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4.

GM Y SINH
Gm y sinh
4.1 TNH CHT
- C c tnh cao
- Kh nng ph hp sinh hc:
Tr dch th
bn cao
- Tnh cht ha hc v c hc gn ging vi Xng
(phu thut chnh hnh, rng)
- Chng mi mn cao
- Tnh cht ha hc n nh

4.1. Tnh cht
Yu cu ca gm s dng trong y sinh:
- Khng c
- Khng gy ung th
- Khng gy d ng
- Khng gy vim nhim
- Ph hp sinh hc


4.1. Tnh cht
Phn loi:
Tr sinh hc (khng hp th)
Khng tr (ti hp th)
B mt phn ng (bn tr)



4.2 Gm Y sinh: Tr sinh hc (khng hp th)

Gi c tnh cht vt l v c tnh
Bn n mn v mi mn
m bo 5 yu cu ca gm s dng trong y hc
Duy tr bn chng gy
B phn h tr cy ghp nh: xng, vt xng,

4.2 Gm Y sinh: Tr sinh hc (khng hp th)

xt nhm (Al
2
0
3
) v Zecn (ZrO
2
)
Yu cu:
bn nn: 4 -5 GPa
bn do: > 400MPa
Modul n hi : 380 GPa
T trng : 3.8 3.9 g/cm
3
cng : 20 to 30 GPa


4.2 Gm Y sinh: Tr sinh hc (khng hp th)

Al
2
O
3
, ZrO
2






B phn ghp ni thay th: xng i
Trng rng
Lp cy ghp
Cy ghp khp ni
4.2 Gm Y sinh: Tr sinh hc (khng hp th)

Al
2
O
3
, ZrO
2






4.2 Gm Y sinh: Tr sinh hc (khng hp th)

CACBON
Cc dng tn ti:
Tinh th kim cng
Graphit
Tinh th nano cacbon thy tinh
Nhit phn cacbon (DLC)
Lp m
Cy ghp
4.2 Gm Y sinh: Tr sinh hc (khng hp th)

CACBON
ng dng
ng thng
Van tim
khp
Knh p trng
4.3. Gm y sinh: Khng tr (ti hp th)

Khi b ph hy v ha hc bi c th v thi ha
Vt liu b hp th li s thay th bi cc m bn trong.
Tng hp ha hc hoc c trong t nhin
4.3. Gm y sinh: Khng tr (ti hp th)

1. Calcium phosphate Ca(H
2
PO
4
)
2 ,
CaHPO
4 ,
Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2

2. Calcium sulfate, CaSO
4
3. Hydroxyapatite: Ca
5
(PO
4
)
3
(OH)
4. Tricalcium phosphate: Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2

5. (Fe
2
O
3
-CaO-P
2
O
5
)
4.3. Gm y sinh: Khng tr (ti hp th)

Calcium phosphate: (Xng nhn to) Ca:P = 10:6
C th kt tinh tao thnh mui nh Ca
5
(PO
4
)
3
(OH)

Nguyn liu: d
2
Ca(NO
3
)
2
v NaH
2
PO
4
to kt ta-> lc
T
nung
: 1150
o
C/1h,
T
tk
: 1200
o
C/36h

4.3. Gm y sinh: Khng tr (ti hp th)

Tnh cht ca Calcium phosphate Gi tr
M un n hi (GPa)
bn nn (MPa)
bn un (Mpa)
cng (Vicker, Gpa)
T l c hi
T trng
4-117
294
147
3,43
0,27
3,16
Tnh tng thch y sinh cao
To lin kt ha hc vi m cng

4.3. Gm y sinh: Khng tr (ti hp th)

ng dng
Thay th xng dng ht hoc khi rn
G tm khi thay th b phn b thi ha
Lp m khi trng v chnh hnh rng
Vt liu trng rng
Hn ch:
To hnh v ch to phc tp
4.3. Gm y sinh: Khng tr (ti hp th)

Hydroxyapatite: Ca
5
(PO
4
)
3
(OH):
- C tnh cao
- Ph hp y sinh
- C thnh phn gn ging nh trong xng v rng

Nguyn liu: Ca:P = 5:3
D
2
Ca(NO
3
)
2
.4H
2
O v NaH
4
OH, pH=11
Lc kt ta 24-48h, 70
o
C
T
nung
: 11540
o
C/1h,
T
tk
: 600-1200
o
C
ng dng ca Ca
5
(PO
4
)
3
(OH):
-Sa phn hng ca xng v rng
-Thay th trc tip rng
-H tr cho kim loi gn vo trong qu trnh trng
hoc cy ghp
-Tng gc nh ca rng
-Vt liu hn rng
-Tng kh nng phc hi ca m
-Phu thut hm mt
-Cy di da
-Bc rng
4.3. Gm y sinh: Khng tr (ti hp th)

