This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
BENDING FREQUENCIES OF BEAMS, RODS, AND PIPES
Introduction
The fundamental frequencies for typical beam configurations are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Fundamental Bending Frequencies
Configuration Frequency (Hz)
Cantilever
ρ
1
]
1
¸
π
EI
L
5156 . 3
2
1
2
Cantilever with
End Mass m
( )
3
L m L 2235 . 0
EI 3
2
1
+ ρ
π
SimplySupported
at both Ends
(PinnedPinned)
ρ
1
]
1
¸
π
π
EI
L 2
1
2
FreeFree
ρ
1
]
1
¸
π
EI
L
373 . 22
2
1
2
FixedFixed
ρ
1
]
1
¸
π
EI
L
373 . 22
2
1
2
Fixed  Pinned
ρ
1
]
1
¸
π
EI
L
418 . 15
2
1
2
where
E is the modulus of elasticity.
I is the area moment of inertia.
L is the length.
ρ is the mass density (mass/length).
Note that the freefree and fixedfixed have the same formula.
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
2
Cantilever Beam I
Consider a mass mounted on the end of a cantilever beam. Assume that the endmass is
much greater than the mass of the beam.
Figure A1.
E is the modulus of elasticity.
I is the area moment of inertia.
L is the length.
g is gravity.
m is the mass.
The freebody diagram of the system is
Figure A2.
R is the reaction force.
M
R
is the reaction bending moment.
Apply Newton’s law for static equilibrium.
+ ↑ ·
∑
forces 0 (A1)
R  mg = 0 (A2)
R = mg (A3)
mg
R
M
R
L
m
EI
g
L
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
3
At the left boundary,
+ ·
∑
moments 0 (A4)
M
R
 mg L = 0 (A5)
M
R
= mg L (A6)
Now consider a segment of the beam, starting from the left boundary.
Figure A3.
V is the shear force.
M is the bending moment.
y is the deflection at position x.
Sum the moments at the right side of the segment.
+ ·
∑
moments 0 (A7)
M
R
 R x  M = 0 (A8)
M = M
R
 R x (A9)
The moment M and the deflection y are related by the equation
M EI y · ′′ (A10)
EI y M
R
Rx ′′ · − (A11)
V
R
M
R
M
x
y
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
4
EI y mgL mg x ′′ · − (A12)
( ) EI y mg L x ′′ · − (A13)
( ) ′′ ·
¸
1
]
1
− y
mg
EI
L x (A14)
Integrating,
′ ·
¸
1
]
1
−
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
1
+ y
mg
EI
Lx
x
a
2
2
(A15)
Note that “a” is an integration constant.
Integrating again,
y x
mg
EI
L
x x
ax b ( ) ·
¸
1
]
1
¸
¸
_
,
−
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
1
+ +
2
2
3
6
(A16)
A boundary condition at the left end is
y(0) = 0 (zero displacement) (A17)
Thus
b = 0 (A18)
Another boundary condition is
( ) y' 0 0 · (zero slope) (A19)
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
5
Applying the boundary condition to equation (A16) yields,
a = 0 (A20)
The resulting deflection equation is
y x
mg
EI
L
x x
( ) ·
¸
1
]
1
¸
¸
_
,
−
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
1
2
2
3
6
(A21)
The deflection at the right end is
y L
mg
EI
L
L L
( ) ·
¸
1
]
1
¸
¸
_
,
−
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
1
2
2
3
6
(A22)
y L
mgL
EI
( ) ·
¸
1
]
1
1
3
3
(A23)
Recall Hooke’s law for a linear spring,
F = k y (A24)
F is the force.
k is the stiffness.
The stiffness is thus
k = F / y (A25)
The force at the end of the beam is mg. The stiffness at the end of the beam is
k
mg
mgL
EI
·
¸
1
]
1
1
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
3
3
(A26)
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
6
k
EI
L
·
3
3
(A27)
The formula for the natural frequency fn of a singledegreeoffreedom system is
fn
k
m
·
¸
¸
_
,
1
2π
(A28)
The mass term m is simply the mass at the end of the beam. The natural frequency of the
cantilever beam with the endmass is found by substituting equation (A27) into (A28).
fn
EI
mL
·
¸
¸
_
,
1
2
3
3
π
(A29)
Cantilever Beam II
Consider a cantilever beam with mass per length ρ. Assume that the beam has a uniform
cross section. Determine the natural frequency. Also find the effective mass, where the
distributed mass is represented by a discrete, endmass.
