§l dux ducl!s
Gm. remigi8 remigum duds ducum
Dat. remigt remigtbus duel ducibus
Ace. rernigem remiglls ducem ducl!s
Voc. remex remigl!lI dux dUCl!8
Abl. remige remigibus duce ducibus 20



33. In these the final d or t of the stem disappears in the Nominative Singular before the ending -B.

Lapis, m., stone. Miles, m., soldier.
N{I1n. lapis lapides miles militi!s
c.«. lapidis lapidum militis militum
Dat. lapidi lapidibus militf rnilitibua
Ace, lapidem lapides militem militi!s
Voc. lapis lapid!!s miles militlls
Ab!. lapide lapidibus milite militibus B. Liquid Stems. 34. These end in -lor or.

Vigil, m., Victor, m.,
watchman. conqueror.
Nom. vigil victor
Gen. vigiliB victoria
Dal. vigil! victorf
Ace, vigilem victorem
Voc. vigil victor
Abl. vIgile victore
Nom. vigili!s victori!s
Gen. vigilum victorum
Val. vigilibus victiiribus
Ace. vigiles victvres
Voc. vigil!!s victores
Abl. vigilibus victorrbus Aequor, n., sea.

aequor acquoris aequorf aequor aequor aequore

aequora aequorum aequoribus aequora aequora aequoribus

I. Masculine and Feminine sterns ending in a liquid form the Nominative and Vocative Singular without termination.

2. The termination is also lacking in the Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative Singular of all neuters of the Third Declension.

Third Declension.


C. Nasal Stems.

35. These end in -n,' which often disappears in the Nom. Sing.

Lell, m., lion. Nomen, n., name.
Nom. leo leonl!s nomen nomina
Gen. leonis leonum nominis nominum
Dal. leont leornbus nominI nomintbus
Acc. leonem leonl!s nomen nomina
Voc. leo leoni!s nomen nomina
Abl. leone Ieonibua nomine nominibulJ D. a-Stems.
36. MOs, m., custom. Genus, n., race. Honor, m., honor.
Nom. mos genus honor
Gen. morts generis honorts
Dat. mori gcnert honor!
Ace, morem genus honorem
Voc. mos genus honor
Abl. more genere honore
Nom. morl!s genera honorl!s
Gen. morum generum bonorum
Vat. moribua generibulJ honoribus
Ace. morl!s genera honores
Voc. morl!s genera honoree
Abl. moribus genertbus honoribus I. Note that the final a of the stem becomes r (between vowels) in the oblique cases. In some words (honor, oolor, and the like) the r of the oblique cases has, by analogy, crept into the Nominative, displacing the earlier 8. though the forms honOs, colds, etc., also occur, particularly in early Latin and in poetry.

1 There Is only one stem cnding in om, - hlame, hlemle, win/n-.



II. i.Stems.

A. Masculine and Ftlmilline I-Stems.

37. These regularly end in -is in the Nominative Singular, and always have -ium in the Genitive Plural. Originally the Accusative Singular ended in -im, the Ablative Singular in -r, and the Accusative Plural in -ts ; hut these ending's have been largely displaced by -em, -e, and -ils, the endings of Consonant-Stems.

38. Tussis, f., cough; Ignis, m.,jirc; Hostis, c., enemy;

stem, tussi-. stem, igni-. stem, hosti-.

Nom. tussis ignis hostis -Is
Gen. tussis ignis hostrs -is
o«: tusst igni hosti ·i
Ace. tussim ignem hostem -im, -em
Voe. tussis ignis host is -Is
Abl. tussY igni or-e hoste .e, -1
Nom. tusses ignes hostes ~B
Gen. tussium ignium hosuum -ium
Dat. tussibus ignibus hosti bua -Ibus
Ace. tussis or -i!!s ignis or -as hostts or -es -is, -l!s
Voe. tusses ignes hostes -es
Abl. tussibus ignibus hostibus -ibus I. To the same class belong-

apis, bee. crll.tis, hllrdle.

aurrs, ear. avis, bird.

t *seciiris, axe, semen tis, sowing. t *sitis, thirsl. torris, brand.

t *tunis, tmoer. trudie, poltl. vectis, leuer.

·febris, feucr, orbts, circle, ovis, sheep, pelvis, basin. puppis, stern, restis, rop»,

and many others.

Words marker! with a star regularly have Ace. -Im ; those marked with a t regularly have AbI. -1. Of the others. many at times show -im and .t, Town and river names in -ts regularly have -Im, -Y.

axis, arlc.

·buris, plough·beam. clilvis, key.

oollis, llill.

Third Declension.


2. Not all nouns in -is are f-Stems. Some are genuine consonantstems, and have the regular consonant terminations throughout, notably, canis, dog; juvenis, youth.1

3. Some genuine t-Sterns have become disguised in the Nominative ~ingulari as, pars,jJart, for par(t1)sj anas, duck, for ana(ti)s; so also mors, death; dos, dmury ; nox, night; sora, lot; ml!ns, mind ; ars, art; gl!ns, tribe; and some others.

B. Neuter I·Stems.

39. These end in the Nominative Singular in -8, -al, and oar. They always have -i in the Ablative Singular, -ia in the Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative Plural, and -ium in the Genitive Plural, thus holding more steadfastly to the i-character than do Masculine and Feminine I-Stems.

Sedile, seat; Animal, animal; Calcar, spur ;
stem, sedili-. stem, animlili-. stem, calcarl-
Nom. sedile animal calcar -e or wanting
Gen. sedilis animalis calcaria -is
Dat. sedili anirnalf calcarf -i
Ace, sedile animal calcar ..e or wanting
VOC. sedile animal calcar -e or wanting
Abl. sedili animal! calcar! -r
Nom. sedilia animalia calcaria -ia
em. sedilium animalium calcarium -ium
lJat. sedilibus animalibua calcartbus -Ibus
Ace. sedilia animalla calcaria -ia
Voc. sed ilia anirnaiia calcaria -ia
Abl. sedilibua animaltbus calcartbus -ibua 1. In most words of this class the final -1 of the stem is lost in the Nominative Singular; in others it appears as -e.

. 2. Proper names in -e form the Ablative Singular in -8 j as, SC5racte, Soracte ; so also sometimes mare, sea.

I Mensis. month. originally a consonant stem (mens-). has In the Genitive Plural both menslum and mensum. The Accusative Plural is men~s.



III. Consonant-Stems that have partially adapted themselves to the Inflection of i-Stems.

40. Many Consonant-Stems have so far adapted themselves to the inflection of I-stems as to take -ium in the Genitive Plural, and -Ia in the Accusative Plural. Their true character as Consonant-Stems, however, is shown by the fact that they never take -im in the Accusative Singular, or -i in the Ablative Singular. The following words are examples of this class: -

Caedl!8, r, s!aJlgJller i Arx, f., citadel; Linter, i., ski.!f;
stem, caed-, stem, aro-, stem, lintr-.
Nom. caedes arx linter
Gen. cacdis arcis lintris
o«. eaedi areI Iintri
Ace. eacdem arcem lintrem
Voc. cacdl:!s arx linter
Abl. cae de arce !intre
Nom. caedea arees lintres
Gen. cacdium arcium lintrium
Val. cacdtbus arcibus Iintribus
Ace. cacdl!s, -is arcl!s, -is llntree, -is
Voc. caedes arces Iinulls
Ab!. caedibus arcibus Jintribus The following classes of nouns belong here: -

a) Nouns in -liS, with Genitive in -is j as, mlbl!!s, aedlls, cilldes, etc.

b) Many monosyllables in -5 or -x preceded by one or more consonants j as, urbs, mons, stirps, Ianx,

c) Most nouns in -ns and -rs ; as, c1il!us, cohors.

d) Uter, venter; fUr, lis, mas, miis, nix j and the Plurals fauCl!S, penlltl!!s, Optimlltes, Samnites, Quirites.

e) Sometimes nouns in -tlls with Genitive -tlltis j as, cIvitas, aeUis. Civitlls usually has clvitlltium.

Third Declension. 2~
IV. Stems in -J, -ii, and Diphthongs.
41. VIa, r., Sus, c., BOB, c., Juppiter, m.,
force; swine; ox, anu ; Jupiter;
stem, vl-. stem, sil-. stem bou- stem, Jou-.
Nom. vis sus bos juppite;
Gen. suis bovis Jovis
Dat. sui bovt JovI
Ace, vim suem bovem Jovem
Voc. vis sfls hos Juppiter
Ab/. vI sue bove Jove
Nom. vir!!s sullll bov!!s
Gen. virium 1 bovum
suum bourn
Dat. viribull { suibus 1 bobus
subus biibus
Ace, virllB sullll bovlls
Voc. virlls sulls bovlls
Ab!. viribus \ suibua { bob us
( subus biibus I. Notice that the oblique cases of sils have t1 in the root syllable. 2. GI'US is declined like sus, except that the Dative and Ablative Plural are always gruibus.

3. Juppiter is for Jou·pater, and therefore contains the same stem as in Jov-is, Jov-I, etc.

4. Nllvis was originally a diphthong stem ending in au-, but it has passed over to the I-stems (§ 37). Its Ablative often ends In -1.

V. Irregular Nouns.
42. Senex, m., old man. Oaro, f.,flesh. Oil, n., bone.
Nom. senex earo os
Gen. senis carnis ossis
Val. senl carnl OIlS!
Ace. senem earnem os
Voe. senex caro os
n«. sene carne osse 26 Inflections.
Nom. senas carnea ossa
Gen, senum carnium ossium
Vat. senibus carnibua ossibua
Ate. sene8 carnl!s ossa
Voc. scn~s carnee ossa
Abl. scnibus carnibus ossibus I. Iter. itineris. n .. w"y, is inflected regularly throughout from the stem It!ner-.

2. Supellex. supellectllls. t.llJrnilur~, is confined to the Singular. The oblique cases arc forrued (rom the stem supellectll-. The ablative has both -1 and -e.

3. Jecur, n., liver, forms its oblique cases from two stems, - jecor- and jeclnor-. Thus, Gen. jecoris or jecinorls.

4. Femur, n .. tlllgII. usually form, it> oblique cases from tbe stem remor-, but sometimes from tilt' stem femln-. Thus, Gen. femoris or feminis.

General Principles of Gender in the Third Declension. 43- I. Kouns in -15, -or, -i5s. -er, -15s arc Masculine.

2. Nouns in -as. -es, -ts, -ys, -x, -s (preceded by a consonant) ; -d6, -go (Genitive -inis); -io (abstract and collective), -us (Genitive

-iltis or -iidis) are Feminine.

3. Nouu5 emling in -a, -8, -1, -y, -c, -1, -n, -t, -ar, -ur, -\'ls are Neuter.

Chief Exceptions to Gender in the Third Declension. 44. Exceptions to the Rule for Masoulines.

r. Nouns in -3.

a. Feminino . carc5, flesh.

2. Nouns in -or.

a. Feminine: arbor, tree.

b. Neuter: aequor, sea; cor, heart; marmor, marble.

3. Nouns in -5s.

a. Feminine: dos, dowry.

II. Neuter: os (oris), 11loutlt.

4. Nouns in -er,

a. Feminine: linter, skiff.

Third Dedensio«.

6. Neuter: oadAver, corpse; Iter, way; tdber, tumor; dber, udder. Also botanical names in -er ; as, acer, maple.

5. Nouns in -~s.

a. Feminine: Begea, crop.

45. Exceptions to the Rule for Femininea.

I. Nouns in -Ils.

a. Masculine: vlls, b(J1tdsman.

b. Neuter: vas, vessel.

2. Nouns in -~s.

a. Masculine: ari!!B, ram; paril!s, wall; p!!B, foot.

3. Nouns in -is.

a. Masculine: all nouns in -nis and -guis; as amnia, river; Ignis, fire; pllnis, bread; aanguts, blood; unguia, nail. Also-

axis, axle. collis, Itill. fascis, bundle. lapis, stone, mensis, month.

piscis, fish. postis, post. pulvis, dust. orbis, circle. Bentis, brier.

4- Nouns in -x.

a. Masculine: apex, peak; codex, tree-trunk; grex, flock; imbrex, tile; pollex, thumb; vertex, summit; calix, cup.

5. Nouns in -s preceded by a consonant.

a. Masculine: dens, tooth; fODS, fountain; mons, mountain 1 POllS, bridge.

6. Nouns in -ae.

a. Masculine: car do, hinge; ordo, order.

46. Exceptlona to the Rule for Neutera.

I. Nouns in -I.

a. Masculine: Bol, sun; sal, salt.

2. Nouns in on.

a. Masculine: pecten, comb.

3. Nouns in -ur,

a. Masculine: vuitur, vulture.

4- Nouns in -i1s.

a. Masculine: lepus, hare.


Greek Nouns of the Third Declension.

47. The following are the chief peculiarities of these :I. The ending -11. in the Accusative Singular; as, aether1l., aether; Salaminll, Salamis.

2. The ending ~s in the Nominative Plural; as, Phryg~s, Plzrygialls.

3. The ending -ls in the Accusative Plural; as, Phryg1ls, Phrygians.

4. Proper names in -lis (Genitive -antis) have -II. in the Vocative Singular; as, AWls (Atlantis), Vocative AtlA, Atlas.

5. Neuters in -ma (Genitive -matls) have -Is instead of -Ibus in the Dative and Ablative Plural; as, l?oematis, poems.

6. Orpheus, and other proper names ending in -eus, form the Vocative Singular in -eu (Orpheu, dC.). But in prose the other cases usually follow the second declension; as, Orphel, Orpheo, etc. 7. Proper names in -~s, like Pericll!s, form the Genitive Singular sometimes in -is, sometimes in -i; as, PerlcUs or Pericll.

