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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



E F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢٣

-١-
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،  
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬   
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

? ??‫א‬ –‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   W    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬       
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   J ٢
K

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
–  – ‫א‬F ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 KE

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬FStatic loading‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
 E‫א‬‫א‬FDynamic loading‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Frepeated loading‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
 ‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
 ‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
  ‫א‬   Universal testing machines ‫א‬ ‫א‬  J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   Special testing machines  ‫א‬  J ٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
‫א‬Accessories ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Grips‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬  KScrew-gear ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K١
 KE‫א‬F
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   KHydraulic ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ K١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٣
K‫א‬‫א‬ K٤

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 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬   K ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KValves‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬


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 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫ א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬    J ١
 K٪١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
٪٠{٠٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  J ٢
K‫א‬
KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦


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 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،EJ F

L0 = 10d 0 ‫א‬‫א‬ L0 = 11.3 A0 ‫א‬‫א‬
L0 = 5d 0 ‫א‬‫א‬ L0 = 5.65 A0 ‫א‬‫א‬


 

-٥-
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 KPin end‫א‬ J ١
shouldered end J ٢
threaded end J ٣
plain end J ٤
circular end J ٥

‫ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﻨﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ذات ﺛﻘﺐ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬
 ‫א‬   K ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   E‫א‬F ‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-٦-
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤

(2) (1)

(4) (3)

 ‫א‬


 W‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Wform‫ א‬J ١
 E‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
 WTexture‫א‬ J ٢
Coarse  Fine Grain Silky
 KGlassyCrystallineFibrousgrain
W‫ א‬J ٣
 Kdark‫א‬bright


-٧-
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
K -
K‫א‬ -

‫آﺴﺮ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﻲ‬ ‫آﺴﺮ اﻟﻘﺪح‬ ‫آﺴﺮ اﻟﻘﺪح‬ ‫آﺴﺮ‬ ‫آﺴﺮ ﻟﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫آﺴﺮ اﻟﻘﺪح‬
‫واﻟﻤﺨﺮوط‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺨﺮوط‬ ‫ﻧﺠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺨﺮوط‬
‫ﻣﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺰﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻄﺢة‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬














-٨-
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ Ductile material‫א‬
 –‫א‬ Semi ductile material‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬            –  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



-٩-
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W
 E σ FStress‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EFF‫א‬‫א‬
K٢EAoF‫א‬‫א‬

F
σ =
A0
 Ee FStrain‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KELoF‫א‬E∆LF

∆L
e=
L0

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Lo‫א‬ Ao‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٠ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 Mechanical properties‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Proportional Lim‫א‬ J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 WElastic limit‫א‬ J ٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WYield stress‫א‬ J ٣
 ، ‫א‬    ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Fy
 σy =
A0
 (Young’s modulus)Modulus of elasticityEF‫א‬ J ٤
  ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬
σ
E=
e
 Modulus of Resilience ( R ) ‫א‬ J ٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬
 Ao x LoZ‫א‬‫א‬

1 ∆L
R= F
2 A0 L0

 Modulus of Toughness( T ) ‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

( Fy + Fmax )∆L
T =
2 A0 L0

- ١١ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 Maximum tensile strength‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦


‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

FMax
σ UTS =
A0

 Ductility‫ א‬J ٧
Elongation ٪‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Reduction of area٪‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


L f − L0
 Elongation % = × 100
L0

A0 − A f
Reduction of area % = × 100
A0

 Proof stress‫א‬J ٩
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Fproot
 σ proof =
A0

- ١٢ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬ 

- ١٣ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 Elongation‫א‬ Load‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬    Strain ‫א‬ Stress  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ J ١
K J ٢
K‫א‬ J ٣
K J ٤
K‫א‬ J ٥

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬–٣
، ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  – ٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬–٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ – ٦
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٧

- ١٤ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 Do = mm Lo = mm df = mm Lf = mm
٨ ٧ ٦ ٥ ٤ ٣ ٢ ١
FEKNF‫א‬
‫א‬
 ∆L(mmF

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
– ‫א‬ ‫א‬ – ‫א‬ ‫א‬F ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
 KE‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬










- ١٥ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 :
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬         ‫א‬ ‫א‬    
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬    ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬   
‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬     E‫א‬   ‫א‬F  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K
 –‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 F    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬      
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬

