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Index
Abrasion resistance of plastics/rubbers, 4/20 Alkali resistance of plastialrubbers, 4/19 Backwater theory in channel flow 5/17-18
Abrasion testing of rock, l O / l I Alkali-silica reaction of concrete. 21/28 Bailey bridging, 35/6
Accelerators for concrete, 4/8 Alkyd paints. 4/26 Ballast, railway, 25/45
Acid resistance of plastialrubbers, 4/19 Alloys, see under Aluminium Balling machines, 43/6
Acids Alluvial soils, 8/24-28 Band drains, 9/39
attack on concrete. 4/14 classification. 8/26-27 Barrages
and power station chimneys, 27/24 deposition, 8/28 river, 22/74
Ackers-White equation for sediment and erosion, cycle of, 8/24-25 tidal, 22/10
transport. 30/15 Alluvium, fluvioglacial, 8/21-22 Bars. theory of, 2/12-30
Acrylic paints, 4/26 Aluminium, 14/1-14 columns, 2/25-29
Activated carbon treatment of sewage effluent. alloys, 14/54 codes of practice, 2/28-29
29/2I heat-treatable, 14/67 long, 2/26-27
Activated sludge, 29/18-19 non heal-treatable, 14/7 short. 2/25-26
Adhesives numbering system, 14/56 strength formulae. 2/27-28
for aluminium, 14/9 properties, 14/6 cross-section geometry, 2/12-14
for timber. 16/7,16/8 selection, 14/74 first moment of area, 2/12
see also Glued-laminated timber; Gluing of durability/protection, 14/10 moments of inertia, 2/12-14
plastics/rubbers fabrication. 14/8-9 engineering theory of bending of beams
Aerospace industry, aluminium alloy in, 14/6 connections, 14/8-9 (ETBB), 2/29-30
AfRux at river bridges, 30/22 cutting/forming, 14/8 frameworks, stresses/strains in. 2/29 %

Aggregate for concrete, 4/5-7 with extruded sections, 14/9 and non-uniform torsion, 2/24-25
contaminants, 4/67 history of use, 14/3 stress.resultants, 211 5-16
grades Of, 4/54 production, 14/45 ties, 21 I6
grading/size, 4/9 strength control. 14/5 and uniform torque, 2/22-24
selection. 10/16 stress/strain curve, 2/8 arbitrary cross-section 2/22-24
testing, 4/16-17 structural calculations, 14/10-14 circulw cross-section. 2/22
unsound/reactive, 4/7 buckling, 14/13-14 see also Beams
Air-conditioning in buildings, 21/12-13 connections, 14/14 Bascule bridges, 20/38
distnbution/inlegralion,21/13 cross-section resistance, 14/1I-I2 Basements, 21/44
systems, 21/12-13 fatigue. 14/14 foundations
Air-entraining agents for concrete. 4/8 principles of design, 14/10-1I construction, 17/12-13
Aircraft warning lights on chimneys, 27/24 section classification. 14/1I definition, 17/9
Airfield site investigation, I I/I I softening at welds, 14/12-13 design, l7/l0-lI
see also Airports; Highways for temporary works, 3515 waterproofing. 17/11-12
Airlift in underwater working, 42/9 V.P. steel, 14/4 Bathymetry. 31/20
Airports, 24/1-24 for water pipes, 28/5 Bauhaus of Dessau, design innovation,
ancillary services, 24/22-23 Amplitude, definition. 3/23 21/3
ancillary structures Anchored piles, 17/23 Beach nourishment, 31/30
access. 24/14-1 5 Anchors see ubo Sediments ,
car parking, 24/14 for ground improvement, 9/42 kdmS
lighting, 24/15 for foundation excavations, 9/20,I7/12, analysis
concept/layout, 24/8-15 17/13.35/16 flexibility method, 3/8-9
aprons, 24/12-14 for rock. 10/33-34 influence lines in, 3/19-20
runways, 24/9 see a l o Bulkhead, anchored; Rockbolts plastic. 3/29
taxiways. 24/9-10 Anodizing of aluminium. 14/10 bending forces in, 2/16-18
terminal area. 24/10-12 Antifreezes for concrete, 4/8 composite, 2/16-17
terminal building, 24/14 Aqualung reinforced concrete. 2/17
definitions, 24/23 air supply, 42/6 vertically loaded. 2/16
drainage, 24/21-22 equipment, 42/4 bendinglshear forces. 2/18-21.12/26-27
location, 24/3-5 ARCADY, for urban traffic management, composite, 2/18-19
basic considerations. 24/3 23/49 the shear centre, 2/19-21
site comparison criteria, 24/3-5 Arch bridges vertically loaded. 2/18
pavements. aircraft, 24/16-21 design, 20/20-2I concrete
composite. 24/18 theory, 20/17-20 design, 12/13-14
construction, 24/16 Arch dams, 18/23-29 prestressed. 12/26-27
design, 24/19-2 I double curvature, 18/24.18/27-29 reinforced, 12/14-17
flexible, 24/18 gravity. 18/23-24,18/25-26 deep, 21/42
functionlrequirements, 24/16 Arctic offshore construction. 44/12-13 deflection of, 2/21-22,12/26
overlays. 24/18-19 Art gallery lighting, 21/20 differential equation, 2/21-22
rigid, 24/16-18 Asbestos, risk in demolition, 43/9 force-displacement relationships, 3 / 3 4
security, 24/I5 Asbestos cement water pipes, 28/5 ground beams, 17/24
standards. 24/54 Asphalt steel, simply supported, design, 13/20
aprons, 24/7 for aircraft pavement, 24/18 strength. flexural, 12/26
obstruction surfaces, 24/74 in dams k a r i n g capacity for foundations
reference codes, 24/5 core, 18/5-1 I deep fondations, 9/8-9
runways, 24/54 facing, 18/5 shallow foundations, 9/74
taxiways. 24/6 hot-rolled. 23/3I . 23/32 and site investigation, 11/10
telecommunications, 24/15 for scour protection. 22/15 and soil texture, 9/6-7
traffic forecasts. 24/15-16 tanking of basements, 17/11-12 Bearings in precast concrete, 12/30
Algae and water treatment, 28/20 Asphaltic.concrete for maritime use 31/26 Bedding, sedimentary, 8/6
Algebra, 113-5 Attrition tests of rock, 10/1 I Bedding factor. in pipe strength. 40/10
matrix, 1/27 Bell diving, 42/34
Alidade of theodolite, 6/54 Backwater Dam, 18/13 Bellmouth spillways, 22/22-23
Indexl2

Beltrami-Michell equations in elastic analysis, Brickwork, 21/29 noise, 21/20


2/9 as building finish, 21/30 services, accommodation of, 21/13-14
Bench-marks, 6/19 durability in foundations, 17/30 thermal, 21/12
temporary. in setting out, 34/4 for maritime works, 31/24 landscape consideration, 21/9
Bends from compressed air tunnelling; 32/14 for temporary works. 35/5 integration example, 21/10
Bentonite see a/so Masonry, load-bearing and site operations, 21/9-10
in embankment dam construction, 28/16 Bridges, 20/1-43 lifts/escalators/conveyors,21 122
shield tunnelling, 32/6 Bailey, 35/6 for nuclear reactors, 27/26-27
Bernoulli's theorem, 5/8 characteristics of structures, 20/ 17-32 partitions, 21/3 I
and flow in channels, 22/3 arch design, 20/20-21 planning legislation/consent, 21/1 I
Betti's theorem. 3/21 boxes, 20/24-27. 20/29-3 I power stations
Bilham rainfall formula, 30/14 decks, multicellular, 20/31 floors/roofs/walls. 27/10-12
Bills o f quantities, 33/15-16 design curves, 20/32 steelwork for, 27/5-10
Binomial theorem, 1/5 girders, 20/2 1-22, 20/27-29 ventilation, 27/12
Bins, storage loading, l9/5 loading, 20/31-32 projects
Biogas, 29/25 suspension/arch, 20/17-20, 20/22-24 management, 2 I /3
Biological treatment of sewage, 29/16-19 concrete, precast, 37/3 I plan of work, 21/44 '
activated sludge, 29/18-19 curved, 20/35 requirements, 2 l p . 21/8
contactors, rotating, 29/17-18 deck slabs, concrete, 20/34-35 public health considerations. 21/21-22
filters. percolating, 29/17 demolition, 43/8 public utility consultation, 21/1 I
oxidation ponds, 29/19 dynamic response, 20/36-37 railways stations, 25/20-21
BlPS 3 for road layout, 23/16 economics/system choice, 20P-17 river pump station, 30/25-26
Bishop's method for slope analysis, 9/25 major, 13/17 security control, 21/27-28
Bitumen masonry, 15/16-17 setting-out in. 34/74
for maritime use, 31/26 movable, 20/38 site appraisal. 21/9
paints, 4/26 plan of work, 20/3 structure, 21/32-37
for soil stabilization, 9/43 checklist, 20/39 arrangement, structural, 21/34
Black cotton soils, 8/19, 8/20 railway. 25/21-22 behaviour, structural, 21/32
Blast furnace Portland cement. 4/4 loading of, 19/8-9 loading resistance, vertical, 21/34-35
Blasting river, 30/22 movement, 2 I /34
for demolition. 43/8 road, loading of, 19/54 multistorey, 21/35-37
for rock excavation. l o p 3 skew, 20/35 robustness, 12/13, 21/33
of tunnels. 10/33, 32/9 steel wind effects, 21/33-34
Block paving, 23/4344 short/medium span. 13/16-17 water supply, 21/21
Blockwork, see Masonry. load-bedring simple, 13/22 see U/SO Building Regulations; Floors; High-
Bolting tolerances, 39/67 rise buildings; Multi-storey buildings.
of aluminium, 14/8 stress concentrations, 20/33-34 Walls
design, 14/14 shear kdg. 20/33 Bulkheads, anchored
of steel structures, 13/27-8 and,thickness changes/cutouts, 20/33-34 anchor pull, 9/21
of timber. 16/9-10 Bronze for maritime use, 31/26 bending moments, 9/22
underwater gun, 42/10 Brushwood for scour protection, 22/15 and earth pressure, 9/21-22
Bolts. holding-down, setting, 34/7 BS, see Standardslcodes of practice Face forces, 9/2 I
Bone necrosis and compressed air. 32/14 Bucket energy dissipators in channels, Bunker loading, 19/5
Bored piles, 17/18-19 22112-1 3 Buoyancy, 5/7
auger-injected, 17/23 Bucket dredgers Burbank test of rock, 10/1 I
concrete for. 17/23 ladder, 41/3-4 Bursting, hydraulic, 43/8
contiguous. 17/26 wheel. 41/8 Butterfly water valves, 22/30, 28/7
percussion-bored. 17/23 Buckets for concrete distribution, 37/13 Buttress dams, 18/17-23
rotary, 11/22-23 Buckingham's n theorem in scaling. 31/17 Buttressed retaining walls, 17/26
Boreholes Buckling of aluminium, 14/13-14
logging, 11/27, 11/34-37. 11/38 Building Regulations, 21/24, 21/26-27
. for water, construction, 28/11-12 appedk, 2 I /24
Borrow pits. quantity determination, 6/ 19-20 Approved Documents/mandatory Cableways for concrete placing. 37/16
Boulder clay. 8/21 requirements, 21/24. 21/27 Caissons. 17/13-18
Boundary element method in rock engineering, on fire spread. 21/26-27 box, 17/14
10/28-30 procedures, 21/24 for breakwaters, 31/32
Boundary walls. masonry for, 15/14 on robustness, 12/13 definition, 17/9
Box girders, 13121-22 structure. 21/26 monoliths/cylinders, 17/17
with cantilevers, 20/27 Buildings, 21/1-45 open, 17/1416
with dkdphrdgms airport terminal, 24/14 pneumatic, 17/16-17
continuous, 20/26-27 ancillary, 24/15 Calculus, 1/22-27
discrete. 20/25-26 cost considerations, 21/1 I differentiation, 1/22-23
multiple single cell, 20/29-31 design. changing influences, 21/3 integration. 1/23-27
single cell, 20/24-25 drainage, 2 I12 I maxima/minima, 1/23
Box trench support systems, 40/13 energy considerations. 21/22-24 Californian bearing ratio (CBR), 9/33
Brazilian rock strength test, 10/12 feasibility. 21/1 I Camber of roads, 23/14-15
Breakers, impact, 43/7 finishes Camera lucida principle, 7/7
Breakwaters, 26/3. 31/31-34 external, 21/29-30 Cameras for photogrammetry, 7/5-7
experimental. 3 I /34 internal. 21/30 Canals, irrigation
forces on, 31/16-17 fire installations, 21/21 control structures, 22/8
overtopping modelling, 31/18 internal environment, 21/12-21 design, 30/9
piled. 3 I /33 air-conditioning, 2 I / 12-1 3 Cantilevers
rock-filled rib. 31/33 condensation, 21/17 concrete. reinforced/prestressed, 12/13
rubble-mound. 3 u32-33 design/planning. 21/3 1-32 propped, plastic analysis. 3/28-29
vertical. 3 1/31-32 heating/cooling generation, 21/14 retaining walls, 17/25
see also Scawalls lighting. 21/17-20 Capillarity. 5/4
Index/3