S. Feminine proper names in -0 have -ils in the Genitive, but -6 in the other oblique cases; as,-

Nom. Dido ce«. Didfis Dat. Dido

Ace, Dido Voc. Dido Ab'. Dido

9. The regular Latin endings often occur in Greek nouns.



48. Nouns of the Fourth Declension end in -U8 Masculine, and oil Neuter. They are declined as follows:-

Fructus, m.,jruit. Cornil, n., horn.
Nom. fnictus fructUs cornil cornua
GeI/. fructlis fructuum cornua cornuum
Dat. frilctuf fructlbus cornil cornibua
Acc. fructum fructus cornil cornua
Voc, fructus fructus cornii cornua
Abl. fructil frucnbus cornu cornibua Fourth. Declension. - Fifth Declension. 29

Peculiarities of Nouns of the Fourth Declension.

49. I. Nouns in -UB, particularly in early Latin, often form the Genitive Singular in -t, following the analogy of nouns in -us of the Second Declension; as, senati, ornltI. This is usually the case in Plautus and Terence.

2. Nouns in -ua sometimes have -it in the Dative Singular, Instead of -ui ; as, fructil (for (r(lctur).

3. The ending -ubus, instead of -dbus, occurs in the Dative and Ablative Plural of artus (Plural), lTmbs; tribus, trto«; and in dissyllables in -cus ; as, ar tubua, tribubue, aroubus, lacubus. But with the exception of tribus, all these words admit the forms in -ibus as well as those in -ubus.

4. Domus, house, is declined according to the Fourth Declension,

but has also the following forms of the Second:-

domi (locative), at home; domum, someumrds; to one's !tome; domo,/rom !tome; domds, homeurards.to t!teir (etc.) homes.

5. The only Neuters of this declension in common use are: cornu,

/torn; genll, knee; and veIil, spit.

Exceptions to Geoder in the Fourth Decleosion.

50. The following nouns in -us are Feminine· acus, needle; domua, house; manus, hana porticus, colonnade; tribus, tribe; Idus (Plural), Ides; also names of trees (915. 2).



151. Nouns of the Fifth Declension end in ~s and are declined as follows:-

Dills, rn., day. Rl!s, r., 111m.,
Nom. dills dills rlls rlls
Gen. dill dil!rum ri!1 rllrum
Vat. dill dil!bus rei rllbus
Ace. diem dills rem rl!s
Voe. dills dilla rlls rlls
Aul. dil iil!bu8 rl rllbua 30


Peculiarities of Nouns of the Fifth Declension.

52. 1. The ending of the Genitive and Dative Singular is ~I, instead of -H, when a consonant precedes; as, sp~i, r~i, fid6i.

2. A Genitive ending -I (for -~i) is found in pli'!bi (from pli'!blls = pl~bs) in the expressions tribullus pli'!bi, tribune o.f tlu pcople, and pU!bi scitum, decree of tile people; sometimes also in other words.

3. A Genitive and Dative form in -e sometimes occurs; as, aciil.

4. With the exception of dih and ri!s, most nouns of the Fifth Declension are not declined in the Plural. But aCii'!s, Beriils, specih, spils, and a few others are used in the Nominative and Accusative Plural.

Gender in the Fifth Declension.

·53. Nouns of the Fifth Declension are regularly Feminine, except dies, day, and meridii'!s, mid-day. But di1!s is sometimes Feminine in the Singular, particularly when it means an appointed day.


M. Here belong-

I. Nouns used in the Singular only.

2. Nouns used in the Plural only.

3. Nouns used only in certain cases.

4. J ndeclinable Nouns.

Nouns used in the Singular only.

55. Many nouns, from the nature of their signification, are regularly used in the Singular only. Thus:-

I. Proper names; as, Cicero. Cicero; Italia,Ilaly.

2. Nouns denoting material; as. aes, coppcr; lao, milk.

3. Abstract nouns ; as, ignorantia, ignorance; bODitll.s, good-


4- Dut the above classes of words are sometimes used In the Plural.


a) Proper names, - to denote different members of a family, or specimens of a type; as, Cicefones, the Ciceros ; Caton~s, mell like Calo.

Defective NQuns.


b) Names of materials, - to denote objects ntade of the material, or different kinds of the substance; as, aera, bron.u (i.e. bronze figures); ligna,woods.

c) Abstract nouns, - to denote instances of the quality; as, ignorantiae, cases of ignorance.

Nouns used in the Plural only. 56. Here belong-

I. Many geographical names; as, Th~bae, Thebes; Leuotra, Leuctra ; Pompeji, I'cJf1ljJeii.

2. Many names of festivals ; as, Megal6sia, tlte Alegalesianfesti7lal.

3. Many special words, of which the following are the most important:-

angustiae, narrow pass. arma, weajJons. deliciae, del~f;ht. dtvitiae, ric/us.

rdus, Ides.

indfitiae, truce. insidiae, ambusn. major~s, ancestors,

Also in classical prose regularly-

cerviC~B, neck. fid~B, lyre.

mln~s, spirt"!s of the dead. minae, threats.

moenia, city walls. n'liptiae, marriage. posterr, descendants, reliquiae, remainder, tenebrae, darkness.

verb era, blows.

Dllr~8, nose. vIscerlt, 7Iiscera.

Nouns used only in Certain Cases.

57. I. Used in only One Case. Many nouns of the Fourth Declension are found only in the Ablative Singular; as, jussil, ~ the order ; injussu, withollt the order; nlitil, ~ birth.

2. Used in Two Cases.

a. Fors (diana), Nom. Sing.; forte, Abl. Sing.

b. Spontls (free-will), Gen. Sing.; sponte, Abl. Sing.

3. 'Used in Three Cases. Nflmo. no one (Nom.), has also the Dat, nAminI and the Ace, nAminem. The Gen. and Abl. are supplied by the corresponding cases of ml11us; viz. nillIrus and uillI<5.



4. Impetus has the Norn., Acc., and Au!' Sing., and the Nom. and Ace. Plu. ; 71iz. impetus, impetum, impetu, impetus.

5. a. Preci, pre oem, prece, lacks the Nom. and Gen. Sing. b. Vicis, vicem, vice, lacks the NOIll. and Dat. Sing.

6. Opfs, dapis, and fl'ugis, - all lack the Nom. Sing.

7. Many monosyllables of the Third Declension lack the Gen. Plu.; as, cor, lux, sol, aes, os (oris), rus, s:ll, tils.

Indeclinable Nouns. 58. Here bclong-

fas. n., rigM. instal', n., /i1:tlless. mane, n., morning.

neHis, n., impiety. nihil, n., nothing. secus, n., sex.

1. With the exception of mane (which may serve also as Ablative, in the mornme), the nouns in this list are simply Neuters confined in usc to the Nominative and Accusative Singular.

Heteroclites .

.59. These are nouns whose forms are partly of one declension, and partly of another. Thus:-

1. Several nouns have the entire Singular of one declension, while the Plura: IS of another; as,-

vas. vll.sis (vess!'!) ; Plu., viisa, vasorum, VaSta, etc.

jugerum, jugeri (acre); Plu., jugera, jugerum, jilgerlbua, etc,

2. Several nouns. while belonging in the main to one declension have certain special forms belonging to another. Thus: - "

a) Many nouns of the First Declension ending in -Ia take also a Nom. and Ace. of the Fifth; as, mlterl6a, m!l.teriem, material, as well as m1!.teria, m1!.teriam.

b) Famlis. hlfnger, regularly of the Third Declension, has the Abl. fame of the Fifth.

c) RequHls, requiiHis, rest, regularly 01 the Third Deciension, takes an Ace. of the Fifth, requiem, In addition to requilitem.

ti) Besides pllibs, plebis, common peo/He ()I the Third Declension, we find plilblis, pleblii (also pllibi, see § 52.2), of the Fifth.

Heterogeneous Nouns.


Heterogeneous Nouns.

60. Heterogeneous nouns vary in Gender. Thus:-

I. Several nouns of the Second Declension have two forms, - one M~c. in -us, and one Neuter in -um ; as, clipeus, clipeum, shkld; carrus, carrum. cart.

2. Other nouns have one gender in the Singular, another in the Plural; as,-

SINGULAR. balneum, n., bath, epulum, n., feast; frllnum, n., bridle. [oous, m.,jtst; locus, m., place;

rlstrum, n., rake;

PLURAL. balneae, f., bath-house. epulae, f., feast.

friSnI, m. (rarely frllna, n.), bridle. joca, n. (also joci, m.),jests.

loca, n., places; locI, m., passagts or topics in an author.

rlatrl, m. ; rlstra, n., rakes.

a. Heterogeneous nouns may at the same time be heteroclites, as in case of the first two examples above.

Plurala with Change of Meaning.

61. The following nouns have one meaning in the Singular, and another in the Plural:-


aedlls, temple;

auxilium, help;

career, prison;

castrum, fort;

ci5pia, abundance;

finis, end;


gratia,favor ; impedImentum, hindrance; littera, letter (of the alphabet) j mOs, habit, custom;

opera, help. seruice ;

(ops) opts, help;

pars, part;

sll, salt;


aed!!s, house.

auxflfa, auxiliary troops. earcerss, stalls for racing-chariots castra, camp.

cOpiae, troops, resources. flniSs, borders, territory. fortunae, possessions, wfaltlz. grltiae, thanks. impedImenta, baggage. litterae, ePistle; literature. mc5rl!s, character.

ope rae, laborers.

oplls, resources.

partlls, party; role.

aill's, wit.




62. Adjectives denote quality. They are declined like nouns, and fall into two classes,-

I. Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions. 2. Adjectives of the Third Declension.


63. In these the Masculine is declined like hortus, puer, or agar, the Feminine like porta, and the Neuter like bellum. Thus, Masculine like hortus : -

Bonus, good.
Nom. bonus bona bonum
Gen. bani bonae bani
Dat. bono bonae bono
Ace. bonum bonam bonum
Voc. bone bona bonum
»u. bono bon! bono
A""m. bonI bonae bona
Gen. bonorum bonarum bonorum
Vat. bonis LonIs bents
Ace. bonos Lonlts bona
Voc. Loni bonae Lana
su. IJonis bonIs bonis I. The Gen. Sing. Masc, and Neut. of Adjectives in-ius ends in -it (not in -I as in case of Nouns; see § 25. I; 2). So also the Voc. Sing. of such Adjectives ends in -ie, not in -J. Thus eximiU8 forms Gen. eximii; Voe. eximie.

2. Dlstributives (see § 78. I. c) regularly form the Gen. Plu, Masc. and Neut, in -um instead of -Drum (compare § 25. 6) ; as, dl!nunt, centi'!num; but always singu!orum.

Adjectz"ves of the First and Second Declensions. 3S
64- Masculine like puer:
Tener, tender;
Nom. tener tenera tenerum
Gen. tenerI tenerae tenerI
oa. tenerd tenerae tenerf
Ace. tenerum teneram tenerum
Voe. tener tenera tenerum
Abl. tenerd tenera tenero
Nom. tenerI tenerae tenera
Gen. tenerorum tenerlrum tener6rQm
Dat. tenerh tenerll tenerll
Ace. tenerOa tener" tenera
Voe. tenerI tenerae tenera
Abl. tenerll tenerIa tenerll
65. Masculine like ager:-
Sacer, sacred.
Nom. sacer sacra sacrum
Gen. sacrI sacrae sacrI
Dat. sacrO sac rae sacrO
Ace. sacrum sacram sacrum
Voe. sacer sacra sacrum
Abl. sacrli sacra sacr6
Nom. sacrt sacrae sacra
Gen. sacrdrum sacrdrum sacrorum
Dat. sacrll sacrIa sacria
Ace. sacres sacrla sacra
Voe. sa crt sacrae sacra
Abl. sacris sacrIa sacrla
I. Most adjectives in -er are declined like lacer. The (ollowlng,
however, are declined like tener: aaper, rough; lacer, lorn; lJber,jree; InJlcctzons.

miser, uiretched ; pr6sper, prosper(JUs; compounds in -fer and -ger ; sometimes dexter, rigllt.

2. Satur,full, is declined: satur, satura, saturum.

Nine Irregular Adjectives. 66. Here belong-

alius, another ; iUlus, any ;

uter, which? (of two) i s6lus, alone ;

alter, tile other; niUlus, 1IIme; neuter, neither; tOtus, wlrole; finus, one, alone.

They are declined as follows: -

NOIll. a1iU8 alia aliud alter altera altern III
GOI. alterlus alterIus alterlus1 alterIus alterlus altert us
fJat. alii alii alii alteri altcri 2 alterf
Ace. alium ali am aliud alterum altcram alterum
Abl. alia ali! aliO alterd altera altero
f.rom. uter utra utrum totus tota tatum
Gen. utrius utrius utrfua totius tatiu8 t6tius
Dat. utrf utri utrI toti totI totI
Ace. utrum utram utrum tatum t6tam tiitum
Abl. utro utra utro tOtO lOtll tOtO I. All these words lack the Vocative. The Plural is regular. 2. Neuter is declined like utero


67. These fall into three classes, -

r. Adjectives of three terminations in the Nominative Singular, -one for each gender.

2. Adjectives of two terminations.

3. Adjectives of one termination.

1 This is almost always used instead of aliue in the Genitive. ~ A Dative Singular Feminine alterae also occurs.

Adjectives of the Third Declension.


z. With the exception of Comparatives, and a few other words mentioned below in § 70. I, all Adjectives ofthe Third Declension follow the inflection of I-stems; i,e, they have the Ablative Singular in -i, the Genitive Plural in -ium, the Accusative Plural In -Is (as well as -liS) in the Masculine and Feminine, and the Nominative and Accusative Plural in -ia in Neuters.

