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_____1. The main advantage of hydroponics in nutrient research is that a) it excludes hydrogen ions. b) it is simply a "cleaner" experimental system without any "dirt" involved. c) in water, the plant does not need and other molecules beyond carbon dioxide. d) plant growth can be maximized since the minimal supply of water is never a problem. e) nutrient measurements can be made accurately because in a liquid solution they are not isolated in soil a few millimeters away from a root hair. _____2. Which element is Not one of the three most common ones in plants? a) oxygen b) sulfur c) carbon d) hydrogen _____3. Which statement is Not true about mineral availability? a) Acidic water leaches minerals from the soil zone where plants can absorb them. b) Toxic iron and aluminum levels may by produced in highly basic soil. c) Clay and organic materials attract positively charged ions in a soil. d) Roots must be within a few millimeters of minerals to be able to absorb them. _____4. Soil formation is due to a) decomposition of organic matter. b) weathering or transport of bedrock. c) activity of animals such as earthworms. d) All of the above change the nature of soil. _____5. Soil consists of a) a mixture of soil particles of different sizes. b) both living organisms and decaying organic material. c) air. d) All of these are components that define soil. _____6. Which is an Incorrect association of soil particles and characteristics? a) Sand - largest size, cannot hold water. b) Clay - medium size, intermediate properties. c) Loam - medium size, retains water and nutrients and allows drainage. d) Silt - medium size, intermediate properties. _____7. Which is a Correct relationship between soil particles and leaching of soil ions? a) Clay particles hold tight to NO3- and the nitrogen content of clay soils is therefore high. b) Clay is unable to retain Ca2+ and K+ which are easily leached away. c) Clay holds water and clumps. d) Sand prevents water erosion and leaching. _____8. Which is an Incorrect description of the layers in soil? a) The C horizon is newly weathered bedrock. b) The B horizon contains the soluble chemicals leached from the A horizon. c) The A horizon is the rich topsoil and contains all the humus and soluble chemicals. d) Earthworms and leaf litter are most prevalent in the A horizon. e) The A horizon is more shallow in forests than in grasslands.
_____9. The degree of erosion is best described as a) there is a set amount of soil that was originally formed and erosion continually removes some of it, therefore we will one day run out of topsoil due to erosion. b) Soil forms at generally the same rate as soil erodes, so there is an overall balance just as worldwide precipitation equals evaporation; it is just not evenly spread across the landscape. c) soil is eroding faster than it is being formed on about one-third of all cropland. d) removal of trees helps build up topsoil and prevent erosion. _____10. The plasma membrane of plant cells a) actively transport water into the cell. b) allows the entry of all minerals equally. c) actively transports some mineral ions into the cell. d) concentrates minerals up to 100 times as much as in the soil. _____11. Which statement is Not true about root adaptations in plants? a) Some plants have a very poorly developed roots or none at all. b) Fungal mycorrhizae depend on plants for the fungus's supply of water and minerals. c) Some plants, including orchids, require the presence of fungal symbionts to survive. d) Parasitic plants have root adaptations called haustoria that draw nutrients from the host. e) Bacteria of the genus Rhizobium live in root nodules in legumes, producing available nitrogen that the plant uses. _____12. Girdling is a process by which a) plants carry water upward. b) plants carry nutrients upward. c) plants carry nutrients downward. d) a tree is killed by interrupting the passage of phloem sap. e) a tree is killed by interrupting the passage of xylem sap. _____13. An epiphyte is a plant that a) is not able to carry out photosynthesis. b) does not have roots but absorbs nutrients from the air. c) has a relationship with mycorrhizal fungi on its roots. d) has a relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria on its roots. _____14. Which statement is Not true about water uptake in a plant root? a) Water enters the root by osmosis from the soil. b) Water enters the cytoplasm of the root hairs by active transport. c) Water travels by diffusion through the cell walls of the epidermis and cortex. d) Water must enter the cytoplasm of the endodermal cells to get past the Casparian strip. _____15. Which of these is most likely to be produced by the plant in usable amounts? a) minerals b) water c) oxygen d) carbon dioxide _____16. Which statement is Not true about water availability in soil? a) Sand has smaller soil pores than those of clay. b) The field capacity is the water remaining in soil after drainage. c) The field capacity of sand is lower than that of clay. d) Available water is that which can be taken up from the soil by plant roots. _____17. The point at which water present in the soil is not available to roots because it is too tightly held by soil particles is called the ____ point. a) permanent wilting b) field capacity
c) available water d) unavailable water e) water failure _____18. If you cut a herbaceous stem and observe fluids continually seeping upward and out of the cut, it is most likely to be due to a) root pressure b) turgor pressure c) active transport by phloem d) tension caused by transpiration e) cohesion to the xylem walls _____19. Because most roots need gaseous oxygen as well as liquid water, the best soil for agricultural plants is a) sand, since it has the greatest pore spaces. b) clay, since it holds onto water better than silt or sand. c) silt, because it is