Figure B1.
The governing differential equation is
− · EI
y
x
y
t
∂
∂
ρ
∂
∂
4
4
2
2
(B1)
EI, ρ
L
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
7
The boundary conditions at the fixed end x = 0 are
y(0) = 0 (zero displacement) (B2)
dy
dx
x·
·
0
0 (zero slope) (B3)
The boundary conditions at the free end x = L are
d y
dx
x L
2
2
0
·
· (zero bending moment) (B4)
d y
dx
x L
3
3
0
·
· (zero shear force) (B5)
Propose a quarter cosine wave solution.
y x y
o
x
L
( ) cos · −
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
1
2
π
(B6)
dy
dx
y
o
L
x
L
·
¸
¸
_
,
¸
¸
_
,
π π
2 2
sin (B7)
d y
dx
y
o
L
x
L
2
2
2
2
2
·
¸
¸
_
,
¸
¸
_
,
π π
cos (B8)
d y
dx
y
o
x
L
x
L
3
3
2
3
2
· −
¸
¸
_
,
¸
¸
_
,
π π
sin (B9)
The proposed solution meets all of the boundary conditions expect for the zero shear force
at the right end. The proposed solution is accepted as an approximate solution for the
deflection shape, despite one deficiency.
The Rayleigh method is used to find the natural frequency. The total potential energy and
the total kinetic energy must be determined.
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
8
The total potential energy P in the beam is
P
EI d y
dx
dx
L
·
¸
¸
_
,
∫
2
2
2
2
0
(B10)
By substitution,
P
EI
y
o
L
x
L
dx
L
·
¸
¸
_
,
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
1
∫
2 2
2
2
2
0
π π
cos (B11)
P
EI
y
o
L
x
L
dx
L
·
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
1
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1 ∫
2 2
2
2
2
2
0
π π
cos (B12)
P
EI
y
o
L
x
L
dx
L
·
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
1
¸
1
]
1
+
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1 ∫
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
0
π π
cos (B13)
P
EI
y
o
L
x
L x
L
L
·
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
1
¸
1
]
1
+
¸
¸
_
,
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
2 2
2
2
1
2
0
π
π
π
sin (B14)
[ ] P
EI
y
o
L
L ·
¸
1
]
1
1
2
2
4
32
4
π
(B15)
[ ] P
EI
L
y
o
·
¸
1
]
1
1
64
4
3
2
π (B16)
The total kinetic energy T is
[ ] T
n
y dx
L
·
∫
1
2
2
2
0
ρ ω (B17)
T
n
y
o
x
L
dx
L
· −
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
∫
1
2
2
1
2
2
0
ρ ω
π
cos (B18)
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
9
[ ] T
n
y
o
x
L
x
L
dx
L
· −
¸
¸
_
,
+
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1 ∫
1
2
2
2
1 2
2
2
2 0
ρ ω
π π
cos cos (B19)
[ ] T
n
y
o
x
L
x
L
dx
L
· −
¸
¸
_
,
+
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1 ∫
1
2
2
2
1 2
2
2
2 0
ρ ω
π π
cos cos (B20)
[ ] T
n
y
o
x
L
x
L
dx
L
· −
¸
¸
_
,
+ +
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1 ∫
1
2
2
2
1 2
2
1
2
1
2 0
ρ ω
π π
cos cos (B21)
[ ] T
n
y
o
x
L
x
L
dx
L
· −
¸
¸
_
,
+
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1 ∫
1
2
2
2
3
2
2
2 0
ρ ω
π π
cos cos (B22)
[ ] T
n
y
o
x
L x
L
L x
L
L
· −
¸
¸
_
,
¸
¸
_
,
+
¸
¸
_
,
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
1
2
2
2
3
2
4
2
0
ρ ω
π
π
π
π
sin sin (B23)
[ ] T
n
y
o
L
L
· −
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
1
2
2
2
3
2
4
ρ ω
π
(B24)
[ ] T
n
y
o
L · −
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
1
4
2
2
3
8
ρ ω
π
(B25)
Now equate the potential and the kinetic energy terms.