Adjeotives of Three Terminations. 68. These are declined as follows:-

Aoer, sltarp.
Nom. acer aeris licre
Gen. aeris acrie licris
Dat. acrI licli lkrI
Ace. licrem acrem Acre
Voe. acer acris licre
Abl. aen AcrI acrl
Nom. acrils acrils licria
Gen. aerium Acrium AcrlulIl
lJat. acribus licrlbus licribUIJ
Ace. Acrl!s, -Is acrl!s, -I. acria
Voe. acri!s licrl!s acria
Abl. licribus acrlbua acribua I. Like !leer are declined alaoer, lively; campeater, level; celeber, famous; equester, equestrian; paluster, marshy; pedester, pttUstrian; puter, rotten; saHiber, wholesome; silvester, woody; terrester, terrestrial ; volucer, winged; also names of months in -ber, as September.

2. Celer, oeleris, oelere, swift, retains the e before r, but lacks the Genitive Plural.

3. In the Nominative Singular of Adjectives of this class the Feminine form is sometimes used for the Masculine. This is regularly true of salilbris, silvestria, and terreatrla. In case of the other words in the list, the use of the Feminine for the Masculine is confined chiefly to early and late Latin, and to poetry.


Adjectives of Two Terminations. 69. These are declined as follows:-

Fortis, strong. Fortior, stronger.


M. A"O P'. NRtJ"I'. M. ANt> F. NKtrr.
Nom. fortis forte fortior fortius
Gen. fortis fortis forti6ris fortiorta
hat. fortI fortI {orti6ri forti6rI
Ace. fortem forte fortiorem forti us
Voc. fortis forte fortior fortius
Abl. forti forti fortiore, ·i fortiore, -t
Nom. fortes fortia fortlores fortiora
Gen. fortium fortium fortiorum fortiorum
Vat. fortibus fortibua fortiorfbus fortiortbua
Ace, fortes, -is fortia fortiores, -Is fortiora
Voe. fortes fortia fortlores fortiora
Abl. fortibus forttbus fortlortbus forti6ribus I. Fortior is the Comparative of fortis. All Comparatives are regularly declined ill the same way. The Ace, Plu. in -rs is rare.

Adjectives of One Termination.
70. Fi!lIx, happy. Prildilns, prudent.
Nom. felix felix prudens prudcns
Gen. felicis felicis pruden tis prudentta
Vat. felicI fclicI prudentt prudentt
Ace. felicem felix prudentem prudens
Voc. felix fellx prudena prudcns
Abl. felicI felict priidcntl priidenti
Nom. fClicils fClida ptiidentils ptiidentia
Gen. fClicium felidum prudeutium priidentium
Vat. felidbua fClicibus priidentibus prudenttbus
Ace. felices, -fa felicia prudentea, -Ia prudeutia
Voc. felices felida pnidentea prudenua
Abl. fellcibus fellcibus priidentibua prudennbus Adjectioes of the Third Declension. 39
Vetus, old. PHis, mor«.
M. AND F. N&UT. M. AND F. Nl!trr.
Nom. vetus vetus pliis
Gen. veteria veteria pliiris
Dat. veterf vetert
Acc. vcterem vetus pliis
Voc. vetus vetus
Ab!. vetere vetere plure
Nom. veteres vetera pliirl!s pliira
Gen. veterum veterum plurium plurtum
Vat. vetertbus veteribua pluribus pliiribus
Acc. veterss vetera pliirlls, -IB pliira
Voc. veterlls vetera
Abl. veteribus veteribua pluribus pliiribu8 I. It will be observed that vetus is declined as a pure ConsonantStem; i.e. Ablative Singular in -0, Genitive Plural in -um, Nominative Plural Neuter in -a, and Accusative Plural Masculine and Feminine in -IIi! only. In the same way are declined compos, controlling; dives, rich; particeps, sharing; pauper, poor; prtnceps, chief; s~BpeB, safe; auperates, surviving. Yet dlveB always has Neut. Plu. dltia.

2. Inops, needy, and memor, mindful, have Ablative Singular inopl, memorl, but Genitive Plural inopum, memorum.

3. Participles in -anB and -lInB follow the declension of I-stems.

But they do not have -J in the Ablative, except when employed as adjectives; when used as participles or as substantives, they have -e ; as,-

I sapientI v1r6, by a wise man; but

Ii Bapiente, by a phzlosopher ;

Tarq~jn16 rllgnallte, under the reign of Tarquin.

4. PUb, in the Singular, is always a noun.

5. In the Ablative Singular, adjectives, when used as substantives,a) usually retain the adjective declension; as,-

aequillis, contemporary, Abl. aequAlI.

cClnBulllris, ex-consul, Abl. cODBulIlrI.

So names of Months; as, Aprnr, April; Deoembrl, December.

b) But adjectives used as proper names have -e in the Ablative Singular; as, Celere, Celer; .Juvenllle, JUlIenal.



c) Patrials in -:l.s, oatis and -Ia, -itis, when designating places, regularly have -i; as, in ArpIn:l.ti, on the estate at Arpi1l1t11t; yet -6, when used of persons; as, ab Arpillllte, hyan Arpinatian,

6. A very few indeclinable adjectives occur, the chief of which are ftugi,jrl(l,'al; nequam. worthless.

7. In poetry, adjectives and participles in -ns sometimes form the Gen. Plu. in -um instead of -Ium ; as, veuieutum, of those illllling.


71. r. There are three degrees of Comparison, - the Positive, the Comparative, and the Superlative.

2. The Comparative is regularly formed by adding -ior (N cut. -tus ), and the Superlative by adding -tsaimua (-a, -um ), to the Stem of the Positive deprived of its final vowel; as,-

altus, h~{;h, fortis, bJ'a7JI'. felix, fortunate,

altior, higher, fortior, felicior,

altissimus, fortissim us. felictsetmus.

J lui/ltsl,

1 very high.

doctus, learned, cgens, needy;

So also Participles, when used as Adjectives; as,-

doctissimus. egentissimus.

doctior, egentior,

3. Adjectives in -er form the Superlative by appending -rimus to the Nominative of the Positive. The Comparative is regular. Thus:-

asper, roug/l, pulcher, beautifi", acer, s!tarp.

celer, swift,

asperior, pulchrior, aerier, celerior,

asperrimus. pulcberrfmus. accrrimus. celerrimus.

a. Notice maturus , maturtor, mdturtastmus or maturrimus.

4. Five Adjectives in -ilis form the Superlative by adding -ltmus to the Stern of the Positive deprived of its final vowel. The Comparative is regular. Thus: -

facilis, easy difficilis, difficult, sirnilis, like, dissimilis, unlike, humilis, lozo,

facilior, difficilior, similior, dissimilior, humilior,

facilltmus. difficillimus. simillimus. dissi millim us. humillimus.

Comparison of Adjectives.


s. Adjectives in -dicus, -ficus, and -volus form the Comparative and Superlative 'as though from forms in -drcans, -ficl!lls, -voll!ns. Thus:-

maledicus, slanderous, magnificus, lJIagnijicent, benevolus, kindly,

maledicenttor, magnificentior, benevolennor,

maledicen tissimus. magnificentissimus. benevolen tissim us.

a. Positives in ·dicllns and -vollins occur in early Latin; as, maledicllns, benevoUlns.

6. DIves has the Comparative divitlor or ditior; Superlative divitissimus or dItisslmus.

Irregular Comparison.

72. Several Adjectives vary the Stem in Comparison;

bonus, J;O(Id,

malus. bad,

parvus, smali, magnus, lrlJ:~i', rnultus, fIIUe/I,

. friigi, tllr/lly, nequam, wortllfess,

melior, pejor, minor, major, plus, frugiilior, nequior,

optimus. pessimus. minimua. maxtmus, plurrmus .

fru g;llissim us. nequtsaimua.

Defective Comparison. 73. I. Positive lacking entirely,-

(Cf. prae, ill /r01lt of) prior,/ormer,

(Cf. citIa, tIllS side "./) citerior,OIl this side,

(Cf. ultra, beyoud.) uiterior,jtlrther,

(Cf. intra, 1c,IIIu'I/.) interior, inner,

(Cf. prope, uear.Y propter, nearer,

(Cf. dl!. down.) detertor, inferior,

(Cf. 'Tch>icpotls, possible.) potter. preferable,

primus,first. citimus, near, ultimus,/arlhl'st. intimus, inmost. proximus, nearest, deterrimus,7J.Jorst. potissimus, chiefest.

2. Positive occurring only in special cases,-

postero die, anne), ctc ., ) t .. { latest,

. . pos r"mus,

tI,e /oIlO'ZI/11/g day, etc., posterior, later, last.

t { late-born,

posteri, descendants, pos umus, posthumolls.

exteri,/orelj;ners, f}

f extrem us, outermost,

nationes exterae, for- exterior, outer, r


eigll nat ians;



inferi, gods of the knuer WOrld,)

Mare Inferum, Mediterranean inferior, lower, • Yea,

f TnfimUB, 1 !.

i imus, I (YWtst •

superi, gods above, }. h' .1. {suprcmus, last.

.. supenor, 19ner,

Mare Superum, Adnatlc Sea, surnmua, highest.

3. Comparative lacking. vetus, old,

fidus, faitliful, nevus, nezo, sacer, sacred,

falsus, false,

Also in some other words less frequently used.

__ t

veterrimus. fldiestmua, noviesimua," IIlJl sacerrirnua, falsissimus.

4' Superlative lacking. alacer, lively,

ingens, great,

salutaris, wllOlesome, juvenis, ytJUllg,

senex, old,

alacrior, ingentior, salutartor, junior, senior.

--, __ 6

a. The Superlative is lacking also in many adjectives In ·ll.lis, -nis, .Ilis, -bills, and in a few others.

Comparison by Magis and Maxime.

74. Many adjectives do not admit terminational com par ison, but form the Comparative and Superlative degrees by prefixing magis (mort') and maxim~ (most). Here belong- 1. Many adjectives ending in -lUis, -liris, -Idus, 'ilis, -icus, imus, in us, -orus.

2. Adjectives in -us, preceded by a vowel; as, idolleus, adaptea . arduus, steep; necessartus, necessary:

a. Adjectives in -quua, of course, do not come under this rule.

The first U in such cases is not a vowel, but a consonant.

1 Supplied by vetustlor, from vetustus. 2 Supplied by recentlor.

8 For "n.tI~sl, recent!ss!mus is used. 4 Supplied by mlnlmus nAtO..

~ Supplied by maximus natil.

Comparison 0/ Adjectives and Adverbs. 43

Adjeotives Dot admitting ComparllloD. 7fJ. Here belong-

I. Many adjectives which, from the nature of their signification, do not admit of comparison; as, hodiernus, of to-day I annuus, annual; mort lUIs, mortal,

2. Some special words; as, mirus, gnaru8, meras; and a few others.


76. Adverbs are for the most part derived from adjectives, and depend upon them for their comparison.

I. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the First and Second Declensions form the Positive by changing -I of the Genitive Singular to -s ; those derived from adjectives of the Third Declension, by changing -is of the Genitive Singular to -iter ; as,-

earns, pulcher, acer, levis,

c1ir!!, dearly; pulchr!!, beaulifuUYI licriter,fi"ce(y I leviter, lighl(y.

a. But Adjectives in -ns, and a few others, add -ter (Instead

of -Iter}, to form the Adverb; as,-

sapiens, sapienter, wisely I audax, audacter, bold(y ; sollers, sollerter, skil{flllly.

2. The Comparative of all Adverbs regularly consists of the Accusative Singular Neuter of the Comparative of the Adjective; while the Superlative of the Adverb is formed by changing the -r of the Genitive Singular of the Superlative of the Adjective to -6. Thus-

(earns) car!!, dearly; CariU8, carissim!!.
(pulcher) pulchrs, bealt1iflll(y, pulchrius, pulcherrlmll.
(acer) licr1ter,fiercc(y, l!.crlu8, acerrlmll.
(levis) leviter, light(y, levius, levissiml!.
(sapii!ns) sapienter, wisely, sapientius, sapientiasiml.
(audax) audacter, boldly, audactus, audac1asimll. 44 Injlcctzons.

Adverbs Peculiar In Comparbon and Fonnatfon. 71. I.

bene, well,

male, ill, magnopere, greatly, multum, 1/lllch,

non multum, ) little parum, J ' diG, long,

nequitcr, wortlzlessly, saepe, often,

mature, oettines,

prope, near, niiper, rccClltly,

secus, otherwise,

melius, pejus, magis, plus,


diiitius, ncqutus, saeplns,



optiml!. pessiml!. maximl!. pliirimum.


diiitissiml!. ncquissiml!. saepissimA.

{maturriml!. maturissiml!. proxime.

niiperriml!. potissimum, especially.

primum, /irst.

potius, ratser,

. ( previously, }

pnus, ~ b't.

l ejore,

setius, less.

2. A number of adjectives of the First and Second Declensions form an Ad verb in -0, instead of -e; as,-

crebro,jrcqllently; falso,falsely;

continuo, immediately; subite, suddenl),;

raro, rarely; and a few others.

a. cito, quickly, has -~.

multum, milch;

3· A few adjectives employ the Accusative Singular Neuter as the Positive of the Adverb; as,-

facile, easily.

paulum, little;

4· A few adjectives of the First and Second Declensions form the Positive in -iter; as,-

flrmus, finniter,jirmly; Jargus, largt ter, COPOI/sly ;

Il. vlolentue has vlolenter.

hiirnanus, hnmautter, humanly i aJius, aliter, otherwise.

5. Various other adverbial suffixes occur, the most important of which are -tus and -tim ; as, antlquitus, andlllt/y; pauIatim, gradually.




78. Numerals may be divided into-

I. Numeral Adjectives, comprising-

a. Cardinals; as, linus, one ; duo, two; etc.

b. Ordinals; as, primus,first; secundus, second: etc.

c. DislriiJlltives; as, singuli, one by one ; bini, two by two; dc.