 Elongation equation:‫א‬
‫א‬      ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٦ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

bEbLF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ L،
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Ao، c bL + C Ao 
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ∆L = bL + C Ao

 KUnwin's constants‫א‬‫א‬b،C


- ١٧ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K J ١
K J ٢
K J ٣
K‫א‬ J ٤

W‫א‬‫א‬
 KEAoF‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬–١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٢
    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   – ٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ – ٤
 W‫א‬

٦ ٥ ٤ ٣ ٢ ١
EF‫א‬‫א‬
EF‫א‬

   ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  – ٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٨ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٦

EF‫א‬
EF‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E b, CF‫א‬
 ،‫א‬

 ∆L = bL + C Ao ‫א‬
 
 Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ C Ao 
 ∴ Z = C Ao

Z
 ⇒C =
Ao
 Kb‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬b

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


- ١٩ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ERelatively unstableF ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   J ٢
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EfrictionF‫ א‬J ٣
K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫ א‬J ٤
WK‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬  •
K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬     
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬١{٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٠ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 K‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬‫א‬ F‫א‬‫א‬ ١٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EBucklingF‫א‬
K‫א‬
  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬    K٣
K ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ E‫א‬١٠J ٨F ‫א‬ W‫• א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬٣F‫א‬W‫• א‬
Bearing metals ‫א‬    ‫א‬   E٠{٩F ‫א‬ W ‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢١ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
K ‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٢ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ? Barrel ? 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬             ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬

F
 σ=
A0


 WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬٥٠‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

FMax
 σ Max =
A0
 WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬٦٠ ٥٥
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

FMax
 σ Max =
A0

- ٢٣ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

- ٢٤ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ J ١
K‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬ J ٣

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L١{٢٥‫א‬ J ٣
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    K‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
K٧٠
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬   J ٤
K






- ٢٥ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 EF‫א‬ EF‫א‬
 ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬   ‫א‬
F EF ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
E




 ‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬









- ٢٦ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
IMPACT TEST
 
‫א‬      ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
،‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 STANDARD IMPACT TESTW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬IZODCHARPY‫א‬
EHF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EWF
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EH‘F‫א‬
 UT = W (H-H') - F.E.

‫א‬  ،    ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ F.E 
‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬    ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




- ٢٧ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬
   ، ‫א‬         ‫א‬  
‫א‬٢٤٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٨ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

(A)

(B)

-A
‫א‬-B


- ٢٩ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(٢)

  J ٢‫א‬J ١ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


- ٣٠ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ اﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻟﻤﻌﺪن ﻣﻄﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ اﻟﻜﺴﺮ اﻣﻌﺪن ﻗﺼﻒ‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬








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 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
K‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
    ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  J ٤
K

















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 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
K‫א‬ J ٢
K J ٣

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬   ، ‫א‬       ‫א‬   J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
K٣٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ J ٤
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
K‫א‬
‫א‬     ،‫א‬        ‫א‬  J ٥
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
K ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٧
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   J ٨
K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫ א‬‫א‬ 
 
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
F ‫א‬
EF ‫א‬
EFE
     

    
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬F  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬E‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬








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 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 HARDNESS OF METALS TEST

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬K
 
 IDENTATION HARDNESS‫א‬ J ١
 ‫א‬       ‫א‬   
KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F

 REBOUND HARDNESS‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   
KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 SCRATCH HARDNESS‫א‬ J ٣
KE‫א‬F‫א‬

 WEAR HARDNESS‫א‬ J ٤
‫א‬ ‫א‬F   ‫א‬   ‫א‬    
KE‫א‬‫א‬

 MACHINE ABILITY HARDNESS‫א‬ J ٥
 KE‫א‬KK‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٣٥ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
K‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
K
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥
K
 ‫א‬  
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  J ٦
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
      ‫א‬        
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ٣٠١٥
 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬       ‫א‬  
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
K‫א‬ J ٢
K J ٣
K J ٤

- ٣٦ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬،VICKERS، BRINELL
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 KROCKWELL‫א‬

 BRINELL:‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬
،EPF،EDF‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EDF‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E٢F‫א‬‫א‬LEF‫א‬Z