intermediate between sand and clay in size. d) loam, a mixture of all size soil particles and therefore able to hold onto water but be porous. e) All sizes of soil particles (sand, silt, clay) are equal in soil properties. _____20. When you have waxed your car, rainfall makes very large droplets that roll around on the hood. This property of the water molecule is known as a) adhesion b) turgor pressure c) cohesion d) transpiration e) negative pressure potential _____21. Most minerals move into the xylem of the root's vascular cylinder from the endoderm by a) active transport b) osmosis c) movement against a concentration gradient d) movement down a concentration gradient _____22. Which term describes forcing water out of the plant at the edges of its leaves? a) water stress b) atmospheric pressure c) root pressure d) guttation e) transpiration _____23. Which force is responsible for moving water up to the tops of the tallest trees? a) water stress b) atmospheric pressure c) root pressure d) guttation e) transpiration _____24.Which force pushes water into the xylem as osmosis moves water into the root? a) water stress b) atmospheric pressure c) root pressure d) guttation e) transpiration _____25. Which force is the central causative agent of the cohesion-tension model of xylem transport? a) water stress b) atmospheric pressure c) root pressure d) guttation e) transpiration _____26. Which statement is Not true about stomates? a) As guard cells become turgid, the stomates open. b) There are two guard cells around each stomate. c) Guard cells take up potassium ions and water enters the guard cells. d) Guard cells surrounding stomates lack chloroplasts that other epidermal cells contain. e) Stomates open and close on a daily basis, even if kept in the dark, on a circadian rhythm. _____27. The main component of phloem is a) hormones b) amino acids c) sucrose d) glucose e) lipids
_____28. Which statement is Not true about the pressure-flow model of phloem transport? a) Water is actively transported into phloem. b) Phloem sap moves at a rate of 60 to 300 cm per hour. c) Pressure is created in the phloem by the buildup of water and sugar.
d) Sugar produced by photosynthesis is actively transported into the phloem cells. e) Sugar is actively transported out of the phloem at the sink area such as the root. _____29. To secure genuine maple syrup, maple tree trunks are "tapped" with metal spigots that interrupt the flow of sap in late winter prior to spring budding. Which of the following would be true of this process? a) Leaves are the ultimate origin of the sucrose component. b) The sap flows out with some pressure from the phloem tube. c) The water component originated from soil water absorbed by root hairs. d) Only a small core is tapped; taking sap continuously from a substantial radius could eventually kill part of the tree. e) All of the above are correct. _____30. The loss of water by the leaves and stem of a plant is called a) translocation b) osmosis c) active transport d) transpiration _____31. The transport of sugar from the leaf to the rest of the plant is called a) translocation b) osmosis c) active transport d) transpiration _____32. The driving force for transpiration is provided by a) water pressure in the roots b) water tension in the stems c) the evaporation of water from the leaves d) the hydrolysis of ATP _____33. What causes water molecules to stick together and pull each other up a plant stem? a) adhesion b) cohesion c) phloem d) companion cells _____34. This hormone is known for assisting in the closing of the stomata, and inhibition of cell growth a) abscisic acid b) auxin c) cytokinin d) ethylene e) gibberellin _____35. Guttation is the loss of water through the a) stomata b) cells at the ends of veins in leaves c) root hairs d) weak spots in the Casparian strip e) vascular cambium _____36. The process of cohesion is responsible for a) leaves pulling water up from their roots. b) the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane. c) the stability of temperature of organisms. d) lakes not freezing from the top down. e) cooling of body surfaces during evaporation. _____37. A leafy plant experiences a heavy rainfall. Several hours latter, you notice an increase in turgidity of the plant's leaves. Which of the following is primarily responsible for this? a) capillary action b) osmosis c) transpiration d) root pressure e) respiration _____38. Which of the following statements is not true concerning the cohesion-tension theory of water movement in plants? a) Adhesion accounts for the attraction between water molecules. b) Cohesion accounts for the attraction between water and the vessel walls. c) Root pressure is a significant force in driving water up a stem. d) Companion cells help xylem regulate the passage of water and minerals. e) All of the above are not true.
_____39. Which of the following is Most responsible for the movement of water up a tall tree? a) adhesion b) capillary action c) guttation d) osmosis e) sun light _____40. The driving force for the movement of materials in the phloem of plants is a) gravity b) a difference in osmotic potential between the source and sink c) root pressure d) transpiration of water through the stomates e) adhesion of water to vessel elements _____41. The rate of flow of water through the xylem is regulated by a) passive transport by the pith b) the force of transpirational pull c) the number of companion cells in the phloem d) active transport by the sieve-tube members e) active transport by tracheids and vessel elements _____42. Aphids are insects that insert their needle like mouth parts into plants. Sometimes, fluid from the plant tissues passes entirely through the digestive track of the aphid and emerges as a small droplet at it posterior end. The source of this liquid is probably a) epidermal cells b) phloem cells c) tracheids d) vessels e) xylem cells