II. Numeral Adverbs; as, semel, once; bia, twice; etc.



I. iinus, iina, iinum primus,first

2. duo, duae, duo secundus, second

3. tres, tria tertius, tiurd

4. quattuor quartus.jourth

5. quinque quintus,fifth

6. sex sextus

7. septem septimus

8. octo oct a vus

9. novem

10. decem

II. 12. 13· 14· 15·


iindccim duodecim tredecim quattuordecim quindecim isedecim I Isexdecim septendecim duodeviginti iindeviglnti viginti

/vigintr linus iinus et viginti (viginli duo

) duo et viginti triginla quadraginta quinquaginta scxaginta sepruagint .. octoginlli nonaginta centum

17· 18.

19· 20.



30• 40• 50. 60. 70• 80.

90· 100.


decimus iindeclmus duodecirnus tertius decirnus quartus decimus quintus decimus

sextus dccimus

septimus decimus duodiivicesim us iindcvicesimus vicesirnus vicestmus primus ilnus et vicesimus vlcesirnus secundus alter et vit:e~imus tricesimus quadriizesimus qulnquagesirnus sexagesimus septuageslmus octogcsimus nonagesimus centesimus

DfSTRI nGT!VRS. singuli, one by 01t~ bini, two by two terni (trini) quatemi









tern! deni quatcrni denl quini deni

scni denf

septenf denl d uodeviceni iindeviceni vice-oi

viceni singul! singuli et viceni viceni bini

bini et viceni tricen! quaddigcni quinquageni sexagi!ni septuageni oelogen! nonagen! centeni


sernel, once.



quater quinqules






iindccies duodecies terdecies quarerdecles quinquies dccies

sexies decies

septies decies octies decies navies decies vicies

1 vieies sernel

I vicies bis tricies quadragies quinquagies sexagies septuagies oClogies nonagies centlcs




I centum iinus centesirnus primus cement singul! I centies semel
101. _ _ . _
centum et un us ccntesimus et pnrnus centeni et singuli
200. duccrni, -ac, -a ducenie-lmus duceni duccnrles
300• trecenti necenteshn us trccenl trecenties
400• quadringcnti quadringentesimus quudringdnl quudringentles
500• quingcnti quingentcsirnus quingcni quingenties
600. scsccnu sescen tcsim 115 sesccnf scsceutics
700• septingenti septingentesirnus septingenl septingcnties
800. octingenti octingl'ntesimus ociingenl ocringcnties
900· nongenti ndngentesimus nongcni nongcnties
1,000. mille millesirnus singula milia rniliiis
2,000. duo milia bis millesimus bina milia bis 1l1ilies
IOO,CX>O. centum milia centies millesimus cenrena milia centies milies
1,000,000. dedi's centena decies centies mille- decies centena decies centies
milia simus milia milies NOTE. - -l!lIsimus and -il!ns are often written in the numerals instead of -l!simus and -iEis.

Declension of the Cardinals.

80. 1. The declension of linus has already been given UDder § 66.
2. Duo is declined as follows:-
Nom. duo duae duo
Gen. duorum duarum du6rum
Dat. du6bus duabus du6bus
Acc. duos, duo duns duo
Abl. duobus duabus duobus a. So ambo, both, except that its final 0 is long.

3. Trl!a is declincd,-

N(}m. tres tria

Gen. trium trium

Dat. tribus tribus

Ace. tres (tris) tria

Abl. tribus tribus

4, The hundreds (except centum) are declined like the Plural of bonua.

5. Mille is regularly an adjective in the Singular, and indeclinable, In the Plural it is a substantive (followed by the Genitive of the objects enumerated; § 201, I), and is declined,-

Nom. milia em, milium Vat. miJibus

Ace, milia Vac. milia Abl. milibus



Thus mme hominl!s, a thousand men; but duo mrua hominum, two thousand 11Ien, literally two thottsands of men.

a. Occasionally the Singular admits the Genitive construction; as, mIlle hominum.

6. Other Cardinals are indeclinable. Ordinals and Distributives are declined like Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions.

Peculiarities in the Use of Numerals.

81. I. The compounds from 21 to 99 may be expressed either with the larger or the smaller numeral first. In the latter case, et is used. Thus:-

triginta sex or sex et trigintli, thirtY-SIx.

2. The numerals under 90, ending in 8 and 9, are often expressed by subtraction j as,-

duoc.'U!vigintI, eighteen (but also octc3decim);

ilndl!quadxliginta, thirty-nine (but also trigintll novem or novem et tl"Igintli).

3. Compounds over 100 regularly have the largest number first; the others follow without et j as,-

centum vIginti septem, one hundred and twenty-seven.

anna octingentl!simc3 octogesimo aecundc, in the year 883.

Yet et may be inserted where the smaller number is either a digit or one of the tens; as,-

centum et septem, one hundred and seven; centum et quadragintli., one hUlldred and forty.

4- The Distributives are used-

a) To denote so many each, so many apiece; as,-

bIna tal.euta eis dedit, he gave them two talents each.

0) When those nouns that are ordinarily Plural in form, but Singular in meaning, are employed in a Plural sense j as,binae Iitterae, two epistles.

But in such cases, uni (not singuli) is regularly employed for one, and trini (not terni) for three; as,-

ilnae litterae, one epistle; trinae litterae, three epistles.

c) In multiplication; as,-

bis bina sunt quattuor, twice two are four. :/) Often in poetry, instead of the cardinals; as,bina hastnia, twospears.


82. A Pronoun is a word that indicates something without naming it.

83. There are the following classes of pronouns:-
I. Personal. V. Intensive.
II. Reflexive. VI. Relative.
III. Possessive. VII. Interrogative.
IV. Demonstrative. VIII. Indefinite. 1. PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

84. These correspond to the English I, you, lie, she, it, etc., and are declined as follows: -

Ii'rst P,'nOIl, Secolld Person, Third Persall.
No11l. ego, f tii, thou is, he; ca, she; id, it
Gen. mel tui (For declension ,e~ § 81')
o«. mihi! tibi 1
Ace. me te
Voc. tii
Abl. me te
Nom. nos, sue ves, yo."
G I nostrum { vestrum
ell. 1 nostri vestri
Dill. nobis vobis
Ace, Ul)S VOS
V(}C. vos
Ab!. nobis vobis I. A Dative Singular mi occurs in poetry.

2. Emphatic forms in -met are occasionally found; as, egomet, f lI~vsdf; tibimet, 10 you yourseif ; tii has tute and tiitemet; (written also tutimet).

1 The tina! i is sometimes long in poetry.



3. In early Latin, mlid and tlid occur as Accusative and Ablative forms.


85. These refer to the subject of the sentence or clause in which they stand j like myself, )Iourself, in '1 see myself,' etc. They are declined as follows:-

First Person. Second Person. Third PerS01t.
Supplied by oblique Supplied by oblique
cases of ego. cases of til.
~1!1l. mei, of myself tui, of thyself sui
Dat. mihi, 10 myself tibi, to tllyself sibi!
Ace, me, myself te, thyself se or sese
Abl .. me, with myself, tic. te, with thyself, etc. se or sese I. The -Reflexlve of the Third Person serves for all genders and for both numbers. Thus sui may mean, 0/ himself, Ilerself, itself, or of themselves; and so with the other forms.

2. AIJ of the Reflexive Pronouns have at times a reciprocal force;


inter sli pugnant, thty fight with each other.

3. In early Latin, slid occurs as Accusative and Ablative.


86. These are strictly adjectives of the First and Second Declensions, and are inflected as such. They are-

First Person.

Second Person. tuus, -a. -um, tlIY;

vester, vestra, vestrum, your;

meus, .a, -um, my;

noster, nostra, nostrum, 0111' ;

Third Person,

suus, -a, -um, his, Ilcr, its, thdr.

1. Suus Is exclusively Reflexive; as,-

pater liberos 8u5s amat, th« father loves his children.

Otherwise, hts, her, its are regularly expressed by the Genitive Singular of i8, viz. ejus j and their, by the Genitive Plural, e5rum, earum.

1 The final i is sometimes long in poetry.



2. The Vocative Singular Masculine of me us is mi.

3. The enclitic -pte may be joined to the Ablative Singular of the Possessive Pronouns for the purpose of emphasis. This is particularly common in case of Bul5, sua ; as, auopte, suapte,


87. These point out an object as here or there, or as

previously mentioned. They archic, tltis (where I am) ;

iste, (Ital (where you arc) i

ilIe, tlillt (something distinct from the speaker); is, tltal (weaker than ilIe) ;

Idem, lite sante,

Hic, iete, and iile are accordingly the Demonstratives of the First, Second, and Third Persons respectively.

Hie, this.
5IN<;t;LAI(. PLt:RAL.
Nom. hic haee hoe hi hae haec
Gen. hujus 1 hujus hujus horum harum horum
Dat. huie huic huic his his his
Ace, hune hanc hoc hos has haec
Abl. hue hac hoc his his his Iste, t/tat, thaI of yours,

MASCULINE. Fp.Ml:\lNl·:. NEl:TltR. ~lAsCt.:Lt~E. Fl!.MtNtNf! .. NJ!UTl-:R.
Nom. isle ista istud ~ isn israe ista2
Gen. isttus istius istlus ist6rum istarum ist6rum
Dat. isH bti isti istis istls istis
Ace. istum istarn istud ist6s istns ista2
.i»: btu lsta isto Istis istis isus I11e (archaic olle), Illat, tltal (JIlt, h!!, is declined like iste.s

1 Forms of hte ~nding in .s sometimes append -ce lor ernphasis ; as, hlljusce, this •.. lure; hosce, bisce. \Vhcn one is added, -c and -ce become -ci ; as. hunctne, b15sclne.

~ For Istud, Istnc sometimes occurs; for lata, late-eo. a For Ulud. Ulile sometimes occurs.

The Intensive Pronoun. - The Relative Pronoun. 51
Is, he, this, that.
Nom. is ea id er, ii, (i) eae ea
Gen. ejus ejus ejus eorurn earum eorum
Dat. er ei ci eis, lis cis, ifs els, lis
Ace. eum eam id eos eas ea
Abl. eo ea eo eis, iis eis, iis ets, Ils
Idem, the same.
Nom. idem eadem idem {~idem } eaedem eadem
Gen. ejusdem ejusdem ejusdem eorundem earundem eorundem
Dat. eidem eidem eidem eisdem eisdem eisdem
Ace, eundem eandem idem eosdern easdern eadem
Abl. eodern eadem eodem eisdem eisdem eisdem The Nom. Ptu. Masc. also has idem, and the Oat. Abl, Plu. isdem or iisdem.


88. The Intensive Pronoun in Latin is ipse.· It corresponds to the English myself, etc., in ' I myself, he himself.'

Nom. ipse ipsa ipsum ipsi ipsae ipsa
Gen. ipsius ipsius ipslus ipso rum ipsa rum ipsorum
Dat. ipsi ipsi ipsl ipsis ipsis ipsis
Ace. ipsum ipsam ipsum ipsos ipsa! ipsa
Abl. ipso ipsa ipso ipsis ipsis ipsls VI. THE RELATIVE PRONOUN.
89. The Relative Pronoun is qui, who. It is declined: '-
Nom. qui quae quod qui quae quae
Gen. cujus cujus ciijus quorum quarum quorum
Dat. cui cui cui quibus 2 quibus s quibus s
Ace. quem quam quod quos quas quae
Abl. quo 1 qua 1 quo 1 qui bus 2 qui bus 2 quibus t
1 An ablative quI occurs in quicum. 2 Sometimes <luis. 52 Inflations.


90. The Interrogative Pronouns are quia, wlto! (sub stantive) and qut, wltat? wlzat kitzd of? (adjective).

I. Quia, u/ho?



MASC. xxn FRM. quis




The rare Plural follows the declension of the

Gen. cujus cujus

Dat. cui cui

Acc. quem quid

Abl. quo quo

2. ql~i, what;! wltat killd oj? is declined precisely like the Rela-

tive Pronoun; ui», qui, quae, quod, etc.

a. An old Ablative qui occurs, in the sen-.e of 1t07£1.2

b. Qui is sometimes used for quis in Indirect Questions.

c. Quia, when limiting words denoting persons, is sometimes an adjective. But in such cases quis homo = wltat 11Ia1l j whereas qui homo = 1u/tat sort 0/ a 11/(/11 ?

d. Quis and qui may be strengthened by adding -nam, Thus:-

Substantive. qutsnam, wllO, pray? quidnam, 1vllat, pray.? Adjective. quinam, quaenam, quod nam, ofwllat kind, pray i

Relative Pronoun.


91. These have the general force of some one, allY one.

M. AND F. quis,



id \ aNY one,

qui . ~ a1lythlng.

aliquid, J same V/~~I I Jomtlhmg.

quidquam I any on e,

, ' I anytllll,I[,

idni I any 011', qUI plam, anylhin,f.

quidque, eacis,

MASC. I qui,


FEM. Ne t.-r,

quae or qua, quod, any.



id I any

qUI quam, ( )


ali qui,


aliquod, any.



I quispiarn, quaepiarn, quodpiam, ally. I quisquc, quae-que, quodque, tach.


- - - id - {"ny on.

qUlVlS, quacvis, qu~ VIS, (,znylhl1tl[)

quilibet, quaelibet, quidlibet, youwi~h.

(a certai» quidarn , quaccIam, quid clam • ~ p~" ron. l or Ihmg.

quidam, quaedam,

! a t erquoddarn, I lam,

quivis. qui libel.

quaevis, quodvis, {allY


quaelibet, quodlibet, wislz.

