Radio Access Network

Architecture
Jussi Tuominen
3GPP Release 99 Reference Architecture
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
UE
Node B
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
Node B
Iur
SGSN
SMSC
/VLR
GGSN
GMSC
HLR EIR Auc
Iu-
PS
Gn Gi
SS7 SS7
Iu-
CS
UTRAN Core Network
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
UMTS Terrestial Radio Access Network
(UTRAN)
WCDMA Radio Interface Key Change from GSM
UTRAN elements are comparable to GSM BSC & BTS
Common Interface (Iu) for both PS and CS Core
Core elements do not change dramatically
- 3G SMSC/VLR provides ATM based Iu-CS interface
- 3G SGSN supports ATM based Iu-PS interface
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
UTRAN Architecture
• Hierarchical Architecture
• Radio Network Subsystem
(RNS)
• UTRAN Elements:
– Radio Network Controller
– Node B (Base Station)
• One RNC controls number of
Node B’s
• Node B is only connected to
one RNC
• New interface Iur for
Macrodiversity
Node B
Node B
Node B
Node B
RNC
RNC
Uu
Uu
Iub
Iub
Iu-
PS
Iu-
CS
Iur
UTRAN
RNS
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
Node B
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
Node B
Iur
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
Macro Diversity
Iu
RNS
UTRAN
Softer Handover
•1 BS
•1 RNC
UE
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
Node B
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
Node B
Iur
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
Macro Diversity
Iu
RNS
UTRAN
Soft Handover
• Number of BSs
•1 RNC (MDC)
UE
Node B
DRNC
Iub Uu
Node B
Node B
SRNC
Iub Uu
Node B
Iur
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
Macro Diversity
Iu
RNS
UTRAN
Soft Handover
• Number of BSs
• 1 Serving RNC (MDC)
• Number of Drift RNC
UE
Node B
DRNC
Iub Uu
Node B
Node B
SRNC
Iub Uu
Node B
Iur
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
Macro Diversity
Iu
RNS
UTRAN
SRNC Anchoring
UE
Iu
Node B
SRNC
Iub Uu
Node B
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
Node B
Iur
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
Macro Diversity
Iu
RNS
UTRAN
SRNC Relocation
UE
Iu
Node B
• Standardisation term (normally called as Base Station)
• Comparable to Base Tranceiver Station in GSM
• Responsible for Air Interface Layer 1
• Key Node B Functions:
• Modulation and spreading
• RF Processing
• Inner-loop power control
• Rate matching
• Macro diversity combining/splitting inside Node B
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
Radio Network Controller (RNC)
• Comparable to Base Station Controller in GSM
• Responsible for L2 processing of user data
• Responsible for Radio Resource Management
• Key RNC Functions:
• Closed loop power control
• Handover control
• Admission control
• Code allocation
• Packet scheduling
• Macro diversity combining/splitting over number of
Node Bs
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
General Protocol model for UTRAN
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
Lähde: 3GPP TS25401-380
Application
Protocol
Data
Stream(s)
ALCAP(s)
Transport
Network
Layer
Physical Layer
Signalling
Bearer(s)
Transport
User
Network
Plane
Control Plane User Plane
Transport
User
Network
Plane
Transport Network
Control Plane
Radio
Network
Layer
Signalling
Bearer(s)
Data
Bearer(s)
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
UE
Node B
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
Node B
Iur
SGSN
SMSC
/VLR
GGSN
GMSC
HLR EIR Auc
Iu-
PS
Gn Gi
SS7 SS7
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
3GPP Release 99 Reference Architecture
Iu-
CS
UTRAN Core Network
PSTN
PDN
Radio Access Network Application Part
(RANAP)
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
Lähde: 3GPP TS 25410-360
Key RANAP functions:
• Radio Access Bearer (between UE-CN)
• RAB Set-UP
• RAB Modification
• Clearing RAB
• Iu Bearer Release
• SRNC Relocation
• Paging Commands
Iu-CS
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
Q.2150.1
Q.2630.1
RANAP
Iu UP Protocol
Layer
Transport
Network
Layer
Physical Layer
Transport
User
Network
Plane
Control Plane User Plane
Transport
User
Network
Plane
Transport Network
Control Plane
Radio
Network
Layer
ATM
SSCOP
AAL5
SSCOP
SSCF-NNI
AAL2 AAL5
MTP3b
MTP3b
SCCP
SSCF-NNI
Lähde: 3GPP TS 25410-360
Iu-PS
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
SSCF-NNI
SSCOP
AAL5
IP
SCTP
SCCP
SSCF-NNI
MTP3-B
M3UA
RANAP
Iu UP Protocol
Layer
Transport
Network
Layer
Physical Layer
Transport
User
Network
Plane
Control Plane User Plane
Transport
User
Network
Plane
Transport Network
Control Plane
Radio
Network
Layer
ATM
AAL5
IP
UDP
GTP-U
Physical Layer
ATM
Lähde: 3GPP TS 25410-360
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
UE
Node B
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
Node B
Iur
SGSN
SMSC
/VLR
GGSN
GMSC
HLR EIR Auc
Gn Gi
SS7 SS7
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
3GPP Release 99 Reference Architecture
UTRAN Core Network
PSTN
PDN
CBC
Iu-
BC
Iu-BC
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
Lähde: 3GPP TS 25410-360