P
 B.H .N . =
D D d
πD.( − ( )2 − ( )2 )
2 2 2

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬٠{٥٠{٢٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠L٥L٣L١F‫א‬
 K٣٠٠٠١‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

- ٣٧ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

  ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬    ‫א‬       ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W

P
COMPRESSION STRESS = = Cons tan t
πd 2

P
= Cons tan t
d2

d
= Cons tan t
D2

P
= Cons tan t
D2

 

 ZL‫א‬

- ٣٨ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ١٦٠  ‫א‬‫א‬  ٣٠
 ١٦٠٦٠  ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠
 ٦٠٢٠  ‫א‬–‫א‬  ٥
 ٢٠  ‫א‬–‫א‬  ١
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
 VICKERSW‫א‬‫א‬J 

- ٣٩ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،١٣٦‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W

 E٢F‫א‬‫א‬LEF‫א‬Z

2.P. sin(θ / 2) P
 Vickers hardness number = 2
= 1.854 2
D D

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
K٠{١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
K
 ROCKWELLW‫א‬‫א‬J 
‫א‬         ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
  BRALE  ‫א‬       ١{٥٨٨٨  ‫א‬
- ٤٠ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

١٠  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬     ١٥٠  ١٠٠  ٦٠  ‫א‬
 K‫א‬،LOADMINOR
‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 C  B  A ، 
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEF

 
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
١٠٠  ‫ﺭﻜﻭل‬B
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
١{٥٨٨
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١٥٠   C
١٠٠ Brale
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
٦٠  A ‫رآﻮل‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Brale
‫א‬

 ‫א‬            ‫א‬   ‫א‬
 K‫א‬KK‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
- ٤١ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
K‫א‬ J ٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤



















- ٤٢ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 WE
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ECF ‫א‬     ،‫א‬ EDF    ‫א‬  J ١
 KP/D2 = C ‫א‬‫א‬،
  ‫א‬     ‫א‬    ‫א‬   J ٢
‫א‬EPF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬٣٠ ١٥‫א‬ ‫א‬
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KEDF

 WE
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K٣٠١٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EPF

- ٤٣ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KEDF

 WE
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ECBAF J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
 BRALE     B    ١{٥٨٨  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
W‫א‬،CA
‫א‬‫א‬١٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K
 ١٥٠ ١٠٠ ٦٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬CBA
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ E 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 WE
‫א‬    

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬
 D D2 DI P D ‫א‬
 C
MM MM MM KG MM

 K‫א‬EB.H.NF

- ٤٤ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 WE
‫א‬ 
‫א‬ ‫א‬
 D ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
D2 MM DI MM
MM P KG

 K‫א‬EV.H.NF

 WE
C B  A ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬







- ٤٥ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 NON - DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬    J ١
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٤
K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٥
K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٦
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 MAGNAFLUX INSPECTION‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
- ٤٦ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬   ‫א‬  
    K ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬PARAMAGNETIC‫א‬‫א‬E
 KDIAMAGNETIC‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬FERROMAGNETIC‫א‬E

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬      ‫א‬     
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬      K  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬      ‫א‬    ‫א‬ 
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬        ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬   ‫א‬       ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W
 KCIRCULAR FIELD‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
LONGITUDINAL  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   J ٢
KFIELD

- ٤٨ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢
K‫א‬‫א‬J ٣

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
KE٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
‫א‬E١F‫א‬‫א‬FE٠{٧F‫א‬ J ٣
KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٣‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٢
 11‘‫א‬‫א‬، ١‫א‬  ١١‫א‬ J ٤
KE٥٠٠F
KE٥٠٠F١J ٤٩XOYO‫א‬ J ٥
E‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦
K‫א‬
  ‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   J ٧
K‫א‬‫א‬XOYO‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٨
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٩
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١٠
K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٤٩ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬
  F ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬ KE‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬









- ٥٠ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

Y ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

X ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

- ٥١ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
K‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–١
 KE1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٢
 KE1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٣
 KEOF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٥
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٦
 KE‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٧
 KE‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬–٨
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEOF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٣

- ٥٢ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 KE1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٥٣ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢٣ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 




‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ١  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٥  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٩ ‫א‬ –‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬
 ١٨  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢٠  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢٧  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣٥  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣٥  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٤٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬








 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

GOTEVOT appreciates the financial support provided by BAE SYSTEMS