Indefinite Pronouns. - Proltominal Ad./ectz"ves. 53

I. In the Indefinite Pronouns, only the pronominal part is declined.

Thus: Genitive Singular alioiljus, oiljuslibet, etc,

2. Note that aliqui has aliqua in the Nominative Singular Feminine, also in 'the Nominative and Accusative Plural Neuter. Qui has both qua and quae in these same cases.

3. Quidam forms Accusative Singular quendam, quandam ; Genitive Plural qu6rundam, qullrundam; the m being assimilated to n before d.

4. Aliquia may be used adjectively, and (occasionally) aliqul substantively.

5. In combination with ne, aI, niai, num, either quia or quI may stand as a Substantive. Thus: si quis or sl quI.

6. Eoquis, anyone, though strictly an Indefinite, generally has interrogative force. It has both substantive and adjective forms,substantive, eoquia, eoquid; adjective, ecqut, eoquae and ecqua, eoquod.

7. Quisquam is not used in the Plural.

8. There are two Indefinite Relatives, - qufcumque and quisquia, whoever. Quicumque declines only the first part; quisquis declines both, but has only quisquis, quidquid, quoquo in common use.


92. The following adjectives, also, frequently have pronominal force:-

I. aliua, another ; alter, the other;

uter, which of two t (interr.); neuter, neither; whichever of two (rel.);

ilnus, one; nuHua, no one (in oblique cases).

2. The compounds, -

uterque, utraque, utrumque, each of two ;

utercumque, utracumque, utrumcumque, whoever of two; uterlibet, utralibet, utrumlibet, eilller one you please; utervis, utravis, utrum vis, eilher one you please;

alteruter, alterutra, alterutrum, the one or the other,

In these, uter alone is declined. The rest of the word remains unchanged, except in case of alteruter, which may decline both parts i


Nom. alteruter

Gen. alteriua utriua

altera utra etc.

alterum utrum



CHAPTER II. - Conjugation.

93. A Verb is a word which asserts something; as, ellt, he is,· amat, he love's. The Inflection of Verbs is called Con j ugation.

94. Verbs have Voice, Mood, Tense, Number, and

Person :-

I. Two Voices,-Active and Passive.

2. Three Moods, - Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative.

3. Six Tenses,-

Present, Perfect,

Imperfect, Pluperfect,

Future, Future Perfect.

But the Subjunctive lacks the Future and Future Perfect; while the Imperative employs only the Present and Future.

4. Two Numbers, - Singular and Plural.

S. Three Persons, - First, Second, and Third.

95. These make up the so- called Finite Verb. Besides this, we have the following Noun and Adjective Forms:I. Noun Forms, - Infinitive. Gerund, and Supine.

2. Adjective Forms, - Participles (including the Gerundive).

96. The Personal Endings of the Verb arc,-


Sing. I .. 15; -m; -r (Perf. Ind.);

2. -8; -sti (Perf. Ind.) : -to or wanting (Irnpv.) ;

3. -t; -to (Imp".) ;



oris, ore j ore, -tor (Impv.)

-tur ; -tor (Irnpv.),

Pi«, I. -mus ; -mur,

2. -tis; -stis (Perf. Ind.) ; -te, -mini.

-tote (Impv.) ;

3. -nt; -ihunt (Perf. Ind.) j onto -ntur; -ntor (Impv.). (Irnpv.) ;


97. Conjugation consists in appending certain endings to the Stem. We distinguish three different stems in a fully inflected verb, -

Verb-Stems.- The Four Conjugations. 55

I. Present Stem, from which are formed -

I. Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative, 1

2. Present and Imperfect Subjunctive, Active .and Pas-

3. The Imperative, sive.

4. The Present Infinitive,

5. The Present Active Participle, the Gerund, and Gerundive.

11. Perfeot Stem, from which are formed-

I. Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative,)

2. Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive, Active.

3. Perfect Infinitive,

III. Partioipial Stem, from which are formed-

I. Perfect Partici pie, 1

2. Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative, P •

f d I f S bi . assive.

3. Per ect an P uper ect u juncnve,

4. Perfect Infinitive,

Apparently from the same stem, though really of different origin, are the Supine, the Future Active Participle, the Future Infinitive Active and Passive.


98. There are in Latin four regular Conjugations, dis. tinguished from each other by the vowel of the termination of the Present Infinitive Active, as follows: _.

r. -are II.
II. -~re ~
Ill. -Ike ~
IV. -Ire ! 99. PRINCIPAL PARTS. The Present Indicative, Present Infinitive, Perfect Indicative, and the Perfect Participle 1 constitute the Prinoipal Parts of a Latin verb, - so called because they contain the different stems, from which the full conjugation .of the verb may be derived.

1 Where the Perfect Participle is not in use, the Future Active Participle, If It occurs, is given as one of the Principal Parts.



100. The irregular verb sum is so important for the conjugation of all other verbs that its inflection is given at the outset.


PRRC;. l xn,



P>:R~. Ixu, fur

FUT. PAfnrc.1 futiirus


PRF.5E1'iT "J'E:-;SE.

SINGUI.AR. sum. [ am,

es, Ihou art,

est, he is;

Pl.t:I:AL. sum us, we are, cstfs, yo" arc, Runt, they are.

erarn, [was, eras, tho/( toast, era t, JIt: u/a s ;


erAnlus, 1Ur.." uvr«, cratis, YOf{ tocrr, crant, lliey 'Were.

ero. [ sl/(/I! be, eris, Iltoll 'ieill be, eri t, lie 'Wil! oe ;


erillluS,7{1e sl/(/!I be, eritis, you :.'II! /I/?, erunt, thfY 7vil! be.


fui, ! /un-r b('eJ!, I 7.UflS,

fllisti. t/I(I" lun"! b<'<'II, I/",u toast, fuit , Ite /MS 0"'", /It tca s ;

[uirn ua. zoe llfl7Je /h'en, w~ zoer e, [uisUs,you ha7Jc /l(OI, you soere, fUCl'Ullt, )

c r lIlt!}' hU7/<' been, thl'y <e·"r/?

lul!re, )

fuerarn, [ Itad bccn, fuerus, tllrm /Iilr!,-! /1,'(11, fuerat, lie: h"d been ;


fllerlimus, we !tad (''''II, fueratts, YOIt had 0,<'11, fuerant, IlleY lield oren,

FUTU In: l';·:RFI·:cr.

fl!er~, I sltall 11fl71C been, fueris, t/w/{ 'ie'ilt llt/7lC oftn, fueri t, lie 7vil! l(/vi! bcc u ;

fuer irnus, we sllall lta7ll' been, fueritis, ),011 will /Ii/7IC ball, fueriut, t!(cy 7(,i/! ltfl71t been.

1 TIle Perfect Participle is wanting: ill sum.

COlljugatt"on of Sum.




SINGULAR. sim, may I be,

sis, mayst thou be,

sit, let him be, may he be;

PLURAL sllJius, let ns be,

sUilI, be ye, may you be, sint, let them be.

essem,2 I should be, essAs,2 ihot« wouldst be, esset,2 he would be ;


essAmus, we should bt, essAtis, you would be, essent,2 they would be.

fuerim, I may have been, fuerls, thou mayst hmJe been, fuerit, he may have been;


fuerlmus, we may have been, fueritis,yolt 11Iay have been, fuerint, they may have been.


fuissem, I should have been, fuissAs, thou wouldst have been, fuisBet, he would have been ;

fuisBAmuB, we should have been, fuillsAtis, you would have been, futesent, they would have been.


Pres. es, be thou,

Fut. est5, thou shalt be, est5, he shall be;

este, beye.

est5te, y« shall be, sunt5, they sha// be.



Pres. esse, 10 be.

Perf. fuisse, 10 have bee«.

Fut. futilrUB esse,Bto be about to be.

Fut, futtlrus,t about to be.

1 The meanings of the different tenses of the Subjunctive are so many and 51> varied, particularly in subordinate clauses, that no attempt can be made to give them here. For Iuller information the pupil is referred to the Syntax.

I For essem, e88eS, esset, essent, the forms torem, tores, toret, toreot. are sometimes used .

• For futllrus esse the form tore is often used. t Declined like bonus, ·a, -um,





Active Voice. - Am6, / love.

1'1"'5. IND. amo

PR"S. IN', amiire


amo,llove, amas, youIoue, amat, he loves;

arnabam, / was louing, amabile, YOIl were iouing, amabat, he was loving;

amllbC5, / shall101le, amabie, you will love, amabft, he willl01lc;

amavt, / have loved, / loved, amavisti, you hauo loved,you loved,

amnvtt, he has loved, he loved;

amliveram, / had l'>".led, amaveraa, you had loued, ama verat, he had loued ;


PI!RY, IND. amAvt




PLURAL. amarnus, we love, amatts, yo/{ love, amant, tltey love.


amabllmus, we were loving, amabatis, you were loving, amabant, Ility were loving.


amablmua, we shall love, amabitis, you will love, amabunt, they will love.


amavimue, we ha11c loved, we loved, ama vis tis, you havc loved, you loved,

arnaverunt, -i!re, Ihey have loved, they loved.


amaverll.mu8, 'lIN! had loved, amaverlltls, you had loved, arnaverant, they /zad loved.


amavero, I shall have loved, arnavertmus, we shall have loved,

amliverls,you will /za1le loved, amaveritis,you will have loved,

amavertt, he will have loved; amaverrnt, they will have loved.

SINGULAR. amem, may I love, amAs, may you love, amet, leI Itim love ;

amllrem, I should love, amari!s, you would love, amaret, Ite would love;

ama verim, IlIIay have loved, arna verls, you may have loved, amaverit, he may have loved i

First Conjugation.




PLURAL. amllmulI, let us love, amAtis, may you love, ament, let them love.


amari!mus, we should love, amari!tis, you would love, amllrent, they would love.


amaverfmus, we may have loved, arna veritis, YOll may ha71e loved, amavertnt, they may have loved.


ama vissem, I should have loved, ama vissi!muB,we should ha've loved, amavlBsi!s,you would have loved, amavissi!tis, you would have loved, amavtaset, he would have loved; amavissent, theYWOlild have loved.

Pres. ami, love tholl ;

Fut. amlto, thou shalt love, amllt6, he shall love;


Pres. amare, to love.

Perf. amavtsee, to have loved. Fut. amattlrull esse, 10 be about

to love.


Gen. amandi, 0/ loving, Dat. amanda,jor lovin/{, Ace. amandum, loving, AM. amando, by loving.


amite, love yeo amat6te, ye shall love, amant6, they shal/love.


Pres. amans,! louing. (Gen. amantis.)

Fut. amararue, about to love.


Ace. amatum, to love,

Abl. arualu, to love, be loved.

1 For declension of amBns, see § 70. 3.





Passive Voioe. - Amor, I am loved.


PRBS. IND amor

PRES. INF. amari

PRitt'. IllD. amitus sum


SINGULAR. amor amiri. amAtur


I am loved.

PLURAL. amAmur am AminI amantur


I was loved.

amAbar amilbArllJ, or ore amilblltur

amilbAmur amilbamini amilbantur


.I shall be loved.

amAbor amaoerts, or ore amabrtur

amabfmur amibimini amAbuutur


/ have been loued or / was loved.

amatus (-a, -um) sum ! amatus 6S

amatus est

amatl (-ae, -a) suma amatI estis

amiiti sunt


I had been loved.

amatus eram 1 amatus erb amatua erat

amatr eramua arnatt eritis amatt erant


I shall have been loved.

arna tus era 1 amatus erts arnatus erit

amatf erimus amatf eritis amatf erunt

1 Ful, fuistt, etc .• are sometimes used for sum, es, de. So fuera.m, fueril.s, etc., for eram, (/C.; tuerO, etc., (or ero, etc.

First Conjugation.




May I be loved, let "'m be loved.


amilri8, or -re aml!tur

PLURAL. amlimur amlimint amentur


I should be loved, he would be loved.

amlrer amllrl!rle, or -re amllrl!tur

amiirilmur amlrlimint amilrentur


I may have been loved.

amatus 81m t amatu8al8 amatua ait

amlltl 8lmU8 amatl Blti8 arnall8int


I should have lJetn loved, he would have bem loved.

amatue e.aem t amatull ell1l811 amatue ellllet

am~tt eall8mue amatt eeal!till amall ellent


Pres. amare, be thou loved j amlmlnt, be ye loved.
Fut. amlltor, t!tou shalt be loved,
amlltor, he shall be loved; amantor, t!tey shall b4loved.
rres. amArI, to be loved.
Perf. amatull esse, to Itave been Perfect. arnatua, wved, ltavi1lg
loved. been loved.
Fut. amatum irl, to be about to Gerundive. amandulI, to be loved,
be loved. deserving to be
loved. llJ'uerlm, etc., are sometimes used for 81m; so fu1eeem, etc., for eBBem.


I njlec tions,



Aotive V (lice. - Monea, E aduis«,


PRItS. IND. monee

PRES. INF. monere

PFRF. IN". monut

PItRF. PASS. P"RTIC. monitua


SINGULAR. monee monee monet

PRESENT TENSE • .I advise.

PLURAl.. mon!!mus mon!!tis monent


E was advising, or I advised.

monebam mon!!bllmU8

mon!!blls mon!!blltis




I shall advise.

monllbo mon!bis mon!!bit

monebfmua monebJtis mon!!bunt

monut monuistr monurt


I have mi7',:red, or I ad71iud.

monuimus monuiatfs monuerunt, or -lire

PLUPF.RFECT • .I had aduised.

monueram monueras monuerat

monueramus monuerati" monuerant

FUTURE PERFECT • .I sllall ha1'e aduised.

monuero monueris monuerit

monuertmus monueritis monuerillt

Second C01ljugatiol1.



May I advise, let him advise.