4.3. Gm y sinh: Khng tr (ti hp th)

Tricalcium phosphate [-Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
]
Tng t nh Ca
5
(PO
4
)
3
(OH)
Nhanh thi ha hn Calcium phosphate
Ha tan nhanh hn Ca
5
(PO
4
)
3
(OH)
Cho php to xng tt v cui cng l thay th bn
trong m
Nguyn liu: d
2
Ca(NO
3
)
2
v NaH
2
PO
4
lc kt ta
T
nung
: 1150
o
C/1h,
T
tk
: 1200
o
C/36h

Lin kt ha hc trc tip v ln gia xng v m
Cy c nh
bn c v bn chng gy thp
V d:
Thy tinh y sinh
Ca
5
(PO
4
)
3
(OH) (thiu kt nhit thp 600-800
o
C)
Thy tinh c st
4.4. Gm Y sinh: B mt phn ng (bn tr)
Thy tinh y sinh:
TT y sinh l vt liu kt tinh thu c bi iu chnh qu
trnh kt tinh ca thy tinh v nh hnh
iu khin qu trnh kt tinh cn :
S dng 2 giai on x l nhit
iu khin qu trnh to mm
iu khin s kt tinh c s ln ln ca cc tinh th
4.4. Gm Y sinh: B mt phn ng (bn tr)
TT YS gm : SiO
2
, CaO, Na
2
O, P
2
O
5

iu chnh thnh phn TTYS to ra lin kt trc tip
vi xng
Phi ng thi to Calcium phosphate v 1 lp giu SiO
2
trn b mt gm
Thnh phn chun xc s lin kt vi xng trong
vng 30 ngy

4.4. Gm Y sinh: B mt phn ng (bn tr)
Cu trc ca TTYS
L xp c th iu chnh m un Young
M un Y ca TT, gm cao hn nhiu so vi xng
Cy, ghp cn m un Y tng ng vi xng
To l xp gim M un Y ca m cy

Gi tr m un Y ca v xng
ng dng
Lp m dung trong phu thut v trng rng
Trng rng
Phc hi mt
Vt liu dnh kt khi ghp xng
Hn ch:
Gin,
Khng s dng lm b phn chu ti nh l cy ghp
xng
4.4. Gm Y sinh: B mt phn ng (bn tr)
4.5 S thi ha sinh hc ca gm
nh ngha:
Thi ha sinh hc: l s ph hy ha hc cu vtl iu trung
gian bi b phn no trong c th nh nc, st, t bo,
protein, vi khun
S bo mn sinh hc bao gm ph hy ha hc, hoc t
lin kt
C tnh
ng sut to ra s thi ha c th xut hin di ti trng
Nu to vt nt th ng sut ko b ph hy hn na u
vt nt v ng gy nt
xp:
rng lm tang ng sut, lm tng vt nt
4.5.1. Khng iu khin thi ha
4.5.2. iu khin thi ha
S dng 2 loi
Hydroxyapatite, HA (Ca
10
(PO
4
)
6
(OH)
2
)
Tricalcium phosphate, TCP (Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
)
Thi ha sinh hc ca gm thng gim bi s ha tan
(dch th v pH)
4.5.2. iu khin thi ha
nhay ha hc ca vt liu
Hyrat b thi ha nhanh hn nhm khng hydrat


kt tinh
Thi ha ph thuc thm nc
Gm c st cht cao t bi ha tan hn gm c cu
trc v nh hnh
a tinh th thi ha chm hn n tinh th
Gm c ht tinh th nh to hn.
Nhng nhn t nh hng n t l thi ha
Nhng nhn t nh hng n t l thi ha
Dch th
Lng dch cao thi ha nhanh hn
Lng dch thp thi ha chm hn
Din tch vt liu, t l th tch
xp cao s ha tan nhanh hn to hn.
4.5.2. iu khin thi ha
Nhng nhn t nh hng n t l thi ha
C tnh:
Thi ha gm c khuyn khch trong phm vi ng sut c
V tr cy trng
Tng ng sut trong thit b
To ht mi s gy ra au khp gim pH tang thi ha
ca vt liu.

4.5.2. iu khin thi ha
Chnh hnh
Xng
Hng, hng, vng c th ni xowng i, xng
chu
Lp m iu chnh tng tc gia ghp (trng)/m
in y vo phn xng b ht
t sng gi, m, xng chu, mo chu gi
4.6. ng dng
Nha khoa:
Khi phc rng
Trng rng (cy, lp m, bo dng )
Chnh hnh rang hm mt : tm np
4.6. ng dng
Lnh vc khc:
Cy ghp bn trong tai
Thit b phn phi thuc drug delivery devices
Knh p trng
Van tim