Car parks Chezy-Manning equation, 30/1 I coastal stability, 31/23


airport. 24/14 Chezy’s coefficient in channel flow, 5/15 currents. 31/21-22
lighting, 21/20 Chimneys for diving, 42/7
Cargoes in ports demolition. 43/8 information sources, 31/19
handling, 26/5 for power stations, 27/21-24 meteorological data. 3 I /23
types, 26/34 ancillary structures, 27/24 mud layer, 31/21
Camageway layout, 23/15-16 flues/lining. 27/21. 27/24 position fixing, 31/19-20
Casagrande classification for cohesive soils, foundations, 27/24 seabed/sub-seabed, 3 1/20-21
9/30 wind-excited oscillation. 19/13 water properties, 3 1/22
Cased piles, 17/22 wind-excited oscillation, 19-13 wavesltide, 3 1/22-23
Cashflow in construction projects, 33/74 Chipboard for temporary works, 35/5 see also Sediments; Tides; Waves
Cathodic protection of offshore structures, Chlorination COBA traffic program, 23/10
44/16 of sewage effluent, 29/20 Codes of practice, see Standards/codes of
Caverns of water. 28/2 I practice
design and rock mechanics, 10/31-32 Chute spillways. 22/24-25 Colebrook-White formula in sewerage design,
for oil/LPG storage, 32/19 ClDEL traffic program, 23/10 29/5
Cavitation, 22/32 Cippoletti weir, 5/21 ’Colgrout’, 9/41
damage to chute. 22/24 Cladding Collimation error with levels 6/15
Ceiling finishes, 21/30 concrete, precast 37/3 1-32 Columns
Cement of steel structures, and stiffening, 13/19 concrete
for concrete Clamps in temporary works, 35/6 . design, 12/14
cement/water ratio, 4/8 Ckamshell dredger, 4 1 / 4 5 formwork for, 35/1 I
content, 4/9 Clapotis. 31/6 prestressed, 12/28
expanding, in demolition, 43/7 Clay reinforced, 12/18
glass reinforced, 21/28 as aggregate contaminant, 4/6-7 reinforcement behaviour in, 12/6
as cladding. 37/31 as core in dams, I8/ I I , I8/ 13, 18/24, I8/3 I design codes of practice, 2/28-9
grouts, 9/41 as joint infill, 10123 forces in
under foundations. 17/9 pile capacity on, 9/36-37 long. 2/26-27
quality in hot countries, 37/34-35 Clay soils short. 2/25-26
in soil stabilization, 9/43 and foundations positioning for load, 21/34 .
for sewers, 29/6 bearing capacity, 9/7 steel, design, I3/2 I
storage, 3 7 / 3 4 settlement. 9/9-15 strength formulae. 2/27-28
types, 413-5 mole drainage, 30/12 Compaction
Portland, 4 / 3 4 and site investigation. I I / I I of concrete. 37/ 19-20
for water pipes, 28/5 Clayware for sewers, 29/6 dynamic, under foundations, I7/9
Central heating plant, 21/21 Cliff stabilization. 3 I /3&3 I of embankment dams. 28/17
Chaining. 6/18 Coal tar paints, 4/26 of road earthworks. 23/25
Chainman, 34/3 Coastal/maritime engineering shallow, 9/43
Chalk breakwaters. 31/31-34 of soil, laboratory testing, 9/32-33
landforms, 8/24 experimental. 3 I /34 vibrocompaction, 9/42
mechanical testing. 10/12 piled. 31/33 Compartmentation against fire, 21/26-27
source for water pumping, 28/10 rock-filled crib, 31/33 Compatibility equations of strain, 2/7
borehold problems, 28/12 rubble-mound, 31/32-33 Compressed air
Channels, 22/3-15 vertical, 31/31-32 in concrete placing, 37/ I5
concepts, 22/34 design parameters/dala analysis, 3 I /23-24 for groundwater exclusion, 9/40
control structures, 22/7-10 ground conditions. 31/23 in tunnelling, 32/14
gated weirs, 22/7 water conditions, 3 1/23-24 Compression testing of rock, 10/12
in irrigation canals, 22/8 forces, wave/current, 31/15-17 Compulsory purchase for roads, 23/7
in rivers, alluvial, 22/74 on cylinder piles, 3 I / I 5 Computers. 1/35-39
tidal barriers, 22/10 on seawalls/breakwaters, 3 1/16-17 for bridge analysis, suspension 20/19
energy dissipation, 22/10, 22/12-14 intakes/outfalls. 3 1/34 hardware, 1/35
bucket dissipators, 22/12-I 3 materials, 3 I /24-26 and information, 1/38
from pipes/valves, 22/13-14 conventional, 31/24-25 and management. 1/38-39
stilling basins, 22/10, 22/12 durability zones, 31/24 in modelling, coastal, 31/18-19
flow ig, 5/15-19 metals. 3 I /25-26 nontechnical use. 1/37
critical depth, 5/17 plastics/bilumen. 3 1/26 personal. impact of, 1/35-36
energy, 5/ 17 timber. 31/25 portable, 1/36
horizontal bed, 5/18-19 protection works, 31/26-31 in rock engineering design, lO/26-28
hydraulic jump, 5/19 beach nourishment. 31/30 in structural analysis, 3/2
non-uniform, 5/17-18 cliff stabilization. 3l/30-31 services design. 21/14
resistance, 5 / I7 groynes. 3 1/28, 3 I /30 software, 1/35
shape for maximum flow, 5/16-17 walk, 31/26-28 for road layout. 23/16
velocity distribution. 5/17 scaling laws and models, 31/17-19 for road maintenance. 23/56
Venturi flume, 5/19 digital numerical. 31/18-19 specific vs. general purpose, 1/38
flumes, 22/7 forces, 31/18 for traffic appraisal, 23/10
foundations for. permeable, 22/10 harbours, 31/18 for urban traffic management, 22/49?23/50
in road drainage, 23/28 littoral processes, 31/19 in stiffness analysis. 3/13-14
scour/erosion. 22/14-15 overtopping. 31/18 in surveying, 6/26-28
depth of, 22/14-15 similarity. 3 1/17-18 digital mapping/ground modelling,
prot,ection, 22/15 tidal. 31/18 6/26-28
transitions stratification and densimetric flow, 31/14-15 land information systems. 6/28
subcritical flow, 2 2 / 4 5 effluent discharge. 31/14-15 technical use
supercritical flow. 2215 estuaries. 31/14 in design, 1/36-37
see obo Enclosed flow; Spillways, Weirs structures. setting out for, 34/9 in detailing, 1/37
Charpy impact test. 13/9-10 surveys/data collection. 31/19-23 in structural analysis. 1/36
CHART for road maintenance. 23/56 bathymetry. 31/20 see ulso Digital image processing (DIP)
Index14

Concrete. 4/3-18, 37/1-36 mixing etiiciency, 37/74 of pipes in trenches, 40/15


admixtures. 4 / 7 4 plant size, 37/7 of aluminium, 14/10
alkali-silica reaction. 21/28 storage of materials, 37/34 Cost considerations
asphaltic concrete. 23/3 I ready-mixed. 37/8- I0 in buildings, 21/1 I
for maritime use, 31/26 advantages. 37/8 in electricity supply, 27/4
blocks plant. 37/8-10 in ground investigation. I l / 5
for revelments. 30/19 quality control. 1/35, 37/10 in offshore construction. and work schedule.
for scour protection. 22/15 reinforced. see Reinforced concrete 44/14
see a l n Masonry. load-bearing repair, by resin injection, 4/24 of pipelines
for bridges, 37/31 roadslairfield construction. 37/20-25 appraisal, 40/29-30
deck slabs, 20134-35 conventional, 37/2 1-24 construction. 40/30-3 I
as building material, 21/28 slipform, 37/24-25 of projects/contracts, 33/10-1 I
and cavitation, 22/32 shrink. and loss of prestress, 12/24 in tunnelling. 3 2 / 3 4
compacting. 37/19-20 sleepers. 25/7 Coulomb's equation for shear strength, 9/3
for cooling water culverts. 27/18 sprayed. for rock support. IOj34 Counterforts, 9/27
creep. 4/12 strength. 4/9-12 Crack control, in reinforced concrete beams.
and loss of prestress, 12/24 testing. 4/14-18 12/17
crushed. recycling. 43/9 aggregates. 41 I & I 7 Cranes
curing, 4/14, 37/20 analysis. 4/17 for concrete distribution, 37/l 1-13
dams, 18/13-29. 28/17-18, 37/2&27 entrained air, 4/17 gantry girders for, 13/23-24
arch, 18/23-29 strength. 4/16 for precast units. 35/15
buttress, I8/ 17-23 structural. I2/3 1-32 for steel erection, 39/4
design concept. 18/34-36 workability, 4/14, 4/16 Creep
gravity, 18/13-14 tunnel lining. 32/1 I , 37/27 of concrete, 4/12, 12/24
rockfill, 1 8 / 4 5 segmented. 40/21-22 of plastics/rubbers. 4/20
rollcrete, 18/14, 18/16-17 for turbo-generator support. 17/27, 27/14 Culverts
demolition of, 4 3 / 7 4 underwater, 37117-19.42/9 drawoff. in dams, 28/15
prestressed, 43/8-9 see nlsn Formwork in power generation cooling, 27/17-19
design. structural. 12/1-33 Condensation in buildings, 21/17 in road drainage, 23/27
behaviour, 1213. I2/5-6 in roofs. 2 I /3 I Current measurement, 31/21-22
codes of practice/slandards. l2/3, I2/4 Condensers, in electricity generation. 27/14-16 Curtain walling as building finish, 21/30
composite construction, I2/30-3 I Conduits, see Flow Culability testing of rock, 10/12
fire resistance. I2/6. I2112, 12/32-33 Cone indenter. (NCB) test. l O / l I Cutters for rock tunnelling, 32/6
philosophy of, 12/67 Cone test, for settlement in granular soils. Cutting, underwater. 44/16
precast construction. 12/29-30 9/15-16 tools. 42/9
procedures, analytical/design. 12/1 1-14 Cone offshore structures. arctic. 44/12-13 Cuttings, railway. 25/3
testing, 12/31-32 Confidence limits. statistical, 1/30-32 Cyclists
diaphragm walls, 9/40, 37/30-31 Consolidation facilities for. 23/51
distribution, 37/10-16 grouting, 10/34 and road junctions. 23/21
Cdbkwdys, 37/16 of soils, 9/5 Cylinders. see Caissons
conveyor belts, 37115- I6 dynamic. 9/43
cranes, 37/11-13 Constant rate penetration (CRF') pile test. Damping
hoists, 37/1 I 17/24 definition. 3/23
pneumatic placing, 37/13 Containers for cargoes, 26/4 of tall buildings, 21/40, 21/42
pumping, 37/13-15 Contamination. see Pollution Dams. 18/1-37
skips/buckets, 37/13 Contouring, in vertical control. 6/9 concrete. I8/ 13-29? 28/ 17-1 8. 37/26-27
wheeled transport, 37/10-1 I Contracts, 33/14-15 arch. 18/23-29
durability, 4/13-14 in demolition, 43/3 buttress. 18/17-23
in foundations. 17/30 ground investigation, 11/26 gravity. 18/13-14
elastic modulus, 4/12 overseas. plant selection. 36/45 rollcrete. 18/14. 18/16-17
finish of, 35/8 see also Management of projects/contracts definition, I8/3
as finish for buildings, 21/30 CONTRAM for urban traffic management, deformation. 28/16-17
floors, 21/35. 37/25-26 23/49 monitoring requirement. 6/21. 28/18
gunite. 32/13, 37/28-29 Contrast stretching for image enhancement. design. 18/29-36
in hotparid countries, 37/32-35 7/26 embankment dams. 18/29-33
for maritime works, 31/24-25 Control charts in quality control. 1/35 roller-compacted, 18/34-36
YS. mdSOnry, 15/3 Control of Pollution Act 1974. 29/3 earthfill. 18/29-33. 28/15-17
mass sections. 37/27 Conversion factors for units, 4 5 / 5 4 with clay core, 18/13
materials, see Aggregate; Cement Conveyors homogeneous, 18/11-13
mix design, 4/8-9 for concrete placing, 37/15-16 history. 18/34
movement. 4/12-13 passenger. in buildings, 21/22 legislation, 18/36
no-fines, 37/29-30 Cooling towers, 27/19-21 rockfill. 18/4-1 I. 18/33
for offshore structures, 44/10-12 shell, 27/20 with asphalt core, 18/5-1 I
pavements support/foundations, 27/20-2 I with asphalt facing, 18/5
for aircraft. 24/16-18 wind loading, 27/20 with clay core, 18/11. 18/24
for roads, 23/36 Copper compaction, 28/17
piles, 17/19-23 in aluminium alloy, 14/6 with concrete Facing, 1 8 / 6 5
placing, 37/16-19 and electrolytic corrosion of aluminium. 14/10 monitoring by photogrammetry, 7/13
in deep lifts, 37/17 Corbels in concrete, 12/30 site investigation depth. I1/1 I
and joints, 37/17 Coriolis force, 31/34 types. I8/3
underwater, 37/17-19 Corrosion of piles, 17/30 see also Reservoirs; Spillways
precast, 37/31-32 Corrosion protection Darcy-Weisbach equation, 30/1 I
prestressed, see Prestressed concrete of ofshore structures, cathodic, 44/16 Decking, profiled, in steel structures, 13/18-19
production, 37/34 of steel Decompression in diving, 42/3
batching, 37/5 painting, 4/24, 4/26 Deflection of concrete beams
miners, 37/57 structures, 13/26 of prestressed. 12/26
lndex/5

Deflection . . .. continued Distributions. statistical, I /30 bucket ladder. 41/34


of reinforced, 12/1617 and confidence limits. I/30-32 dipper/backhoe, 41/5
Deformabihty testing of rock Dividag reinforcing bar, 35/6 grab, 4 I /4-5
for design. 10/13 Diving, 42/1-13 organisations. 41/13
masses, 10/18 air-supply, 4 2 / 5 4 preliminary considerations. 41/l I
Deformation alternative systems. 42/10-12 reclamation works. 41/9-I I
earth dams, 28/16-17 construction work/planning, 42/8 surveys/investigations. 41/12
monitoring employment, increasing. 42/3 Drift, 8/23-24
ofdams. 28/18 equipment, 4 2 / 4 5 Drillhole logging. 10/13
of rock, l0/35 factors in, environmental/personal, 42/7 Drilling
by photogrammetry, 7/13-14 operations. 4 2 / 3 4 of boreholes. 28/11-12
reference points, 6/21-23 bell diving, 4 2 / 3 4 in demolition. 43/7
surveys, 6/21-26 decompression, 42/3 directional. for pipelaying, 40/20
Deformations, geological surface-orientaled. 42/3 for rock excavation, 10/32-33
engineering aspects, 8/15-16 preparations, 42/44 of tunnels. 32/9
faults. 8/12-14 qualifications, 42/6-7 Drogne floats, 3 I12 I
folds, 8/14-15 in seabed survey. 31/21 Dry docks for offshore structures, 44/13
joints, 8/10, 8/12 survey, 42/7 Ductility of steel, I3p-9
Demolition, 43/1-10 team size, 42/6 notch ductility. 13/9-10
blasting, 43/8 tools. 42/8-9 Dumpers for concrete. 37/1 I
of bridges, 43/8 see aLo Underwater work Dumpy level, 6/13
of concrete, 4 3 / 7 4 Dolphins, for ship berthing. 26/10 adjustment. 6/5
prestressed, 43/8-9 Donseg lining of tunnels. 32/10 Durability
environmental considerations. 43/10 Dorry test of rock. 10/1 I of concrete. 4/13-14, 11/30
future developments, 43/10 Dowels, in tunnel temporary support. 32/13 of rock, laboralory testing. 10/8
health and safety. 43/9-10 Downhole logging, 10/13 'Duralumin', 14/3. 14/6
fire/explosion risk, 43/10 Drainage. 9/37-39 Durands rule for plane areas. 1/16
manual, 43/5 of agricultural land. 30/9-12 Duricrus1s;and site investigation. I 1 / 1 I
mechanical. 4 3 / 5 4 bedding systems. 30/12 Dust from demolition, 43/10
method selection, 43/8-9 drainable surplus, 30/10 Dutch deep sounding test for pile capacity.
organization/planning, 43/3-5 flow, 30/1 I 9/35-36
salvage/recycling, 43/9 irrigated. 30/10, 30/12 Dykes. geological, 8/9
of transmission towers, 43/8 layouts, 30/1I-I2
Density mole drainage, 30/12
dry, laboratory testing, 9/32 and rainfall excess. 30/10-1 I Earth pressure. 9/17-22
of rock. hbOrdtOry testing, 10/8 spacings of drains, 30/1 I active pressure analysis. 9/18-19
slicing. for image classification, 7/26 of airports, 24/21-22 graphical method. 9/19
of water, 5/3 for buildings, 21/21 surcharge loads. 9/19
Department of Transport publications, 23/4 of dams. concrete. 18/14 active/passive conditions. 9/17
Derrick stone. for scour protection, 22/15 electro-osmosis, 9/38 bulkheads. anchored, 9/21-22
Derricks, for concrete, 37/12 and flooding, 30/12-13 anchor pull, 9/21
Desalination. 28/18-19 mole drainage, 30/12 bending moments. 9/22
Desert soils. 8/20 permeability, 9/37 face forces, 9/21
Deval test of rock, I O/I I pumping capacity, 9/38 penetration depth, 9/21
Dewatering of railways excavations. strutted. 9/20
of sewage sludge, 29/24 cutting slopes, 2513 passive resistance, 9/20
in tunnelling. 32/15 embankments. 25/4 pressure distribution. 9/20
Diaphragm walls, 9/40, 37/30-31 of roads, 23/26-30 stability, overall, 9/22
in basements, I7/1 I design data, 23/26-27 Earth retaining walls. reinforced 9/41-42.
for excavation support, 35/16 detail, 23/28-29 17/26
masonry. 15/14 in developing countries, 23/58 Earthfill dams. see under Dams
retaining walls. tied back. 17/26 hydraulic design, 23/27-28 Earthquakes
setting out for, 34/8 pipelines. buried, 23/30 loadings, 19/14-15
Diastrophism. geomorphological. 8/16 pollution control, 23/30 resistant timber construction. 16/1 I
Differential equation of beams, 2/21-22 for rock support. 10/34 wave generation, 31/1 I
Differentiation. I /22-23 and settlements. 9/38-39 Earthworks
partial, 1/23 site investigation, 9/37 for rdilWdyS. 25/34
Digital image processing (DIP). 7/22-26 for slope stabilization, 9/27 for roads, 23/21-28
hardware, 7/23 vacuum drainage, 9/38 alignment/slopes. 23/23-24
software. 7/23-26 vertical, 9/39 compaction. 23/25
Dilatometer in rock testing, 10/13 wells, 9/38 geotextiles, 23/25-26
Discontinuities of rock. properties, 10/20-23 see also Hydrodynamics; Rivers materials. 23/24-25
Disinfection of sewage eflluent, 29/20 Drains. catchwater. 30/21-22 planning/investigations, 23/21. 23/23
Disposal at Sea Act 1974, 29/25 Dredging, 41/1-13 testing, 23/25
Distance measurement, 6/8-12 ancillary plantlequipment. 41 /9 Echo-sounder in bathymetry. 3 1/20
direct (DDM), 6/8 disposal, environmental aspects, 41/1I-I2 Eclipse ground modelling system, 6/28
electronic (EDM). 6/10-12 of estuaries and silt movement. 31/14 Eigenvalue analysis if open girders, 20/28
development, 6/lO-l I general considerations. 41 /3 Elastic design for steel structures. 13/23-24
principle, 6/11-12 history. 41/3 Elastic models in rock engineering design,
optical (ODM), 6/8-10 hydraulic dredgers, 41/5-9 10/25
substense bar, 6/9-10 cutter suction. 4 1 / 6 4 Elastic modulus
tacheometry, 6/8-9 hopper suction, 41/8-9 of concrete. hard, 4/ I2
Distillation for desalination, 28/18-19 plain suction, 91/6 of plasticslrubbers, 4/20
Distinct clement method in rock engineering, pump-ashore plant, 41/9 Elasticity theory. 2/3-l I
I0/26-28 island construction, 41/11 analysis of elastic body 218-9
Distomat, 6/10 mechanical dredgers energy methods, 2/9-10
Index/6