SINGUI.AR. moneam monell8 moneat

PLURAL. rnoneamus moneatts moneant


I should advise, he would advise.

monl!rem monl!r!s monerer

moner6mul monihl!tis monsrene


I may have advised.

rnonuerfm monuerIs monuerit

monuertmus monueritis monuerint


I should have advised, lIe w17uld have ad7Jlsed.

monuissem monuissl!s monuisset

monuiss6mua monuiss!Stis monuissent

Pres. mone, advise thou; monete, aduis» yeo
Fut. monl!to, thou shalt advise, monitote, ye shal! advise,
monl!t6, M shall advise; rnonento, they shall advise.
Pres. monere, to advise. Pres. monens, aduising.
Perf'. monulsse, to have advised. (Gen. monentis.)
Fltt. monitlirua esse, to be about Fut. monitftrus, abuuJ to aduise,
to advise.
Gen. monendI, 17f advising,
Dat. monendo,jor aduising:
Ace. monendum, advising, Ace. monitum, to advtse.
Ab!. monendd, by advising. Abl. monitn, 10 advise, be advised. [nficcttous.


104. Passive Voice. - Moueor, / am at/1l1scd.

PRF.S. Ixo


SIl'GUI.AR. moneor moneris mondtur

rnonebar monl!bllris, or -re moneba tur

monebor mon!!beris, or -re monl!bitur

1'I'l~Cll'AL 1',\RTS.

PI<ES.l:-lF. moned


PRESENT TENSF.. I am advised.


/ was advised.


I shall be advised.

PP.Rt-·. I;-;u monitus sum

PI.URAL. monemur monihnilli monentur

mon!!b1i.mur mon!!hll.mini monl!bantur

mon1!bimur moneoiminl moneburrtur


/ ha7/e been advised, / WO!' ad1liud.

monitus sum monitus es rnonitus est

monitus eram monitus eras monitus erat

rnonitus er6 monitus eris monitus erit


I had been advised.


/ shal! have oee» advised.

rnnnitf sumus moniti estis moniti sunt

monitf eramus moniti eratis moniti erant

moniti erimus moniti eritis moniti erunt

Second Co1tJugation.



May I be advised, let him be advised.

SINGULAR. monear moneArls, or -re moneatur

PLURAL. moneAmur moneAminI moneantur


I should be advised, he would be advised.

monl!rer monl!rl!riB, or -re moni!!rl!tur

monl!rllmur monl!reOlinl monl!rentur


I may have bem advised.

rnonltus sim monitt sfmus

rnonitus sis monitl sItis

monitus sit moniti sint


I should have been advised, he 'Ulould !rave been advised.

monitus essem monitus essl!s monitua esset

monitl essl!mus monitl essl!tiB monitl essent


Pres. monsre, be thou advised; Fut. monster, th(J/I shalt be advised,

monstor, he shall be advised.

monl!minlj be ye aduised.

monentor, tlley shall be advised.



Pres. moni!!rl, to be advised. Perf, monitus esse, to have been advised.

Flit. monitum irI, 10 be about to be aduised.

Perfect, monitus, advised,

!taving been advised.

Gerundive. monendus, to be advised, deserving to be advised.





Active Voice. - Rcgo, I rule.


PRES. Ixn. reg6


PERl'" Ixu, rext

PKRP'. PASS. PAR1·IC. rectus

SINGULAR. I rule. PI.UR·\J..
rego regimus
regis regitis
regit regunt
I was ruling, or I ruled.
reg~bam regl!bamus
reg~bas regl!batis
reg!!bat reg~bant
I shall rule.
regam regemus
rcgl!s regetis
reget regent
I have rutea, or I rufed.
reXt reximus
rcxisti rextstfs
rextt rcx!!runt or -I!re
I had ruled.
rexeram rcxeramus
rexerae rexelatis
rexerat rexerant
I shall have ruled.
rexeri5 rexerimUB
rexeria rexeritis
rexerit rexerint TIlird Conjugation.



May I rule, leI Mm rule.

SINGULAR. regam regllB regat

PLURAL. regamus reglt1a regant

regerem reger~B regeret


I slwuld rule, he would rule. reger~mU8 regeret1B regerent

rexerim rexerIa rl!xerlt


I may have ruled.

rexerImuB rexerlt18 rexerint


I should Itave ruled, Ite would have ruled.

rexissem rexis8e8 rcxi8set

rexisBllmUB rexiB8it1a rexiS8ent


Pres. rege, rule Ihou ;

Fut, regitO, thou shalt rule, regitO, Ite shall rule i

regite, rule yeo

regitOte, y« shall rule, regunte, Ihey sltall rule.



Pres. regenB, ruling.

(Gen. regentiB.) Fut. recUlru8, about /Q ru14.

Pres. regere, to rule.

Perf. rexisee, to ha11e ruled. Fut. rectilru8 esse, to be about

to rul«.


Gen. regendl, of ruling, Dat, regeodO,for ruling, Ace. regendum, ruling, Abl. regendO, by ruling.


Ace. rectum, to rule,

A bl. rectil, to rule, be rul4d.





Passive Voice. - Regor, I am ruled.


PRIIS. Ixn, regor

PRES. INF. regi

PERF. Iso. rectus sum


SINGULAR. regor regeris regitur


I am ruled.

PLURAL. regimur regiminI reguntur


I was ruled.

reg!!bar reg!!bllrla, or ore reg!!blltur

reg!!bilmur reg!!bllmini reg!!bantur


I shall be ruled.


reg~ris, or ore reg!!tur

reg!!mur reg!!minl regentur


I have been ruled, or I was ruled.

r1!ctus sum recti sumua

rectus es rectI estis
rectua est rectI Bunt
I had been ruled.
rectus eram rectI erllmuB
rectus erlls recti erlitiB
rectus erat rectI erant
I shall have been ruled.
r1!ctus erc rectI erfmus
rectus erls rectt eri tis
rectus edt rectI erunt Third C()njugatiOll.



May I be ruled, let him be ruletl.

SINGULAA. regar regllrl8, or ore regitur

PLURAl. reglmur reglminl regantur


I slwuld be ruled, Ite wtlUld be ruled.

regerer regerlria, or ore regerltur

regerlmur regerlmlnl regerentur


I may have been ruled.

rectull lIim rectus sis rectull sit

rl!ctI IIlmus rectlslt1a rectlstnt


I should have been ruled, he would have beetl ruled.

rectus essem rectus essls rectus esset

rectI esslmua recti .ssltls rectI essent


Pres. regere, be thou ruled; regiminl, be ye ruled.

Fut. regitor, thou sltalt be ruled,

regttor, he shall be ruled; reguntor, they-shall be ruled.



Pres. regt, to be ruled.

Perf. rectus esse, to have been ruled.

Fut. rl!ctum hi, to be about to be ruled.


rl!ctus, ruled, Itaving been ruled.

Gerundive. regendus, to be ruled, deserving to be ruled.




Pus. INDo audiO

SINGULAR. audio AudIa audit

audiebam audUibaa audilibat

audiam audilia audiet

audivI audivistI audivit

audiveram audiveras audiverat

audivero audlverts audiverlt

Active Voice. - Audio, I hear.


PRE~. INP'. audIre

PERF. IND. audIvi



PERF. PASS. PAR"I1Co audltus

PLURAL. audfmus auditis audiunt


I was hearing, or Ineard. audU~bam\\B audilibiitis audiebant


J shall near.

audlemus audU!tis audient


I have heard, or I heard,

audivimus audivistis audiverunt, or -lire

PLUPERFECT. I had heard.


I shall have neard.

audiverjlmus audiveratfs audiverant

audlverimua audiveritis audiverint

Fourth C01~jugation.




May I hMr, let him hear.

PLURAL. audillmu8 audiiitiB audiant

SINGULAR. audiam audiiia audiat

audtrem ~udrrl!. audiret


I.should hear, he wuuld hear. audlrtlmus audlf6tia audlrent


I may have heard.

au d i v ernn audiverfs audiverlt

audivertmus audiveritiB audiverint


I should have heard, he would have heard.

audrvlssem audiviBsl8 audivia8et


Pres. audt, !tear thou;

Fut, audrtO, thou snalt hear, audr~, he shall hear;


Pres. audire, to hear.

Perf. audiviaae, to have heard. Fut, auditi\ru8 esae, to be about

to "ear.


Gen. audiendi, of hearing, Dat. audiendB,.for hearing, Ace. audtendum, hearing, Ab/. audiendi5, IIy !tearing.

audivisal!mu8 audiviB8t1ti8 audiviB8ent

audite, hear yeo

auditOte, y« shall hear, audiunti5, they shall hear.


Pres. auditlns, hearing. (Gen. audientia.)

Fut, auditdrus, abuut 10 hear


Ace. auditum, to !tear,

Abl. audita, 10 hear, be hea,.d



FOURTH (OR i-) CONJUGATIO:--l. l08.Pasllive Voice. - Audior, I am he~rd.


PRRS. IND. audior

SINGULAR. audior audtrts audltur

audil!bar audil!bAris, or -re audil!bAtur

audiar audi!rJs, or -re audil!tur

PRES. IN" audtrt



I am heard.


I was Ileard.


I shall be heard,

PHRV. Ixo auditusllum

PLURAL. audtmur audtmint audiuntur

audil!bllmur audil!bllminl audil!bantur

audiemur audil!m1nf audientur


I have bet!lt heard, or .1 was heard.

audltus Bum auditus es auditus ellt

audrtus eram auditus erlls auditus erat

audltus ero auditus eria auditus erit


I had been heard.


I shall have been heard.

auditt aumus auditi estis auditi Bunt

auditf erAmus auditl erAtis auditi erant

auditi ertmua audit! eritis audit! erunt

Fourth Conjugation.




May 1 be /teaI'd, let /tim be heard.

SINGULAR. audiar audilris, or -re audiltur

PLURAL. audiiimur audillmiDt audiantur


I sll<luld be heard, he would be heard.

audfrer audlri!rla, or -re audlri!tur

audfn~mur audlrilmint audlrentur


1 may have bun heard.

auditu88im auditus sis auditus sit

audttr sfmus auditI sItis auditI8int


1 should have been heard, he would have been heard.

auditus essem auditus essils auditus esset

audit! essemus auditl esslltis auditi essent


Pres. audtre, be thou heard; audtminI, be ye heard.

Fut. audItor, thQ1l shalt be 'leard,

auditor, he shall be heard; audiuntor, they shall be heard.


Pres. audtrI, to be heard.

Perf. audltus esse, 10 have bun . heard.

Fut. auditum Irt, 10 be abou: to be heard.

Perfect; auditus, heard,

having been heard.

Gerundive. audiendus, 10 be heard, deserving 10 be heard.




109. I. Verbs in -io of the Third Conjugation take the endings of the Fourth Conjugation wherever the latter endings have two successive vowels. This OCCurs only in the Present System.

2. Here belong-

a) capic3, to take; cupid, to desire; facio, to make; fodio, to dig; fugic3, to flee; jacic3, to throw; partd, to bear; quaUc'5, to slm!.-e; rapio, to seize; sapia, to taste. -

b) Compounds of lacio and specto (both ante-classical); as, allicic3, entia; cOllspicio, behold.

c) The deponents gradior, to go; morior, to die; patior, If) suffer.


Active Voice. - Capio, I take.



PHRP'. INO. cepi,

PI!RF. PASS. PARTIe. captus.

PRES. hID. capio,






capio, capis, capit; capirnus, capitis, capiunt,


capiebam, -iebas, -iebat ; capicbamus, -lcbatis, -lebant,


capiam, -les, -iet ; capiernus, -ietls, -Ient,


cepi, -iSH, -it ; cepimus, -istis, -erunt or -ere,


ceperam, -eras, -erat ; ccperarnus, -eratis, -erant,


cepero, -eris, -erit ; ceperimus, -eritis, -erint.

'Perbs in -re of the Third Conjitgation. 71

SINGULAR. eaplam, -las, -iat i

caperem, -er~s, -eret;

ceperim, -eris, -erlt ;

ceplssem, -lsses, -lsset i

Pres. cape;
Fm. capite,
capite ;
Prts. capere.
Perf. cepisse.
Flit. captiirus esse.
Gen. capiendi,
Vat. capiendo,
Ace. capiendum,
»s: capiendo. SUBJUNCTIVE,


PLURAL. caplamus, -iatls, -lant,


caperemus, -ere tis, -erent,


ceperimus, -erltls, -erint,


cepissernus, -issetls, -issent.


capite. capitate, capiunto,


Pres. capicns,

Flit. captures,


Ace. captum, Abl. captu.

11L Passive Voioe. - Capior, I am faluft.


Pus. IND. capLor,


eaplor, caperis, capitur i

PRES. INF. capt,

PIIRP. IND. captus sum.



PLURAL. capimur, caplmlnt, capiuntur.


capii!bar, -I~baris, -ii!blitur; capiebamur, -li!blimini, -ii!bantur.

caplar, -lerb, -letur j


capiemur, -li!mini, -lentur,


SINGULAR. captus sum, es, est;



capti sumus, estis, sunt.

captus eram, eras, erat;


capt! eramus, eratis, erant.

captus ero, eris, eri t ;


capti erlmus, eritis, erunt.



~"})~1..'>'\\lt, -\1.,>,\\,>\\, -\,,'>\t\lo~.

caperer, -ereris, -eretur ;


caperernur, -eremint, -erentur.

captus sim, sis, sit ;


capti slrnus, sitis, sint.


captus essern, esses, esset j

capti essernus, essetis, essent.

IMPERATIVE. capiminl.
Pres. capere;
Fut. capitor,
capitor ; capiuntor.
Pres. capt,
Perf captus esse. Perfect. captus ..
Fut. captum Iri, Gerundive. capiendus. DEPONENT VERBS.

