Researching the effect on Motivation and English Skill Improvement when Implementing Project-Based Learning with Web

2.0 Tools Online for use in a Korean University EFL Setting

Benjamin Nesbit Jesse Elam May 16th, 2009


Table of Contents
Table of Contents................................................................................................................2 Ryan, E. L. (2002). A handbook of self-determined research. Boydell & Brewer: .........26

Abstract This paper addresses the issue of whether or not online, project-based learning activities are effective in improving English ability based on the four core areas of English: Reading, Listening, Speaking, and Writing. Also studied were student motivation, participation, and collaboration using web 2.0 technologies to present project-based-learning assignments. The paper explains how the research was conducted and discusses the outcomes of that research. Introduction University students studying in Korea typically enter their first-of-two, 15-week semesters in early March. The Tourism students at Paichai University are no different in this regard. The students studied were third and fourth year Tourism students. All students registered for the class and volunteered to participate in the on-line study. Some students were Chinese exchange students, while others were native to Korea. Additionally, some of these students are required to take an English Speaking course that is taught by native speaking teachers, since a commonly accepted style of teaching and assessment is through lecturing and testing in Korean Universities. Typically, students will follow along with the lecturer as he/she methodically moves through the book, playing the CD when appropriate, and offering opportunities for questions when needed. Additionally, students are allowed some time to pair up, memorize, and recite the prefabricated dialogues provided in the book. This usually is what determines the student’s participation grade for the class. Further assessment typically includes one mid-term examination and one final examination. These types of exams given have a range of styles depending on the lecturer and the level of the students. Some tests are given as multiple-choice exams while others are strictly oral tests. English teachers in this setting are given a great deal of freedom in conducting their lessons. This provided a good platform from which to run this study since there was no concern about superiors or how the class curriculum had to be conducted. Problem Statement Currently, native Korean speakers and native Chinese speakers rank at the bottom among readers, listeners, speakers and writers of English as a foreign


language. This can be seen, according to ETS, (2006) in the extremely low scores reported on the TOEFL iBT, a standardized English test that assesses Reading, Listening, Speaking and Writing abilities. Korean students rank in the bottom 35th percentile among all test takers worldwide with Chinese ranking in the bottom 40th percentile. While the reasons for these low test scores can be debated, there is no debating that students in the classroom are notably quiet when it comes time to speak, quite shy when it comes time to read and write. Typically Korean students are only comfortable with listening. This is not surprising since the most popular method of teaching in Korea is lecture-based. This is especially true at the university level where as many as 50 students may be asked to sit in on an English “conversation” lecture. This style of lecture-based teaching is so ingrained in society that students are not even comfortable talking to each other in the classroom. This is especially true among students who are learning English as a Foreign Language. Part of this problem is due to cultural difference. One such culture difference appears to be that Asians are raised to focus on a world of relationships whereas Westerners are brought up to understand a world of objects. (Vercoe 2006) Koreans seem to greatly value the distinct roles between student and teacher. What seems apparent is that part of a teacher's role is to speak while part of student's role is to listen. When students step outside of their listening role, as would be the case in a conversation class, it can be seen as disrespectful or as showing off in front of their peers. Furthermore, Korean teachers will be openly critical toward students if they ask questions since this can be viewed as a direct challenge to a teacher’s authority.(Eng,2000) As such, students are limited by the comforts of their culture when learning to speak English in the classroom. If indeed there is a chance that learning can come about through peer interaction and reflection, as is the case with Project-based Learning (Thomas, 2000) then surely, Korean college students are being robbed of this opportunity. In addition to the cultural differences revolving around relationships, the lack of interest by teachers to implement non-lecture-based teaching methods into the classroom is another part of this issue. Part of it stems from a lack of concern that students will learn. Part of it comes from teachers feeling helpless teaching an English “Conversation” class to students who can't speak English. And part of it could stem from a lack of training, experience, or success using non-lecturebased teaching methods. In a typical lecture-based classroom, students are forced to focus on only one of the core English skills, listening. By incorporating more project-based learning (PBL) assignments online and utilizing web 2.0 tools to do so, the results of our research showed that students made improvements on their ability to read, speak, and write, and on their listening skills. However, the benefits of PBL didn't stop there. We also found students to be more motivated and participatory when given project-based learning assignments. The purpose of this study was to determine if implementing project-based learning opportunities online for students is an effective method to increase perceived learning in college-level English learners. To guide our research, we 3

sought answers to the following questions: 1) Do student skills increase after producing PBL work for their work?
Since Korean and Chinese students are seemingly failing to make significant progress in their English abilities, finding out if PBL increases students’ skills was the justification for this question. 2) Are students more willing to participate in a class that offers them the opportunity to make projects? As stated in the problem, Korean and Chinese students are often hesitant to participate in English classes. This question was aimed at trying to determine if PBL increased participation. 3) Are Korean students adept at working online to produce projects? It was only assumed that Korean and Chinese university students are capable and comfortable working online and this question aimed at finding out if that assumption was correct. 4) Does Project-Based Learning work well in, and with an online, web 2.0 environment? Students were asked to use Web 2.0 tools to complete assignments, so this question guided us in finding out how successful students were in completing those assignments.

Methods This study was an action inquiry. As stated before, participants were Chinese and Korean students from an undergraduate course at PaiChai University in South Korea. The researchers in this study were graduate students from the University of Colorado, both enrolled in the Research in Information and Learning Technology course, both studying in the second year of the Masters of EducationeLearning program. The class that participated was one that met once a week, every Friday at PaiChai University. The course itself was a 3-credit hour course and one that met for 3 hours each time. The face-to-face meetings were held in a classroom that had computers at each desk along with a video projector that was hooked up to the teacher’s computer. This overhead projector was used to present step-by-step presentation. The research was conducted over an 8-week period, from the beginning of the Spring semester, to the mid-term point. The class was set up as a hybrid class, in which one researcher, hired by PaiChai University as an English instructor, met with the class for lecture and book work face-to-face on Friday, while both researchers coordinated on assignments for students' project-based work online, each week. The second researcher was living in Japan at the time and working as an English instructor. Both researchers served as instructors and researchers for


