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Chemical Level of

Organization
energy, matter and transformation

   
   
Energy and Matter
● The capacity to do work
● Occupies space and
● To put matter into motion has mass
● Neither created nor ● States
destroyed, only
– Gas, Liquid,
transformed Solid
● Two forms ● Composed of atoms
– Potential, kinetic
● Types
– Electromagnetic,
  mechanical,  

electrical, chemical
Ludwig Boltzmann

● Theorized Atoms
● Vilified for his theories
● Committed suicide
October 5th 1906
● Einstein Proved his
findings a few days
before his death

   
ATOMS
● COMPOSED OF
PROTONS,
NEUTRONS AND

ELECTRONS

   
Protons
● Have mass (1)
● Positive charge
● In nucleus
● # determines
element

   
neutrons
● Have mass (1)
● Zero charge
● In nucleus

   
Electrons
● No mass
● Negative charge
● Orbit nucleus in a
cloud or shell
– Oute
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cal
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va
ANATOMY OF AN ATOM

   
ELEMENTS
● Specific atoms on periodic table
● Can not be broken down into simpler
substances by conventional chemical methods
● Differ in the number of proton’s in the
nucleus
● 4 elements make up 96% of body weight (C,
O, H, N)

   
ELEMENTS

   
ELEMENTS

   
Ions
● An atom that has
gained or lost
electron(s)
– Cation: Loss of
e- yields a +
charge
– Anion: Gain of
e- yields a -
charge

   
MOLECULES
● Molecules
– two or more atoms held together by
energy in the form of chemical bonds
● Compounds
– molecule made up of different types of
atoms

   
CHEMICAL BONDING
● Atoms want to be ‘stable’

● They are stable when their valence shell is full, or


contains eight electrons (because that is the maximum
amount that can participate in bonding).

● + and - attract

● 4 common types of bonds


– hydrogen bonds
– ionic bonds
– polar covalent
  – Non-polar covalent  
POLARITY
● The property of having two sides or ends
– positive : negative
● humans: left/right polarity, front/back
polarity, head/tail polarity
● In covalent bonding it means an unequal
sharing of electrons

   
HYDROGEN ‘BONDS’
● VERY WEAK
● DO NOT ACTUALLY BIND
ATOMS INTO A
MOLECULE
● MAKES SURFACE
TENSION IN WATER
● IMPORTANT IN
PROTEINS…
INTRAMOLECULAR
BONDS TO GIVE THEM
THEIR SHAPE

   
   
IONIC BONDS
● BASED ON TRANSFER OF
ELECTRON
● IONIC COMPOUNDS = SALTS =
ELECTROLYTES
● DISSOLVE EASILY IN WATER
● ANION – ION GAINS
ELECTRON AND BECOMES
NEGATIVE
● CATION – ION LOSES
ELECTRON AND BECOMES
POSITIVE
● Ex. NaCl – (Na+ , Cl-)
– TABLE SALT

   
IONIC BOND; Na+ Cl-

   
Polar covalent bond
● Polar covalent bond:
– shared e- spend more time
around one nucleus
– ex. H20
– Molecule has an uneven
distribution of charge

● Polar molecules hang out


together

   
Non-polar covalent bonds
● Equal ‘sharing’ of e- ● O2, Cl2, N2
● very strong
– hold a lot of energy
● Non-polar molecules
● sharing: hang out together
– 1 pair = single bond
– 2 pair = double bond
– 3 pair = triple bond

   
Non-polar covalent bonds

   
   
   
● SOLUTIONS
MIXTURES – HOMOGENEOUS
– SOLUTE/SOLVENT
● COLLOIDS
– EMULSIONS
– HETEROGENEOUS
– APPEAR MILKY
– SOL-GEL
TRANSFORMATION
● SUSPENSIONS
– HETEROGENEOUS
   
– VISIBLE PARTICLES
– SETTLE WITH TIME
CHEMICAL REACTIONS
● OCCUR WHEN CHEMICAL BONDS ARE
FORMED, REARRANGED, OR BROKEN
● SYNTHESIS = ANABOLIC
– BUILT UP INTO LARGER MOLECULES
– BOND FORMATION
● AA + AA --> Protien
● DECOMPOSITION = CATABOLIC
– MOLECULES ARE BROKEN DOWN INTO
SMALLER MOLECULES
● Glycogen --> Glucose

   
WHICH TYPE USES, AND WHICH TYPE GIVES OFF ENERGY?
   
ORGANIC VS. INORGANIC
‘BIOCHEMISTRY’
● ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
– CONTAIN CARBON
– COVALENTLY BONDED
– CARBOHYDRATES, PROTEINS, FATS

● INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
– DO NOT CONTAIN CARBON (FEW
EXCEPTIONS)
– WATER, SALTS, AND MANY ACIDS AND
BASES
   
WATER
● INORGANIC
COMPOUND,
BUT VERY
IMPORTANT TO
LIFE

● MAKES APPX.
60% BODY
WEIGHT

   
WATER PROPERTIES

● HIGH HEAT CAPACITY


– THERMAL STABILITY
– ABSORBS/ RELEASES LARGE AMOUNTS
OF HEAT BEFORE IT’S TEMPERATURE
CHANGES APPRECIABLY
– EXTERNAL / INTERNAL FACTORS WILL
NOT CAUSE DRAMATIC CHANGES IN
BODY TEMPERATURE

   
WATER PROPERTIES

● HIGH HEAT OF VAPORIZATION


– LARGE AMOUNTS OF HEAT ARE
NECESSARY TO BREAK HYDROGEN
BONDS
– THEREFORE LARGE AMOUNTS OF HEAT
ARE REMOVED FROM THE BODY WITH
SWEATING (WATER EVAPORATION)

