Elite Warriors

Special Response Units of the World

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Contents
Articles
Overview
Emergency management Law enforcement agency Police SWAT 1 1 13 23 39 48 49 49 54 54 55 56 56 58 64 66 68 70 73 75 77 79 86 86 88 88 91 91

Special Response Units of the World Albania
Reparti i Neutralizimit te Elementit te Armatosur

Argentina
Grupo Especial de Operaciones Federales Brigada Especial Operativa Halcón

Australia
Specialist Response and Security State Protection Group Hostage Response Group Territory Response Group Special Emergency Response Team (Queensland) Special Tasks and Rescue Special Operations Group of the Tasmania Police Victoria Police Special Operations Group Critical Incident Response Team Western Australia Police Tactical Response Group

Austria
EKO Cobra

Bangladesh
SWAT (Bangladesh)

Belgium
Federal Police Special Units

Brazil
BOPE Grupo de Ações Táticas Especiais

93 93 96 97 97 104 105 108 112 112 115 115 116 116 117 117 118 118 120 120 123 126 127 133 133 140 142 143 143 145

Canada
Correctional Service Canada MIERT Emergency Response Team (RCMP) Emergency Task Force

China, People's Republic of
Snow Wolf Commando Unit

Croatia
ATJ Lučko

Denmark
Politiets Aktionsstyrke

Estonia
K-Commando

Finland
Karhuryhmä

France
GIPN Recherche Assistance Intervention Dissuasion Service de Protection des Hautes Personnalités Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale

Germany
GSG 9 Spezialeinsatzkommando Zentrale Unterstützungsgruppe Zoll

Greece
Special Anti-Terrorist Unit

Hong Kong

Police Tactical Unit (Hong Kong) Special Duties Unit Airport Security Unit (Hong Kong)

145 147 152 154 154 157 157 161 165 173 173 175 175 178 178 181 182 182 185 187 187 194 194 195 196 196 210 213 213 214

Iceland
Víkingasveitin

India
National Security Guards MARCOS Central Bureau of Investigation

Indonesia
Brigade Mobil SOF

Ireland
Emergency Response Unit (Garda)

Israel
YAMAM Yasam

Italy
Nucleo Operativo Centrale di Sicurezza Gruppo di Intervento Speciale

Japan
Special Assault Team

Latvia
Latvian Special Tasks Unit OMEGA

Malaysia
Pasukan Gerakan Khas Police Contingent SWAT Unit (UTC, Malaysia)

Netherlands
Brigade Speciale Beveiligingsopdrachten

New Zealand

Armed Offenders Squad Special Tactics Group

214 218 221 221 223 229 229 231 232 232 239 239 241 241 246 248 248 251 254 254 257 257 258 258 263 265 265 270 270 272

Norway
Beredskapstroppen Forsvarets Spesialkommando

Pakistan
Elite Police Airport security force

Philippines
Special Action Force

Portugal
Grupo de Operações Especiais (Portugal)

Romania
OMON Detaşamentul de Poliţie pentru Intervenţie Rapidă

Serbia
SAJ (Special Anti-terrorist Unit) PTJ (Counter-terrorist Unit)

Singapore
Special Tactics and Rescue (Singapore)

South Africa
South African Police Service Special Task Force

Spain
Grupo Especial de Operaciones Unidad Especial de Intervención

Sri Lanka
Special Task Force

Sweden
National Task Force Piketen

Taiwan
Thunder Squad

273 273 274 274 276 276 277 277 281 287 287 293 301 314 315 320 322 334 343 346 347 348

Thailand
Naresuan 261 Counter-Terrorism Unit

Ukraine
Berkut (Ukraine)

United Kingdom
Specialist Firearms Officer Specialist Firearms Command

United States of America
Hostage Rescue Team (FBI) Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Diplomatic Security Service Federal Protective Service Air Force Security Forces Special Reaction Teams United States Marshals Service United States Secret Service Pentagon Force Protection Agency Correctional Emergency Response Team Boston Police Special Operations Unit Emergency Service Unit