[ ] [ ]
1
4
2
2
3
8 1
64
4
3
2
ρ ω
π
π
n
y
o
L
EI
L
y
o
−
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
·
¸
1
]
1
(B26)
ρ ω
π
π
n
L
EI
L
2
3
8 1
16
4
3
−
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
·
¸
1
]
1
(B27)
ω
π
ρ
π
n
EI
L
L
2
4
3
16 3
8
·
¸
1
]
1
−
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
(B28)
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
10
ω
π
ρ
π
n
EI
L
L
·
¸
1
]
1
−
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
4
3
16 3
8
1/ 2
(B29)
f
n
EI
L
·
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
¸
1
]
1
−
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
1
2
4
4
16 3
8
1/ 2
π
π
ρ
π
(B30)
f
n
EI
L
·
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
¸
1
]
1
−
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
1
2
4
4
16 3
8
1/ 2
π
π
ρ
π
(B31)
f
n
L
EI
·
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
−
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
1
2
2
4
2
3
8
1/ 2
π
π
ρ
π
(B32)
f
n
L
EI
≈
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
1
2
3664
2
π ρ
.
(B33)
Recall that the stiffness at the free of the cantilever beam is
k
EI
L
·
3
3
(B34)
The effective mass m
eff
at the end of the beam is thus
[ ]
m
eff
k
fn
·
2
2
π
(B35)
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
11
m
eff
EI
L
L
EI
·
¸
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
3
3
2
1
2
3664
2
2
π
π ρ
.
(B36)
{ }
m
eff
EI
L
L
EI
·
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
3
3
4
13425 .
ρ
(B37)
m
eff
L · 0 2235 . ρ (B38)
Cantilever Beam III
Consider a cantilever beam where both the beam mass and the endmass are significant.
Figure C1.
The total mass m
t
can be calculated using equation (B38).
m
t
L m · + 0 2235 . ρ (C1)
Again, the stiffness at the free of the cantilever beam is
k
EI
L
·
3
3
(C2)
m
EI, ρ
g
L
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
12
The natural frequency is thus
( )
fn
EI
L m L
≈
+
1
2
3
0 2235
3
π
ρ .
(C3)
Cantilever Beam IV
This is a repeat of part II except that an exact solution is found for the differential
equation. The differential equation itself is only an approximation of reality, however.
Figure D1.
The governing differential equation is
− · EI
y
x
y
t
∂
∂
ρ
∂
∂
4
4
2
2
(D1)
Note that this equation neglects shear deformation and rotary inertia.
Separate the dependent variable.
y x t Y x T(t ( , ) ( ) ) · (D2)
[ ] [ ]
− · EI
Y x T t
x
Y x T t
t
∂
∂
ρ
∂
∂
4
4
2
2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
(D3)
EI, ρ
L
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
13
−
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
·
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
EI T(t
d
dx
Y x Y x
d
dt
T(t ) ( ) ( ) )
4
4
2
2
ρ (D4)
− ¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
·
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
EI
d
dx
Y x
Y x
d
dt
T(t
T(t ρ
4
4
2
2
( )
( )
)
)
(D5)
Let c be a constant
− ¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
·
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
· −
EI
d
dx
Y x
Y x
d
dt
T(t
T(t
c
ρ
4
4
2
2
2
( )
( )
)
)
(D6)
Separate the time variable.
d
dt
T(t
T(t
c
2
2
2
)
)
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
· − (D7)
d
dt
T(t c T(t
2
2
2
0 ) ) + · (D8)
Separate the spatial variable.
− ¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
· −
EI
d
dx
Y x
Y x
c
ρ
4
4
2
( )
( )
(D9)
d
dx
Y x c
EI
Y x
4
4
2
0 ( ) ( ) −
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
·
ρ
(D10)
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
14
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Y x a x a x a x a x ( ) sinh cosh sin cos · + + +
1 2 3 4
β β β β (D11)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
dY x
dx
a x a x a x a x
( )
cosh sinh cos sin · + + −
1 2 3 4
β β β β β β β β (D12)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
d Y x
dx
a x a x a x a x
2
2
1
2
2
2
3
2
4
2
( )
sinh cosh sin cos · + − − β β β β β β β β (D13)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
d Y x
dx
a x a x a x a x
3
3
1
3
2
3
3
3
4
3
( )
cosh sinh cos sin · + − + β β β β β β β β (D14)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
d Y x
dx
a x a x a x a x
4
4
1
4
2
4
3
4
4
4
( )
sinh cosh sin cos · + + + β λ β β β β β β (D15)
Substitute (D15) and (D11) into (D10).