Elasticity theory. continued Engelund and Hansen equations, 30/15 Fatigue


strain, see Strain English method of tunnelling, 32/4 of aluminium. calculation, 14/14
stresslstrain Environmental considerations ofsteel, 13/10-11
measurements, 2/1&1 I in airport location, 24/3 FdUllS, 8/12-14
relationships, 2/74? in demolition, 43/10 Fellenius's method for slope analysis, 9/2&25
stress, internal, see under Stress in diving, 42/7 Fencing
Elastomer definition, 4/18 in dredging, 41/1 I of airports, 24/22-23
Electricity supply. 27/1-34 in road planning, 23/10-12 of roads, 23/46
building layout. 27/65 history, 23/10 see also Security
chimneys, 27/21-24 noise, traffic/construction, 23/1I-I 2 Fill
ancillary structures, 27/24 urban, 23/l I from dredging, 41/1&1 I
flues/lining, 27/21, 27/24 vibration/sound. 23/10-1 I foundations on, 17/27
foundations. 27/24 in site investigations. I I/3 Filters
windshield design, 27/24 EPOXY for embankment dams, 18/30-31
cooling towers, 27/19-21 for maritime use, 31/26 for sewage treatment
shell, 27/20 paints. 4/26 percolating. 29/ I7
support/foundations, 27/20-21 Erosion sand, 29/19
wind loading, 27/20 of limestone, 8/24 for sludge dewatering. 29/24
costs. 27/4 littoral, 31/13 Finite differences in rock engineering, I0/26
fuels, 27/3 valley cycle, 8/24-25 Finite element analysis
hydro-electric power, 27/27 see 01.70 Scour in the stiffness method, 3/14-15
nuclear reactors, 27/24-27 Escakilon in buildings, 21/22 in rock engineering, 10/26
buildings for, 27/2627 Estuaries, 31/14 Fire
foundations. 27/25-26 modelling, 31/18 and Building Regulations
pressure vessel, 27/25 Euler strut, 2/26 escape requirements. 21/24
plant layout, 27/4 EVapOlrdnSpirdliOn, 30/34 spread. 2 I /2627
pumped storage. 27/27-28 Excavations protection
siting of station, 27/5 earth pressure, 9/20 at airports, 24/22
steam generation, 27/3 for foundations compartmentation against. 2 1/2627
power house anchoring, 9/20, 17/12. 17/13, 35/16 of concrete, 21/28
steelwork, 27/5, 27/610 basement 17/12-13 of steel. 21/29
floors/roofs/walls. 27/I&I I pad, 17/5 water installations, 21/21
foundations, 27/10 strip, 17/6 water supply for, 28/4
loadings, 27/8-9 heave. 9/9 resistance
ventilation. 27/12 quantity determination, 6/19-20 of concrete, reinforced/prestressed I2/6.
transmission lines, 27/28-34 in rock, 10/32-33 12/12. 12/28, 12/32-33. 21/28. 21/29
conductors, 27/29 setting out for, 34/5-6 of timber, 16/6
design standards, 27/29 temporary, 35/15-18 risk
'galloping', 19/4 loads, 35/16-17 in demolition. 43/10
sags/tensions, 27/29-3 I materials, 35/16 in power houses, and roof material, 27/10
transmission towers, 13/17, 27/31-34 newer approaches, 35/17 Fisher-Tippett type I external distribution in
demolition, 43/8 and water, 35/18 hydology. 301I3
foundations, 27/33-34 widths of excavation, 35/16 Flexibility method in structure analysis, 3 / 6 1 I
loading, wind/ice, 27/31 underground, design and rock mechanics, for beam analysis, 3/8-9
setting out for, 34/7 l0/3 1-32 coefficients, 3 / 7 4
turbo-generator support, 17/27, 27/13-14, .see also Bulkheads. anchored; Trenches sign convention. 3/8
27/3 I Excavators for frame analysis, 3/9-10
water cooling in demolition. 43/6 and stitTness method, 3/1 I
culverts, 27/17-19 for rock. l0/33 for truss analysis. 3/10
systems, 27/1&17 Explosion risk in demolition, 43/10 Flip buckets for water energy dissipation,
see a1.70 Services to buildings Explosives for underwater cutting, 42/9 22/25
Electro-gas welding, 38/4 see a l o Blasting Floats for current tracking, 31/21
Electro-osmosis for drainage 9/38 Extensometers for rock monitoring, 10/35 Flooding
Electro-slag welding, 38/34 and drainage, 30/12-13
Electrodialysis. for desalination, 28/ 19 Fabric of igneous rocks, X/9 economic issues, 30/13
Electromagnetic spectrum and remote sensing, Factories Acts on working in confined spaces. flow calculation. 30/13-14
7/14-15 40/25 frequency statistics, 30/13
Electronic distance measurement (EDM) Factors Of Safety and reservoir practice, 28/15
development, 6/10-1 I for concrete. structural, 12/74 storage, in road drainage. 23/28
for rock movement, l o p 5 for pipe strength, 40/10 walls, 30121
principle, 6/1 1-12 for piping, flow net for, 9/29 Floors, 21/35
in setting out. 34/3 in ship rendering, 26/15 for basement foundations. 17/10
Ellipse in slope stability analysis, 9/23, 9/25 concrete. 21/35, 37/25-26
as conic section. 1/17 Failure surface hardeners, 37/26
properties of, 1/18-19 of masonry in compression, 15/5-7 finishes, 21/30
Embankments of rails. 25/11-12 of power houses, 27/1 I
pipes in, loadings, 40/9 see al.70 Fatigue profiled steel decking, 13/18-19
railway, 25/34 Falsework, 35/13-14 timber, 16/3-4
river, 30/ 19-20 construction. 35/ I4 Flow, see Hydrodynamics
see also Dams; Earthworks loads, 35/13 Flow nets, 9/27-29
Energy stresses. 35/13-14 construction, 9/28
ofchannel flow 5/17 Fascines, 30/17-18 hydraulic problem for. 9/29
equations. for ship rendering, 26/13-I 5 Fastenings Fluidization of soil and slope instability, 9/27
of a liquid, 5 / 7 4 for rails. 25/9-10 Fluidized bed treatment of sewage, 29/19
and buildings, 21/14, 21/22-24 in limber. 16/8-10 Flumes
of waves, 31/74 .see irbo Bolting; Ties/connections measuring of, 22/7
Index17

Flumes, continued steel, erecting, 34/7 three-dimensional analytical, 1/20-22


Venturi, 5/19 .stresses/strains in, 2/29 distance between two points, 1/21
Fluvioglacial deposits, 8/2 1-22 see also Timber equations, 1/21-22
Foam grouts, 9/41 Freezing sign convention. 1120-21
F o d and Environmental Protection Act 1985, . for groundwater exclusion, 9/40 Geomorphology
and dredging, 41/1 I for rock support, 10/34 environments, 8/17-24
Formwork, 35/6-13 as tunnelling aid, 32/15 desert soils, 8/20
for columns, 35/1 I Freczing/thawing attack of concrete. 4/ 14 glacial soils, 8/20-23
concrete finish, 3518 Frequency, definition, 3/23 humid tropical residual soils, 8/17,
design considerations, 35/8 Frost susceptibility, and site investigation, 8/ I 9-20
loadings, 3517-8 I1/11-12 periglacial soils, 8/23-24
philosophy of, 35/9-10 see also Freezing; Freezing/thawing atlack rock weathering, 8/17
purpose, 35/67 of concrete; Periglacial soils processes, 8/16
release agents, 35/8-9 Froude number, 2213 Geophysical methods, in ground investigation.
slipforming Fuels 11/17
for offshore structures, 44/1 I for electricity supply, 27/3 Geotextiles, 9/42
for paving, 37/24-25 installations at airports. 24/22 durability. 4/24
vertical, 35/12-13, 37/2425 Fungal resistance, of timber, I6/5 in railway embankments, 25/4
for soffits, 35/11-12 for river reinforcement, 30/19
ties, 35/6 for roads, 23/25-26
for walls, 35/10 Gabions, 22/15. 30/19 Girders
Foundations, 21/42, 21/44 'Galloping' of transmission lines, 19/4 box, 20/24-27. 20129-31
bearing capacity and site investigation, 11/10 Galvanic corrosion of aluminium, 14/10 with cantilevers, 20/27
for chimneys, power station. 27/24 Gas-shielded arc welding, 3813 design, I3/2 1-22
concrete, mhss sections, 37/27 Gases with diaphragms, 20/25-27
for cooling towers. 27/20-21 biogas, 29/25 multiple single cell, 20129-31
deep, 17/9-18 in confined spaces, 40/25 single cell, 20/24-25
basement design, 17/10-13 for diving, 421- gantry. 13/23
caissons, 17/13-17 and site investigation, 11/12 open section, 20/21-22
definitions. 17/9-10 from sludge, 29/23 multiple web, 20/27-29
shaft foundations, 17/17-18 Gates, in hydraulic structures. 22/28-29 plate, design, I3/20-21
design, 17/1-31 air demand, 22/32 in temporary works, 35/6
loading. 17/34 Gaussian distribution. 1/30 welding, 38/8-9
procedure. I7/3 Geodimeters, 6/10 box, 38/8-9
in rock, 10/31 Geology and engineering, 8/1-34 plate. 38/8
and settlement, differential, I7/4 alluvial soils Glacial soils, 8/20-23
durability, and material. 17/29-30 classification, 8/26-27 see also Periglacial soils
for electricity power house, 27/10 deposition, 8/28 Glass reinforcement
on fill, 17/27 erosion cycle, 8/24-25 for cement. 21/28
for machinery, 17/26-27 river, 8/24 cladding, 37/31
turbo-generators, 17/27. 27/14 classification/description,8/5-10 for PVC pipes, 28/54
and mining subsidence. 17/27-28 field identification. 8/10 Glazing, 21/30
for nuclear reactors. 27/25-26 igenous rocks, 8/6-9 of power house, 27/1 I
for offshore concrete structures, 44/12 metamorphic rocks, 8/9-10 Glued-laminated timber
permeable for open channels. 22/10 properties, 8/10 assemblies. 16/7
for power houses. 27/10 sedimentary rocks, 8/54 stress grading, 16/6
retaining walls, 17/24-26 definitions, 8/3 and structural design, 16/7
in rock, blasting of, l0/33 deformations Gluing of plastics/rubbers, 4/21
setting out for. 34/6-7 engineering aspects, 8/15-16 Grab dredgers, 4 1 / 6 5
shallow. 17/49 faults, 8/12-14 Grabs in demolition, 43/7
bearing pressures. 17/5 folds. 8/14-15 Gradation, geomorphological, 8/16
definitions, 17/4 joints. 8/10, 8/12 Gradients of roads, 23/15
depth, 17/4-5 geomorphological environments, 8/17-24 Grading, setting out for, 34/5-6
design, structural, 17/7-9 desert soils, 8/20 Grand Dixence dam. 18/5. 18/14
ground treatment beneath, 17/9 glacial soils, 8/20-23 Grants, 2 I / I I
and loading eccentric, I7/7 humid tropical residual soils, 8/17, Granular soils
types of, 17/5-7 8/19-20 foundation'settlement in, 9/15-16
and soil mechanics, 9/7-17 periglacial soils, 8/23-24 particle size distribution, 9/30
bearing capacity. 9/6-9 rock weathering, 8/17 Grass for slope stabilization, 9/27
definitions, 9/7 geomorphological processes. 8/16 Gravity, in tidal forces, 31/3
failure, 9/7 information sources, 8/30-32 Gravity concrete dams, 18/13-14
settlement. 9/9-17 maps, 8/28-30 arch, 18/23-24
temporary, 3 9 / 6 7 general. 8/28-29 Great circle, definition. I / I I
for transmission towers, 27/33-34 in site investigation, 11/16 Greathead shield tunnelling, 32/4
see al.so Piled foundations special, 8/29-30 Greensand, Lower, for water pumping,
Frames plate tectonics, 8/4 28/I&l I
analysis for reservoirs. 28/13 Grid levelling, for excavation quantity
plastic, portal frame. 3/29-30 slratigraphy, principles of, 8/3-4 determination, 6/ 19-20
rigid, 3/9-10 for water pumping, 28/10-l I Grits, Carboniferous, for water pumping.
concrete reinforced/prestressed. 12/14 Geometry 28/l I
in high-rise buildings, and bending, 21/39 coordinate. 1/13-20 Ground improvement, 9/37-44
height limitations, 21/34 axes, change of. 1/14 anchors, 9/42
hydraulic, for trench support. 40/13, 40/14 conic sections, 1/17-20 deep, 9/42-43
moment distribution without sway, 3/17-18 lengths of curves, 1/15-16 geotextiles for,. 9/42
for pitched roof, 3/30-31 plane areas, 1/16-17 groundwater exclusion, 9/39-40
skeletal structures, 21/42 polar coordinates. 1/14-15 grouting, 9/40-41
Index/8