112. Deponent Verbs have in the main Passive form!' with Active or Neuter meaning. But-

fl. They have the following Active forms: Future Infinitive, Present and Future Participles, Gerund, and Supine.

b. They have the following Passive meanings: always in the Gerundive, and sometimes in the Perfect Passive Participle; as,-

sequendus, to be followed; adeptus, attained.

Deponent Verbs.


113. Paradigms of Deponent Verbs are-

I. Conj. miror, mirll.rI, mirll.tuB Bum, admi1'l.

n. Conj. vereor, verliri, verituB Bum,jeilr.

III. Conj. sequor, sequt, BeciituB Bum,follow.

IV. Conj. largior, largiri, largitu8 Bum,gzve.

III. (in -ior) patior, pat!, paBBU8 BUm, suffer.

Y. II. III. IV. III (in -iorj ,
Pres, miror vereor sequor largior patior
mIdiris vereris sequeris largiris pateris
mlratur veretur sequitur largitur patitur
miriirnur verernur sequirnur larghnur p"timur
mlrarnini veremini sequiminl largiminI patimini
mirantur verentur sequuntur largiuntur p;J.tiuntur
Impj'. mlrabar verebar sequebar largiebar p:1tiebar
Fill. mlrabor verebor sequar largiar p"tiar
Ptrj'. miratus sum veritus sum seciitus sum largitus sum P:1'SUS sum
PIlip. mIralus eram veritus cram seciitus eram largitus eram p:1SSUS t" .im
F. P. mirfitus erc; veritus era seciitus era Iargitus era pllSSUS ero
Pres. mTrer verear sequar largiar patiar
'mp! mTrlirer vererer sequerer largirer p:1terer
Ptrf. mirlitus slm veritus sim seeiitus slm largitus slm p:1SSUS sim
Plu!. miratus essem veri Ius essem scciltus essem largit us essem pllSSUS essern
Prts. mlrllre verere sequere larglre pMere
Fut. mlrator veretor sequitor largltor pe.tilor
1+,1. mirarl vererl sequI largirT pat!
Ptrj'. rniratus esse veritus esse seeiitus esse largltus esse passus esse
Fut. mirliliirus esse veri I ii rus esse seciltiirus esse largitiirus esse pllSsiirlls esse
PrlS. mlrfins verens sequens largiens pa1iens
Flit. miratiirus veritiirus seciitiirus largitiirus pllSsiirus
hrj'. miratus veritus seditus largitus passus
Ger. mirandus verendus sequendus largiendus p:ltten<lus
mirandi, verendi sequendi larglendl paliendl
mTrand1i, IIr:. verendd, IIr:. sequendd, tlr:. largiendd, et«, patiendo. dr:.
mlratum, -tii veritum, -tii seciitum, -tii largitum, -tii pe.ssum, -sii Inflections.


114. I. Semi-Deponents are verbs which have the Present System in the Active Voice, but the Perfect System in the Passive without change of meaning. Here belongaudeo, audere, auaus sum, 10 dare.

gaudeo, gaud lire, gavJsu8 sum, 10 rejoice.

601eo, soli!re, 60litU8 sum, to be ioont;

fido, fidere, fieu8 sum, to trust;

2. The following verbs have a Perfect Passive Participle with

Active meaning: - adoUisco, grow tip ; clinare, dille; placi!re, please; prandlire, lunch; potlire, drift!:; jilrlire, swear;

adu'ltus, having grown tip. ci!natus, having dined.

placitus, ha71ing pleased, agreeable. prausus, having IUllched.

potus, having drunk.

jiirlitus, having sworn.

a. Jllri!.t us is used In /I passive sense also.

3. Revertor and dlivertor both regularly form their Perfect lD the Active Voice; viz.-

revertor, revert! (Inf.), revert! (Perf.), to return. dlivertor, deverti (Inf.), dliverti (Perf.), 10 turn asidl.


1l1S. There are two Periphrastic Conjugations, - the Active and the Passive. The Active is formed by cornbining the Future Active Participle with the auxiliary sum, the Passive by combining the Gerundive with the same auxiliary.

Active Periphrastic Conjugation.


p,.I!S. Imp. Ful. Pn:f. PIlip. Fut. P.

amii.turuB (,s, -um) Bum, I am about to love. amaturue eram, I uoar about to love, arni!.tilrus ero, I shall b~ about to Ioue, amii.tnruB ful. I trau« ball (was) a60ullo love. amiltnruB rueram, I had bUll ab~ut 10 love. a.mii.turuA fuerO, I shalllz,lV~ bun aboullo I~.

Peculiarities of Conjugation.



Pres. e.ml1t(1rus slm. may I be a6ou//0 10tJ~.

Imp. a.mii.tilrus essam, I might M a6ou/ to love.

P",/, amAtllrus fuarlm, I may /zav~ bun aboui/o lovI. Plup. a.mi!.tllrus tuissem, I might have bem about /0 love.


Pres, a.mll.tllrus esse, to be about to love.

Perf. a.mii.tllrus rutsse. to have bun about to lou«,

Passive Periphrastic Conjugation.


Pres. a.mandus (-e., .um) sum, I am 10 be loued, mus: be loved. Imp. amandus erarn, /wos 10 be loved.

Fut, amandus erO, I shall deserve /0 be lov~d.

p",,/. amandus fui, / was to b~ loved.

Plup. a.mandus rueram, I had deserued /0 b~ loued, Fut. P. amandus fuerO, / shall "(we deserved 10 lie loved.

Pres. Imp. P~rf. Plup.


amandU8 slm, may / deserue /0 M loved.

a.mandus essem. I tn~l(ht deserve /" be loved. amandua fuerlm, /1II0y have deserved to b~ loved. amandus fwssem, I might hav~ deserved fo be loved.


Pru. amand us esse, /0 deseru« 10 Of! lov~d.

p"f. amandus tulsse, /0 have deserued to b~ loved.


116. I. Perfects in -:lvI, -!lvI, and -lvI, with the forms derived from them, often drop the va or vi before endings beginning with r or 8. So also n6v! (from n08c6) and the compounds of mOvi (from moveo). Thus:-

amavisti amastl d~levisti delesti
amavisse amasse delevisse delesse
amaverunt amarunt delevenmt d!!l!!runt
amaverim amarim d~leverlm delerim
amaveram arnararn deleveram deleram
amavero amaro d!!Jevero del~r6
novisti nosH noverlm norim
novisse no sse noveram noram
audivlstf audisti audtvisse audisse 80


2. In the Gerund and Gerundive of the Third ami Fourth Conjugations. the endings -undus, -undt, often occur instead of -endus and -endl, as faeiundua, facluudf.

3. DIco, dlico, facio, form the Imperatives, dic, dilc, fac. But compounds of facio form the Imperative in -fice, as cenfice. Compounds of dice, diice, accent the ultima; as, ednc, ~dlc.

4. Archaic and Poetic forms: -

a. The ending -ier in the Present Infinitive Passive; as, amarter, monerier, dicier, for amllrI, monert, diel.

b. The ending -ibam for -ii!!bam in Imperfects of the Fourth Conjugation, and -ibo for -iam ill Futures j as, seibam, soibo, fur sctebam, aciam.

c. Instead of the fuller forms, in such words as dixi8ti, scrfpslatis, surr~xiase, we sometimes find dixti, seripstis, surrexe, etc.

d. The endings -im, -Is, etc. (for -am, -lis, etc.) occur in a few Subjunctive forms; as, edim (eat), duint, perduint.

5. In the Future Active and Perfect Passive Infinitive, the auxiliary esse is often omitted; as, aetlirum lor actiirum esse; i!jectus for ijeetus esse.


Formation of the Present Stem.

1l7. Many verbs employ the Verb Stem for the Present Stem; 1 as, dIcere, diicere, amare, moni!re, audire. Others form the Present Stem variously, as follows:-

I. By appending the vowels, ll, i!, I; as,-

juvare, Present Stem juva- (Verb Stem juv-).

augere, .. "augl!- (" "aug-).

vinelIe, " "vincl- (" "vine-).

2. By adding i, as capio. Present Stem capi- (Verb Stem cap-).

3. By the insertion of n (m before labial-mutes) before the final consonant of the Verb Stem; as, fundo (Stem fud-}, rumpo (Stern rup-' 4. By appending -n to the Verb Stem; as,-

eern-o peU.o (for pel-no).

1 Strictly speaking, the Present Stem always ends in a Thematic Vowel ({) or ~): as, d'c~-. dic-O-; amll-{}-, amll-~-. But the multitude of phonetic changes involved prevents a scientific treatment of the subject here. See the Author's Latin Language.

Formation of tlte Verb Stems.


s. By appending t to the Verb Stem; as, - fleet-o.

6. By appending so to the Verb Stem; as,-



7. By Reduplication, that is, by prefixing the initial consonant of the Verb Stem with i; as,-

gi-gn-o (root gen-), Bi-Bt-o (root sta-},

Formation of the Perfeot Stem.

118. The Perfect Stem is formed from the Verb StemI. By adding v (in case of Vowel Stems); as,-




2. By adding u (in case of some Consonant Stems) j as,-

atrepu-I, genu-I, alu-f.

3. By adding B (in case of most Consonant Stems); 35,car~, Perfect carps-f.

BorIb-~," BorIpB-i (for BorIb-BI).

rId-eo, " rls-I (for rId-si).

Bent-Hi, " s5ns-I (for sent-sI).

dle-o, " dlx-I (I~e. dle-sl).

a, Note that before the ending -sI a Dental Mute (t, d) is lost j a Guttural Mute (e, g) unites with s to form Xj while the Labial b is changed to p,

4. Without addition. Of this formation there are three types:-

a) The Verb Stem is reduplicated by prefixing the initial con-

sonant with the following vowel or e; as,eurr~, Perfect cu-currf,

p08e~, " po-posot.

pello, " pe-pulf,

NOTE I. - Compounds, with the exception of do. sti5, SistO, discO, poscO. omit the reduplication. Thus: com-pull. but r6-popo8cI.

NOTE 2. - Verbs beginning with BP or Bt retain both consonants in the reduplication, but drop s from the stem; as, Bpondeo, spo.pond! j BtO, BtetL

b) The short vowel of the Verb Stem is lengthened j as, legC5, 15gI; ago,5gi. Note that I by this process becomes 5.

c) The vowel of the Verb Stem is unchanged; as, vertC5, vert!; minu6, minul.



Formation of the Participial Stem.

119. The Perfect Passive Participle, from which the Participial Stem is derived by dropping -UB, is formed:-

(. By adding -tUB (sometimes to the Present Stem, sometimes to the Verb Stem) j as,-

ama-re, Participle ama-eus. dele-re, " dlil1!-tUB.

audi-re, leg-ere,


audj-tua, lilc-tu8. aortp-tue.

Ben-BUB (for sent-tua). cae-eus (for caed-tus},


acrfb-ere, "

sentl-re, eaed-ere,



a. Note that g, before t, becomes c (sec § 8, 5): b becomes p: while dt 01' tt becomes SB, which is then of len simplified 10 B (2 8,2).

2. After the analogy of Participles like senSUB and caesus, where -IIUS arises by phonetic change, -sus for -tus is added to other Verb Stems j as,-

Hl.b-i, Participle Hip-SUB.

fig-ere, " fi-xus.

a. The same consonant changes occur in appending this ending -BUB to the stem as in the case of the Perfect ending -ai (see § lI8, 3, a).

3. A few Verbs form the Participle in -Itus ; as,-

dorna-re, mone-re,

dorn-Itua, mon-Itua.

4. The Future Active Participle is usually identical in its stem with the Perfect Passive Participle; as, ama-tii8, amlltiiruB; moui-tus monitiirus. But-

juv:i.-re, Perf. Partie. jiitus,

has Fut, Act. Partie. juvlltiiru8.1

Iava-re, " " Iautua, " " " lavlltllrUB.
par-ere, " " partue, " " pari tilru8.
ru-ere, " " -rutus, " " " ruitilrU8.
seca-re, " " seotus, " " " BeoaUlruB.
fru-I, " " -fructu8, " " " fruitiiruB.
mor-t, " " mortuus, " " " morf tfirua.
orr-rI, " " ortus, " " " oritiirUB. 1 But the compounds of juvO sometimes have -jiituyus .. as, adjiiliirus.

Lt"st of tlte lI/ost 1mpottant Verbs.


First (.1-) Conjugation. 120. I. PERFECT IN • VI.

amo arnare amavi amatus hvt

All regular verbs of the First Conjugation follow this model,

poto potare potiivi potus (§ 114,2) drinlo


crepe crepare crepui crepitGrus rattle
cuba cubare cubui cubiturus lie tUny"
demo domare domuf domitus tome
frico fricare fricui frictus and fricatus rub
mica micare mieui glitter
dimico dtmicare dimicavl dlmicatum (est) 1 jight
ex-plico explicare explicavl (-ui) explicatus (-itus) unfold
im-plied impllcare irnplicavi (-ui) implicatus (-itus) entwi1U
seeD seeare secui sectus &ut
sono sonare sonur sonaturus sound
tone tonare tonui . thunder
veto vetare vetui vetitus forbid Ill. PERFEC1' IN -1 wrra

juvo lavo

juvare lavare

juvi lavi


jiitus help

lautus wash







These are all regular, and follow mtror, m/rl1rl, mlrl1tus sum.

