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:

,


Bit rate, Baud rate-



.
.
.
:
Attenuation
Distortion
Noise



dB()- .

.


(dB)
. 1 1, 2
2 :
dB = 10log10(P2/P1)


1

.
10 log10 (P2/P1) = 10 log10 (0.5P2/P1) =
=10 log10 (0.5) = 10(0.3) = 3 dB
.
100
:
20 log10 (V2/V1) = 20 log10 (100/1) =40 dB
.

dB = 3 + 7 3 = +1


.
-
-

.
-
-
-



.
.

.



.

.

- SNR
(),
()-
SNR
SNR

average signal power (P)


SNR =
average noise power (N)
dB- :

SNRdB = 10Log10SNR


-
-

-
- CrossTalk


?
3 :
-
-
-

:
- (Nyquist Bit Rate Formula)
- (Shannon Capacity)


( )

.

C = 2 * B * Log2L
C Bit Rate
B , L

B = 4kHz.
, 128
:

C = 2 B log2 L = 56 Kbps


( - 1944)

.

C = B * Log2(1+SNR)
SNR


0
.

:
C = B log2 (1 + SNR) = B log2 (1 + 0)
= B log2 (1) = B 0 = 0
:
SNR=0 ,
.

.
3000 (300-3300),
3162.

C = B log2 (1 + SNR) = 3000 log2 (1 + 3162) = 3000 log2 (3163)


C = 3000 11.62 = 34,860 bps

4,
20dB
.

C = B log2 (1 + SNR) = 4x103 x log2 (1 + 100)


= 4x103 log2 (101) = 26,6 kbps


20kHz 160kbps.
.

:
C = 2B log2 M = 2 x 20x103 log2 M

=> M=16

:
C = B log2 (1 + SNR) = 20kHz log2 (1 + SNR) = > SNR=255

1M.
63;
.

:
C = B log2 (1 + SNR) = 106 log2 (1 + 63) = 106 log2 (64) = 6 Mbps

:
4 Mbps = 2 1 MHz log2 L L = 4
:
:
.
:
.


:
(Hz)


(bps)

Throughput:
.

10Mbps.
12000 . 10000
(throughput) ?

Throughput = 12000 x 10000 / 60 = 2Mbps

:

Throughput:


Latency (Delay):


Propagation time -
Transmission time -
Queuing time -
Processing delay -

Latency = Propagation time + Transmission time +


+ Queuing time + Processing delay


Propagation time:
,

Tprop = Distance / Propagation Speed

Transmission time:
() ,

Ttrans = Message size / Bandwidth


:
1Gbps 2.5Kbyte
.
12000,
2.4 x 108m/s.
:

Tprop = 12 x 106 / 2.4 x 108 = 50ms


Ttrans = 2.5 x 103 x 8 / 109 = 20s


Queuing time:


, .

Processing time:
()-
, .


:
,


Twisted-pair
Coaxial cable
Optical fiber

Wireless transmission

,

Transmission Media or Communication Media

a ,

Guided

Unguided



.
- :

.
- :

.

: Twisted pair

, .
?
.
, .

Twisted-pair

Bandwidth

Data Rate

Digital/Analog

Cat 1

very low

< 100 kbps

Analog

Telephone

Cat 2

< 2 MHz

2 Mbps

Analog/digital

T-1 lines

Cat 3

16 MHz

10 Mbps

Digital

LANs

Cat 4

20 MHz

20 Mbps

Digital

LANs

Cat 5

100 MHz

100 Mbps

Digital

LANs

Cat 6 (draft)

200 MHz

200 Mbps

Digital

LANs

Cat 7 (draft)

600 MHz

600 Mbps

Digital

LANs

:
Category 3: up to 16MHz 3-4 twists per ft (30.48cm)
Category 5: up to 100MHz 3-4 twists per inch (2.54 cm)

: Twisted pair
:
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
-
- DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
- Local Area Network (10BaseT, 100BaseT)

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)

: Twisted pair
, (UTP)


(UTP - Unshielded
twisted pair)

: Twisted pair
(STP-shielded twisted pair)

UTP RJ45 (8 lines)

: Coaxial Cable
Coaxial cable
.
- Coaxial cable
.

BNC

Coaxial cable- :
-
-
- Local Area Networks
Coaxial

RG-59

75 W

Cable TV

RG-58

50 W

Thin Ethernet

RG-11

50 W

Thick Ethernet

: Optical Fiber
(2-125 ),


Cladding

Cladding


Multimode:
Single-mode:

Fiber-optic

Core (m)

Cladding(m)

Mode

50/125

50

125

Multimode, graded-index

62.5/125

62.5

125

Multimode, graded-index

100/125

100

125

Multimode, graded-index

125

Single-mode

7/125

: Wireless
:



Broadcast Radio Communication
Terrestrial Microwave Communication
Satellite Microwave Communication
Infrared Communication

: Wireless
/ ?

: Wireless

.
:

:

: Wireless
:
1. .

.
Point-to-Point .
2. .
.
Broadcast

AM

FM , TV,
Cellular phone

Wireless

:
Broadcast Radio
: 3MHz 1GHz
Omnidirectional
Multicast network
: 10log(4d/)



a
- FM Radio
- Television
- Data Networking

:
Microwave

.

: 2GHz 40GHz

Point-to-Point Transmission
Satellite Transmission
Unicast network

-
-
- Wireless network

:
Terrestrial Microwave
- Long-haul communication
(4/6GHz bigger antenna, 10- )
Point-to-Point link
(22GHz smaller and cheaper antenna)
Coaxial Optic cable-

:
Terrestrial Microwave
:

d 7.14 kh
d
h
k = 1.33
:
-
- : 10log(4d/)2
-
-

:
Satellite Microwave
.
.
35784 Km

Point-to-Point configuration
Broadcast configuration

:
Satellite Microwave

:
Satellite Microwave

:

Transponders

(uplink)
, (downlink)
.
Common Frequency Band:
Band Frequency
Downlink GHz
C
4/6GHz
3.7 - 4.2
Ku
12/14GHz
11.7 12.2
Ka
18/28GHz
17.7 21.0

Uplink GHz
5.925 - 6.425
14.0 - 14.5
27.5 31.0

:
:
Television distribution
Long-distance telephone transmission
Private business network (VSAT)
LAN interconnection (Intranet)
Video Conferencing

:
Infrared Communication
Infrared range : 0.3 200THz
- ( ) Point-to-Point,
Multipoint .
Transceiver (wireless modem)



Device-to-Device communication : 1
: 2400bps 115.2 Kbps
extended 1.15 4 Mbps


Band

Range

Propagation

Application

VLF

330 KHz

Ground

Long-range radio navigation

LF

30300 KHz

Ground

Radio beacons and


navigational locators

MF

300 KHz3 MHz

Sky

AM radio

HF

330 MHz

Sky

Citizens band (CB),


ship/aircraft communication

VHF

30300 MHz

Sky and
line-of-sight

VHF TV,
FM radio

UHF

300 MHz3 GHz

Line-of-sight

UHF TV, cellular phones,


paging, satellite

SHF

330 GHz

Line-of-sight

Satellite communication

EHF

30300 GHz

Line-of-sight

Long-range radio navigation

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