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 350 356

Article Licenses
License 362

1

Overview
Emergency management
Emergency management (or disaster management) is the discipline of dealing with and avoiding risks.[1] It is a discipline that involves preparing for disaster before it occurs, disaster response (e.g. emergency evacuation, quarantine, mass decontamination, etc.), as well as supporting, and rebuilding society after natural or human-made disasters have occurred. In general, any Emergency management is the continuous process by which all individuals, groups, and communities manage hazards in an effort to avoid or ameliorate the impact of disasters resulting from the hazards. Actions taken depend in part on perceptions of risk of those exposed.[2] Effective emergency management relies on thorough integration of emergency plans at all levels of government and non-government involvement. Activities at each level (individual, group, community) affect the other levels. It is common to place the responsibility for governmental emergency management with the institutions for civil defense or within the conventional structure of the emergency services. In the private sector, emergency management is sometimes referred to as business continuity planning. Emergency Management is one of a number of terms which, since the end of the Cold War, have largely replaced Civil defense, whose original focus was protecting civilians from military attack. Modern thinking focuses on a more general intent to protect the civilian population in times of peace as well as in times of war. Another current term, Civil Protection is widely used within the European Union and refers to government-approved systems and resources whose task is to protect the civilian population, primarily in the event of natural and human-made disasters. Within EU countries the term Crisis Management emphasises the political and security dimension rather than measures to satisfy the immediate needs of the civilian population. An academic trend is towards using the term disaster risk reduction, particularly for emergency management in a development management context. This focuses on the mitigation and preparedness aspects of the emergency cycle (see below).

Phases and professional activities
The nature of management depends on local economic and social conditions. Some disaster relief experts such as Fred Cuny have noted that in a sense the only real disasters are economic.[3] Experts, such as Cuny, have long noted that the cycle of emergency management must include long-term work on infrastructure, public awareness, and even human justice issues. This is not important in developing nations. The process of emergency management involves four phases: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery.

Emergency management

2

Mitigation
Mitigation efforts attempt to prevent hazards from developing into disasters altogether, or to reduce the effects of disasters when they occur. The mitigation phase differs from the other phases because it focuses on long-term measures for reducing or eliminating risk.[1] The implementation of mitigation strategies can be considered a part of the recovery process if applied after a disaster occurs.[1] Mitigative measures can be structural or non-structural. Structural measures use technological solutions, like flood levees. Non-structural measures include legislation, land-use planning (e.g. the designation of nonessential land like parks to be used as flood zones), and insurance. A graphic representation of the four phases in Mitigation is the most cost-efficient method for reducing the impact of emergency management. hazards, however it is not always suitable. Mitigation does include providing regulations regarding evacuation, sanctions against those who refuse to obey the regulations (such as mandatory evacuations), and communication of potential risks to the public.[4] Some structural mitigation measures may have adverse effects on the ecosystem. A precursor activity to the mitigation is the identification of risks. Physical risk assessment refers to the process of identifying and evaluating hazards.[1] The hazard-specific risk ( ) combines both the probability and the level of impact of a specific hazard. The equation below gives that the hazard times the populations’ vulnerability to that hazard produce a risk. Catastrophe modeling The higher the risk, the more urgent that the hazard specific vulnerabilities are targeted by mitigation and preparedness efforts. However, if there is no vulnerability there will be no risk, e.g. an earthquake occurring in a desert where nobody lives.

Preparedness
In the preparedness phase, emergency managers develop plans of action for when the disaster strikes. Common preparedness measures include: • communication plans with easily understandable terminology and methods. • proper maintenance and training of emergency services, including mass human resources such as community emergency response teams. • development and exercise of emergency population warning methods combined with emergency shelters and evacuation plans. • stockpiling, inventory, and maintain disaster supplies and equipment[5] • develop organizations of trained volunteers among civilian populations. (Professional emergency workers are rapidly overwhelmed in mass emergencies so trained, organized, responsible volunteers are extremely valuable. Organizations like Community Emergency Response Teams and the Red Cross are ready sources of trained volunteers. Its emergency management system has gotten high ratings from both California, and FEMA.) Another aspect of preparedness is casualty prediction, the study of how many deaths or injuries to expect for a given kind of event. This gives planners an idea of what resources need to be in place to respond to a particular kind of event. Emergency Managers in the planning phase should be flexible, and all encompassing - carefully recognizing the risks and exposures of their respective regions and employing unconventional, and atypical means of support. Depending on the region - municipal, or private sector emergency services can rapidly be depleted and heavily taxed. Non-governmental oganizations that offer desired resources i.e. transportation of displaced homeowners to be

Emergency management conducted by local school district buses, evacuation of flood victims to be performed by mutual aide agreements between fire departments and rescue squads, should be identified early in planning stages, and practiced with regularity.

3

Response
The response phase includes the mobilization of the necessary emergency services and first responders in the disaster area. This is likely to include a first wave of core emergency services, such as firefighters, → police and ambulance crews. When conducted as a military operation, it is termed Disaster Relief Operation (DRO) and can be a follow-up to a Non-combatant evacuation operation (NEO). They may be supported by a number of secondary emergency services, such as specialist rescue teams. A well rehearsed emergency plan developed as part of the preparedness phase enables efficient coordination of rescue Where Brazilian Defesa Civil unit responding to an emergency São Paulo. required, search and rescue efforts commence at an early stage. Depending on injuries sustained by the victim, outside temperature, and victim access to air and water, the vast majority of those affected by a disaster will die within 72 hours after impact.[6] Organizational response to any significant disaster - natural or terrorist-borne - is based on existing emergency management organizational systems and processes: the Federal Response Plan (FRP) and the Incident Command System (ICS). These systems are solidified through the principles of Unified Command (UC) and Mutual Aid (MA)