this study. For the project-based assignments online, students were invited via e-mail to the social networking environment, Ning. This platform allows students to engage in a wide variety of activities, such as posting pictures, uploading audio files and videos, planning events, chatting, emailing, and much more. The site provides a great deal of flexibility in planning and implementing project-based learning assignments. This was where students completed all of their out of class assignments and where all of the student data was collected for use in this study. Materials/Media Rationale The course notes were converted into Scribd documents. Scribd is a free Web 2.0 tool that allows users to upload documents to a server which then encodes the documents with html that can be embedded into a web site. Using Scribd made the notes globally accessible and easy to read or print directly from the course site. Each week, we posted a new discussion topic and help forum where students are able to elaborate on the lecture information and interact with each other. Videos, podcasts and images were utilized to encourage student motivation, participation, and interaction online. Students also had the opportunity to make blog posts for reflection, upload pictures, videos, mp3s and other types of files to establish active learning online. To support students, online tutorials were created using Jing. Jing is a free Web 2.0 tool that allows users to record up to five-minute-long, narrated screen shares. This tool was essential in giving students step-by-step instructions for technical issues they ran into using the Web 2.0 tools in their assignments. The first step in this research process was to get students registered on the Ning site. Students were presented with a step-by-step screen share tutorial from the free Web 2.0 application, Jing to assist in getting them registered. After all students were registered on the Ning site, they were able to participate in the initial survey that was posted there. This survey asked the students to rank their own perceived English ability before participating in the online portion of the course. (See appendix A) After students took the survey, they were given their first discussion-based learning assignment. With the exception of the mid-term project, all of the students’ online assignments were discussion-based and served as extensions of lectures that were given during class on Friday. Each week, the students were given assignments online that correlated with the lectures. Students were asked to participate in the discussions each week by Wednesday night at midnight and were encouraged to interact with their peers in the discussion forums so as to improve their participation grade. The week-by-week breakdown of the classroom lectures and online assignments can be seen in appendix G. These types of assignments were used to gage how motivated students were to participate in online work. 5

The mid-term project was a free-choice topic that related in some way to the field of Travel and Tourism, and as such, students had full reign over the content that was added to their project. Student projects were submitted for evaluation and comment on the Ning site. By using Ning, analyzing the data was more manageable since all of it was in one place. After the mid-term projects were completed and graded, students were then given a post mid-term project survey. It was designed to help the researchers determine if the students had seen improvements in their English abilities and skills, and an increase in motivation. Additionally, this survey helped collect data on student collaboration. (See appendix B). Upon completion of the mid-term projects, to help triangulate the data, the teachers were given a survey from which they evaluated each student individually (See appendix C). This data was helpful in measuring students’ view of their motivation and participation online against the teachers’ views. Students were then asked to complete a peer reviewed scoring chart while viewing the mid-term project presentations during class (See appendix D). The students used a scoring rubric to guide them in their scoring (See appendix E). While the main purpose of having students score their classmates’ projects was to help triangulate data, this type of class work noticeably became a social activity as students were eager to see the response of their peers as their projects were viewed on the movie projector in class. This online course work was presented in a way that allowed the students some time to adapt to the online environment over the first two weeks. Additionally, because the course was a taught as a hybrid course, students had the opportunity to come to class to work on assignments and ask questions. The online portion of the class was designed to measure student participation, motivation, and social interaction with classmates. Additionally, the students were being exposed to web 2.0 tools from which they would be using to present their finding for their mid-term, project-based learning assignment. The reason for measuring perceived ability in students is that measuring student's perception of their learning offers students a more reflective approach to their learning. Ultimately, individuals are in control of how much they learn, and by reflecting on the increase or decrease in their own abilities, students will learn more. This reflection is an essential part of learning as it allows learners the opportunity to make connections and develop a more complex and deeper understanding of the subject material. (Zull, 2002)

Data Collection Overview 6

Throughout this eight-week period, the data was collected and analyzed in four, two-week quarters. Data was collected through surveys, the online social networking website, Ning, grade books, trend analysis and Literary Review. The triangulation of data is related directly to the action research questions at hand. Below you can see an illustration of our triangulated Data. Triangulation of Data
Research Question 1.) Do student skills increase after producing PBL work for their course? Data Source #1 Student Survey Data Source #2 Teacher Survey Data Source #3 Average Grade Data Source #4

(See appendix (See appendix Book Analysis Literary Review (See appendix A&B) C) G)

2.) Are students more Student Survey Teacher Survey Ning willing to participate in (See appendix (See appendix Participation Literary Review a class that offers them (See appendix I) A&B) C) the opportunity to make projects? 3.) Are Korean Chinese Student Survey Midterm Grades students adept at (See appendix (See appendix working online to A&B) C) produce projects? Ning Participation (See appendix


4.) Does Project-Based Student Survey Teacher Survey Midterm Learning work well in a (See appendix (See appendix Comparison Web 2.0 environment? (See appendix A&B) C)


Data Collection Instruments 1.) Student Survey Surveys were created using the Web 2.0 tool, Survey Monkey, and were distributed to students online through the class website that was created in Ning. The surveys were a combination of matrix of choice and rating scale style questions that aimed at having student rate their own perceived English abilities and student attributes. These surveys were completed at the beginning of the semester, before they began working together online, while a follow up survey was given after students completed their online, mid-term projects, about half way through the semester. Students were prompted during the classroom lecture to complete the survey during class time. This face-to-face administration was helpful since some of the students had some difficulty understanding exactly what some of the survey questions were asking.


2.) Teacher Survey To assist in triangulating data, the professors conducted student evaluations in the form of an online survey, again produced with SurveyMonkey. The survey questions were similar to those used on the student survey and provided the professors an opportunity to rank each individual student's attributes on a scale between one and five. Both instructors completed surveys; however, some fields didn't apply because of demographics. One professor didn't have a chance to analyze the students in the classroom since his research was being conducted from Japan, rather than Korea. As such, he was only able to evaluate some of the student’s abilities, particularly those that could be evaluated from work done online. 3. Ning Participation Ning is a social networking tool that for all intensive purposes, served as a Content Management System (CMS) for the online portion of this course. The professors created a site that allowed students to participate in discussion forums create blogs, post calendar events, and much more. For this study, Ning was used to measure student participation in an online setting. Using Ning, students were able to submit assignments, participate in discussions, and post their mid-term projects. Data was collected using Classroom evaluations instructional time-line (Sagor p. 77-78) 4. Mid-Term Grade Comparison There was a comparison done of last year’s student average mid-term grades with this year’s mid-term grades. The tool that was used by students to create their projects is a collaborative Web 2.0 tool called Voicethread. Students were scored using a rubric that measured use of media, student collaboration, and overall content. The main difference between the student projects this year and last year is that students were required to work in PBL methodology this year, whereas last year projects were simply individual assignments. 5. Average Grade Book Analysis Grades for students registered in this 3-credit course are based on student attendance-including whether or not the students came on time, participation in classroom conversations, participation in discussion surveys online, and participation in project-based assignments online. The following is an analysis of the students` average participation scores distributed over the four quarters leading up to the mid-term. Literary Review These days there is little research that has been done on incorporating social 8