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
{ }
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
a x a x a x a x
c
EI
a x a x a x a x
1
4
2
4
3
4
4
4
2
1 2 3 4
0
β β β β β β β β
ρ
β β β β
sinh cosh sin cos
sinh cosh sin cos
+ + +
−
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
+ + + ·
(D16)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
β β β β β
ρ
β β β β
4
1 2 3 4
2
1 2 3 4
0
a x a x a x a x
c
EI
a x a x a x a x
sinh cosh sin cos
sinh cosh sin cos
+ + +
−
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
+ + + ·
(D17)
The equation is satisfied if
β
ρ
4 2
·
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
c
EI
(D18)
β
ρ
·
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
c
EI
2
1/ 4
(D19)
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
15
The boundary conditions at the fixed end x = 0 are
Y(0) = 0 (zero displacement) (D20)
dY
dx
x·
·
0
0 (zero slope) (D21)
The boundary conditions at the free end x = L are
d Y
dx
x L
2
2
0
·
· (zero bending moment) (D22)
d Y
dx
x L
3
3
0
·
· (zero shear force) (D23)
Apply equation (D20) to (D11).
a a
2 4
0 + · (D24)
a a
4 2
· − (D25)
Apply equation (D21) to (D12).
a a
1 3
0 + · (D26)
a a
3 1
· − (D27)
Apply equation (D22) to (D13).
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) a L a L a L a L
1 2 3 4
0 sinh cosh sin cos β β β β + − − · (D28)
Apply equation (D23) to (D14).
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) a L a L a L a L
1 2 3 4
0 cosh sinh cos sin β β β β + − + · (D29)
Apply (D25) and (D27) to (D28).
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
16
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) a L a L a L a L
1 2 1 2
0 sinh cosh sin cos β β β β + + + · (D30)
( ) ( ) { } ( ) ( ) { } a L L a L L
1 2
0 sin sinh cos cosh β β β β + + + · (D31)
Apply (D25) and (D27) to (D29).
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) a L a L a L a L
1 2 1 2
0 cosh sinh cos sin β β β β + + − · (D32)
( ) ( ) { } ( ) ( ) { } a L L a L L
1 2
0 cos cosh sin sinh β β β β + + − + · (D33)
Form (D31) and (D33) into a matrix format.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
sin sinh cos cosh
cos cosh sin sinh
β β β β
β β β β
L L L L
L L L L
a
a
+ +
+ − +
¸
1
]
1
1
1
¸
1
]
1
1
1
·
¸
1
]
1
1
1
1
2
0
0
(D34)
By inspection, equation (D34) can only be satisfied if a
1
= 0 and a
2
= 0. Set the
determinant to zero in order to obtain a nontrivial solution.
( ) ( )
{ }
( ) ( ) { } − + − + · sin sinh cos cosh
2 2
2
0 β β β β L L L L (D35)
( ) ( )
{ }
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
{ }
− + − + + · sin sinh cos cos cosh cosh
2 2 2
2
2
0 β β β β β β L L L L L L
(D36)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) − + − − − · sin sinh cos cos cosh cosh
2 2 2
2
2
0 β β β β β β L L L L L L
(D37)
( ) ( ) − − · 2 2 0 cos cosh β β L L (D38)
( ) ( ) 1 0 + · cos cosh β β L L (D39)
( ) ( ) cos cosh β β L L · −1 (D40)
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
17
There are multiple roots which satisfy equation (D40). Thus, a subscript should be added
as shown in equation (D41).
( ) ( ) cos cosh β β
n
L
n
L · −1 (D41)
The subscript is an integer index. The roots can be determined through a combination of
graphing and numerical methods. The NewtonRhapson method is an example of an
appropriate numerical method. The roots of equation (D41) are summarized in Table D
1.
Table D1. Roots
Index
β
n
L
n = 1 1.87510
n = 2 4.69409
n > 3 (2n1)π/2
Note: the root value formula for n > 3 is approximate.
Rearrange equation (D19) as follows
c
n
EI
2
4
·
¸
1
]
1
β
ρ
(D42)
Substitute (D42) into (D8).
d
dt
T(t
n
EI
T(t
2
2
4
0 ) ) +
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
· β
ρ
(D43)
Equation (D43) is satisfied by
T(t b
n
EI
t b
n
EI
t ) sin cos ·
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
1
+
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
1
1
2
2
2
β
ρ
β
ρ
(D44)
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
18
The natural frequency term ω
n
is thus
ω β
ρ
n n
EI
·
2
(D45)
Substitute the value for the fundamental frequency from Table D1.