Recovery
The aim of the recovery phase is to restore the affected area to its previous state. It differs from the response phase in its focus; recovery efforts are concerned with issues and decisions that must be made after immediate needs are addressed.[1] Recovery efforts are primarily concerned with actions that involve rebuilding destroyed property, re-employment, and the repair of other essential infrastructure.[1] An important aspect of effective recovery efforts is taking advantage of a ‘window of opportunity’[7] for the implementation of mitigative measures that might otherwise be unpopular. Citizens of the affected area are more likely to accept more mitigative changes when a recent disaster is in fresh memory. In the United States, the National Response Plan dictates how the resources provided by the Homeland Security Act of 2002 will be used in recovery efforts.[1] It is the Federal government that often provides the most technical and financial assistance for recovery efforts in the United States.[1]

Phases and personal activities
Mitigation
Personal mitigation is mainly about knowing and avoiding unnecessary risks. This includes an assessment of possible risks to personal/family health and to personal property. One example of mitigation would be to avoid buying property that is exposed to hazards, e.g. in a flood plain, in areas of subsidence or landslides. Homeowners may not be aware of a property being exposed to a hazard until it strikes. However, specialists can be hired to conduct risk identification and assessment surveys. Purchase of insurance covering the most prominent identified risks is a common measure.

Emergency management Personal structural mitigation in earthquake prone areas includes installation of an Earthquake Valve to instantly shut off the natural gas supply to a property, seismic retrofits of property and the securing of items inside a building to enhance household seismic safety. The latter may include the mounting of furniture, refrigerators, water heaters and breakables to the walls, and the addition of cabinet latches. In flood prone areas houses can be built on poles, as in much of southern Asia. In areas prone to prolonged electricity black-outs installation of a generator would be an example of an optimal structural mitigation measure. The construction of storm cellars and fallout shelters are further examples of personal mitigative actions. Mitigation involves Structural and Non-structural measures taken to limit the impact of disasters. Structural Mitigation:This involves proper layout of building, particularly to make it resistant to disasters. Non Structural Mitigation:This involves measures taken other than improving the structure of building.

4

Preparedness
Preparedness are aimed at preventing a disaster from occurring, personal preparedness focuses on preparing equipment and procedures for use when a disaster occurs, i.e. planning. Preparedness measures can take many forms including the construction of shelters, installation of warning devices, creation of back-up life-line services (e.g. power, water, sewage), and rehearsing evacuation plans. Two simple measures can help prepare the individual for sitting out the event or evacuating, as necessary. For evacuation, a disaster supplies kit may be prepared and for sheltering purposes a stockpile of supplies may be created. The preparation of a survival kit such as a "72-hour kit", is often advocated by authorities. These kits may include food, medicine, flashlights, candles and money.

Airport emergency preparedness exercise.

Response
The response phase of an emergency may commence with search and rescue but in all cases the focus will quickly turn to fulfilling the basic humanitarian needs of the affected population. This assistance may be provided by national or international agencies and organisations. Effective coordination of disaster assistance is often crucial, particularly when many organisations respond and local emergency management agency (LEMA) capacity has been exceeded by the demand or diminished by the disaster itself. On a personal level the response can take the shape either of a shelter in place or an evacuation. In a shelter-in-place scenario, a family would be prepared to fend for themselves in their home for many days without any form of outside support. In an evacuation, a family leaves the area by automobile or other mode of transportation, taking with them the maximum amount of supplies they can carry, possibly including a tent for shelter. If mechanical transportation is not available, evacuation on foot would ideally include carrying at least three days of supplies and rain-tight bedding, a tarpaulin and a bedroll of blankets being the minimum.

Emergency management

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Recovery
The recovery phase starts after the immediate threat to human life has subsided. During reconstruction it is recommended to consider the location or construction material of the property. The most extreme home confinement scenarios include war, famine and severe epidemics and may last a year or more. Then recovery will take place inside the home. Planners for these events usually buy bulk foods and appropriate storage and preparation equipment, and eat the food as part of normal life. A simple balanced diet can be constructed from vitamin pills, whole-meal wheat, beans, dried milk, corn, and cooking oil.[8] One should add vegetables, fruits, spices and meats, both prepared and fresh-gardened, when possible.