networking web 2.0 applications such as Ning, into a university setting. The results of this research could open up doors for other interested university professors to apply technology and project-based learning into their course. We hope that the research we have conducted will unveil a new, successful style of teaching university students in Korea and Asia. In recent years a huge number of Web 2.0 technologies have been developed around the world, and this number continues to multiply day by day. Educators in many different educational fields are utilizing these valuable tools to achieve their learning objectives and to add greater instructional value to their courses. The results of the questionnaires posed to 101 EFL teachers indicate that a majority of EFL teachers do actually use the Internet for their teaching purposes. (Hee-Jae Shin; Jeong-Bae Son 2007). This literature review is concerned with the current application of Web 2.0 in online environments and how they can be integrated into ESL and EFL teaching through collaboration and project based learning. We will be analyzing case studies, scholarly journals, and on-line digests as the basis of our research and attempt to develop a correlation between ESL/EFL, Web 2.0, collaboration and project based learning as a positive trend. Introduction Language training in Asian countries seems to be based on repetitive grammar and vocabulary practice with no chance for reflection or social interaction. This Behaviorist approach works at lower levels, but is not suitable for higher levels of proficiency. Antonie Alm makes this clear when he stated that the stimulusresponse approach might be appropriate for the acquisition of lower thinking skills, but it has only limited success at higher proficiency levels where more complex structures involve conceptual learning. (Antonie, 2006) For conceptual learning to flourish, it is imperative to have social interaction. "The need for relatedness can, for instance, be seen in approaches which emphasizes that most people not only learn better in a social context, but that they also take on new ideas (and language) because of the interaction with others" (Vygotsky, 1978; Hymes, 1971). Being EFL educators, we have been looking for a way to develop and integrate social content into our teaching environments. Our aim is to uncover the underlying benefits of using these tools and how they can be applied in the educational setting. To this end we must ask ourselves: • Does students' learning increase after they produce collaborative projects on-line? • Does Problem-Based Learning work well in the Web2.0 environment? • Are students more motivated to learn language through social interaction? To answer these questions we must look at Web2.0 technologies to identify their educational value. In this review we will be able to see a correlation between the current and possible applications of project based learning, collaboration and 9

Web2.0 in ESL/EFL education. In researching for data, we relied mostly on the Auraria Campus Library Journal Databases (available through the internet) in addition to Yahoo and Google. Another valuable search engine we used was called We used search phrases such as “web 2.0 tools and EFL,” “project-based learning and ESL,” and various combinations of both along with other search terms to find articles pertaining to our research. Upon finding relevant articles, we then evaluated the reference section, which often provided more web-based resources relevant to our research. The following provides a summary of our findings. Web 2.0 Educational Values and Application The Internet has changed over the past decade. At one time it was used to provide information in a way that was similar to what one might find from reference books in a library. However, since around 2004 (Albion) the World Wide Web has undergone extreme changes. There has yet to be one exact definition to be formed on what this second World Wide Web is; however, through our research the most robust definition of Web 2.0 is defined as follows: Web 2.0 encompasses a variety of different meanings that include an increased emphasis on user generated content, data and content sharing and collaborative effort, together with the use of various kinds of social software, new ways of interacting with webbased applications, and the use of the web as a platform for generating, repurposing and consuming content." (Albion). This new Web is also commonly defined as the read/write web. Whereas, in the past we used Web 1.0 as consumers, passively taking in information that was presented to us, how students and teachers interact and contribute to the information that is presented. Additionally, educators now see the Internet as a participative medium as opposed to just a source of information. There are many different learning theories that can be demonstrated using Web2.0 technologies, which are also quite useful in the ESL environment. Be it through the use of social networks, wikis, podcast or blogs, Web 2.0 allows users to interact with how the content is being presented, and add to the organization of such information rather than just observing it. (Albion, p. 7) Below is a list of learning theories that became the basis of our research. Learning Theories 1.) The Self-Determination Theory is concerned with competence, relatedness, and autonomy. Competence refers to feeling effective in one’s ongoing interactions with the social environment. Relatedness refers to feeling connected to others. Autonomy refers to being the perceived origin or source of one’s own behavior. Autonomy concerns acting from interest (Antonie, 2006). Through social networking tools, such as Ning, students will be intrinsically motivated to interact with each other and learn English through interaction. This selfdetermination theory adopts a dialectic view and explains motivation as: 10

“interaction between an active, integrating human nature and social contexts that either nurture or Alm: call for autonomy, competence and relatedness impede the organism’s active nature” (Ryan & Deci, 2002, p. 6). It has been recognized that CALL (Computer Aided Language Learning) can positively influence language learner motivation (Egbert, 2003; Fotos, 2004; Warschauer, 1996). Though CALL can be used simplistically as a vocabulary training utility that utilizes Behaviorist approaches with positive and negative re-enforcements to motivate students, as we saw before, we have the opportunity to use Web 2.0 tool differently. Whereas the Behaviorist model assumes the need to create a stimulus for motivation, the self-determination model focuses on how to support one’s natural tendencies to learn (Antonie, 2006). Referring to self-determination theory, Internet-based language-learning environments can be motivating because of their potential to support basic human needs. (Antonie, 2006). 2.) The Social Learning Theory utilizes learning through interaction. Students have the ability to learn from one another in a collaborative manner. This theory is concerned with self-motivation, including external, vicarious and selfreinforcement. (Bandura, 1997). As a way to organize a class and present content, Ning, as a social networking tool, allows instructors the freedom to present learning objects in a way that suits the needs of their own personalized classroom to promote social interaction. In the case of our research, we used Ning to employ most of our learning strategies. Ning can be used to post RSS feeds from which supplemental learning can take place. These feeds prove as valuable learning tools and have a range of quality from simple blog post rss feeds, to video presentations from major companies, to even research articles published from organizations. In an online environment, this supports both the social, supportive, active, reflective, and relevant learning values that are so important to effective to the social learning theory. To date, web technologies have moved toward a Web 2.0 standard whose core value is social networking. In the Web 2.0 online environment, social networking is a concept, which emphasizes collaborative user-to-user interaction (Vickery, 2007 3.) Project-Based Learning Theory - states that the best way to learn is to experience the action at first hand. PBL system of learning and teaching has several goals. For example, the development of an attitude and critical judgment, team work, independent reasoning and study habits. Today there are some Mexican universities as ITESM (Monterrey Superior Education Technological Institute [18]) that have already adapted their courses to this teaching system. Where student acceptance was particular good, selftransformation of knowledge was achieved ( Ignacio González Alonso, Mercedes R. Fernández Alcalá, Jose A. López Brugos, 2007 ). Project-based learning allows students to work together to solve real world problems that are relevant to them. (Edutopia Staff, 2008) In project-based learning activities students are essentially finding the answers to their own questions. The students decide on which part of the subject they'd like to learn more about and then they set out on their own in search of answers. Teachers take a back seat while the students demonstrate their own mastery of 11