Ground improvement. continued ground level open space. 21/42 Hoists for concrete, 37/1 I
reinforced earth. 9/41-42 horizontal load resistance. 2 1/37-38 Hollow box foundations, see Raft foundations
shallow compaction. 9/43 masonry for. 15/13-14 Home lighting. 21/20
stabilization. 9/43-44 movement. 21/40. 21/42 Hopper loading. 1915
see also Drainage selling out for, 34/8-9 Hospital lighting, 21/19-20
Ground investigation, 1 1 / 6 1 5 shear walls/cores. 21/39 Hydrants, 2817
contamination hazards. 1 1 / 4 5 Highways. 23/1-64 in fire protection 28/6
COnIrdCtS, 11/26 administration, 23/34 Hydraulic structures. 22/1-34
COSI. I I/S communications, 23/45 cavitation. 22/24. 22/32
intensity of. I I/5 concrete construction, 37/20-25 channels. open, 22/3-15
main investigation. 11/8-14 conventional, 37/2 1-24 concepts, 22/34
contaminated site. 11/12 slipform. 37/24-25 control structures, 22/7-10
dala interpretation/report, 11/12. 11/14 in developing countries, 23/57-61 energy dissipation, 22/10. 22/12-14
depth, I1/10-1I drainage. 23/26-30 flumes, 22/7
lateral extent, 11/9-10 earthworks. 23/21-28 foundations. permeable. 22/10
problem conditions, I I / I 1-12 alignment/slopes, 23/23-24 scour/erosion. 22/14-15
types Of. I1/8-9 compaction, 23/25 transitions, 22/45
methods, 11/16-26 geotextiles. 23/25-26 weirs, 2211-7
engineering properties. 11/17-20 materials. 23/24-25 enclosed flow (conduits/tunnels), 22/16-20
over water. I 1/20 preliminary work. 23/21, 23/23 air problems. 22/20
SlrdtigrdphiCal. 11/16-17 testing, 23/25 drop shafts, 22/lX-20
objectives. I1/4 environmenlal appraisal. 23/10-12 exits. 22/18
personnel, 11/26 history. 23/10 flow routing. 22/18
preliminary, 1 1 / 6 8 noise, 23/11-12 head loss. 22/16
desk study, I1/7-8 urban. 2311 I transitions/bends. 22/17-18
objectives, I1/7 vibrjition/sound, 23/J0-I I tunnels in rock, 22/16-17
reconnaissance, I 1/8 fencing. 23/46 gates, 22/28-29
review during construction. 11/14 geometry. 23/ 12-2 I reservoir outlets, 22/25-26
for roads. 23/23 alignment, 23/12. 23/14-15 inlakes. 22/25-26
stages in, I 1 / 5 6 carriageway layout, 23/15-16 screens, 22/26
Groundwater control/exclusion, 9/39-40, interchangesljunctions. 23/16. 23/20-2 I vortices, 22/26
40/10 and speed, 23/12 spillways, 22120-25
Grouting width/capacity, 23/12 bellmouth/closed conduit. 22/22-23
for dam cut-off, 18/32 lighting, 23/44 chutes. 22/24-25
for foundations. shallow, 17/9 maintenance. 23/5 1-57 energy dissipation, 22/25
for ground improvement, 9/40-41 assessment of need, 23/56 outlets. low-level, 22/21-22
Guttman process, 9/41 non-structural, 23/56-57 purposes, 22/20-21
of rockbolts. 10/34 requirementslstandards. 23/5 1-56 siphon. 22/23-24
in tunnelling, 32/14-15 Sldff, 23/56. 23/57 types, 22/21
underwater. 42/9 winter. 23/56 weirs. 22/21
of aggregate, 37/18, 37/19 pavement/surPacings valves. 22/29-32. 28/74
in clamps. 44/16 block paving. 23/43-44 see a1.w Sewers
Groynes, 31/28, 31/30 capping/sub-base, 23/3 I Hydraulic tools for divers, 4219
Gumbel distribution in hydrology, 30/13 design advice, 23130-31 Hydraulics. see Hydraulic structures; Hydro-
Gunite. see Shotcrete flexible/Rexiblecomposite, 23/3 1-32, dynamics; Hydrostatics; Rivers; Water
Guttman grouting process, 9/41 23/36 Hydro-electric power, 27/27
for industrial use. 23/26, 23/42-43 Hydrodynamics, 5/7-27
for light use, 23/36 Bernoulli's theorem. 5/8
Halcrow lining of tunnels. 32/10 rigid, 23/36 channels, flow in. 5/15-19
Hankinson relationship for timber strength. scheme preparation, 23/67 critical depth, 5/17
I6/7 finalizing procedures, 23/6-7 energy, S/ I7
Harbours objectives, 23/4 horizontal bed. 5/18-19
models, 5/27, 31/18 preliminary assessment/consultation, hydraulic jump, 5/19
navigation requirements, 26/6-7 23/44 non-uniform flow, 5/17-18
siting/design, 26/3 report/recommendations, 23/6 resistance, 5/ I7
wave resonance in, 31/12 signslmarkings, 23/44-45 of sewage, 2 9 / 6 5
see also Ports specifications/materials testing, 23/48 shape for maximum flow, 5/16-17
Hardboard, tempered, I6/8 traffic appraisal, 23/7-10 velocity distribution. 5/17
Hardness economic evaluation. 23/10 Venturi flume, 5/19
of plastics/rubbers. 4/20 forecasts. 23/8-10 dimensional analysis. 5/2>7
of rock, testing, 10/8, 10/11-12 models, 23/74 models, 51267
Harmonic analysis of open girders, 20/28 preliminary, 23/7 energy, 5 / 7 4
Hazen's law in soil permeability, 9/4 urban, 23/49-51 jet impact. 5/23-24
Health and safety, in demolition, 43/9-10 capacity improvement. 23/49-50 cubical block, 5/23-24
see also Safety hierarchy, 23/49 stonelsand stability. 5/24
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 restrictions, 23/51 vanes, 5/23
on temporary works, 3513 route guidance, 23/50-51 orifices, 5/19-20
on trenching, 40115-16 traffic management/assessment, 23/49 pipes, flow in
on working in confined spaces, 40/25 user facilities. 23/46. 23/48 and bends, 511 I
Heathrow airport terminal, 24/12 Highways Act 1980, 23/3 and contractions, 5/1 I
Heave on excavation in clay soils, 9/9 Hire of plant deterioration of pipes, 5/10
Height measurement, see Levels the market. 36/9-10 and enlargements, 5/10-1 I
High-rise buildings, 21/37-42 philosophy, 36/8 friction calculation, 5/9-10
combined systems. 2 1 / 3 9 4 rate calculation, 36/8-9 measurement. 5/14-15
construction, 21/35-37 YS. buy, 36/9 multiple pipes, 5/13-14
frames in, 21/39 Hoardings, 4 3 / 6 5 non-circular section, 518-9
lndexl9

H,ydrodynamics. pipes. flow in, continued International Commission on Large Dams Landsat. 7/18-20, 7/26-27
nozzles. 5/13 (ICOLD). 18/36 Landscape Advisory Committee for roads,
parallel pipes, 5/12 International Union of Railways (UIC) ' 23/5
problems, graphs for, 5/11-12 loading recommendations, I9/8, 19/9 Landscape in building projects. 21/9-10
siphons, 5/12-13 Ion exchange of sewage effluent, 29/21 Laser level, 6/14-15
streamline/turbulent. 5/8 Iron Laterites, 8/17
and valves. 5/1 I cast, water pipes, 28/5 Latrines, intermediate technology. 29/25
water hammer, 5/15 maritime use, 31/25 Lattice towers and masts, 13/17
in water pipes, 28/6 pipes, for sewers, 28/6 Laybys, 23/48
sediment transport, 5/24 for steel, 13/4 Layers
vortices, 5/24-5 lrribarren equation for sea forces, 31/17 in grading, 34/5
waves. 5/25 Irrigation, 30/3-9 in trenching, 34/6
weirs and notches, 5120-23 canals in tunnelling. 34/9. 34/10
shapes, 5120-21 control structures, 22/8 Leaching requirement for irrigation, 3O/M
submerged, 5/21 design, 30/9 Lead risk in demolition, 43/9
time of discharge, 5/21-23 crop water requirements, 30/3-4 Legislation
Hydrofracturing for rock stress measurement, efficiency, 30/4-5 on dams, 18/36
10/36 methods, 30/6-9 on highways. 23/3
Hydrogeology. 10/4-5 sprinkler, 30/7-9 on pipelines, 40/3
maps, 8/30 sub-irrigation. 30/9 and temporary works, 35/3
Hydrographic surveys surface, 30/6-7 see also Planning consent
for dredging, 41/12 trickle, 30/9 Levelling in vertical control, 6/18-19
in site investigations, 11/14 rainfall, effective. 30/5 grid, 6/19-20
Hydrographs. 30/14 salinity/leaching requirement. 30/5 trigonometrical, 6/20-2 I
Hydrostatics, 5/5-7 with sewage emuent. 29/20 Levels, 6/12-15
buoyancy 5/7 soil moisture. 30/3 automatic, 6/14
force on an area. 5/5-7 Islands collimation error. 6/15
Hyperbolas as arctic offshore structures, 44/12 dumpy, 6/13
as conic section, 1/17 construction by dredging. 41/1 I laser, 6/14-15
properties, 1/19 ltaipu Dam. 18/20-22 principle, 6/13
quick-set, in setting out. 34/3
Ice tilting, 6/13
and arctic offshore design, 44/12 Jack-up rigs, 44/3 Licensing in plant operation. 36/15
loading on pylons. 27/3 I Jacking Lifts in buildings, 21/22
roads on, to offshore structures, 44/13 of pipes, 40/20 Lighting
Igneous rocks. 8 / 6 9 with slurry shields, 40/19 of airports. 24/15
classification, 8/8 with steerable borers, 40/19-20 on chimneys, warning, 27/24
composition, 8 / 6 4 in tunnels, 40/22-23 of interiors, 21/17-20
physical properties, 8/8-9 for rock testing artificial, 21/19
Image ratioing for enhancement. 7/26 for design, 10/15 daylight, 2 1/17-19
Inclinometers for rock monitoring, 10/35 stress measurement, 10/36 types of building, 21/19-20
Indentation testing of rock, 10/1 I Janbu's method for slope analysis. 9/25 of roads, 23/44
Industry Janssen's theory for bin loading. 19/5 Lightning protection on chimneys, 27/24
building light, 21/20 Jetties. 26/9-10 Lime
effluent and sewage treatment. 29/12 Johnson parabola for column strength, for grouting under foundations, 17/9
pavements, 23/36. 23/4243 2/27-28 for soil stabilization, 9/43
water consumption, 28/3-4 Jointing. 8/10. 8/12 Limestone
Inertia. moments of, 2/12-14 in concrete. 37/17 landforms, 8/24
Influence lines in structural analysis. 3/19-22 formwork for, 35/9 for water pumping, 28/1 I
for beams, 3/19-20 in pipelines, 40/3 Limit states of structures, 21/32
computers for, 3/22 reinforced. 12/19-20 aluminium, 14/10-1 I
Maxwell's reciprocal theorem in. 3/21 roads. 37/23 concrete, structural. 12/7-9
for model analysis, 3/21-2 of rock masonry, ISl4-5
Mueller-Breslau's principle in, 3/21 igneous, 8/9 steel, 13/25-26
for statically indeterminate structures, and mechanical properties, lO/20-23 temporary works, 35/3
3/20-21 Joosten grouting process, 9/41 Liners, plastic, durability, 4/24
for trusses. plane. 3/20 Jump. hydraulic. in channel Row. 5/19, Linescanner. thermal infra-red. 7/16
Infra-red scanning. 7/16-17 22/3-2 I LiqueFaction of soil and slope stability, 9/27
Insect resistance of timber. 16/6 in stilling basins, 22/10, 22/12 Liquefied petroleum gas in caverns, 32/19
termite resistant construction. 16/10 Liquid limit determination, 9/30
Insulation Lloyd-Davies method
of power house walls, 27/1 I Karst cycle of erosion, 8/24 for runoff estimation, 23/26
sound, 21/20 Kinematic envelope, and railway clearances, for sewer design, 29/34
thermal. 21/17 25/22 Llyn Brianne Dam. 18/1 I
of roofs. 21/31 Kozeny's formula in soil permeability, 9/4 Load classification groups/number for
Insurance pavements, 24/ 19-2 I
for demolition, 43/3 Loadings. 19/1-16
in plant operation, 36/15-16 Lacey regime formulae, 30/14-15 assessment. 19/3
Integration. 1/23-27 Lagoons for sewage treatment, 29/20 bins. 19/5
of fractions. 1/26-27 Lame constants. 2/7 bridges, 20/31-32
by parts. 1/25-26 Lamellar pigments for steel, 4/26 railway, 19/8-9
by substitution. 1/24 Lamellar tearing in welded steel. 38/10 road. 19/5-8
successive, 1/23-24 Lamination of steel plate, 38/10 Building Regulations, 21/26
by transformation, 1/24-25 see cr1.w Glued-laminated timber of culverts for cooling water. 27/18
Intermediate t&hnology. in sewage disposal. Land information systems (LIS). 6/28 earthquake effects, 19/14-15
29/25-26 Landform maps, 8/30 on excavations. 35/16-17
Index110