As a profession
Emergency managers are trained in a wide variety of disciplines that support them through out the emergency life-cycle. Professional emergency managers can focus on government and community preparedness (Continuity of Operations/Continuity of Government Planning), or private business preparedness (Business Continuity Management Planning). Training is provided by local, state, federal and private organizations and ranges from public information and media relations to high-level incident command and tactical skills such as studying a terrorist bombing site or controlling an emergency scene. In the past, the field of emergency management has been populated mostly by people with a military or first responder background. Currently, the population in the field has become more diverse, with many experts coming from a variety of backgrounds without military or first responder history. Educational opportunities are increasing for those seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees in emergency management or a related field. There are eight schools in the US with emergency management-related doctorate programs, but only one doctoral program specifically in emergency management.[9] Professional certifications such as Certified Emergency Manager (CEM) and Certified Business Continuity Professional (CBCP) are becoming more common as the need for high professional standards is recognized by the emergency management community, especially in the United States.

Tools
In recent years the continuity feature of emergency management has resulted in a new concept, Emergency Management Information Systems (EMIS). For continuity and interoperability between emergency management stakeholders, EMIS supports the emergency management process by providing an infrastructure that integrates emergency plans at all levels of government and non-government involvement and by utilizing the management of all related resources (including human and other resources) for all four phases of emergencies. In the healthcare field, hospitals utilize HICS (Hospital Incident Command System) which provides structure and organization in a clearly defined chain of command with set responsibilities for each division.

Within other professions
Practitioners emergency management (disaster preparedness) come from an increasing variety of backgrounds as the field matures. Professionals from memory institutions (e.g., museums, historical societies, libraries, and archives) are dedicated to preserving cultural heritage—objects and records contained in their collections. This has been an increasingly major component within these field as a result of the heightened awareness following the events on 9/11, the hurricanes in 2005, and the collapse of the Cologne Archives. To increase the opportunity for a successful recovery of valuable records, a well-established and thoroughly tested plan must be developed. This plan must not be overly complex, but rather emphasize simplicity in order to aid in response and recovery. As an example of the simplicity, employees should perform similar tasks in the response and recovery phase that they perform under normal conditions. It should also include mitigation strategies such as the

Emergency management installation of sprinklers within the institution. This task requires the cooperation of a well-organized committee led by an experienced chairperson.[10] Professional associations schedule regular workshops and hold focus sessions at annual conferences to keep individuals up to date with tools and resources in practice in order to minimize risk and maximize recovery.

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Tools
The joint efforts of professional associations and cultural heritage institutions have resulted in the development of a variety of different tools to assist professionals in preparing disaster and recovery plans. In many cases, these tools are made available to external users. Also frequently available on websites are plan templates created by existing organizations, which may be helpful to any committee or group preparing a disaster plan or updating an existing plan. While each organization will need to formulate plans and tools which meet their own specific needs, there are some examples of such tools that might represent useful starting points in the planning process. These have been included in the External Links section.

International organizations
International Association of Emergency Managers
The International Association of Emergency Managers (IAEM) is a non-profit educational organization dedicated to promoting the goals of saving lives and protecting property during emergencies and disasters. The mission of IAEM is to serve its members by providing information, networking and professional opportunities, and to advance the emergency management profession.

Red Cross/Red Crescent
National Red Cross/Red Crescent societies often have pivotal roles in responding to emergencies. Additionally, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC, or "The Federation") may deploy assessment teams to the affected country. They specialize in the recovery component of the emergency management framework.

United Nations
Within the United Nations system responsibility for emergency response rests with the Resident Coordinator within the affected country. However, in practice international response will be coordinated, if requested by the affected country’s government, by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA), by deploying a UN Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) team.

World Bank
Since 1980, the World Bank has approved more than 500 operations related to disaster management, amounting to more than US$40 billion. These include post-disaster reconstruction projects, as well as projects with components aimed at preventing and mitigating disaster impacts, in countries such as Argentina, Bangladesh, Colombia, Haiti, India, Mexico, Turkey and Vietnam to name only a few.[11] Common areas of focus for prevention and mitigation projects include forest fire prevention measures, such as early warning measures and education campaigns to discourage farmers from slash and burn agriculture that ignites forest fires; early-warning systems for hurricanes; flood prevention mechanisms, ranging from shore protection and terracing in rural areas to adaptation of production; and earthquake-prone construction.[12] In a joint venture with Columbia University under the umbrella of the ProVention Consortium the World Bank has established a Global Risk Analysis of Natural Disaster Hotspots.[13]

Emergency management In June 2006, the World Bank established the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), a longer term partnership with other aid donors to reduce disaster losses by mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in development, in support of the Hyogo Framework of Action. The facility helps developing countries fund development projects and programs that enhance local capacities for disaster prevention and emergency preparedness.[14]

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National organisations
Australia
The key federal coordinating and advisory body for emergency management in Australia is Emergency Management Australia (EMA). Each state has its own State Emergency Service. The Emergency Call Service provides a national 000 emergency telephone number to contact state Police, Fire and Ambulance services. Arrangements are in place for state and federal cooperation.