materials. On the benefits found, increase of quality of works, reducing administrative work per student, increased motivation, no cheating, more students in classrooms, getting transversal competencies, increasing teachers performance and teaching learning were noticed. ( Ignacio González Alonso, Mercedes R. Fernández Alcalá, Jose A. López Brugos, 2007 ). Project-based learning lets students identify their own learning needs [17]. This methodology creates a different skills acquisition, transmits the responsibility to learn away from teachers, and puts it on the students. ( Ignacio González Alonso, Mercedes R. Fernández Alcalá, Jose A. López Brugos, 2007 ). We utilized PBL in our research by using a Web2.0 program called VoiceThread. A VoiceThread is a collaborative, multimedia slide show that holds images, documents, and videos and allows people to leave comments in 5 ways - using voice (with a microphone or phone), text, audio file, or video (via a webcam). After the students have taken the second and final perceived English ability survey, there was an increase in all of the participants’ perceived English ability. Web2.0 and Collaboration Obviously the Web provides vast amounts of knowledge for students to use for their research. Web 2.0 applications allow students to organize information and to reconstruct it in a way that makes sense to them. Because the culmination of any project-based learning project is the collaboration and presentation of the findings, Web 2.0 applications lend themselves well to allowing students to collaborate with each other and to present their findings. Students who use Web 2.0 tools improve both their abilities to collaborate and present information. Development of these skills occurs even among learners at low levels of language proficiency (ERIC Development Team, 1998). Web 2.0 allows students to reconstruct information and present it with many different online applications and tools. Within the group work integral to projects, individuals' strengths and preferred ways of learning (e.g., by reading, writing, listening, or speaking) strengthen the work of the team as a whole (Lawrence), while students present their newly acquired knowledge to the world. ESL/EFL and Web2.0 The development of Web 2.0 over the last few years has opened up a number of new interactive, collaborative applications that can be used for learning English as a Second or Foreign Language. The Internet can also be a useful tool for collaboration among ESL/EFL learners locally, nationally or globally. It can be used to acquire information from a large number of language resources for a variety of purposes (Daugherty & Funke, 1998; Gonglewski, Meloni & Brant, 2001; Moore, 1996; Pennington, 1996; Ryder & Graves, 1997; Singhal, 1997; Smith, 1997; Warschauer, 2000). Whereas the original Web 1.0 served up fixed, static pages of information meant for observation by viewers, Web 2.0 applications allow users to interact with, and contribute to the information being provided. While Web 1.0 offers English as a topic of discussion, Web 2.0 12

applications allow students a platform from which they can learn, a place where they can adapt the information being provided, for their own personal use. They can communicate either on a one-to-one or a many-to-many basis any time they need from school, home or work. Therefore, it is not surprising that many ESL/EFL teachers have embraced Internet-assisted language teaching (IALT) and have developed new ways of using the Internet with their students (Hee-Jae Shin; Jeong-Bae Son 2007). Essentially Web 2.0 provides students with the tools necessary to adapt the static English provided for by Web 1.0 to their needs in a way that helps them actively become a part of the English language community (Antonie, 2006). Some Web-based software learning systems have features that enable students to engage in threaded discussions. Students from certain cultures that discourage public disagreement discover a freedom to disagree provided by the impersonal nature of technology. (Michael Morgan, 2008). Web 2.0 tools lead to collaboration; this collaboration opens the door for project-based learning, which can all be used to assist ESL students in a number of ways as we can see by the list below. Collaboration and Problem-Based Learning in Web 2.0 environments • Builds on previous work • Integrates speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills • Incorporates collaborative team-work, problem solving, negotiating and other interpersonal skills • Requires learners to engage in independent work • Challenges learners to use English in new and different contexts outside the class • Involves learners in choosing the focus of the project and in the planning process • Engages learners in acquiring new information that is important to them • Leads to clear outcomes • Incorporates self-evaluation, peer evaluation, and teacher evaluation (ERIC Development Team, 1998) Research Findings The process of data analysis included the use of a matrix to sort the data and identify the most common stories within. Since some of the questions didn't fit in the same category, two different sifters were created to better identify the evidence being sought after. Focus was placed on 4 main areas, each synchronized to the action research questions; Motivation, Participation, Skills and Success. In the charts and graphs below; trends, high averages and data change were analyzed. The process of completing a data analysis for this study included using a matrix to sort the data and identify the most common stories within. Since some of the


questions didn't fit in the same category, two different sifters were created to better identify the evidence we were looking for. We focused on 4 main areas from our action research questions; Motivation, Participation, Skills and Success. The charts and graphs above we analyzed for trends, high averages and data change. Evidence of Motivation In this chart we can see that the in-class participation and motivation of students increased with the introduction of PBL, which was Quarter4.

(Appendix J) The following graph shows that the students’ on-line motivation decreased in the third quarter and then rose again during the PBL assignment.


(Appendix I) Evidence of Participation The majority of students saw themselves as good at socializing in a group work project. Teachers also felt student socialization abilities were very strong and it seems to be related to the socialization benefit that correlates with using PBL.

Student attitudes on their attributes Social Skills Strong (1-2) Average (3-4)

Teachers 40.9% 50%

Students 29.4% 58.6%


Weak (5) (Appendix A & B) Evidence of Behavior Change



Looking at the following chart we can see that the students didn’t feel that their reading ability changed throughout the semester. Student attitudes on their abilities Reading (student self-ratings) Strong (1-2) Average (3) Weak (4-5) (Appendix A & B) Pre-Survey 21.1% 47.4% 31.6% Post-Survey 29.4% 35.3% 35.3%

The following chart shows that students felt PBL learning, socializing and planning were most important in group work. Student attitudes on importance during group work (Highest Averages) Pre-Survey (student self-ratings) Learning 47.4% (9) Socializing 36.8% (7) Planning 42.1% (8) (Appendix A & B) The line graph below shows that the students interacted more on the Internet with the application of PBL project.