ω
ρ
1
187510
2
·
¸
1
]
1
.
L
EI
(D46)
f
L
EI
1
1
2
35156
2
·
¸
1
]
1
π ρ
.
(D47)
Compare equation (D47) with the approximate equation (B33).
The effective mass m
eff
at the end of the beam for the fundamental mode is thus
[ ]
m
eff
k
fn
·
2
2
π
(D48)
m
eff
EI
L
L
EI
·
¸
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
3
3
2
1
2
35156
2
2
π
π ρ
.
(D49)
{ }
m
eff
EI
L
L
EI
·
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
3
3
4
12 3596 .
ρ
(D50)
m
eff
L · 0 2427 . ρ (D51)
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
19
Beam SimplySupported at Both Ends I
Consider a simplysupported beam with a discrete mass located at the middle. Assume
that the mass of the beam itself is negligible.
Figure E1.
The freebody diagram of the system is
Figure E2.
Apply Newton’s law for static equilibrium.
+ ↑ ·
∑
forces 0 (E1)
Ra + Rb  mg = 0 (E2)
Ra = mg  Rb (E3)
EI
g
L
L
1
L
1
mg
Ra
L
1 L
1
Rb
L
m
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
20
At the left boundary,
+ ·
∑
moments 0 (E4)
Rb L  mg L
1
= 0 (E5)
Rb = mg ( L
1
/ L ) (E6)
Rb = (1/2) mg (E6)
Substitute equation (E6) into (E3).
Ra = mg – (1/2)mg (E7)
Ra = (1/2)mg (E8)
Sum the moments at the right side of the segment.
+ ·
∑
moments 0 (E9)
 R
a
x + mg <xL
1
>  M = 0 (E10)
V
Ra
M
L1
y
mg
x
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
21
Note that < xL
1
> denotes a step function as follows
(E11)
M =  R
a
x + mg <xL
1
> (E12)
M =  (1/2)mg x + mg <xL
1
> (E13)
M = [  (1/2) x + <xL
1
> ][ mg ] (E14)
] mg ][
1
L  x x (1/2)  [ y EI > < + · ′ ′ (E15)
EI
mg
]
1
L  x x (1/2)  [ y
1
]
1
¸
> < + · ′ ′ (E16)
a
EI
mg
]
2
1
L  x
2
1
2
x
4
1
 [ y +
1
]
1
¸
> < + · ′ (E17)
b ax
EI
mg
3
1
L  x
6
1
3
x
12
1
 ) x ( y + +
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
> < + · (E18)
The boundary condition at the left side is
y(0) = 0 (E19)
This requires
b = 0 (E20)
Thus
ax
EI
mg
3
1
L  x
6
1
3
x
12
1
 ) x ( y +
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
> < + · (E18)
The boundary condition on the right side is
y(L) = 0 (E21)
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
≥ −
<
· > − <
1
L x for ,
1
L x
1
L x for , 0
1
L x
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
22
0 aL
EI
mg
3
1
L  L
6
1
3
L
12
1
 · +
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
> < + (E22)
0 aL
EI
mg
3
L
48
1
3
L
12
1
 · +
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
+ (E23)
0 aL
EI
mg
3
L
48
1
3
L
48
4
 · +
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
+ (E24)
0 aL
EI
mg
3
L
48
3
 · +
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
(E25)
0 aL
EI
mg
3
L
16
1
 · +
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
(E26)
EI
mg
3
L
16
1
aL
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
· (E27)
EI
mg
2
L
16
1
a
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
· (E28)
Now substitute the constant into the displacement function
[ ] x
EI
mg
2
L
16
1
EI
mg
3
1
L  x
6
1
3
x
12
1
 ) x ( y
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
+
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
> < + · (E29)
EI
mg
3
1
L  x
6
1
2
xL
16
1
3
x
12
1
 ) x ( y
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
> < + + · (E30)
The displacement at the center is
EI
mg
3
1
L 
2
L
6
1
2
L
2
L
16
1
3
2
L
12
1

2
L
y
1
]
1
¸
1
1
]
1
¸
>
,
_
¸
¸
< +
,
_
¸
¸
+
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
(E31)
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
23
EI
3
mgL
32
1
96
1

2
L
y
1
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
+ ·
,
_
¸
¸
(E32)
EI
3
mgL
96
3
96
1

2
L
y
1
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
+ ·
,
_
¸
¸
(E33)
EI
3
mgL
96
2
2
L
y
1
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
(E34)
EI
3
mgL
48
1
2
L
y
1
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
(E35)
Recall Hooke’s law for a linear spring,
F = k y (E36)
F is the force.
k is the stiffness.