Canada
Public Safety Canada (PS) is Canada’s national emergency management agency. Each province is required to set up their Emergency Management Organizations. PS coordinates and supports the efforts of federal organizations ensuring national security and the safety of Canadians. They also work with other levels of government, first responders, community groups, the private sector (operators of critical infrastructure) and other nations. PS’s work is based on a wide range of policies and legislation through the Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Act which defines the powers, duties and functions of PS are outlined. Other acts are specific to fields such as corrections, emergency management, law enforcement, and national security. Provincial EMOs • • • • • • • • • • Provincial Emergency Program, Province of British Columbia's emergency measures organization[15] Alberta Emergency Management Agency[16] Saskatchewan Emergency Management Organization (SaskEMO)[17] Province of Manitoba Emergency Measures Organization[18] Emergency Measures Ontario[19] Quebec Civil Protection (Sécurité Publique Québec)[20] Nova Scotia Emergency Management Office[21] New Brunswick Emergency Management Organization[22] Prince Edward Island Office of Public Safety[23] Province of Newfoundland and Labrador Emergency Measures Organization[24]

Germany
In Germany the Federal Government controls the German Katastrophenschutz (disaster relief) and Zivilschutz (civil protection) programs. The local units of German fire department and the Technisches Hilfswerk (Federal Agency for Technical Relief, THW) are part of these programs. The German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr), the German Federal Police and the 16 state police forces (Länderpolizei) all have been deployed for disaster relief operations. Besides the German Red Cross and its regional sister organisation, the Bavarian Red Cross, humanitarian help is dispensed by the Johanniter-Unfallhilfe, the German equivalent of the St. John's Ambulance, the Malteser-Hilfsdienst, the Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund, to cite the largest relief organisation that are equipped for large-scale emergencies. Command and control are provided by mobile municipal headquarter units. As of 2006, there is a joint course at the University of Bonn leading to the degree "Master in Disaster Prevention and Risk Governance"[25]

Emergency management

8

India
In India, the role of emergency management falls to National Disaster Management Authority of India, a government agency subordinate to the Ministry of Home Affairs. In recent years there has been a shift in emphasis, from response and recovery to strategic risk management and reduction, and from a government-centred approach to decentralized community participation. Survey of India, an agency within the Ministry of Science and Technology, is also playing a role in this field, through bringing the academic knowledge and research expertise of earth scientists to the emergency management process. Recently the Government has formed the Emergency Management and Research Institute (EMRI). This group represents a public/private partnership, funded primarily by a large India-based computer company "Satyam Computer Services" , and aimed at improving the general response of communities to emergencies, in addition to those incidents which might be described as disasters. Some of the groups' early efforts involve the provision of emergency management training for first responders (a first in India), the creation of a single emergency telephone number, and the establishment of standards for EMS staff, equipment and training. It is hoped that this effort will provide a model for emulation by all of India, however, at the moment, it operates in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Karnataka , Assam, Meghalaya and Madhya Pradesh using a single 3-digit toll-free number 1-0-8.

The Netherlands
In the Netherlands the Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations is responsible for emergency preparedness en emergency management on national level and operates a national crisis centre (NCC). The country is divided in 25 safety regions (veiligheidsregio). Each safety region is covered by three services: police, fire and ambulance. All regions operate according to the Coordinated Regional Incident Management system. Other services such as the Ministry of Defence, waterboard(s), Rijkswaterstaat etc. can have an active role in the emergency management process.

New Zealand
In New Zealand, responsibility for emergency management moves from local to national depending on the nature of the emergency or risk reduction programme. A severe storm may be manageable within a particular area, whereas a national public education campaign will be directed by central government. Within each region, local governments are unified into 16 Civil Defence Emergency Management Groups (CDEMGs). Every CDEMG is responsible for ensuring that local emergency management is robust as possible. As local arrangements are overwhelmed by an emergency, pre-existing mutual-support arrangements are activated. As warranted, central government has the authority to coordinate the response through the National Crisis Management Centre (NCMC), operated by the Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management (MCDEM). These structures are defined by regulation,[26] and best explained in The Guide to the National Civil Defence Emergency Management Plan 2006,[27] roughly equivalent to FEMA's National Response Framework.

Emergency management Terminology New Zealand uses unique terminology for emergency management to the rest of the English-speaking world. 4Rs is a term used to describe the emergency management cycle locally. In New Zealand the four phases are known as:[28] • • • • Reduction = Mitigation Readiness = Preparedness Response Recovery

9

Emergency management is rarely used locally; many government publications retain usage of the term civil defence.[29] For example, the Minister of Civil Defence is responsible for central government's emergency management agency, MCDEM. Civil Defence Emergency Management is a term in its own right. Often abbreviated as CDEM, it is defined by statute as the application of knowledge to prevent harm from disasters.[30] Disaster very rarely appears in official publications. In a New Zealand context, the terms emergency and incident usually appear when speaking about disasters in general.[31] When describing an emergency that has had a response from the authorities, the term event is also used. For example, publications refer to the “Canterbury Snow Event 2002”[32]

Russia
In Russia the Ministry of Emergency Situations (EMERCOM) is engaged in fire fighting, Civil Defense, Search and Rescue, including rescue services after natural and human-made disasters.