(Appendix I)

Evidence of Aptitude on-line It can be seen in the following bar graph that over 50% of the students feel they enjoyed online learning more than classroom learning.

(Appendix B) The following bar graph shows that students had a higher average grade in their PBL this year with the integration of more technology.


(Appendix J) Evidence of skill improvement The following graph shows that 94.1% of student felt like they made improvements with technology.

It can be seen in the following chart that five students felt that their speaking skill also became stronger. Student attitudes on their abilities Speaking (student self-ratings) Strong (1-2) Average (3-4) Weak (5) (Appendix A & B) Evidence of PBL Success 18 Pre-Survey 15.8% (3) 42.1% (8) 31.6% (6) Post-Survey 23.5% (4) 70.6% (12) 5.9% (1)

Students` feeling about working in a group increased from Average to Good.

(Appendix A)

(Appendix B) Findings 1. Student participation slowed down as the semester moved on, but increased with PBL. 2. Students felt that they were more motivated with the inclusion of PBL. 3. Students enjoyed working in groups and favored social interaction. 4. Students’ participation was directly related to their feelings about their 19

skills. 5. Students' feelings about their perceived abilities changed with the application of PBL. 6. Students enjoyed working in an online learning environment. 7. Students' gained more confidence about their skills when they worked in a collaborative environment. Present findings persuasively and with sound reasoning (accounting for alternative explanations) Link the findings directly to the research questions. Most of what was found from this study was not surprising. It was assumed that students would respond well to project-based learning and it appears that they did. Students participated more online, after being assigned a group project. The students participated more in an online setting when given the project assignment and they also appeared to be more motivated to learn as was stated in their follow up surveys. The findings in this study seem to tell the same story. It appears that Korean and Chinese college students studying EFL in a hybrid course setting do make improvements in participation, motivation, and overall English ability when asked to do project-based learning tasks online. This is evidenced in the change in students’ grades, self-assessment and teacher assessment before and during PBL. There was a change of behavior in the students' self-assessments, while the data from the trend analysis shows an improvement in grades, in addition to participation having increased toward the last quarter of Ning participation. Alternative Explanations It was found that student motivation and participation increased when given a PBL assignment. The findings from this study seem to correlate with the research done in the Literary Review on motivation and participation increasing when PBL is used. However, one thing that should be strongly considered is the fact that the students were given the PBL assignment as a mid-term project. As such, there was a large number of points assigned to each project, thus greatly affecting student grades. While PBL was part of what motivated the students in this study, it is also likely that students were motivated by the large point total given to the mid-term, PBL assignment. Thus students were motivated by the idea of getting a good grade, not just on participating in a PBL project. It should be noted that a significant drop off took place in the third quarter in regards to participation. The third quarter was very challenging for the students and some of them may have just given up due to lack of understanding. While it would be easy to say that students were simply overwhelmed with coursework for 20

other classes or that they were just being lazy, this is not a fair judgment of what may have been going on. Perhaps there was something else going on. Perhaps there needed to be more attention paid to this part of the study. Relationship to Literary Review A number of other relationships were found in the learning theories in our Literary Review, which we have based our entire Ning project on. These theories include: 1.) The Self-Determination Theory - which is concerned with competence, relatedness, and autonomy.
· · ·

Some students felt their listening and reading skills increased. 9 students felt that their speaking skill also became stronger. Students' participation is directly related to their feelings about their skills.

2.) Social Learning Theory -which utilizes learning through social experiences.
· ·

Students’ classroom skills increased during the PBL project. Students` feeling about working in a group increased from Average to Good. Students are more curious and they are more motivated to finish projects in a group. Students enjoy working in groups and favor social interaction.



3.) Problem-Based Learning Theory (PBL) -feels that the best way to learn is to experience the action first hand. The PBL system of learning and teaching has several goals. The development of an attitude and the ability to critically judge, building teamwork and independent reasoning, and the development of study habits are all goals sought after in PBL.
· ·

Students participated more on-line during the PBL portion of the class. Students can gain more confidence in their skills when working in a collaborative environment. Students feel that they are more motivated with the inclusion of PBL.



Upon completion of a trend analysis that evaluated the project grades from the Fall 2008 semester with the project grades from the Spring 2009 semester, it appears that students made improvements in social skills and overall participation by creating project-based learning projects as a part of their course curriculum. This is no surprise since the literature that was reviewed previously showed that students benefit socially from participating in project-based-learning projects. All aspects of this are quite provable by the data provided. Project-based learning allows students to work together to solve real world problems that are relevant to them. In project-based learning activities students are essentially finding the answers to their own questions. The students decide on which part of the subject they'd like to learn more about and then they set out on their own in search of answers. In completing their project students were able to choose any topic they wished that applied to Tourism. The researchers saw a very favorable outcome in student participation because of this. The findings in this survey can serve the EFL community as support to use project-based learning in an online setting with university students. Students responded favorably to working in groups to produce presentations. They also seemed generally motivated to participate in online discussions online each week. Environmental Impact Student Impact As mentioned in the introduction, Korean and Chinese students often feel somewhat uncomfortable practicing their English skills in a classroom setting. Because students were able to participate in discussions and project-based assignments from the comfort of their own home computer online, some of the apprehension they feel in a face-to-face setting was eliminated. Additionally, because students were given control over their education, as is the case in project-based learning, they were able to enjoy a new sense of motivation to learn. At the same time, because of the nature of the online environment provided for by Ning, students now have projects that they can take with them from the class. This will likely produce a greater sense of satisfaction than had they just been along for the ride in a lecture-based class. Impact on PaiChai University It should not go unnoticed that the amount of work done this semester in this PaiChai course was far beyond that of what is required by the school itself. The instructor, who was hired by PaiChai University, as is often the case in EFL classes in Korean universities, was given complete control over what the curriculum could be. This is worth mentioning since all too often, foreign instructors who are hired by universities in Korea are easily able to get by doing very little in the way of preparation, paying attention to detail, and following up 22