Loadings, eonfinued in site investigation. 11/16 in rock engineering design, 10/25-26, 10/27
on falsework, 35/13 special, 8/29-30 in structural analysis, 3/21-22
on formwork, 35/74 MARCH for road maintenance, 23/56 terrain digital, 7/12-13
on masonry walls, 15/8-10 Marine structures, see Coastal/maritime in traffic appraisal. 23/74
occupancy loads, 19/3-5 engineering Modular optoelectronic multispectral scanner
from paper storage, 21/32 Marston method for pipe loading, 40/5 (MOMS). 7/20
of pipes in trenches, 40/5-10 Masonry, load bearing. 15/1-17, 21/29 Moh's scale of hardness. 10/1 1-12
on power houses, 27/8-9 applications, 15/13-17 Mohr's circle
resistance of buildings boundary walls, 15/14 for rock. 10/19
horizontal, 21/35 bridges, 15/16-17 for shear strength of soil, 9/4
vertical, 21/34-35 high-rise buildings. 15/13-14 of stress, 2/5
in rock, monitoring, 10/36 low-rise buildings, 15/14 in stress/strain measurement, 2/1 I
of scaffolding steel, 35/4 retaining walls, 15/14-16 Moling
see olso under Wind cement for, 4/4 drainage, 30/12
Local Authorities in road planning, 23/7 codes of practice. 15/34 impact. 40/20
Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973, and durability in foundations, 17/30 Moment distribution method in structural
water supply, 28/3 history and recent revival. 15/3 analysis. 3/16-19
Location-time diagram. in project planning, limit state principles, 1 5 / 6 5 field end moments, 3/ 16-1 7
33/ I0 material properties, I5/3 with sway, 3/18
Locks, maritime, 26/15 reinforced without sway, 3/17-18
Logarithms. 1/4 durability. 15/13 Monel metal for maritime use, 31/26
Lomes, for concrete. 37/1 I performance, 15/12-13 Monitoring of deformation. 6/2O-26
Lorry-mounted cranes, 37/12-13 uses, 15/13 computation processes. 6/23-26
Los Angeles test of rock abrasion, 10/8, 10/1 YS. prestressed. 15/12-13 deformation analysis, 6/26
Lugeon test. for embankment dams, 18/32-3 stability, dimensional, 15/13 network precision, 6/24-25
Lunes. definition. I / I I unreinforced, I5/1-I I network reliability. 6/25-26
accidektal forces, I5/1 I monitoring points, 6/23
failure in compression. 15/5-7 reference points. 6/21-23
Macadam. 23/31 loading, 15/8-10 of rock movement. 10/35
Machinery, foundations for, 17/26-27 slenderness, I5/8 Monocomparators. 7 / 7 4
Magma stability/robustness. I5/lO-l I Monte Carlo simuhlion in project evaluation,
and rock composition. 8/6-7 Mass movements. periglacial, 8/23 33/ I3
and rock form, 8/8-9 Masts, 13/17 Moon. and tides, 31/3
Magnesium in aluminium alloy, 14/67 demolition, 43/8 Moraine, 8/21
Maintained load (ML) pile lest, 17/24 Materials. information sources, 4/3 Morgenstern and Price's method for slope
Management of projectsjcontracts, 33/1-18 see d s o Brickwork; Concrete; Masonry; analysis. 9/25-27
appraisal. 33/11-13 Plastics/rubbers; Steel Mortars
evaluation, 33/12-I 3 Mathematics 1/1-27 for concrete joints. 37/17
risk/uncertainty, 33/12 see o h Statistics resin. 4/24
cashflow, 33/7-8 Matrix algebra, 1/27 MOSS surveying/engineering design system.
commercial considerations. 33/67 Maxwell's reciprocal theorem. 3/21 6/27
COlltrdCtS, 33/14-15 Mean. arithmetic. 1/29 for road layout. 23/16
cost estimating, 3YlO-l I Meanders. river, 8/25 Motor Vehicles Regulations. 36/15
requirements. 33/10-1 I Median, 1/29 Motorways
techniques. 33/1 I Megget Dam. 18/9-1 I service areas. 23/46. 23/48
measurement/valuation. 33/15-16 Meicende Dam. 18/20 telephones/signals. 23/45
bills of quantities, 33/15-16 Membrane structures. 21/42 traffic COUIlIS. 19/6
changes to quantitieslwork. 33/l Metamorphic rocks, 8/9-10 .see olso Highways
method related charges. 33/16 Meteorology Movement
pricing/tendering policy, 33/6 and airport location, 24/5 of buildings. 21/34
organization. 3 3 / 3 4 data recording and sea conditions, 31/23 high-rise, 21/40, 21/42
decision making/control. 33/5 see oLo Rainfall in masonry, IS/I3
of design/construction. 33/5 Meters in timber, 16/4
objectives. 33/5 for currents. maritime. 3 1/21 Mueller-Breslau's principle in indeterminate
project stages. 33/3, 33/5 for pipe flow, 5/14-15 structure analysis. 3/21
safety. 33/6 Microstrainers for sewage. 29/20 Multi-storey buildings
planning. 33/8-10 Microtunnelling, 40/1620 water supply. 21/21
compiling, 33/8 convergent/expansive techniques, 40/17. ,0/19 see ulso High-rise buildings
programming, 33/10 design, 40/16 Mussel growth in cooling water culverts. 27/19
requirements of, 33/8 drilling, directional. 40/20
resource scheduling, 33/8. 33/10 jacking Nailed timber joints, 16/9
problems, 33/3 with borers. 40/19-20 National Motorway Communications Systems
projects, 33/16-18 with slurry slides, 40/19 (NMCS). 23/45
guidelines for management. 3/17-18 moling. impact, 40/20 Navier equations in elastic analysis. 2/9
Manganese in aluminium alloy. 14/7 ramming. 40/20 Needle valves, 22/30
Manning equation/formula site investigation for. 40/1617. 40/21 Network analysis in project planning. 33/10
for canal design, 30/9 MlDAS for urban traffic management, 23/49 Networks. computers for. 1/37
for pipe friction, 5/9-10 Millscale on steel. removal of. 4/24 Neves Dam, 18/27-29
Mapping. topographic. with aerial Mining subsidence, foundations and. 17/27-28 New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM).
photogrammetry. 7/11-12 Minitunnel lining system. h0/22 32/ I4
flight planning, 7/11-12 Mixers for concrete, 37/5-7 Nixon regime formulae. 30/15
triangulation, 7/12 Models Noise
Maps in coastal engineering. 31/17-19 from airportspaircraft. 24/3
general, 8/28-29 in ground investigation. 11/19-20 barriers on roads. 23/46
geological, 8/28-30 in hydrodynamic analysis, 5/2627 from bucket dredgers. 41/3
Ordnance Survey, 23/4 ships. 5/26 control in buildings. 21/20
Index/ll

Noise. conrinucd Painting instrumentation. 7/5-1 I


from demolition, 43/10 of aluminium, 14/10 cameras. 7/5-7
in road scheme appraisal. 2311 1-12 of steel. 4/24. 4/26 single-photograph, 7 / 7 4
Non-Newtonian fluids, 5 / 3 4 sec u1.so Corrosion protection stereoscopic. 7/8-1 I
Notches, see Weirs and notches Pallets for cargoes. 26/4 principles, 7/3-5
Nozzles and pipe flow, 5/13 Parabola afld~ylicdl.7/4-5
.Nuclear reactors, 27/24-27 as conic section. 1/17 geometry of a photograph, 7 / 3 4
buildings for, 27/26-27 properties. 1/17-18 stereoscopy/parallax. 7/4
foundations, 27/25-26 Parallax in photogrammetry, 714 for rock movement monitoring, 10135
pressure vessel, 27/25 Parallel axis theorem. 2/12 see a1.so Remote sensing
Numerical methods in rock engineering Parking in urban areas. 23/51 Photography, underwater, 4219
design, 10/26 see also Car parks see ulso Photogrammetry; Remote sensing
Particle size distribution, laboratory PICADY for urban traffic management. 23/49
determination. 9/30 Piers for ship berthing. 26/9
Oedometer test. 9/34 Partitions. interior, 21/31 Pieve di Cadore Dam, 18/24. 18/25-26
Offices Piezometers in rock drillholes. 10/35
Pavements
floor loading from filing,,21/32
aircraft. 24/16-21 Pigments for concrete, 4/8
lighting. 21/19 Piled foundations. 17/18-24
composite, 24/18
Offshore construction. 44/1-17 anchoring. 17/23
construction. 24/16
analysis. 44/14 caps, 17/23-24
design. UK. 24/19-21
arctic, 44/12-13 flexible. 24/ I8 definitions, 17/10
codes/regulations. 44/14-15 displacement, 17/18
function/requirements. 24/16
construction stages, 44/6-10 concrete. precastlprestressed. 17/19-21
overlays. 24/18-19
fabrication, 4 4 / 6 4 drivenlcast-in-place. 17/18, 17/22
rigid, 24/16-18
factors affecting. 44/10 in port areas, 26/15-16 steel, 17/21
hook-up/commissioning. 44/9- 10 timber. 17/19
for roads. 23/30-44
installation, 44/9 in fill, 17/27
block paving. 23/43-44
launching, 44/8-9 ground beams. 17/24
cappinglsub-base. 23/31
transporration. 44/9 raking piles, 17/23
design advice. 2Y30-31
lacilities, 44/13-14 replacement. 17/18-19
in devloping countries. 23/58-59
inspection. 44/15-1 6 auger-injected. 17/23
flexible/flexiblecomposite. 23/3 1-32.
organization/management, 44/ I 5 23/36 concrete for. 17/23
protection, cathodic. 44/16 percussion bored. 17/23
industrial use. 23/36. 23/42-43
removal, 44/16-17 rotary bored, 17/22-23
light use design, 23/36
repairlmaintenance. 44114- I6 testing. 17/24
rigid. 23/36
structures, 4 4 / 3 4 Pileslpiling
Pedestrians
concrete. 44/10-12 bored contiguous. 17/26
facilities for. 23/51
fixed, 44/3 for groundwater exclusion, 9/40
and road junctions, 23/21
floating, 44/3. 44/6 for breakwaters, 31/33
Penetration tests
jack-up rigs. 44/3 capacity determination
in ground investigation, 11/17
steel, 13/17-18 split barrel sampler for. 9/34 groups of piles. 9/35
work schedule and costs. 44/14 single piles, 9/35-36
standard. for settlement in granular soils,
see also Coastal/maritime engineering;
9/15-16 on clay, 9/36-31
Diving in channels, open, 22/10
Penman method for evapotranspiration, 30/3
Oil displacement. durability of. 17/29-30
Periglacial soils. 8/23-24
resistance of plastics/rubbers, 4/ 19 for excavation support. 17/12. 35/16, 35/18
Permafrost, 8/23
storage in caverns, 32/19 frames, 40/13,40/14
and site investigation. I I / I I
Oolites for water pumping, 28/10 for groundwater exclusion, 9/40
Permanent International Association of
Optical distance measurement (ODM), 6/8-10 for maritime use. 31/25
Navigation Congresses (PIANC),
subtense bar, 6/9-10 for offshore structures, 44/9
41/13
tacheometry, 6/8-9 for revetments. 30/19
report on disposal. 41/42
Ordnance Datum/bench marks. 6/19 on rock. 9/35
Permanent International Association of Road
Ordnance Survey on sand/gravel. deep, 9/35-36
Congresses (PIARC), 23/4
digital mapping, 6/26-27 setting-out for. 34/8
Permeability
maps, 23/4 in temporary works, 35/6
estimation for drainage, 9/37
Organic soils, and site investigation, I I / I I in water. forces on, 31/15
rock testing. for design, IOj13
Orifices, hydrodynamics of, 5/19-20 see a1.so Bulkheads. anchored
of soils, 9 / 4 5
rounded, 5/20 Pipelines
Perry-Robertson formula for column strength.
sharp-edged. 5/19
2/28 costs. 40/29
submerged, 5/20 appraisal. 40/29-30
Personnel
time of dishcarge, 5/20 construction, 40/30-3 1
for plant maintenance. 36/14
Orthophoto systems, 7/1 I joints, 40/3
for steel erecting. 39/9
OSCADY for uban traffic management. 23/49 maritime
Oscillations, bridge, and subjective reaction, pH control
of sewage, 29/1&15 outfall. 31/34
20/36-37 sea-bed, forces on, 3 I / I5
in water treatment. 28/20. 28/21
Osmosis, reverse Photoelastic stress measurements, 211 I materials. 4013
for desalination. 28/19 railway crossing. 25/2 I
Photogrammetry. 7/3-14
of sewage effluent, 29/21 aerial, 7/1 1-13 rehabilitation. 40/25-29
Oxidation ponds, 29/19 digital terrain models, 7/12-13 for road drainage. 23/30
Oxygen demand of sewage, 29/1 I routing. 40/3
monitoring deformation, 7/13
Ozonation of sewage effluent, 29/20 topographic mapping, 7/1I-I 2 working in confined spaces, 40/23-25
Ozone resistance of plastics/rubbers, 4/19 close-range, 7/13-14 see ulso Microtunnelling; Trenches
laboratory applications, 7/14 see also under Tunnelling
Pad foundations, 17/54 monitoring of deformation. 7/13-14 Pipelines Act, 1967, 23/3
definition, 17/4 slope/rock stability, 7/14 Pipes
design, structural 17/74 tunnel profiling, 7/14 flow in, see under Hydrodynamics
Index112

Pipes, continued Plasticizers other facilities. 26/54


laying, setting out for, 34/6 for concrete, 4/7 vessels handled, 2 6 / 6 5
in road drainage, 23/27-28 in thermoplastics, and bonding, 4/21 Power transmission lines, 27/28-34
Tor sewers. 28/6. 29/74 Plastics/rubbers, 4/18-24 conductors, 27/29
in trenches applications. 4/2 I design standards. 27/29
loadings. @/5-10 compounding/procffsing. 4/20 'galloping'. 19/4
properties. 40/3 definitions, 4/18-19 sags/tensions. 27/29-3 I
protection, 40/15 Fabrication. 4/20-21 supports. 27/3 1-34
strength, 40/10 contact moulding, 4/21 demolition, 43/8
testing. 40/15 foamed/expanded. 4/2 I. 4/24 steel. 13/17
for water transmission. 2 8 / 4 4 identification, 4/21 see also Electricity supply; Transmission
design, 28/6 for maritime use. 31/26 towers
flow in, 28/6 properties Pozzolanic cement, 4/4
materials. 28/54 mechanical, 4/19-20 , Pozzolans. 4/5
see abo Hydraulic structures physical/chemical. 4/ 19 Prandtl equation, 5/8
Piping for sewer pipes, 28/6 Precast concrete. 12129-3 I. 37/3 1-32
factor of safety. flow net for, 9/29 for sheathing of basements, 17/11 Precedence diagrams in project planning,
in open channels, 22/10 for temporary works, 35/5 33/10
Pitch paints, 4/26 Plate bearing tests. 9/33 Preloading
Planning consent of rock. 10/13. 10/15 for deep improvement, 9/42
for building, 21/1 I Plate tectonics. 8/4 for foundations, shallow, 17/9
for roads, 23/7 Plywood 'Prepakt' grout. 9/41
Planning of projects. 33/8-10 assemblies. I6/X Preservative treatment of timber, 16/6
compiling, 3318 for temporary works. 3 5 / 6 5 for maritime use, 3 I I25
programming, 33/10 Pneumatic construction. 21/42 Pressure-momentum theorem. 22/3
remote sensing for. 7/27 Pneumatic tools for divers. 42/8-9 Pressure
requirements of. 33/8 Poker vibrators. 37/19-20 monitoring in rock, 10/36
resource scheduling, 33/8. 33/10 Polders. 4 I /9-I 0 uplift, flow net for, 9/29
Plant. 36/1-17 Pollution see a l o Earth pressure
for building services. 21/14 ground investigation and contamination, Prestressed concrete. 12/21-29
central heating, 21/21 11/65. 11/12 beams, 12/26-27
for concrete pavements, 23/36 from road drainage. control. 23/30 columns, 12/28
for concrete. ready-mixed, 37/8-10 in sed. detection, 31/22 losses of prestress. 12/24-25
semiimobile, 37/9 in sewage, 29/5 serviceabihly
stationary, 37/8-9 from storm runoff, 29/4 prestress and, 12/23-24
truck mixers, 37/9-10 of water from sewage. 29/12 requirements, 12/21-23
control, 36/16-17 .see ob0 Noise secondary reinforcement. 12/29
financial, 36/16-17 Polymers slabs. 12/27
operational, 36/16 definition. 4/18 stress limitations, 12/25
for demolition, 43/64 polypropylene sheets for scour protection. with tendons, 12/3
hire, 36/8-10 22/15 tendon/reinforcement requirements,
vs. buy. 3619 polyurethane paints. 4/26 I 2/28-29
industry. recent development, 36/3 polyvinylchloride pipes tension members, 12/28
the market, 36/9-10 for maritime use. 31/26 Prestressing of masonry, I5/12- I3
philosophy. 36/8 for water. 2X/5-6 Preweakening in demolition. 43/6
rate calculation. 36/8-9 Population. statistical. 1/29 Primers for steel, 4/26
industrial, structural steel for, 13/16 representations. 1/30 Principal component analysis for image
insurance. 36/15-16 Pore presssure enhancement. 7/26
licensing, 36/15 in dams Probabilistic approach to hazard. 21/33
maintenance. 36/i2-14 concrete, 28/ I8 Probable maximum flood (PMF), 28/15
equipment for. 36/13-14 earth. 28/16 Profile dredgers. 41/6
staff, 36/14 in soil, and effective stress, 9/3 Profiles in setting out. 34/14
systems. 3611 2-13 Porosity of rock, laboratory testing, IO/8 Progressions. algebraic. I /4
output/production, 36/1&12 Portal frames, 21/42 Proof stress, 2/8
calculation of optimum, 36/10-l I Portland cements. 4 / 3 4 Props in temporary works. 35/6
human errors, 36/12 Ports, 26/ I- I6 Public consultation/enquiry for road schemes,
reducing factors, 36/11-12 berths 23/54
for rock excavation, l o p 3 marginal, 26/7 Public Utilities Street Works Act 1950. 23/34
rollers/compactors, 9/43 roll-on roll-off. 26/1&12 Pulverized fuel ash, 4/5
selection. 36/44 dolphins. 26/10 cement. 4/4
factors in. 36/3 durability/mainlenance, 26/16 Pumped storage in electricity generation,
methods/procedures. 36/54 rendering, 26/12-I 5 27/27-28
principles, 36/65 energy equation, 26/13-15 Pumping
spares/stock control, 36/14-15 factor of safety, 26/15 of concrete. 37/13-15
static. foundations for, 17/26-27 structural considerations. 26/15 for offshore construction. 44/1 I
see also Dredging systems, attached/detached. 26/13 of dredged fill. 41/10-1 I
Plastic analysis jetties, 26/9-10 river stations, 30/25-26
definitions, 3/26-27 loads, 26/12 of sewage, 28/9-10
examples, 3/28-31 locks, 26/ I5 of water. 28/10-12
continuous beam, 3/29 navigation requirements. 26/67 Pumps
pitched roof frame, 3lW-31 pavements, 26/15-16 for cooling water. 27/17-18
portal frame. 3/29-30 piers, 26/9 river, 30/24-25
propped cantilevers. 3/28-29 planning. 2 6 / 3 4 for sewage. 29/13
theorems/principles, 3/27-28 cargo handling, 26/5 Pusher arms, for demolition, 43/6-7
Plastic design for stcel structures. 13/24 cargo types, 26/34 Pylons. see Transmission towers
Plastic limit. determination in soils, 9/30 land area/access, 2615
Index113