United Kingdom
The United Kingdom adjusted its focus on emergency management following the 2000 UK fuel protests, severe UK flooding in the same year and the 2001 United Kingdom foot-and-mouth crisis. This resulted in the creation of the Civil Contingencies Act 2004 (CCA) which legislated the responsibilities of all category one responders regarding an emergency response. The CCA is managed by the Civil Contingencies Secretariat through Regional Resilience Forums and at the local authority level. Disaster Management training is generally conducted at the local level by the organisations involved in any response. This is consolidated through professional courses that can be undertaken at the Emergency Planning College. Furthemore diplomas and undergraduate qualifications can be gained throughout the country - the first course of this type was carried out by Coventry University in 1994. Institute of Emergency Management is a charity organisation, established in 1996, to provide consulting services for the government, media and commercial sectors. The Professional Society for Emergency Planners is the Emergency Planning Society.[33] The UK’s largest ever emergency exercise was carried out on 20 May 2007 near Belfast, Northern Ireland, and involved the scenario of a plane crash landing at Belfast International Airport. Staff from five hospitals and three airports participated in the drill, and almost 150 international observers assessed its effectiveness.[34]

United States
Under the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is lead agency for emergency management. The HAZUS software package developed by FEMA is central in the risk assessment process in the country. The United States and its territories are covered by one of ten regions for FEMA’s emergency management purposes. Tribal, state, county and local governments develop emergency management programs/departments and operate hierarchially within each region. Emergencies are managed at the most-local level possible, utilizing mutual aid agreements with adjacent jurisdictions. If the emergency is terrorist related or if

Emergency management declared an "Incident of National Significance", the Secretary of Homeland Security will initiate the National Response Framework (NRF). Under this plan the involvement of federal resources will be made possible, integrating in with the local, county, state, or tribal entities. Management will continue to be handled at the lowest possible level utilizing the National Incident Management System (NIMS). The Citizen Corps is an organization of volunteer service programs, administered locally and coordinated nationally by DHS, which seek to mitigate disaster and prepare the population for emergency response through public education, training, and outreach. Community Emergency Response Teams are a Citizen Corps program focused on disaster preparedness and teaching basic disaster response skills. These volunteer teams are utilized to provide emergency support when disaster overwhelms the conventional emergency services. The US Congress established the Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance (COE) as the principal agency to promote disaster preparedness and societal resiliency in the Asia-Pacific region. As part of its mandate, COE facilitates education and training in disaster preparedness, consequence management and health security to develop domestic, foreign and international capability and capacity.

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See also
• Asia Emergency Response Facility • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Burned area emergency response Central Emergency Response Fund Community Emergency Response Team Decontamination Disaster risk reduction Emergency Architects Foundation Emergency Management And Research Institute, EMRI Emergency Management Information System Emergency management software Emergency Response Guidebook Emergency Response Officers Emergency Response Team (Zoo) First aid HEARO Local Alert Receiver Incident Command System, a prepositioned, interservice cross-governmental command-and-control method to prevent interservice rivalry and official error in rapidly developing emergency situations. List of Special Response Units Prevention Public safety Quarantine Risk:

• Actuarial science • Extreme value theory • Standardised Emergency Preparedness Plan • Survivalism • Amateur radio operators may help provide emergency communications in the event of an Emergency: • Amateur Radio Emergency Service • Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service • Renewable sources can provide emergency energy: • Famine Early Warning Systems Network

Emergency management • Normalcy bias • Countries • In Australia • → Special Emergency Response Team (Queensland) • Northern Territory National Emergency Response Bill 2007 In Canada, Special Emergency Response Team, Municipal Integrated Emergency Response Team, → Emergency Response Team (RCMP) In Cuba, Cuba Emergency Response System In Denmark, Danish Emergency Management Agency In Ireland, → Emergency Response Unit (Garda) In France, Orsec’s plan: The French red plan and the French white plan; In USA, Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 • Emergency Management Institute • Local Emergency Planning Committee • United States Department of Homeland Security#Ready.gov

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• • • • • •

Further reading
• International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1741-5071 [35] (electronic) ISSN 1471-4825 [36] (paper), Inderscience Publishers • Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management [37] ISSN 1547-7355 [38], Bepress • Australian Journal of Emergency Management [39] (electronic) ISSN 1324-1540 [40] (paper), Emergency Management Australia • Stephenson Disaster Management Institute [41] • The ALADDIN Project [42], a consortium of universities developing automated disaster management tools