with students in regards to the activities and assignments that are presented. While there was no data collected on this matter, it is likely that the students felt they gained a great deal from participating in this class. As such, when they discuss their university experience with those outside of class, they will likely say positive things. This in turn, will serve to enhance the image of the Tourism department and of PaiChai University as a who Personal Impact For us, just being able to conduct our first action based research project has had a great impact on our own abilities as EFL professionals and future e-Learning Specialists. As first time researchers, we have learned an incredible amount from our professors, the graduate level coursework we participated in this semester, the work and research of other researchers, from the actual research we conducted and the drafting of this paper, and from each other. Additionally, and not to be undervalued, the research and incorporation of project-based-learning and Web 2.0 tools, has brought us a sense of empowerment as to our ability to teach EFL at the university level and online. At some point, having the confidence and knowhow used to conduct this research, we both relish the idea of submitting a research paper like this one to a popular EFL Journal such as KOTESOL or Asian EFL Journal. Negative Impacts While the positive impacts of this work certainly outweigh the negative, it would not be fair to say that there were no negative effects of conducting this study. One such negative effect for the researchers and teachers involved was the amount of time and work involved in preparing and implementing everything. Additionally, since both instructors were also the primary researchers in the study, keeping these roles separate was difficult and as such, became somewhat stressful. Moreover, since more data needed to be collected than we had originally thought, some of the time that had been planned for lecturing was eliminated. This meant that one of the Friday lectures on the Travel and Tourism industry had to be eliminated and replaced by a day of collecting additional data. While the overall effect of this is minimal, it should be noted as a negative effect of doing research as an instructor. Conclusion Project-based learning and collaboration integrated into the ESL environment using Web 2.0 technology seems to be a positive trend in the knowledge acquisition process. Project-based learning functions as a bridge between using English in class, and English in real life situations outside of class (Fried-Booth, 1997). Information gap activities (where the assignment can only be completed through sharing of the different information given each learner), learner-tolearner interviews, role plays, simulations, field trips, contact assignments outside of class, and process writing with peers prepare learners for project work. 23

(ERIC Development Team, 1998) Activities that engage learners in communication tasks and in peer- and self- evaluation helps create the proper classroom environment. (ERIC Development Team, 1998) The data from this study showed that, with the exception of reading ability, students felt their overall skills increased. PBL played a large part in producing such gains. By giving students an opportunity to search for answers to their own questions and having them interact within a group, students were forced to use a their language skills along with collaborative and technological skills. Additionally, because students were given the choice of what their PBL topic was, they were more enthusiastic in completing it and therefore, more eager to participate online and more motivated to do well. The participants in this study also proved they are extremely capable of working online to produce projects. While the overall English and technical ability of students varied somewhat, all students were able to functionally adapt to the online environment they were required to work in. At one point during the semester, students were unable to properly embed the rough copy of their midterm projects. This was due to the instructors, lack of an explanation on how to do this. However, after distributing a step-by-step video screen share from Jing, students were able to follow the tutorial and later embed their projects, thus demonstrating their proficiency in the online environment. Using Web 2.0 tools to create media presentations online for use in PBL is a relatively understudied topic. In fact, it is rather desolate as far as published works go. However, the combination using Web 2.0 tools for use in PBL certainly is a good one. The students in this study showed a great deal of interest in participating in the Ning site. Each student demonstrated this interest by completing a PBL project presentation using the Web 2.0 tool, Voicethread. Additionally, 50% of the students in the class even reported that they prefer participating more online than in the actual classroom. As more and more Web 2.0 applications are produced each year, it is important to stay abreast of how we can integrate them into our classrooms online and in person as teachers of ESL and EFL. As we found in our research, project-based learning is an effective approach to teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. And since Web 2.0 applications lend themselves so nicely to producing projects, language acquisition through projects produced via Web 2.0 tools only seems a logical next step. Lastly, as new technologies emerge on the new read/write web, we’ll work hard to stay at the forefront of how we can responsibly apply these technologies to optimize learning. References Albion, P.R. (2008) Web 2.0 in Teacher Education: Two Imperatives for Action. Computers in the Schools, 25(3). Retrieved March 2, 2009 from 24

Alm, A. (2006) Call for autonomy, competence, and relatedness: Motivating language learning Environments in Web 2.0 The JALT CALL Journal 2(3). Retrieved March 28, 2009 from Alonso, I.G., Alcala, M.R.F., Brugos, J.A.L. Progressive Evaluation and Auto Evalation Through Wikis Retrieved March 22, 2009, from OGRESSIVE+EVALUATION+AND+AUTO+EVALUATION+THROUGH+WIKIS .+Ignacio+Gonz%C3%A1lez+Alonso,+Mercedes+R.+Fern%C3%A1ndez+Alcal %C3%A1,+Jose+A.+L%C3%B3pez+Brugos+Computer+Science+Department. +33204.+Campus+de+Viesques,+Gij%C3%B3n,+Asturias/+Spain.,,+brugos A Bandura, (1997) University of Denver Online TIP, Social Learning Theory, Retrieved May 10, 2009, from: Brannick, T., Coghlan, D. (2005). Doing Action Research in Your Own Organization. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications Inc. Carney,N., Foss, P., McDonald, K., Rooks, M. (2007, October). Project-Based Learning Activities for Short-Term Intensive English Programs Asian EFL Journal 23(2) Retrieved February 17, 2009 from Daugherty, M., & Funke, B. L. (1998). University faculty and student perceptions of Web-based instruction. Journal of distance education, 13(1). Retrieved March 28, 2009, from Edutopia. (2008, February, 28) Why Teach With Project Learning?: Providing Students With a Well-Rounded Classroom Experience. Retrieved April 9, 2009, from Eng. K.H. (2000, August). Can Asians Do PBL? CDTLBrief 2(2) Retrieved February 28, 2009 from ERIC Development Team (1998, January 00). Project-Based Learning for Adult English Language Learners, Retrieved March 24, 2009, from ERIC database. Fried-Booth, D. L. (1997). "Project work." (8th Ed.) Oxford: Oxford University Press. ETS. Test and Score-Based Summary for TOEFL Internet-Based Test. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from