Seoond (E-) Conjugation.
121. 1. PERFECT IN .VI.
del eo dcicre delevi deletus destroy
fieo flere flevi fletus weep, lamlnt
com-plea ~ complere complevf cornpletus jill up
aboleo abolere abolevi abolitus destroy
cleo 8 ciere clvl citus set in 1fMIifm 1 Used only impersonally. ~ So i"'!l~3 .• :rp/~o.

a Compounds follow the Fourth Conjugation: accib, accire .• tc,

84 InjlecHons.
a. Type -eo, -sre, -uf, -itus.
arceo arcere arcu! keep off
coerceo coercere coercui coercitus hold in check
exerceo exercere exercui exercitus practise
caleo calere calui caliturus be warm
careD carere carul caritiirus be without
doleo dolere dolul doliturus grieve
habeo habere habui habitus have
debeo debere debui debitus owe
praebeo praebere praebui praebitus offer
jaceo jacere jacui jacitiirus lie
mereo merere merul meritus earn, desero«
moneo monere monui monitus advise
noceo nocere llOCU! nocitum (est) injure
pareo parere parui pariturus obey
place5 placere placui placitilrus please
tace5 tacere tacui tacitilrus be silent
terreo terrere terrui territus frighten
valeo valere valui valitiirus be strong
NOTE I. - The following lack the Participial Stem:-
egeo egere egui want
emineo eminere eminu! stand fort"
floreo florere Horn! bloom
horreo horrere horrui bristle
Iateo latere Iatui lurk
niteo nitere nitui gleam
oleo olere olui smell
palle5 pallere pallui bejale
pateo patere patui lie open
rubeo rubere rubui be reel
sileo silere silui be silent
splendeo splendere splendui gleam
studeo studere studui study
stupe5 stupere stupui be amazed
timeo tirnere timui fear
torpeo torpere torpui be dull
vigeo vigere vigu! flourish
vireo virere virui be green
and others. List of the Most Important Verbs. 85
NOTE 2. - The following are used only in the Present System:-
aveO avere wish
CrigeO frtgere be cold
immineO lmminere overhallg
maeree maerere mourn
polle6 pollere and others. De strong
s. Type -ea, -lire, -uY, -tu. (-BUB).
censel! censere censui census eslima14
doceo docere docui doctus teoe"
misceo miscere miscul mixtus mir
teneO tenere tenui IIoId
So contineiJ and sustineiJ; but-
retlneo retinere retinui retentus retain
obtineo obtinere obtinui obtentus main/a;"
torred torrere torrui tostus bake
111. PERFECT IN -si.
augeo augcre auxT auctus ;ncreau
torqued torquere torsi tortus twist
indulge6 indulgere indulsT indu~
liiceo lucere liixi be liglll
liigeo lugere Iii xi mourn
jubeo jubere jussi jussus order
per-mulceo perrnulcere permulsT permulsus soothe
Tideo rinere rIsI risum (est) laug"
sulideO suadere suas! suasum (est) advise
abs-tergeO abstergere abstersi abstersus wipe off
Ardeo iird€!re iirsi lirsiirus burn
haereo haerere haesi haesiirus slick
man eo manere Mansi mansurus stay
algeo algere alsi be cold
fulgeo fulgere fulsi gleam
urgeo urgere ursi press
mordeo mordere momordi morsus NJe
spondee spondere spopondi sponsus promt'sl
tondeo tondere totondi tonsus sltear
pendeo peudere pependi liang 86 Injlect£ons.
eaveO cavere clivi cauturus take care
faveo favcre f5.vi fautfirus favor
foved fovi!re fovi fotus cherish
moveo movere movl motus mou«
!laveo pavere pavi flar
sed eo sedere sed! sessarus sit
video videre vidi visus SII

ferveO fervere

prandere stridcre

(fervi ferbui)

prandi pransus (§ 114, 2)



prandeo sttide5

luncl, creak

lice or liceri licitus sum Md
poIliceor polliceri pollicitus sum promise
mereor mercri meritus sum earn
misereor misercri miseritus sum pity
vereor vereri veritus sum fear
fatcor faterf fassus sum confess
confiteor confiteri confesses sum confess
reor Ten ratus sum tl/tilk
medeor medert /zeal
tueor tu£!ri pruled Third (Consonant) Conjugation.


fl. Type -6, -~re, -sI, -tus,

carpo earpere carpsi earptus pluck
sculpd sculpere sculpsi sculptus chisel
rep6 repere repsi creep
serpo serpere serpsf crawl
scribe scribere scripsi scriptus write
nuM nubere nupsi niipta (woman only) marry
rego regere rexi rectus g()Vern List 0/ the Most Important Verbs. 87
tego tegere texT t~ctus eMIW
af-fligo affligere affiixI affiictus shall"
dico dicere dlxi dictus say
duco ducere duxi ductus lead
coquo coquere coxl coctus cook
traho trahere traxi tractus draw
veho vehere vexf vectus carry
cingo cingere cinxi cinctus gird
tingo tingere tinxi tlnctus dip
jungo jungere junxi junctus loin
lingo lingere finxi fictus mould
pingo pingere pinxl pictus paint
5tringo stringere strinxi stricms bi~ld
-stlnguo! -stinguere -stinxi -stinctus blot out
unguo unguere linxi linctus anoint
vivo vivere vi xi victum (est) live
gero gerere gessi gestus carry
uro lirere ussl Iistus burn
temno temnere con-tempsi con-temptus despiSl
b. Type -13, ~re, -Bi, -sue,
figo ftgere fixi fixus fasten
mergo mergere mersi mersus sink
sparge spargere spars! sparsus scatter
flecto flectere flex!' tlexus bend
necto nectere nexui (nexi) nexus twinl
mitto mittere mist missus send
rado radere rast rasus SIII1VI
rodo rodere rosi rosus gnaw
vado vadere -vas! I -vasum (est) ~ march, walk
ludo Iudere lnsr lusurn (est) play
triido triidere trusf trusus push
laedo laedere laesi Jaesus injure, hurt
claude c1audere c1ausi clausus close
plaudo plaudero plausi plausu m (est) clap
explcde explodere explosi explosus hoot off
cedo cedcre cess! cessum (est) withdraw
divid6 dividere dlvisl divisus divide
premo pre mere pressi pressus press
1 Fully conjugated only in the compounds: ~rlli"guo, reslillguo, tliJlin.,w.
S Only in the compounds: ivijdo, inviido, p~iido. 88


2. Perfect in -i with Reduplication.

ab-do abdere abdidi abditus

red-qo red-dere reddidi redditus

So ad do, condo, dedo, perdo, priJdo, trndo, etc.




conceal return

resisto resistere resti ti

circumslsto circumsistere circumsteti

cado cadere cecidi

caedo pendo tendo tundo fallo pello curro parco

lake one's stand resist


casiirus fall

caesus kill

pensus weigh, pay

tentus stretch

tiisus, tii nsus beat

(falsus, as Adj.) deceive

pulsus drive out

cursum (est) r un

parsiirus spar«

scindo tone

caedere cecidi
pendere pcpendi
tcndere tetendi
tundere tutudi
fallere fefclIi
pellcre pcpuli
currere cucurri
parcere pcperci
canere cecini
tangere tetigi scindere tollerc

seidi sus-tuli

seissus sublatus

slrike down split

lear apart


3' Perfect in -I with Lengthening of Stem-Vowel.
ago agere egi actus drive, do
perago peragere percgt peractus finish
subigo subigere subcgi subactus subdue
cogo cogere coegt coactus force, gather
frango frangere fregi fractus break
perfringo perfringere perfregi perfractus break dozo«
lego legere legi lectus gatlter, read
perlego perlegere perlegi perlcctus read through
colligo colligere colleg! collectus collect
deligo deligere delegl delectus choose
diligo diligere dilexi dilectus Ioue
intellego intellegere intellexi intellect us understand
neglego negJegere neglexi neglectus neglect List of tlte Most Important Verbs. 89
.mO emere i'!mi l!mptus ouy
cocm6 coernere coemi coernptus /my up
redimo redimere redernl redemptus !Juy back
dirimO dirimere dirernl dlremptus destroy
demO demere dernpsl demptus takeaway
sumo sumere siimpsi 8limptus take
promO pr6mere prompsl (prornptus, as Adj.) take out
vinco vincere vici victus conquer
re-linquo relinquere reliqui rellctus leave
rumpo rumpere riipi ruptus weak
edo esse edi l!sus eat
fundo fundere fudi lusus poP"
4· Perfect in -I without either Reduplication or Lengthening 01
excudo exctidere exciidi excusus hammer
c6nsido COnsidere consedi {lake one's
possidd possidere possedt possessus { lake posses-
accendo accendere accendi accensus kindl'
a-scendo ascendere ascendi ascensum (est) climb
de-fendo defendere defendr dcrensus dt/end
pre-hendo prehendere prehcndi prehensus sdze
ree tccre iei ictus strike
vell6 vellere velli vulsus jJluck
verto vertere verti versus turn
pando pandcre pandi pass us spread
solve solvere solvl soliitus /oOSIL
viso visere visi vlsus visit
volvo volvere volvl volutus roll
verro verrere vern versus sweep
5· Perfect in our.
in-cumbo incurnbcre Incubut Incublttlrus tean on
gignli gignere genui genitus !Jri1lg fortA
molo mol ere mo!ui molitus grind
vomO vomere vomui vomitus vomit
frerno frernere frcmui S1/0rt
gerno gemere gemui sigh
meta metere messul messus reap 90 Inflections.
trerno tremere tremui tremble
strepd strepere strepui rattle
alo alere alui altus (alitus) noun's"
colo colore colut cultus cullivat,
incolo incolcre incolui inhabit
'excolo excolere excolul excultus perfect
consulo co nsulere consuluf consultus consult
consero conscrere conserui consertus jcni!
desero deserere deserui desert us desert
dissero disserere disserui discourse
texo texcre texui textus 'ltIea711
6. Perfect in -vt,
sino sinere sivi situs allow
desino dcsinere dcsii desitus cease
pono ponere posui positus place
ob-lino oblinere oblevl oblitus smear
sero serere sevi satus sow
consero conserere consevi consitus plant
cerno cern ere separate
discerno discernere discrevl discretus dislillg1tis;'
decerno decerncre decrevi decretus decide
sperno spernere sprevl spretus scorn
sterno sternere stravl stratus spread
pro-sterno prosternere prostravl prostratus overt/trow
pet6 petere petivl (petii) petitus seek
appeto appetere appctivl appetitus long for
tCl"U terere tri\'i trnus rub
quaere quaerere quaesivi quaesitus seek
acquire acqulrere acquisivi acqulsitus acquire
arcesso arcessere arcesstvi arcessitus summon
capcsso c.ipcssere capessivi capessitus seize
laccsso lacvssere Iacessivl Iacessitus provoke
7" Used only in Present System,
ango angere choke
!ambo lambere lick
claude c1audere be lame
fura furere rave
vergo vergere "end
and a few others. List of the Most Important Verbs. 91
mduo induerc indui indiitus Plit (In
imbue imbuere imbui imbiitus moisten
lui) lucre lUI zuas/:
pollUO polluere pollui pollutus defile
minu6 minuere minuT miniitus lessen
statue statu ere statui statiitus set ,up
cocstltue constituere constitui constitutus determine
suo suere sui siitus sew
tribuo tribuere tribui tributus allot
ru6 ruere rul ruiturus fall
diruO dlruere dlrul dirutus destroy
obruo obruere obrui obrutus (YiJerwhdm
acuo acuere acui sharpen
argus arguere argui accuse
congruo congruere congrui agree
metuo metuere metui fear
ab-nuo abnuere abnul decline
re-spuo respuere respul reject
struo struere striixl structus build
tluu tluere fluxi (fhlxus, as Adj.)flqw
cupio cupere cupivl cupitus wish
saplo sapere sapivi taste
raplo rapere rapui raptus snatch
diripiO diripere dlripui dlreptus plunder
conspicld cousplcere conspexl conspectus gaze at
aspicid aspicere aspexi aspect us behold
illicio ilIicere iIlexi iIlectus allure
pellicle pellicere pellexl pellectus allure
elicio elicere elicui l!licitus elicit
quatio quatere quassus shake
concutiO concutere concussI concussus shake
pariO parere peperi partus brinK fQt"lll
capid capere cepi captus lake
aceiplo accipere accept acceptus accept
inciplo incipere incept inceptus begin
facio facere feci factus IHdJ.:t
affic10 afficere affect affectus affect
Passive, afficior, affici, afi'ectus sum 92



So other prrpositional compounds, In-jicio. peJjicior: inlerjicW, inl,rjici(lr; etc. But-





Passiue, aS5uefio, assuefierl, assuclactus SUIil.

So also pal'facio. patcfiii: calefaci», cal'fio: and all non-prepositional compounds.

jacio jacere j<:ci jactus huri
abicio abicere abject abjectus throw away
fodio foderc fodr fossus dig
fugiil fugcre (etgi fugiturus jlee
effugio effugere effugi escape IV. VERBS IN -s06.

I. Verbs in -SCQ from Simple Roots.

POSC() disco pasco

pascor cresco consucsco quicscu adolesco obsolesce

posccre poposci
disccre elidici
pascere pin'! pastus
pascl pastus sum
crcsccre crcvi cretus
consuescere consuevi consuetus
quicscere quicvi quieuirus
adolescere adolevi adultus
obsolcscere obsolevi demand learn

fe c " grtlze


accustom one's self be still

gr,m! up


{ brco»re acquainted 1t·tlh



{gd acquainted witll

nosco noscere


ignosco ignoscere ignovi

agniisco agnosccre agniivi

cognosca cognoscere cognov]

ignottrrus agnitus


2. Verbs in -"CO formed from other Verbs.

These usually have Inchoative or Inceptive meaning (see § 155. I).

When they have the Perfect, it is the same as that of the Verbs from which they arc derived.

tlorescu fiorcscere rlorui begin to bloom (florco)
scisco scisccre scivi ell act (scio)
aresco iircsccrc arui belOl1Ie dry (area)
calcsco calescere caluf become Ilot (calcu)
conscucsco consenescere consenuf grow old (seneo)
extimesco extimcsccre extimui fear greatly (timeo)
Ingemisco ingcmisrere ingernui sigh (gemo)
adhaeresco adhaerescere adhaesi stick (haereo)