External links
• • • • ALA Disaster Preparedness and Recovery [43] Disaster Plan Workbook [44] The Disaster Mitigation Planning Assistance Website. [45] Heritage Preservation. [46] The Emergency Response and Salvage Wheel Tool

• Public Health Management after Natural Disasters: Preparation, Response & Recovery [47] - video, presentations, and summary of event held at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, June 2008 • Disasters Roundtable [48] Disasters Roundtable Workshop hosted by the National Academies • US-Homeland Emergency Response Organization [49] • Preparing For Emergencies [50] - UK Government public information site • Emergency Response Resources [51] The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health • Site [52] dedicated to use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for emergency management • Heritage Health Index [53] 2005 Report on the State of America's Collections. • Emergency Management Portal [54]. Online resources for emergency managers. • Emergency Management Reference Material Repository [55].

Emergency management

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References
[1] HaddowButterworth-Heinemann. Amsterdam. ISBN 0-7506-7689-2. [2] Wisner, Ben; P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis (2004). At Risk - Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters. Wiltshire: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-25216-4. [3] Cuny, Fred C. (1983). Disasters and Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [4] Lindell, M., Prater, C., and Perry, R. (2006). Fundamentals of Emergency Management. Retrieved January 9, 2009 at: http:/ / training. fema. gov/ EMIWeb/ edu/ fem. asp. [5] MODELING CRITICAL VACCINE SUPPLY LOCATION: PROTECTING CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE AND POPULATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA (http:/ / etd. lib. fsu. edu/ theses/ available/ etd-07092008-091641/ unrestricted/ MaliszewskiPThesis. pdf) Paul J. Maliszewski (2008) [6] Walker, Peter (1991). International Search and Rescue Teams, A League Discussion Paper. Geneva: League of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. [7] Alexander, David (2002). Principles of Emergency planning and Management. Harpenden: Terra Publishing. ISBN 1-903544-10-6. [8] www.fema.gov (http:/ / www. fema. gov/ ) Federal Emergency Management Agency Website [9] Jaffin, Bob (September 17, 2008). " Emergency Management Training: How to Find the Right Program (http:/ / www. govtech. com/ em/ articles/ 400741)". Emergency Management Magazine. . Retrieved 2008-11-15. [10] Buchanan, Sally. "Emergency preparedness." from Paul Banks and Roberta Pilette. Preservation Issues and Planning. Chicago: American Library Association, 2000. 159-165. ISBN 978-0-8389-0776-4 [11] List of World Bank projects with disaster management components (http:/ / web. worldbank. org/ WBSITE/ EXTERNAL/ TOPICS/ EXTURBANDEVELOPMENT/ EXTDISMGMT/ 0,,contentMDK:20196209~menuPK:341042~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:341015,00. html) and [12] World Bank Disaster Risk Management Projects (http:/ / web. worldbank. org/ WBSITE/ EXTERNAL/ TOPICS/ EXTURBANDEVELOPMENT/ EXTDISMGMT/ 0,,contentMDK:20196209~menuPK:341042~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:341015,00. html) [13] Natural Disaster Hotspots (http:/ / www. ldeo. columbia. edu/ chrr/ research/ hotspots/ coredata. html) [14] Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (http:/ / gfdrr. org/ index. cfm?Page=home& ItemID=200) [15] Provincial Emergency Program (http:/ / www. pep. bc. ca) [16] Alberta Emergency Management Agency (http:/ / aema. alberta. ca/ ab_index. cfm) [17] Saskatchewan Emergency Management Organization (SaskEMO) (http:/ / www. cpsp. gov. sk. ca/ SaskEMO/ ) [18] Province of Manitoba Emergency Measures Organization (http:/ / www. gov. mb. ca/ emo/ general/ overview. html) [19] Emergency Measures Ontario (http:/ / www. emergencymanagementontario. ca/ english/ home. html) [20] Quebec Civil Protection (Sécurité Publique Québec) (http:/ / www. msp. gouv. qc. ca/ secivile/ index_en. asp) [21] Nova Scotia Emergency Management Office (http:/ / www. gov. ns. ca/ EMO/ AbsPage. aspx?siteid=1& lang=1& id=1) [22] New Brunswick Emergency Management Organization (http:/ / www. gnb. ca/ cnb/ emo-omu/ index-e. asp) [23] Prince Edward Island Office of Public Safety (http:/ / www. gov. pe. ca/ cca/ index. php3?number=1002515) [24] Province of Newfoundland and Labrador Emergency Measures Organization (http:/ / www. ma. gov. nl. ca/ ma/ fes/ emo/ ) [25] http:/ / www. kavoma. de [26] National Civil Defence Emergency Plan Order 2005, available from http:/ / www. legislation. govt. nz/ regulation/ public/ 2005/ 0295/ latest/ DLM356569. html [27] http:/ / www. civildefence. govt. nz/ memwebsite. NSF/ wpg_URL/ For-the-CDEM-Sector-Publications-The-Guide?OpenDocument. ISBN 0-478-25470-0 [28] See especially the National Civil Defence Emergency Management Strategy 2007, page 5. Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington, New Zealand 2008. Digital edition available at http:/ / www. civildefence. govt. nz/ memwebsite. NSF/ Files/ National_CDEM_Strategy/ $file/ National-CDEM-strategy-2008. pdf. Retrieved 3 August 2008. ISBN 0-478-29453-0. [29] See generally Parliamentary media releases on emergency management http:/ / www. beehive. govt. nz/ portfolio/ civil+ defence?page=1, the Reserve Bank of New Zealand's crisis management material http:/ / www. reservebank. govt. nz/ crisismgmt/ and Ministry of Social Development’s website, which omits the term ‘emergency management’ altogether: http:/ / search. msd. govt. nz/ search?q=civil+ defence& output=xml_no_dtd& proxystylesheet=prod_msd& client=prod_msd& site=prod_msd. Retrieved 3 August 2008. [30] Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002, s4. http:/ / www. legislation. govt. nz/ act/ public/ 2002/ 0033/ latest/ DLM149796. html. Retrieved 3 August 2008. [31] For example, disaster is not used in the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002, the enabling legislation for New Zealand's emergency management, http:/ / www. legislation. govt. nz/ act/ public/ 2002/ 0033/ latest/ DLM149789. html [32] http:/ / www. civildefence. govt. nz/ memwebsite. nsf/ Files/ dfpresCantSnow/ $file/ dfpresCantSnow. pdf. Retrieved 3 August 2008 [33] Emergency Planning Society (http:/ / www. the-eps. org/ ) [34] Mock plane crash tests NI crews (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ northern_ireland/ 6673793. stm), BBC News, May 20, 2007 [35] http:/ / www. worldcat. org/ issn/ 1741-5071 [36] http:/ / www. worldcat. org/ issn/ 1471-4825 [37] http:/ / www. bepress. com/ jhsem/