Gonglewski, M., Meloni, C., Brant, J. Christine (2001, March) Using E-mail in Foreign Language Teaching: Rationale and Suggestions The Internet TESL Journal, 7(2) Retrieved April 2, 2009, from Hymes, D. H. (1971). On communicative competence. In J. Pride and J. Holmes (Eds.), Sociolinguistics. Penguin, 1972. Excerpt from the paper published 1971, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press. Kern, R., & Warschauer, M. (2000). Introduction: Theory and practice of network-based language teaching. In M. Warschauer & R. Kern (Eds.), Networkbased language teaching: Concepts and practice (pp. 1-19). New York: Cambridge University Press. Moore, P. (1996). Reading and writing on the Internet. The Australian journal of language and literacy, 19(4), 317-329 Pennington, M. C. (1996). The power of the computer in language education. In M. C. Pennington (Ed.), The power of CALL (pp. 1-14). Houston: Athelstan. Ryder, R. J., & Graves, M. F. (1997). Using the Internet to enhance students' reading, writing, and information-gathering skills. Journal of adolescent & adult literacy, 4(4), 244-254. Shin, H.J., Son, J.B. (2007, January). EFL Teachers' Perceptions and Perspectives on Internet-Assisted Language Teaching Call- EJ Online, 8(2). Retrieved March 28, 2009, from Singhal, M. (1997). The Internet and foreign language education: Benefits and challenges. The Internet TESL journal, 3(6). Retrieved March 19, 2009, from Smith, B. (1997). Virtual Realia. The Internet TESL journal, 3(7). Retrieved September 12, 2005, from the World Wide Web: Ryan, E. L. (2002). A handbook of self-determined research. Boydell & Brewer: Thomas.J.W. (2000, March). A Review of Research on Project-Based Learning. Retrieved February 25, 2009, from Vygotsky, L. (1978) Mind in society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Vercoe, T. (2006, September). Taking Advantage of Cognitive Difference of Asians and Westerners in the Teaching of English Asian EFL Journal 8(3) Retrieved February 6, 2009 from 26 Warschauer, M. (2000). On-line learning in second language classrooms. In M. Warschauer & R. Kern (Eds.), Network-based language teaching: Concepts and practice (pp. 41-58). New York: Cambridge University Press. Zull, J. (2002). The Art of Changing the Brain. Sterling, Virginia: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

Appendix A: Pre-Participation Survey


Appendix B: Post Mid-Term Project Survey




Appendix C: Student Evaluation Survey (Completed by Teachers)

Appendix D: Peer Evaluations




Appendix E: Mid-term Scoring Rubric Multimedia Project Scoring Rubric: Scoring Guidelines Multimedia Collaboration Content
The integration of media objects such as text, graphics, video, animation, and sound to represent and convey information. Videotapes which include sound and images fit this definition. Working together jointly to The topics, ideas, concepts, accomplish a common knowledge, and opinions that intellectual purpose in a constitute the substance of the manner superior to what presentation. might have been accomplished working alone.

Score Levels



Students have used multimedia in creative and effective ways that exploit the particular strengths of the chosen format. All elements make a contribution. There are few technical problems, and none of a serious nature. Presentation blends 3 or more multimedia elements in a balanced, attractive, easy-to-follow format. Elements include original student work. With minor exceptions, all elements contribute rather than detract from the presentation's overall effectiveness. Presentation uses 2 or more media. There are some technical problems, but the viewer is able to follow the presentation with few difficulties.

Students were a very effective Meets all criteria of the team. Division of previous level and one or responsibilities capitalized on more of the following: reflects the strengths of each team broad research and member. The final product application of critical thinking was shaped by all members skills; shows notable insight or and represents something understanding of the topic; that would not have been compels the audience's possible to accomplish attention. working alone. Students worked together as The project has a clear goal a team on all aspects of the related to a significant topic or project. There was an effort issue. Information included to assign roles based on the has been compiled from skills/talents of individual several relevant sources. The members. All members strove project is useful to an to fulfill their responsibilities. audience beyond the students who created it.



Students worked together on the project as a team with defined roles to play. Most members fulfilled their responsibilities. Disagreements were resolved or managed productively.

The project presents information in an accurate and organized manner that can be understood by the intended audience. There is a focus that is maintained throughout the piece. The project has a focus but may stray from it at times. There is an organizational structure, though it may not be carried through consistently. There may be factual errors or inconsistencies, but they are relatively minor. Project seems haphazard, hurried or unfinished. There are significant factual errors, misconceptions, or misunderstandings.


Presentation uses 2 or Presentation is the result of a more media, but technical group effort, but only some difficulties seriously members of the group interfere with the viewer's contributed. There is ability to see, hear, or evidence of poor understand content. communication, unresolved conflict, or failure to collaborate on important aspects of the work. Multimedia is absent from the presentation. Presentation was created by one student working more or less alone (though may have received guidance or help from others).


Multimedia score =

Collaboration score =

Content score =

Copyright San Mateo County Office of Education

Appendix F: Deviation from the Original Plan As is to be expected in any action research inquiry, there were some changes along the way, that should be noted. When the opportunity for this research first came about, a plan was made in regards when and, to which methods would be 35

used to collect and analyze data. The original schedule is posted below. Immediately following this schedule is a summary of the changes that occurred during the actual 8-week research period. While the dates that most of these actions were done didn’t change very much, it is worth noting that four major changes came about in regards to the actual research methods.

Action Breakdown Submitted Action Research 2/28 Proposal w/ Data Collection Methods Create tutorials on how to navigate Ning Get participants registered on Ning Design projects based on book work Begin working on literature review Work on Data Collection Plan 3/14 Submit Update Data Collection Plan Distribute Perceived English Ability survey Continue implementing projects Continue literature review Write literature review 4/11 Literature Review Begin working on Data Analysis Continue implementing projects Administer the test Analyze data Write data analysis report Distribute Final Perceived English Ability Survey

Data Analysis

Final Action Research Revise and submit final report Report 5/16 Final Submission of Report 4/25 The first major change was in the number of major projects that students were assigned during this 8 week period. Originally, the teachers planned on assigning 4 major group-based assignments for students to complete. However, having to complete all of the data collection in just 8 weeks, made this more difficult than