Quadratic equations, I /3 Reinforced concrete, 12/14-21 contiguous bored piles, 17/26


QUADRO 2 traffic program. 23/10 bar curtailment/anchorage. I2/2&2 I counterfort, 17/25
Quality assurance in project management, beams, 2/17, 12/14-17 gravity, 17/24-26
33/54 design, 12/13-14 masonry for, 15/14-16
Quality control bond/anchorage, 12/19 materials/stresses, 17/26
of concrete, ready-mixed, 1/35, 37/10 columns, I21I8 monitoring
in project management, 33/5 cover, 12/19 by photogrammetry, 7/13-14
statistics in, 1/34-35 laps/joints, 12/19-20 rock pressure. 10/36
reinforcement reinforced earth, 17/26
limits, I2/2 I riverside. 30/22
spacing, 12/19 tied back, 17/26
Racking resistance of timber frame, 16/10 retaining walls. cantilevered. 17/25 see also Bulkheads, anchored; Earth
Radar. side-looking airborne, 7/ 17-1 8 roads, 37/22-23 pressure
Radian. 1/6 slabs, I2/ 17-1 8 Retarders for concrete, 4/8
Radio ranging, 31/20 walls, 12/14. 12/18 Return periods in hydrology, 30/13
Radioactive waste underground storage, I0/3 I Reinforced masonry Revelments, 30/17-19
Raft foundations. 17/7 durability, 15/13 brushwood, 30/17-18
buoyancy. I7/ I3 performance, 15/12-13 concrete/geotextiles, 30/19
definition, 17/9 YS. prestressed. 15/12-13 gabions, 30/19
definition. 17/4 uses. 15/13 stone, 30/18-19
design, structural. 17/8-9 for boundary walls, 15/14 Reynolds number
on fill, 17/27 for retaining walls, 15/14-16 and head loss in conduits, 22/16
Railways, 25/1-25 Reinforced soil, 9/41-42. 17/26 in wind loading, 19/1I
ballast, 25/4-5 Remote sensing, 7/14-29 and wind oscillation, 19/13, 19/14 ,

track profile, 25/5 airborne systems, 7/15-18 Rib ratio (RR) for rock support. 10/17
earthworks, 2 5 / 3 4 infra-red scanning, thermal, 7/16-17 Rip-rap for scour protection. 22/15 '
cuttings, 25/3 multispectral scanner. 7/16 martime use, 31/17
embankments, 25/34 photography, 7/15-16 Rippers, rock. 10/33
gradient/alignment, 2513 radar, side-looking, 7/17-18 Rivers
site investigation, 25/3 applications. 7/26-27 alluvial, control structures. 22/74
fastenings. 25/9-10 construction, 7/27 alluvium deposition, 8/28
loading recommendations, 19/8, 19/9 design, 7/27 catchwater drains, 30/21
rails, 25/10-12 maintenance, 7/27 channels
Failures, 25/11-12 preliminary planing/feasibility, 7/27 clearance, 30/17
research/development/collaboralion, 25/23 reconnaissance investigation, 7/26-27 design, 30/16-17
sleepers, 25/67 data sources realignment, 30/17
concrete, 25/7 aerial photography. 7/28-29 regime, 30/14-15
steel, 25/6-7 satellite, 7/27-28 revetments/lining, 30/17-19
timber, 25/6 digital image processing, 7/22-26 detention basins, 30/21
structures. 25/20-23 hardware. 7/23 as drains. 30/12
bridges, 19/8-9. 25/2 1-22 software. 7/23-26 erosion cycle, 8/24-25
clearances, 25/22 electromagnetic spectrum and, 7/14-15 hydrology, 30/13-14
electrification, I3/ I7 satellite systems, 7/18-22 flood flow, 30/!3-14
inspection/maintenance, 25/22-23 active systems. 7/22 measurement, 30/13
refuges, 25/22 passive systems, 7/18-22 statistics, 30/13
stations. 25/20-21 system classification, 7/15 models, 5/26
switches/crossings, 25/15-16 Remotely operated vehicles (ROV), 42/12 pumping, 30/24-26
leads, 25/16 Replacement piles, see Bored piles sediment transport, 30/15-16
track Reservoirs Structures
curved, 25/12-14 formation, 28/14-18 bridges. 30/22
maintenance/renewal. 25/ 18-20 ancillary structure. 28/15 embankments, 30/19-20
slab, 25/16-18 dams, see Dams flood walls, 30/21
welded, 25/1.4-15 and floods, 28/ I5 gates, control, 30/23-24
Rainfall outlets, 22/25-26 outfalls, tidal, 30/24
data sources, 23/26 intakes, 22/25-26 retaining walls, 30/22
effective, 30/5 screens, 22/26 weirs, 30/22-23
formulae for flood flow, 30/13-14 vortices, 22/26 washlands, 30/21
in reservoir economics, 28/13-14 pumped storage, 28/18 Riveting of aluminium, 14/8
Ramming pipes, 40/20 raised lakes, 28/18 design, 14/14
Ranging schemes, 28/12-14 Roads
radio. 3 I /20 catchwaters, 28/14 bridges, loading, 19/54
of waves in harbour basins, 31/12 development, 28/12-13 depth of site investigation. 11/11
Rankine formula for column strength, 2/27 economics, yield/storage, 28/13-14 excavation
Rapid Analysis Machine (RAM) for fresh geology, 28/13 blasting, 10/33
concrete, 4/ 17 see olso Spillways mechanical, 10/33
Rational Method, see Lloyd-Davies method Reservoirs Acts 1930/1975. 18/36 of ice to offshore structures, 44/13
Raymond step taper pile, 17/22 Residual soils, humid tropical, 8/17, 8/19-20 material selection for, 10/16
Ready-mixed concrete, 37/8-10 Resin mortars, 4/24 in tunnels, precast. 37/31
advantages, 37/8 Resource see also Highways
plant. 37/8-10 maps, 8/30 Robustness of buildings, 21/33
semi-mobile, 37/9 scheduling, in project planning, 33/10 Building Regulations on, 12/13
stationary, 37/8-9 Respiratory protection in demolition, 43/9 masonry, l5/l0-l I
truck mixers, 37/9-10 Retaining walls, 17/24-26 Rock
quality control. 1/35. 37/10 for basement foundations, 17/11 construction methods, lO/33-34
Reclamation works with dredgers, 41/9-1 I buttressed, 17/26 excavation, 10/32-33
Regression in straight line fitting, 1/34 cantilevered, 17/25 support, 10/33-34
Index/l4

Rock, conrinued Sainflou method for wave forces, 31/16 erosion/accretion. 3 1/13
construction monitoring, 10/34-36 SI Vcnant's theory modelling, 31/19
movement. 10/35 for bars, uniform, 2/23 sources, 31/12
pressure/load, 10/36 for beams stability estimation, 31/23
stress measurement, 10/35-36 deflection, 2/21 transport, 3 I / I 2-1 3
water pressure/flow, 10/35 shear stresses, 2/19 transport. 5/24, 30/15
description, systematic, 11/27, I1/30-31. for non-uniform torsion, 2/24-25 see also Alluvial soils; Alluvium
11/32-33 Saline wedge in estuaries, 31/14 Seepage, see Flow nets
design methods, 10/23-32 Salinity from irrigation, 30/5 Seismic surveys
computational. I0/26-28 see also Desalination refractive, 10/12
empirical. 10/24 Salt as aggregate contaminant. 4/7 of seabed, 31/21
foundations, 10/31 Samples, statistical. 1/28-29 Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus
models/analogue. 10/25-26 and population, 1/30 (SCUBA), see Aqualung
numerical, 1\0/25-26 Sampling Septic tanks, 29/16. 29/25-26
slopes, lO/28-30 for digital terrain models, 7/13 Services to buildings
underground openings, 10/31-32 of sewage, 29/1 I accommodation, 21 / 13-14
hydrogeology/void space, 10/4-5 in site investigation. I l/l'7 consultations for. 21/1 I
joints/discontinuities, I0/20-23 contaminated sites, 11/12 design, computers in, 21/14
for maritime works, 31/24 split barrel sampler, 9/34 disconnection/diversion in demolition.
mass properties, 10/17-23 Sand filters, 29/19 43/3
classification, 10/17-18. 32/18 Sand mastic, 3 I /26 Setting-out on site, 34/1-10
deformability. 10/18 Sand/gravel. pile capacity on, 9/35-36 in buildings, 34/7-8
mechanics/engineering Sandslones, for water pumping. 28/10, for excavation/grading. 34/54
principles, 1 0 / 3 4 28/11 for foundations, 3 4 / 6 7
scope, 10/3 Sandwicks, 9/39 instruments in, 34/3
pile capacity on. 9/35 Satellite remote sensing, 7/18-22 for marine structures, 34/9
stresses in. 10/5-6 . active satellite development. 7/22 principles, 34/3
structure. 10/4 Landsat, 7/18-20 survey/preparations. 3 4 / 4 5
rating (RSR), 10/17 modular optoelectronic multispectral for.tall structures, 34/8-9
tests. 10/6-16 scanner (MOMS), 7/20 for trenching/pipelaying. 34/6
design tests, 10/13 Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la for tunnelling, 34/9-10
field index, 10/12-13 Terre (SPOT), 7/20-22 working procedures, 34/34
laboratory index, 10/8-12 SATURN for urban traffic management, Settlement
and selection of materials. 10/15-16 23/49 of foundations, 9/9-17
support. 10/34 Scaffolding in clay soils, 9/9-15
. bolts, see Rockbolts access, 35/15 depth corrections. 9/16-17
Rockbolts, 10/33-34 prefabricated. 35/6 differential, and design, I7/4
friction-anchored, 10/34 steel. 35/4 in granular soils, 9/15-16
fully-bonded, 10/33 tower. 35/15 monitoring, see under Deformation
grouting, 10/34 Scaling. see Models and pipe loading. 40/9
joint-anchored, 10/33-34 Scanners from tunnelling. 32/16
load monitoring, l0/36 multi-spectral, in remote sensing, 7/16 from water lowering, 9/38-39
for tunnel temporary support. 32/13 thermal infra-red. 7/16-17 Sewage, 29/65
Rockfill. material selection for, 10/15 Scend oscillaltion in harbour basins. 31/12 flow, 29/4-5
see also under Dams Schmidt rebound hammer, pohlion load, 29/5
Roll-on/roll-off for rock hardness, lO/l I in sea. detection, 31/22
berths, 26/10-12 indices for. 10/12 sed discharge, 31/14-15
vessels, 26/5 for rock strength. and jointing, 10/23 treatment. 29/11-26
Rollcrete dams, 18/14. 18/16-17, 37/26-27 School lighting. 21/20 advanced, 29/20-21
design concepts, 18/34-36 SCOOT for traffic signal control, 23/50 biological, 29/16-19
Rollers, 9/43 Scour effluent disposal, 29/12-13
Rolling mills for steel, 13/67 by open channels and industrial effluents, 29/12
Roofs, 2 I /30-3 I depth, 22/14-15 intermediate technology. 29/25-26
pitched. frames for. 3/30-31 protection. 22/ I5 preliminary, 29/13-15
of power houses, 27/10-1 I at river bridges, 30/22 primary, 29/15-16
Rotating biological contractors (RBC), Screens in reservoir outlets, 22/26 sampling/analysis. 29/11-12
29/ 17-1 8 %abed surveying, 3 I /20-2 I sewage characteristics. 29/1 I
Roundabouts. traffic, 23/50 below seabed, 31/21 sludge. treatment, 29/21-24
Rubber$aints, chlorinated, 4/26 SeawallS. 3 I /26-28 tertiary. 29/19-20
see also Plastics/rubbers forces on. 31/16-17 treatability. 29/12
Runoff overtopping modelling, 31/18 Sewers. 29/3-1 I
from roads, estimation, 23/26-27 see ul.~oCoasval/maritime engineering construction, 29/10-1 I
storm, and pollution. 29/4 Secant formula for column strength, 2/28 definitions. 29/3
Runways Security maintenance/renovation, 29/ I I
definitions. 24/23 airport. 24/15 . pumping, 29/9-10
drainage, 24/21-22 of buildings, 21/27-28 storm sewer design, 29/34
layout and operation, 24/9 Sedimentary rocks, 8 / 5 4 Modified Rational Method, 19/34
standards, 2 4 / 5 4 deposition environments, 8/6 Wallingford procedure, 29/3
in slraligraphy, 8 / 3 4 system design, 29/54
and weathering. 11/54 ancillary structures, 29/8
Safety Sedimentation Colebrook-White formula. 29/5
in construction, 33/6 in harbours. 26/3 materials, 29/67
in demolition, 43/9-10 . of sewage, 29/15 parameters. 29/5
on roads. fences/barrien, 23/46 Sediments pipes, 29/6. 29/74
in steel erection, 39/%'10 seabed/littoral. 31/12-14 Shaft foundations, 17/17-18
in trenching. 40/15-16 beach sorting, 31/13 definition, 17/10
see also Factors of safety drift, littoral. 31/14 Shafts. seawater invdke/outfa\l, 3 1/34
Index/l5