Transport
Network
Layer
Radio
Network
Layer SABP Protocol
Layer
SA Broadcast Plane
Transport
User
Network
Plane
AAL5
IP
TCP
Physical Layer
ATM
•Between RNC and
Common Broadcast
Center CBC
•Service Area
Broadcast Protocol
(SABP)
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
UE
Node B
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
Node B
Iur
SGSN
SMSC
/VLR
GGSN
GMSC
HLR EIR Auc
Iu-
PS
Gn Gi
SS7 SS7
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
3GPP Release 99 Reference Architecture
Iu-
CS
UTRAN Core Network
PSTN
PDN
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
Radio Network Subsystem Application Part (RNSAP)
Key RNSAP Functions:
•Radio Link
• Management (between SRNC and DRNC)
• Reconfiguration (between SRNC and DRNC)
• Supervision (reports from DRNC to SRNC)
• Common Control Channel (CCCH) Signalling Transfer
• Paging
• Relocation Execution
Iur
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
SSCF-NNI
SSCOP
MTP3-B
AAL5
IP
SCTP
SCCP
AAL5
SSCF-NNI
STC (Q.2150.1)
RNSAP
Iur Data
Stream(s)
Transport
Network
Layer
Physical Layer
Transport
User
Network
Plane
Control Plane User Plane
Transport
User
Network
Plane
Transport Network
Control Plane
Radio
Network
Layer
ATM
ALCAP(Q.2630.1)
AAL2
SSCF-NNI
SSCOP
MTP3-B
IP
SCTP
SSCF-NNI
M3UA M3UA
Lähde: 3GPP TS 25420-340
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
UE
Node B
Node B
RNC
Uu
Node B
Iur
SGSN
SMSC
/VLR
GGSN
GMSC
HLR EIR Auc
Iu-
PS
Gn Gi
SS7 SS7
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
3GPP Release 99 Reference Architecture
Iu-
CS
UTRAN Core Network
PSTN
PDN
Iub
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
Node B Application Part (NBAP)
Key NBAP Functions:
• Cell Configuration Management
• Common Transport Channel Management
• System Information Management
• Configuration Verification/Alignment
• Measurements on Common Resources
• Radio Link Management & Supervision
Iub
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
Lähde: 3GPP TS 25420-340
Node B
Application Part
(NBAP)
AAL Type 2
ALCAP
Transport
Layer
Physical Layer
Radio
Network
Layer
Radio Network
Control Plane
Transport
Network
Control Plane
D
C
H

F
P
R
A
C
H

F
P
ATM
D
S
C
H

F
P
AAL Type 5
User Plane
SSCF-UNI
SSCOP
AAL Type 5
SSCF-UNI
SSCOP
Q.2630.1
Q.2150.2
F
A
C
H