originally thought. So, instead of assigning four major projects, the teachers assigned only one. This allowed researchers to scrutinize that single group project in greater detail while still allowing the teachers to continue on with their curriculum without any great delay or disruption. As it were, the teachers sacrificed three face-to-face lecture classes in order to: describe the project and help the students brainstorm topic ideas, research and work through any problems or technical issues that came about in using the Web 2.0 tool, Voicthread, and watch, score, and survey students upon completion of the major project respectively. This ultimately worked out better since the teachers were able to use the one single group project as a mid-term project. Instead of requiring four major group projects, students completed the rest of their PBL based assignments on a week to week basis, individually, typically presenting their ideas in the discussion forum. Interestingly, this change in major project quantity, lead to a greater focus on how motivated students were to participate in the online portion of the course as a whole. While students showed a high level of participation in the group project at the mid-term point in the semester, what was of interest was the dip in participation and apparent motivation online, in the quarter leading up to the mid-term. This seemingly subtle change in number of projects required, completely altered the entire research project and brought about the second major change. Instead of simply measuring student’s perceived English ability, as was originally planned for, researchers and instructors worked to now measure motivation levels of students online. And, instead of simply asking the students to rate their perceived English abilities, students were asked to rank a whole host of educational skills (as seen in appendices A and B). The third alteration was the change in the Web 2.0 presentation tool that was used to present the major project. It was originally planned that students would use the Web 2.0 program, Flowgram to do their online, group presentations. However, the teachers ran into technical issues using Flowgram and weren’t able to make a tutorial sufficient enough to help the students utilize the tools available in the program. As is often the case with new and free Web 2.0 tools, Flowgram was available in its beta version, complete with glitches and server crashes. As such, the teachers and researchers decided that Voicethread would be a better Web 2.0 option. While at first this change in direction was disappointing, what came about from it was better research. This is because Voicethread was used a semester earlier at Paichai university for Chinese and Korean students in the same Tourism class. By accessing the previous semester’s student grades for the Voicethread projects, the researchers now had a way to better triangulate the mid-term project data when analyzing it. In keeping with the theme of triangulating data, the last major change that was implemented was the introduction of additional surveys to help get a better all around sense of what the data meant. With triangulation in mind, researchers had the teachers complete a survey to rate each student’s abilities. This allowed researchers to look past just the student’s evaluation of their own abilities, and 37

compare it with that of the teachers’ evaluations. Additionally, a peer review scoring of the mid-term projects, completed by the students during class also added to the triangulation and well-roundedness of the data.

Appendix G: Breakdown of Weekly Lectures and Project-Based and DiscussionBased Learning Assignments

Week 1 Lecture: Syllabus/Introductions Assignment(s): N/A

Week 2 Lecture: Why Do People Travel? Assignment(s): 1) Post an introduction of yourself 2) Many motives inspire people to travel. List the first 10 you can think of. (I’ve listed one to get your started.) 1. To sightsee Now boldface the two motives above that are the most important to you when you travel. Finally, do you consider yourself to be a Dependable, a Venturer, or a Centric? Explain which label you chose for yourself, and why, below: Week 3 Lecture: The Air Transportation Industry (Part One) Assignments(s): Everyone has a different priority as to what’s most important. If you were to fly on a red-eye next week from Incheon to Paris, France, what would you consider most valuable? Rank the following from 1-10 (10 is the least important and 1 is the most important) Then explain why you chose your first and last rankings. Lastly, please comment on at least two of your classmate's posts! (Try using ebedded questions (p.23 Wajnryb) to be practice being polite) Food served on the plane, Pitch between seats, Recline of seats, Good on-time performance of the flight you’ve chosen, Nonstop flight, rather than a direct or connecting one, Price of ticket, Type of 38

aircraft used, The possibility that you can upgrade with your mileage, Whether there will be in-flight movies, Pleasant experience on a previous flight you had with that airline Week 4 Lecture: The Air Transportation Industry (Part Two) Assignment(s): Using the Internet, or any source available to you, figure out the best/cheapest air routes that could get me from Incheon Airport to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. and back again (round trip ticket) or get Jesse from Tokyo International Airport to Cleveland Hopkins International Airport and back again (round trip ticket). Try to set up the fewest connections possible. Below is a fictitious example. Please use this format. Outbound itinerary: Korean Air Flight #254: Depart Incheon, July 2, 7:50P.M.; arrive San Francisco, July 2, 3P.M.; Depart San Francisco July 2, 3:50P.M.: arrive Philadelphia July 2, 6:40P.M. Return itinerary: American Airlines Flight #212: Depart Philadelphia, August 1, 7:30A.M.; arrive Los Angeles, August 1, 10:40A.M.; Depart Los Angeles August 1, 1:10P.M.; arrive Incheon August 2, 5:20P.M. Cost: U.S.$753.00 Week 5 Lecture: The Hotel and Lodging Industry Assignment(s): Share Your Lodging Experience: This week, we'd like to hear you tell a story of the best, worst or most memorable experience you've had staying in an accommodation of any type.

Week 6 Lecture: The Travel Agent Industry Assignment(s): 1) Travel Agencies in Daejeon: Please answer the following questions. 1.Which travel agency would be the first you’d call in Daejeon? Why? 39

2. Which one is your second choice? 3. Do any agencies in Daejeon have specialties? Which specialties do they offer? 4. Which ones have websites (provide the site if available) 5. Are there any franchise Travel Agencies in Daejeon? Which ones are the best? 2) Festivals in Korea: Korea has a ton of Festivals each year. However, there is a problem. I don't know when they are! I tend to always find out about a festival after it's already happened! Now, it's your job to get me prepared so I can travel Korea and see what there is to see! This week, we'd like you to add one or two festivals to our new "Calandar of Events" tab.

Appendix H: Grade Comparison
Last Year 20 20 15 22 30 18 21 29 20 24 22 26 22 28 21 Last Year 22.5 This Year 23.33333333 This Year 19 28 18 20 26 29 22 23 25

Appendix I: Ning participation grades


Student Park, Woong Jong Kim, Min Sung Shin Joo Ho Wang Ying Jun Moon Jang Guen Jo Rak Go Yang Kim In Kyoung Jeong Jong Gu Hong Se Min Yoon Hye Jeong Kim Cheong Park, Jae Heung Lee Ahm Park Jae Won Sa Gang

Q1 3/6 3/13 4 2 6 4 6 4 7 6 7 6 6 9 3 6 4 7 7

Q2 3/20 4/2 14 4 9 2 1 3 5 3 1 8 7 6 5 2 2 1 6

Q3 4/3 4/16 8 4 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 5 3 2 2 0 0 3

Q4 4/17 4/30 5 1 1 0 1 2 0 1 0 1 3 1 0 1 0 0 2

Total 31 11 19 6 8 11 12 10 8 16 21 19 10 11 6 8 18


Jeon, Hae Yeon Joong Mae Won Park Jong Hyun In Tae Song Xeng, Xuemei

6 6 6 8 5

2 1 0 2 1

1 1 0 1 0

2 1 0 1 0

11 9 6 12 6

Appendix J: Classroom participation grades
Quarter1 Average 9.2 Quarter2 8.4 Quarter3 7.6 Quarter4 8.3