Shear Skid resistance testing, 23/56 strength, 9/33-34


of beams Skips for concrete tropical, residual, 8/17, 8/19-20
axis. 2/21 distribution. 37/13 see also Earth pressure; Foundations;
prestressed concrete, 12/26-27 placement underwater, 37/19 Reinforced soils; Seepage and flow nets;
centre, and SI Venant's theory, 2/19-21 Slabs, concrete, reinforced/prestressed Slope stability; Stabilization of soils
lag, in bridges, and concentrated load, 20/33 design, 12/13-14 Soldiers in temporary works, 35/6
modulus, 2/7 continuous/two-way 12/14 Sonar equipment in seabed surveying,
strength flat, 12/14 3 1/20-2 I
of beams, 12/15-16 prestressed. 12/27 Sondes, 40/17
of rocks, and jointing, 10/21-23 reinforced, 12/17-18 Spalling of concrete in fire, 12/33
of slabs. 12/17 Slake durabilility testing of rock, lO/8 Specific gravity of soil particles, 9/30
of soils, 9 / 3 4 Slave valves, 22/20-32 Spiles in tunnelling, 32/13
strip, for rock monitoring, 10135 Sleepers, 25/67 Spillways, 22/20-25
testing concrete, 25/7 bellmouth/closed conduit, 22/22-23
of rock, direct, 10/13 steel, 25/67 channel, 22/21
of soils, 9/33-34 timber. 25/6 chutes, 22/24-25
Shears, hydraulic, 43/7 Slipforming of concrete energy dissipation, 22/25
Sheet piles for offshore construction. 44/1 I models, 5/26
for breakwaters. 31/33 for paving, 37/24-25 outlets. low-level, 22/21-22
for excavation support. 17/12, 35/16 vertical, 35/12-13, 37/27-28 purposes, 22/20-21
and water, 35/18 Slipways for offshore structures, 44/13 siphon, 22/23-24
for groundwater exclusion, 9/40 slope stability. 9/22-27 types, 22/20
for maritime use, 31/25 analysis, 9/23-27 weirs, 22/21
for revelments. 30/19 circular slips, 9/24-25 Split barrel sampler, 9/34
Sheeting, for excavation support. 35/16 method of slices, 9/23-24 SPOT,7/20-22
Shield tunnelling, 3 2 / 6 5 non-circular slips, 9/25-27 Spreadsheets, 1/37
bentonite. 32/6 short-term stability, 9/24 Sprinkler irrigation, 30/7-9
Shields flow sides, 9/27 Stabilization of soils, 9/43-44
in pipe jacking, 40/19 and photogrammetry, 7/14 limitations, 9/44
for trench support, 40/14 protective/remedial measures, 9/27 materials, 9/43
Ships of railway cuttings. 25/3 methods, 9/43-44
classification/description~26/4-5 Sludge Staff, see Personnel
in harbour, ranging, 31/12 disposal, 29/24-25 Stairways in railway stations, 25/20
interactions on passing, 26/6 gas. 29/23 Standard deviation. 1/29-30
models, 5/26 treatment, 29/2 1-24 ratios, 1/33
turning circles, 26/7 Sluice gates Standard error, 1/30
see also Harbours; Ports and channel flow, 5/ I7 in surveying, 6/4
Shore scleroscope for rock hardness, 10/1I models, 5/26 a posteriori, in deformation computation,
coefficient of plasticity, lO/12 Sodium silicate grouts. 9/41 6/26
Shoring for demolition. 43/4 Soffits. formwork for. 35/11-12 Standardslcodes of practice
Shotcrete, 37/28-29 Software, I/3S for airports, 24/54
in tunnel temporary support, 32/13 for Digital Image Processing. 7/23-26 aprons. 24/7
Shuttering, see Formwork for roads obstruction surfaces, 24/74
SI units, 4 5 / 3 4 bayout, 23/16 reference codes, 24/5
conversion factors. 45/54 maintenance, 23/56 runways, 24/54
Side-looking airborne radar (SLAR). 7/17-18 specific vs. general purpose, 1/38 taxiways, 24/6
Signs for traffic for aluminium design, 14/10
aircraft ground movement, 24/22 appraisal, 23/10 for bolting. 13/27
road, 23/44-45 urban management, 23/49, 23/50 for building structure. 21/26
Silica fume. condensed. 4/5 Soils for column design, 2/28-29
Silicon in aluminium alloy, 14/6 alluvial for concrete
Sills, geological, 8/9 classification, 2/26-27 materials, 4/27-28
Silo loading, 19/5 deposition, 8/28 reinforcedjprestressed, I2/3, I2/4, I2/ I4
Silt movement in estuaries and erosion cycle, 8/2425 for conductors. 27/29
and dredging, 31/14 river, 8/24-28 for demolition, 43/4
modelling, 31/IR classification, 11/27 for drainage from buildings, 21/21
Simpson's rule for plane areas, 1/16 desert, 8/20 for fire in roofs, 21/31
Siphon spillways, 22/23-24 formation/origin, 8/16 for foundation loading, 17/3
Siphons in pipe flow, 5/12-13 glacial. 8/20-23 for lifts/escalators, 2 1/22
Site appraisal for building, 21/9 identification/description.I I /24-25 for masonry, 1 5 / 3 4
Site investigation, 11/1-38 systematic, 11/26-27 for office loadings, 19/4
boreholelpit logs, 11/27, 11/34-37. 11/38 maps. 8/30 for offshore construction, 44/14-15
for dredging, 41/1 I mechanics. 91i-45 for plastic materials, 4/27-28
examination of site, I1/4 consolidation, 915 for rails, 25/1 I
littoral, 31/19 definitions/terms, 9/29 for scaffolding, 35/15
for pipelaying, 40/10 design and limit states. 9 / 6 7 tube loading, 35/4
preliminary. I I/3 effective stress. 913 for steels, structural
for railways, 25/3 oermeabilitv. 9 / 4 5 materials. 13/11-12
rock description, systematic, 11/27, shear strength.'9/34 Shapes, 13/12-13
11/30-31, 11/32-33 moisture content, 30/3 for steelwork
soils periglacial, 8/2>24 loading, 2718
classification. 11/27. 11/28, 11/29 problem types. and site investigation, I I / I I structu-ral, I 3 p - 4
description systematic, 11/16-27 testing, laboratory, 9/29-35 for timber, 16/3
for tunnels, 32/3 chemical classification, 9/32 fmtenings, 16/8
for microtunnelling, 40/16--17.40/21 compaction, 9/32-33 strength, l6/6
see also Ground investigation; Setting-out consolidation, 9/34-35 for water supply, 21/21
on site physical classification, 9/30-32 for welding, 13/27
Index/l6

Standing wave, 5/19, 31/6 floors, profiled deck, 13/18-19 bar theory
in harbour basins, 31/12 inspection during construction, 13/28 beams, 2/16-22, 12/26
Stations. railway. 25/20-21 \Odd bClOrS, pdrtkl. 13/25 columns, 2/25-29
Statistics, 1/28-35 materials, economic considerations, 13/12 cross-section geometry, 2/12-14
in confidence limits, 1/30-32 notch ductility, 13/9-10 engineering theory of bending of beams
definitions. 1/28-29 standards, 13/34 limitations, 2/29-30
in deformation computation, 6/24-26 mdlerkdk, 13/11-12 frameworks, stress/strain in, 2/29
dispersion, 1/29-30 shapes, 13/12-13 and non-uniform torsion, 2/24-25
in experimentation, industrial 1/30-34 steelmaking process, 13/47 stress resultants, 2/15-16
location, 1/29 continuous casting, I3/6 theory of, 2/12-30
means, comparison, 1/33 finishing, 13/67 ties, 2/16
samples/population representation. 1/30 ingots. 13/5-6 and uniform torque, 2/22-24
standard deviation ratios, 1/33 iron, 13/4 concrete
straight-line fitting, 1/34 special castings, I3/6 compressive, 4/9-1 I
for surveying errors, 6/4 tensile stress/strain and ductility, I3/8-9 reinforced/prestressed, I2/9
tolerance and quality control, 1/34-35 types of structure, 13/13-19 tensile/flexural. 4/1 1-12
variance analysis, 1/33-34 bridges, l3/l617, 13/22, 39/6-7 testing. 4/16
Steel. 21/28-29 heavy industrial, 13/14-15 elasticity theory. 2/3-I I
vs. aluminium, 14/4 industrial plant. 13/16 analysis of elastic body. 2/8-10
for concrete reinforcing institutional/commercial; 13/16 strain, 2/5-7
fire resistance, 12/6, I2/ 12, 12/28. light industrial, 13/14 stress, internal, 2/3-5
12/32-33, 21/28, 21/29 multi-storey, 13/15-16 stresslstrain relations, 2 / 1 4
quality and salinity. 37/35 other structures. 13/17-18 pipes, 40/10
strength, 12/9 pressure vessels, 13/16 pkastics/rubbers. 4/20
beams, 13/20 wind loading for multi-storey buildings, reinforcing steel, 12/9
for cooling water culverts. 27/18-19 13/19 rocks
corrosion protection, 4/24. 4/26 Steinbrenner equation for settlement, 9/9, 9/1 I and jointing. 10/21-23
lamination, 38/10 Stereoplotters testing, 10/12, IO/l3, 10/19
maritime use, 31/25 approximate, 7/8-9 soils, 9 / 3 4
stainless, 31/25-26 rigorous, 719-1 I laboratory testing. 9/33-34
piles, 17/21-22 Stereoscopy in photogrammetry, 7/4 Stress
durability, 11/30 instruments. 7/8-11 in bridges, 20/33-34
for prestressing tendons. 12/23-24 Stevenson formula for waves in harbours, 26/3 in falsework, 35/13-14
sleepers, 25/6-7 Stiffness method for structural analysis. internal, in elasticity theory, 2/3-5
stainless, for masonry reinforcement, 15/13 3/11-15 on an arbitrary surface, 2 / 3 4
for temporary works, 3 5 / 3 4 basis of, 3/1 I components, 2/3
tunnel linings, 40/21 computerization of, 3/13-14 equilibrium equations, 2 / 4 5
for turbo-generator support, 27/13-14 element stiffness. 3/11-12 plane stress, 2/5
for water pipes, 28/5 finite element analysis, 3/14-15 principal stresses. 2/4
yielding, stresslstrain relationships, 2/8 and flexibility method, 3/1I transformation. 2/4
Steelwork, 13/1-29 matrix assembly. 3/12-13 measurement, 2/1 I
cladding stiffening, 13/19 stiffness transformation, 3/13 measurement in rock, 10/35-36
components, 13/19-24 Stilling basins Mohr’s circle, Y/4
CdhlkdtiOnS, 13/20 in airport drainage, 21/22 resultants in bar theory, 2/15-16
individual members, 13/20-24 in open channels, 22/10. 22/12 in rock, IO/M
loading assessment, 13/19-20 for spillways, 22/25 in soil, effective, 9/3
structural layout, 13/20 Stock control of plant spares, 36/14-15 strain relationships, 2 / 1 4
connections, 13/21-28 Stokes Law. 5/26 in temporary works, 35/3
bolting. 13/27-28 in particle size distribution, 9/30, 9/32 timber grading, 1 6 / 6 1
welding, 13/21 Stone columns, 9/42-43 in tunnel design, 32/16-18
corrosion protection. 13/26 Storage yield criteria, 2/8
design methods concrete. materials for, 37/3-4 see olso Stress/strain relationships
elastic. 13/24-25 of paper and floor loading, 21/32 Stress/strain relationships
and engineering judgement, l3/l I of oil/liquified petroleum gas in caverns. of aluminium, 2/8
limit slate, 13/25-26 32/ I9 in elasticity theory, 2 / 7 4
plastic. 13/25 storms of rock masses, 10/18-19
detail, 13/26-27 frequency and road design, 23/26 of structural concrete, 12/10
for electricity power house, 27/5, 27/6-10 resistant timber construction, 16/10-1 I of steel, l3/8
construction, 27/9-10 runoff pollution. 29/4 in plastic analysis, 3/27
design, 27/5. 27/8 sewer system, 2 9 / 3 4 Strip foundations, 17/6
erection, 27/10 Strain in elasticity theory, 2/5-7 definition, I7/4
foundations, 27/10 compatibility equations, 2/7 design, structural. 11/74
loadings. 27/8-9 compo;lents. 2 / ~ Strouhal number in wind oscillation, 19/13
erection. 39/1-10 displacements. 2/5 Structures, theory of, 3/1-31
frames, 34/7 measurement, 2/10-1 I concepts, 3/3
management. 39/10 plant. 2/7 determinacy. static/kinematic, 3/4
manpower/safety. 39/9-10 principal strains, 2/6-7 dynamics, 3/23-26
and partial completion, 39/8 transformation, 2/6 definitions. 3/23
pbdllt. 39/3-5 uniform, 2/6 vibrations and degrees of frecdom.
the site, 39/3 see also Stresslstrain relationships 3/23-26
stockyards. 39/8-9 Stratigraphy flexibility method. 3 / 6 1 I
temporary works, foundations, 39/6-7 and ground investigation, I1/16-17 for beam analysis, 3/8-9
tolerances, 39/S-6 principles of. 8 / 3 4 coefficients, 3 / 7 4
transport of materials. 39/9 Streamline flow, 5/8 for frame analysis, 3/9-10
transport/assembly considerations. 39/6 Strength of materials. 2/1-31 and stiffness method. 3/1 I
fatigue. l3/l0-l1 aluminium, 14/5 for truss analysis, 3/10
Structures. theory of, flexibility method, Swelling of rock, 10/8 strength, 4/16
continued Systtme Probatoire d'observation de la Terre workability, 4/14,4/16
force-displacement relationships, 3 / 3 4 (SPOT),7/20-22 of concrete structures, 12/31-32
influence lines, 3/19-22 of piles, 17/24
for beams, 3:19-20 Taber abrasion test of rock, 10/1I of pipes in trenches, 40/15
computer in, 3/22 Tacheometer, electronic. 6/10 of roads
for indeterminate structures, 3/20-2I Tacheometry, 6/8-9 control/acceptance, 23/48
Maxwell's reciprocal theorem in. 3/21 for detail surveys. 6/17-18 earthworks, 23/25
for model analysis, 3/21-22 Tankers. 26/5 of rock, 10/6-16
Mueller-Breslau's principle in. 3/21 Tanks, demolition, 43/8 design tests. 10/13
for trusses, plane, 3/20 fire/explosion risk, 43/10 field index, 10/12-13
moment distribution, 3/16-19 Tape measures, 6/8 laboralory index, lO/8-12
fixed end moments, 3/16-17 in setting out, 34/34 rock masses, 10/18-19
with sway, 3/18 Telecommunications in airports, 24/16 and selection of materials. 10/15-16
without Sway, 3/17-28 Telephones on motorways, 23/45 in site investigation, 11/17
plastic analysis, 3/26-3I Television, underwater. 42/9 engineering properties, 11/17-20
definitions, 3/26-27 Tellurometer. 6/10,6/1I geophysical, 11/17
examples, 3/28-3I Temperature and runway length, 24/9 laboratory, 11/17,11/23
theorems. 3/27-28 Temporary bench marks, 34/4 model/prototype. 11/19,11/20
stiffness method, 3/11-15 Tempordry works, 35/1-18 in siru 11/17.11/22
basis of, 3/1 I equipment. 3 5 / 5 4 of soils
computerization of, 3/13-14 excavations, 35/15-18 classification. 9/30-32
element stiffness, 3/11-12 loads, 35/16-17 compaction, 9/32-33
finite element analysis, 3/14-15 materials, 35/16 consolidation. 9/34-35
matrix assembly, 3/12-I3 newer approaches, 35/17 laboratory, 9/29-35
stiffness transformation, 3/13 and water, 35/18 strength. 9/33-34
truss analysis, 3 / 4 4 widths of, 35/16 of steel. 13/9-10
tension coefficients, 3 / 5 4 factors in, 35/3 structural, 21/33
Struts falsework, 35/13-14 underwater, non-destructive. 42/10
buckling loads, 2/27 formwork, 35/6-13 Thames Barrier, 22/10,22/1I
Euler, 2/26 for columns, 35/1I Theodolites, 6/44
in temporary works, 35/6 concrete finish, 35/8 axes. 6/5
see also Bars. theory of design considerations, 35/8 circle reading, 6/6
Stud welding, 38/9-10 loadings. 35/74 construction. 6/54
Subgrade for roads. 23/25 philosophy of, 35/9-10 field procedure, 6/68
Submarines, see Submersibles purpose. 35/67 observations, 6/74
Submerged arc welding, 38/3 release agents. 3518-9 setting up. 6/7
Submersibles. 42/10-1 2 slipforming, 35/12-13,37/24-25, in tacheometry. 6/8-9,6/17-18
remotely controlled, 42/I2 37/27-28.44/1I in setting out. 34/3
Subtense distance measurement, 6/9-10 for soffits. 35/11-12 Thermal video frame scanner (TVFS), 7/16-17
Suction dredgers, 41/69 for walls. 35/10 Thermic cutting, 43/7.44/16
Sulby Dam, 18/9 legal position, 35/3 Thermoplastics, 4/19
Sulphate attack on concrete, 4/14,17/30 materials, 35/3-5 Thermoset, definition of, 4/19
Sulphate-resisting Portland cement, 4/4 ground condition, 35/5 Thrust boring, of tunnels. 32/11-12
Sun and tides. 3 I /3 minor, 35/5 Tides, 31/34
Surds in trigonometry. 1/7 steel. 35/34 barrages. 22/10
Surface tension, 5/4 stresses on, 35/3 coriolis force, 31/34
Surge timber, 35/45 currents. 3l/3
in water pipes, 28/8 pncast units. 35/14-'15 and diving, 42/7,42/8
waves, 31/10-11 damage. 35/I5 measurement. 3 1/23
Surveying, 6/1-29 erection, 35/14-15 models, 31/18
branches of, 6/3 lifting/moving, 35/14 prediction, 31/4
computers in. 6/26-28 scaffolding raising forces, 3 I /3-l0
digital mappingjground modelling, 61'26-28 access, 35/15 variations. 3 I/3
land information systems, 6/28 prefabricated. 35/6 Ties/connections
deformation monitoring. 6/21-26 steel, 35/4 in aluminium, 14/8-9,14/14
computation processes, 6/23-26 tower, 35/15 forces in, 2/16
monitoring points. 6/23 in tunnelling. 32/13-14 in temporary works, 35/6
reference points. 6/21-23 Tendons, stressing, 12/23-24 see also Bolting
for demolition. 43/3.43/4 for prestressing, I2/3.12/28-29 Till. gkdcidl. 8/21
for dredging, hydrographic. 41/12 Tension structum, 21/42 Timber, 16/1-14.21/29
errors, 6/34 Termite resistant timber, 16/10 as building finish, 21/30
instrumentation, 6/4-15 Terrain evaluation by remote sensing, 7/26 construction
distance measurement. 6/8-12 Terzaghi's rock classification for tunnels, frame. 16/10
height measurement, 6/12-15 10/17 storm-resistant, l6/lO-lI
theodolite, 6/68 Terzaghi's theory termite-resistant, I6/I0
maritime, see under Coastal/maritime in consolidation. 9/5 from demolition for fuel, 43/9
engineering in foundation bearing capacity, 9/7 design, 16/7
methods Terzaghi's rule aids, 16/1I
detail, 6/17-18 on permcability/fiker material. 9/37 fastenings, 16/8-10
~ horizOIItdl control, 611 5-1 7 for strutted excavations. 9/20 floors, 15/34
vertical control. 6/18-21 Testing glued-laminated assemblies, 16/7
principles, 6/3 of concrete, 4/14-18 for maritime works, 31/25
in site investigation. I1/4 on aggregates, 4/16-17 piles, I7/I9
see abo Setting-out on site analysis, 4/17-18 durability, 17/29
Suspension bridges, 20/17-20 entrained air. 4/17 plywood/tempered hardboard, I6/8
Index/l8