F
P
P
C
H

F
P
U
S
C
H

F
P
C
P
C
H

F
P
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
UE
Node B
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
Node B
Iur
SGSN
SMSC
/VLR
GGSN
GMSC
HLR EIR Auc
Iu-
PS
Gn Gi
SS7 SS7
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
3GPP Release 99 Reference Architecture
Iu-
CS
RNS
UTRAN Core Network
PSTN
PDN
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
UE
Node B
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
Node B
Iur
SGSN
SMSC
Server
GGSN
GMSC
Server
HLR EIR Auc
Iu-
PS
Gn Gi
Nb
SS7
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
3GPP Release 4 Reference Architecture
Iu-
CS
RNS
UTRAN Core Network
PSTN
PDN
MGW MGW
Nc
Mc
Mc
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
UE
Node B
Node B
RNC
Iub Uu
Node B
Iur
SGSN
CSCF
GGSN
MGCF
HSS
Iu-
PS
Gn Gi
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
3GPP Release 5 Reference Architecture
RNS
UTRAN Core Network
PSTN
PDN
MGW
Cx
Gr
Mm
NOTE: Standardisation on-going!
MRF
SGW
Gi
Mr
Mg
Mc
SS7 signalling in UMTS Core
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
Lähde: 3GPP TS 25420-340
IP
SCTP
M3UA
MTP-3 User Part
The IP based stack uses
Stream Control
Transmission Protocol
(SCTP) to deliver SS7
signalling over IP
networks.
ATM
AAL5
SCCOP
SSCF
MTP-3 B
MTP-3 User Part
G.804
AAL5
SCCOP
SSCF
MTP-3 B
MTP-3 User Part
ATM over SDH ATM over PDH
The ATM based SS7 stack provides
Broadband SS7 architecture.
MTP-1
MTP-2
MTP-3
MTP-3 User Part
The original MTP stack.
Commonly used in GSM
Core interfaces.
MTP3 User Adaptation Layer (M3UA)
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
IP
SCTP
M3UA
MTP-3 User Part
-M3UA is an User adaptation sublayer
that provides functions, required by
signaling application protocols.
-IETF is currently standardising five
adaptation sublayers: M2PA, M2UA,
M3UA, SUA, and IUA.
Note that each protocol can be
implemented separately from other
protocols, e.g., M3UA do not require
services from M2UA!
Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
IP
SCTP
M3UA
MTP-3 User Part
Why use SCTP
instead of simply
utilsing TCP?
Although, the TCP provides reliable
delivery of data it often adds unnecessary
signalling and thus causes unwanted
delay of service.
1
TCP applications have an inconvenience
requirement to manage and mark the
sequence numbers of each packet.
2
The limited scope of TCP sockets does not
support the data transfer capability using
multi-homed hosts.
3
Security of TCP is limited. For example,
the TCP is relatively vulnerable to denial
of service attacks, such as SYN attacks.
4
Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
IP
SCTP
M3UA
MTP-3 User Part
What does
SCTP do?
Acknowledged, error-free and non-
duplicated packet-oriented delivery of
signalling messages.
1
In sequence delivery of user messages
within multiple streams, with an option
for order-of-arrival delivery of individual
messages.
2
Optionally, multiplexing multiple user
messages into a single SCTP datagram.
3
Network level fault tolerance by
supporting multi-homing.
4
Advanced congestion mechanisms for
resistance to flooding and masquarade
attacks.
5
Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
Jussi Tuominen 30.1.2002
IP
SCTP
M3UA
MTP-3 User Part
What is the
structure of SCTP?
Source Port Number Destination Port Number
Verification Tag
Checksum
Chunk Type Chunk Flags Chunk Length
Chunk Value field
( information to be transferred in the chunk)
SCTP Header
SCTP Payload (e.g., M3UA message)
4 Bytes (= 32 bits)
1
2 ¨
3 ¨
4 ¨
N ¨
.
.
.
Row
IPv4 (20 bytes), IPv6 (40 bytes)
MAP
Gbe,ATM, etc.
BICC
SCTP (16+Bytes)
H.248
SCCP
RANAP BSSAP
TCP(20)
RTP
TCAP
INAP
M3UA
ISUP
CAP
UDP (8)

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