   
WATER PROPERTIES
● POLAR SOLVENT
QUALITIES
– POLAR SUBSTANCES
DISSOLVE IN WATER
– WATER IS USED TO
TRANSPORT
MOLECULES
THROUGHOUT THE
BODY
– “UNIVERSAL
SOLVENT”

   
WATER PROPERTIES
● REACTIVITY
– IONIZES SALTS
– INVOLVED IN
NUMEROUS
BIOLOGICAL
REACTIONS (eg.
DIGESTION)

   
WATER PROPERTIES
(REACTIVE)

   
WATER PROPERTIES
● CUSHIONING
– PROTECTS ORGANS FROM PHYSICAL
TRAUMA (eg. CSF)
– ALLOWS SURFACES TO SLIDE OVER EACH
OTHER (eg. PLEURA, JOINTS)

   
WATER PROPERTIES REVIEW
● THESE PROPERTIES ARE WHAT MAKE
WATER SO IMPORTANT TO HUMANS:
– HIGH HEAT CAPACITY
– HIGH HEAT OF VAPORIZATION
– UNIVERSAL SOLVENT
– REACTIVE
– CUSHIONS / LUBRICATES

   
MIXTURES
● SUBSTANCES COMPOSED OF TWO OR
MORE COMPONENTS PHYSICALLY
INTERMIXED

● TYPES OF MIXTURES
– SOLUTIONS
– COLLOIDS
– SUSPENSIONS

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SOLUTIONS
● HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES
– i.e. AIR WE BREATHE, SEAWATER, SALINE
SOLUTION

● SOLVENT – SUBSTANCE PRESENT IN


GREATEST AMOUNT
– WATER IS THE BODY’S CHIEF SOLVENT

● SOLUTES – SUBSTANCES PRESENT IN


SMALLER AMOUNT
– NOT VISIBLE TO NAKED EYE & DO NOT SETTLE
OUT OF SOLUTION
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COLLOIDS
● HOMOGENOUS MIXTURES CALLED
EMULSIONS
– i.e. JELL-O, CYTOSOL, WHIPPED CREAM
● OFTEN APPEAR MILKY
● PARTICLES ARE LARGER THAN THOSE
IN A SOLUTION BUT STILL DO NOT
SETTLE OUT
● GEL AND SOL

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SUSPENSIONS
● HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES WITH
LARGE VISIBLE SOLUTES
– MIXTURE OF SAND & WATER, BLOOD
● SOLUTES WILL SETTLE DUE TO SIZE

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SALTS
● IONIC COMPOUNDS

● CONTAIN CATIONS OTHER THAN H+

● CONTAIN ANIONS OTHER THAN OH-

   
SALTS
● ARE ELECTROLYTES
– CONDUCT ELECTRICAL CURRENT IN
SOLUTION
– IMPORTANT FOR NERVE IMPULSE, AND
MUSCLE CONTRATION (CALCIUM,
SODIUM AND POTASSIUM)
– IMPORANT IN ENZYME ACTIVITY
– OXYGEN TRANSPORT (IRON)

   
ACIDS AND BASES

● Contain H+ and OH-


● ACID = PROTON DONOR
– ANYTHING THAT RELEASES A PROTON
(H+) IN WATER
– pH OF ACID <7
– CHARACTERISTICS OF ACIDS ARE THAT
THEY TASTE SOUR AND DISSOLVE
METALS
– VINEGAR= ACETIC ACID, LEMON= CITRIC
ACID
   
ACIDS AND BASES
● BASE = PROTON ACCEPTOR
– MOST BASES ARE THINGS WHICH
RELEASE HYDROXIDE (OH-)
– pH OF BASE >7
– CHARACTERISTICS OF BASES ARE THAT
THEY TASTE BITTER AND HAVE A
SLIPPERY FEEL
– SOAP, SCALES OF FISH, lye

   
pH: ACID BASE
CONCENTRATION
● pH SCALE 0-14, 7 IS NEUTRAL (WATER)

● pH IS DETERMINED BY THE
CONCENTRATION OF HYDROGEN IONS (H+),
OR HYDROXIDE IONS (OH-) IN SOLUTION

● LOGORITHMIC SCALE
– pH 6 HAS 10x MORE H+ THAN pH 7,
– pH 5 HAS 100x MORE H+ THAN pH 7,
– pH 4 HAS 1000x MORE H+ THAN pH 7, etc.

   
   
BLOOD AND pH
● THE pH OF THE BLOOD MUST REMAIN
CONSTANT IN ORDER FOR IMPORTANT
BODILY REACTIONS TO OCCUR.
● THIS pH IS BETWEEN 7.35-7.45.
● WHEN YOUR BODY DETECTS A SHIFT
IN pH, A NEGATIVE FEEDBACK CYCLE
OCCURS TO BRING HOMEOSTASIS
BACK TO THE SYSTEM

   
BLOOD AND pH
● BLOOD pH IS CAREFULLY REGULATED
THROUGH CHEMICAL ‘BUFFERS’.
– CHEMICALS THAT HAVE THE ABILITY TO
RELEASE HYDROGEN IONS WHEN pH
RISES, OR ACCEPT H+ WHEN pH DROPS

● OTHER ORGANS INVOLVED WITH


REGULATING pH ARE THE KIDNEYS AND
LUNGS

   
Chemistry overview
● Matter – 3 states ● Chemical Bonds -3
● Energy – 2 types – Polarity
– 4 forms ● Chem. Reactions
● Atoms – 3 parts – 2 types, rates
– Location, charge, mass ● Biochem org-inorg
● Elements, molecules, ● Water Properties
Compounds, ions
● Salts
● Acid/Base and pH