The stiffness is thus
k = F / y (E37)
The force at the center of the beam is mg. The stiffness at the center of the beam is
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
1
1
]
1
¸
·
EI 48
3
mgL
mg
k (E38)
3
L
EI 48
k · (E39)
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
24
The formula for the natural frequency fn of a singledegreeoffreedom system is
fn
k
m
·
¸
¸
_
,
1
2π
(E40)
The mass term m is simply the mass at the center of the beam.
3
mL
EI 48
2
1
fn
,
_
¸
¸
π
· (E41)
( )
3
mL
EI
928 . 6
2
1
fn
,
_
¸
¸
π
· (E42)
Beam SimplySupported at Both Ends II
Consider a simplysupported beam as shown in Figure F1.
Figure F1.
Recall that the governing differential equation is
− · EI
y
x
y
t
∂
∂
ρ
∂
∂
4
4
2
2
(F1)
The spatial solution from section D is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Y x a x a x a x a x ( ) sinh cosh sin cos · + + +
1 2 3 4
β β β β (F2)
L
EI,ρ
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
25
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
d Y x
dx
a x a x a x a x
2
2
1
2
2
2
3
2
4
2
( )
sinh cosh sin cos · + − − β β β β β β β β (F3)
The boundary conditions at the left end x = 0 are
Y(0) = 0 (zero displacement) (F4)
d Y
dx
x
2
2
0
0
·
· (zero bending moment) (F5)
The boundary conditions at the free end x = L are
Y(L) = 0 (zero displacement) (F6)
d Y
dx
x L
2
2
0
·
· (zero bending moment) (F7)
Apply boundary condition (F4) to (F2).
a a
2 4
0 + · (F8)
a a
4 2
· − (F9)
Apply boundary condition (F5) to (F3).
a a
2 4
0 − · (F10)
a a
2 4
· (F11)
Equations (F8) and (F10) can only be satisfied if
a
2
0 · (F12)
and
a
4
0 · (F13)
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
26
The spatial equations thus simplify to
( ) ( ) Y x a x a x ( ) sinh sin · +
1 3
β β (F14)
( ) ( )
d Y x
dx
a x a x
2
2
1
2
3
2
( )
sinh sin · − β β β β (F15)
Apply boundary condition (F6) to (F14).
( ) ( ) a L a L
1 3
0 sinh sin β β + · (F16)
Apply boundary condition (F7) to (F15).
( ) ( ) a L a L
1
2
3
2
0 β β β β sinh sin − · (F17)
( ) ( ) a L a L
1 3
0 sinh sin β β − · (F18)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
sinh sin
sinh sin
β β
β β
L L
L L
a
a −
¸
1
]
1
1
1
¸
1
]
1
1
1
·
¸
1
]
1
1
1
1
3
0
0
(F19)
By inspection, equation (F19) can only be satisfied if a
1
= 0 and a
3
= 0. Set the
determinant to zero in order to obtain a nontrivial solution.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) − − · sin sinh sin sinh β β β β L L L L 0 (F20)
( ) ( ) − · 2 0 sin sinh β β L L (F21)
( ) ( ) sin sinh β β L L · 0 (F22)
Equation (F22) is satisfied if
β π
n
L n n · · , , , ,.... 1 2 3 (F23)
β
π
n
n
L
n · · , , , ,.... 1 2 3 (F24)
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
27
The natural frequency term ω
n
is
ω β
ρ
n n
EI
·
2
(F25)
ω
π
ρ
n
n
L
EI
n ·
¸
1
]
1
·
2
1 2 3 , , , ,... (F26)
f
n
L
EI
n
n
·
¸
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
·
1
2
1 2 3
2
π
π
ρ
, , , ,... (F27)
f
n
L
EI
n
n
·
¸
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
·
1
2
1 2 3
2
π
π
ρ
, , , ,... (F28)
Now calculate effective mass at the center of the beam for the fundamental frequency.