Timber. conrinud properties of, I / I 1-12


properties, 16/34 Triangulation. 6/16
durability, 16/5-6 Triaxial strength
fire resistance. 16/6 dissipative, for consolidation. 9/34-35
and moisture, 16/4 testing
preservative treatment, 16/6 of rock, 10/13 Ultimate tensile stress of mild steel. 2/8
StrUCtUrd!. 16/34 Ultrasonic testing
of soil, 9/33-34
sleepers, 25/6 Trickle irrigation. 30/9 of rails, 25/1 1-12
stress grading. 16/67 Trigonometrical levelling. 6/20-21 of welds, 38/10
for temporary works, 35/65 Trigonometry Ultraviolet
Topographic surveys. I1/4 angles, 1/5-7 degradation of plastics/rubbers, 4/19
Topsoil, 2 I /9 equation solutions, 1/10 filtering in lighting. 21/20
Torque functions. 115 Unconformities, 8 / 3 4
arbitrary cross-section, 2/22-24 hyperbolic. 1/12-13 Underwater work
circular cross-section, 2/22 bolting gun, 42/10
inverse, 1/10
uniform in a bar. 2/22-24 lines positive/negative. I / 5 concrete placing, 37/17-19. 42/9
Torsion, non-uniform in a bar, 2/24-25 spherical, 1/10-12 cutting, 42/9. 44/16
Towers grouting, 42/9
triangles, sidepangle relationships, 1/7-10
arctic offshore. 44/ I3 Trilateralion, 6/16 of aggregates, 37/18, 37/19
for electricity transmission lines, 27/31-33 Tropical residual soils. 8/17. 8/19-20 in clamps. 44/ I6
offshore, guyed, 44/3 Truss analysis photography/television/drawing, 42/9
Scaffolds, 35/15 statically determinate. 3 / 6 6 pipe laying, 40115
steel lattice, I3/ I7 flexibility method for. 3/10 pneumatic tools. 42/8-9
in temporary works, heavy duty, 35/6 plane, influence lines in, 3/20 testing. non-destructive. 42/10
water, 28/9-10 Tsunami wave, 31/11 welding, 42/9. 44/16
see ulso Transmission towers Traversing, 6/16 Uniaxial yield stress for mild steel, 218
Town and Country Planning Act. 1971. 21/I I Tube valves, 22/30 Uniform elongation. 2/8
Traffic Tunnelling, 32/1-20 Universal Distinct Element Code (UDEC) for
appraisal for road schemes. 23/7-10 aids, 32/14-15 rock modelling, 10/27
economic evaluation. 23/10 compressed air, 32/14 Urban roads/traffic, 23/49-5 I
forecasts, 23/8-10 dewatering. 32/15 capacity improvement, 23/49-50
models. 23/7-8 freezing, 32/15 and environment. 23/1 I
preliminary. 23/7 grouting, 32/14-15 hierarchy, 23/49
noise calculation. 23/1 I concrete in layout. 23/16
signals. 23/2 I , 23/50 linings, 37/27 restrictions, 23/51
signs/markings. 23/44-45 precast roadways, 37/3 I route guidance, 23/5&5I
speed. and road design. 23/12 construction. 32/9-14 traffic management/assessment, 23/49
in urban areas. 23/49 advance full facelhedding, 32114 width/capacity, 23/12
volume and road loading. 19/5-6 drilling/blasting. 10/33, 32/9
TRAFFICQ for urban traffic management, lining, 32/9-1 I
23/49 plant, 10/33 Vacuum drainage, 9/38
Transfer structutes for vertical loads, 21/35 spoil handling, 32/9 Valves, hydraulic, 22/29-32
Transmission towers, 13/17, 27/31-34 temporary support, 32/13-14 in water distribution, 28/74
demolition. 43/8 thrust boring. 32/11-12 Vane test for soil strength, 9/33
foundations. 27/32-34 waterproofing, 32/12 Vapour pressure of water. 515
loading, wind/ice, 27/31 costs. 32/3-4 Variance, statistical, 1/29, 1/33-34
setting out for, 34/7 design, 32/16-19 Varianceicovariance matrix. 6/26
see also Electricity supply advancing understanding, 32/19 Variation. coefficient of. 1/30
Transmittance. thermal, 21/17 lining stiffness. 32/18-19 Vegetation for scour protection. 2211
Transport and Road Research Laboratory, and rock mechanics. 10/31-32 Vehicle pressure on pipes, 40/10
2314 stability indices, 32/18 Vehicles
method for runoff estimation, 23/27 stresses. 32/16-18 for concrete
TRANSYT for urban traffic management, ground movements, 32/15-16 distribution. 37/1&1 I
23/49 methods, 3 2 / 4 7 truck mixers, 37/9-10
Trapezoidal rule for plane areas, 1/16 bentonite shield, 32/6 Motor Vehicles Regulations. 36/15
Tree damage 21/10 history. 32/4 underwater, 42/10-12
Tremie tube for undenvater concrete, 37/19 rock-tunnelling, 32/67 Venturi flow meter, 5/14
Trenches shield, 3 2 / 6 5 Venturi flume for channel flow, 5/19
backfilling/reinstatement. 40/15 for pipelines. man-accessible, 40/20-23 Vertical drains. 9/39
battered, 40/ I2 ground movement. 40/23 Vibration
ground movement, 40/1I-I2 headings, 40/21 analysis
groundwater control, 4011 2 linings, 40/2l-22 multi-degrees of freedom, 3/25-26
pipes in pipe jacking. 40/22-23 one degree of freedom, 3/23-25
loadings. 40/5-10 site investigation/design. 40/2 I forced/free, definitions. 3/23
properties, 40/3 profihg, photogrammetric, 7/14 ground treatment under foundations, 1719
protection, 40/15 in rock and machinery foundation, 17/27
strength, 40/10 classification for, 10/17-18 turbo-generators, 27/13-14
testing, 40/15 water flow in, 22/16-17 Vibrators
safety. 40/15-16 route, 3213 for concrete, 37/19-20
selling-out for, 34/6 seawater intake/outfall, 31/34 vibrocompaction, 9/42
site investigation, 40/10 setting out for, 34/9-10 Video frame scanner, thermal. 7/16-17
support, 35/16 site investigation, 32/3 Viscosity, 5/3
systems, 40/12-15 see nlro Flow; Hydraulic structures; Volclay panels for waterproofing. 17/12
underwater. 40/15 Microtunnelling Vortices
see ulso Pipes Turbines for.hydroslectric power, 27/27 hydrodynamics of, 5/24-25
Triungles Turbo-generator. foundations for, 17/27, in reservoir outlets, 22/26
angk/side relationship, 1/7-10 27/ I 3-14 Vulcanism, 8/16
Indexll9

Walings. 35/6 coordinate system, 31/4 fitness for purpose, 38/1I


Wallclimber lift, 21/22 decay, 31/10 fracture toughness, 38/10-1 I
Wallingford Methods and depth, 31/45 girders, plate/box, 38/8-9
for runoff estimation, 23/27 diffraction. 31/10 of offshore structures, 44/7
for sewer design, 29/3 energy, 31/7 failure, 44/8
Walls dissipation, 3I /7-8 of plastics/rubbers, 4/20-2I
for basement foundations, 17/1I finite amplitude theory, 31/8 procesh, 38/3-4
boundary. masonry for, 15/14 fluid/velocity pressure, 3 I / 5 of rails, 25/14
concrete forces, 31/15-17 of steel structures, 13/27
formwork for, 35/10 . on cylinders, 31/15 accessibility and design, 13/26-27
plain, 12/18-19 on Se'awdlk/breakwdterS,31/16-17 stresses from, and ductility, I3/9
prestressed, 12/14 forecasting. 3I / I0 stud, 38/9-10
reinforcement behaviour, 12/6 generation. 31/8-10 testing, 38/10
reinforced, 12/14. 12/18 in shallow water, 31/9-10 underwater, 42/9,44/16
curtain walling, 21/30 in harbours, 26/3.31/12 Wells in drainage, 9/38
flood, 30/21 hydrodynamics of. 5/25 see ulso Boreholes
internal, finishes, 21/30 measurement. 3 1/22-23 Wimbleball Dam, 18/23
positioning for load, 21/34 and offshore foundations. 44/12 Wind
of power houses, 27/1I reflection coetticient. 31/7 loading, 19/9-14
shear, in tall buildings, 21/39 refraction, 31/10 on bridges, 20/37.20/38
sound reduction YS. density. 2l/20-21 and sediments in basins, 31/12-13 on buildings, 21/33-34. 21/37-38
see ulso Diaphragm walls; Earth pressure; set-up, 31/11-12 on cooling towers, 27/20
Partitions, interior; Retaining walls; solitary, 31/8 on transmission towers, 27/31
Seawalls ' standing, 5/19,31/6 force/pressure coefficients, 19/11-13
Water in harbours, 31/12 on formwork. 35/8
in concrete, ratio, 4/8 superposition, 31/54 and meteorological data, 19/9-11
ground investigations over, I I/20-2l, 11/26 sur'ge, 31/10-11 oscillations, wind excited, 19/13-14,
sampling, 11/16 trains, 31/6-7 on steelwork for power houses, 27/8-9
hammer, 28/8 transformation, 31/7 on tall buildings, 13/19. 13/25,21/40.
jet cutting, in demolition, 43/74 Wedthering of rocks. 8/5. 8/17 21/47
pollution from sewage, 29/12 Weatherproofing, adjacent to demolition, 43/4 resistance
properties of, physical, 5/3-5 Weirs, 22/>7 of timber construction, 16/10-1 I
in rock. laboratory testing, 10/8 and channel flow, 5/17-18 of masonry walls, 15/9
storage for concrete production, 37/4 control, gated, 22/7 and runway operation, 24/9
methods, 37/19 crump, for flow measurement, 28/8-9 and water-level set-up, 31/11-12
supplies, 28/1-23 equation of flow, 22/5 in wave generation, 31/8-9
to buildings. 21/21 measuring, 22/6-7 Wire-rope pulling demo1,ition. 43/6
consumption/demand. 28/34 models, 5/26 Word processing, 1/37
desalinalion, 28/18-19 and notches, hydrodynamics of, 5/20-23 World Association of Dredging Organizations
flow measurement, 28/8-9 overtlow, in dams, 28/15 (WODA), 41/13
organization/management,28/3 river, 30/22-23
reservoir formation, 28/14-18 in road drainage, 23/27
reservoir schemes, 28/12-14 in spillways, 22/21 Yield criteria, 2/8
reservoirs, service, 28/9-10 types, 22/5-6
transmission/distribution,28/44 Weisbach's triangle for tunnels, 34/9
treatment. 28/19-22 Welding, 38/1-1 I Zinc
underground, 28/10-12 of aluminium. 14/8-9 in aluminium alloy, 14/7
see ulso Diving; Services to buildings; softening, 14/12-13 coatings for steel, 4/24
Underwater ,work in structural design, 14/14
Water Acts 1973, 28/3 of concrete reinforcement, 12/20
Waterproofing of tunnels. 32/12. defects, 38/5-7
Waves, 31/4-10 details, 38/65
arctic, 44/12 distortion, 38/74
This fourth edition of Civil Engineer's Reference lEkook has been
completely rewritten and updated. It provides a concise and
comprehensive survey of the fundamentals, theory and current
practice in the many branches of civil engineering, giving state-
of-the-art information and practical guidance for both student
and practising civil engineers.

After an examination of fundamental theories as applied to civil


engineering, authoritative coverage is included o n design
practice for certain materials and specific structures and
applications, and a particular feature is the incorporation of
chapters on construction and site practice, including contract
management and control.

Contents: Mathematics and statistics Strength of materials


Theory of structures Materials Hydraulics Engineering
surveying Photogrammetry and remote sensing Geology for
engineers Soil mechanics Rock mechanics Site
investigation Reinforced and prestressed concrete design
0

Practical steelwork design Aluminium and aluminium alloys


Load bearing masonry Timber design Foundations design
Dams and embankments Loadings Bridges Buildings
Hydraulic structures Highways Airports Railways Ports
and Harbours Electrical power supply Water supplies
Sewerage and sewage treatment Land drainage irrigation and
river maintenance Coastal and maritime engineering
Tunnels and tunnelling Contract management and control
Setting o u t on site Temporary works Selection a n d
operating of plant and equipment Concrete construction
Welded structure fabrication Steelwork erection Buried
pipeline and sewer construction Dredging Underwater
working Demolition Offshore construction.

Covcr photograph hy pcrniis\ion tit' Thc I m q c k i n k

iIlI I1 E RWOR 111