ω
π
ρ
1
2
·
¸
1
]
1
L
EI
(F29)
Recall the natural frequency equation for a singledegreeoffreedom system.
ω
1
·
k
m
(F30)
Recall the beam stiffness at the center from equation (E39).
k
EI
L
·
48
3
(F31)
Substitute equation (F31) into (F30).
ω
1
3
48
·
EI
mL
(F32)
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
28
Substitute (F32) into (F29).
48
3
2
EI
mL
L
EI
·
¸
1
]
1
π
ρ
(F33)
48
3
4
EI
mL
L
EI
·
¸
1
]
1
π
ρ
(F34)
48 1
3
4
mL
L
·
¸
1
]
1
π
ρ
(F35)
1
48
4
m L
·
¸
1
]
1
1
π
ρ
(F36)
The effective mass at the center of the beam for the first mode is
m
L
·
48
4
ρ
π
(F37)
Pipe Example
Consider a steel pipe with an outer diameter of 2.2 inches and a wall thickness of 0.60
inches. The length is 20 feet. Find the natural frequency for two boundary condition
cases: simplysupported and fixedfixed.
The area moment of inertia is
[ ]
4
i
4
o
D D
64
I −
π
· (G1)
in 2 . 2 D
o
· (G2)
in ) 6 . 0 ( 2 2 . 2 D
i
− · (G3)
in 2 . 1 2 . 2 D
i
− · (G4)
in 0 . 1 D
i
· (G5)
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
29
[ ]
4 4 4
in 0 . 1 2 . 2
32
I −
π
· (G6)
4
in 101 . 1 I · (G7)
The elastic modulus is
( )
2
6
in
lbf
10 30 E · (G8)
The mass density is
· ρ mass per unit length. (G9)
[ ]
1
]
1
¸
−
π
1
]
1
¸
· ρ
2 2 2
3
in 0 . 1 2 . 2
4
in
lbm
282 . 0 (G10)
in
lbm
850 . 0 · ρ (G11)
( )
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
·
ρ
lbm 2 . 32
slug 1
in
lbm
850 . 0
ft 1
in 12
lbf 1
sec / ft slug 1
in 101 . 1
in
lbf
10 30
EI
2
4
2
6
(G12)
( )
sec
in
10 225 . 1
EI
2
5
·
ρ
(G13)
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
30
The natural frequency for the simplysupported case is
f
n
L
EI
n
n
·
¸
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
·
1
2
1 2 3
2
π
π
ρ
, , , ,... (G14)
( )
( )
sec
in
10 225 . 1
ft 1
in 12
ft 20
2
1
f
2
5
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1
¸
,
_
¸
¸
π
1
]
1
¸
π
· (G15)
Hz 34 . 3 f
1
· (simplysupported) (G16)
The natural frequency for the fixedfixed case is
ρ
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
π
·
EI
L
22.37
2
1
f
2
1
(G17)
( )
( )
sec
in
10 225 . 1
ft 1
in 12
ft 20
37 . 22
2
1
f
2
5
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
,
_
¸
¸
1
]
1
¸
π
· (G18)
Hz 58 . 7 f
1
· (fixedfixed) (G19)
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
31
Suborbital Rocket Vehicle
Consider a rocket vehicle with the following properties.
mass = 14078.9 lbm (at time = 0 sec)
L = 372.0 inches.
inches 0 . 372
lbm 9 . 14078
· ρ
in
lbm
847 . 37 · ρ
The average stiffness is
EI = 63034 (10
6
) lbf in^2
The vehicle behaves as a freefree beam in flight. Thus
ρ
1
]
1
¸
π
·
EI
L
37 . 22
2
1
f
2
1
(H1)
( )
[ ]
in
lbm
847 . 37
slugs
lbm 2 . 32
ft
in 12
lbf
sec / ft slug
in lbf 06 63034e
in 372
37 . 22
2
1
f
2
2
2
1
1
]
1
¸
1
]
1
¸
1
1
]
1
¸
+
1
1
]
1
¸
π
·
(H2)
f
1
= 20.64 Hz (at time = 0 sec) (H3)
Note that the fundamental frequency decreases in flight as the vehicle expels propellant
mass.
Dr YiKue Lee
MECH300E
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.