Emergency management
[38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] http:/ / www. worldcat. org/ issn/ 1547-7355 http:/ / www. ema. gov. au/ ajem http:/ / www. worldcat. org/ issn/ 1324-1540 http:/ / www. bus. lsu. edu/ sdmi/ http:/ / www. aladdinproject. org/ http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ aboutala/ offices/ wo/ woissues/ disasterpreparedness/ distrprep. cfm http:/ / library. nyu. edu/ preservation/ disaster/ begin. htm http:/ / matrix. msu. edu/ ~disaster/ index. php http:/ / www. heritagepreservation. org/ PROGRAMS/ TFresources. html http:/ / www. wilsoncenter. org/ index. cfm?topic_id=116811& fuseaction=topics. event_summary& event_id=403578 http:/ / www. dels. nas. edu/ dr/ http:/ / www. ushero. org http:/ / www. direct. gov. uk/ en/ Governmentcitizensandrights/ Dealingwithemergencies/ Preparingforemergencies/ index. htm http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ niosh/ topics/ emres/ http:/ / www. cse. iitb. ac. in/ ~zahirk/ wiki/ http:/ / www. heritagepreservation. org/ HHI/ http:/ / www. emergencymanagement. org. uk http:/ / www. jumpjet. info/ CEM/ 02/ General-Preparedness. htm

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Law enforcement agency
In North American English, a Law enforcement agency (LEA) is an organisation that enforces the law. Outside North America, such organisations are called → police services. In North America, some of these services are called police, others have other names (e.g. sherriff's department; investigative police services in the USA are often called bureaus (e.g. FBI, USMS, ICE, ATF, DEA, USSS, SBI, etc.).)
Other terms defined in this article local police international law enforcement agency multinational law enforcement agency federal law enforcement agency federal police national law enforcement agency national police religious police police military police provost gendarmerie civilian police secret police

Law enforcement agency

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Law Enforcement agency jurisdiction
LEAs which have their ability to apply their powers restricted in some way are said to operate within a jurisdiction. LEAs will have some form of geographic restriction on their ability to apply their powers. The LEA might be able to apply its powers within a country, for example the United States of America's Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, within a division of a country, for example the Australian state Queensland Police, or across a collection of countries, for example international organizations such as Interpol, or the European Union's Europol. LEAs which operate across a collection of countries tend to assist in law enforcement activities, rather than directly enforcing laws, by facilitating the sharing of information necessary for law enforcement between LEAs within those countries, for example Europol has no executive powers[1] .

Sometimes a LEA’s jurisdiction is determined by the complexity or seriousness of the non compliance with a law. Some countries determine the jurisdiction in these circumstances by means of policy and resource allocation between agencies, for example in Australia, the Australian Federal Police take on complex serious matters referred to it by an agency[2] [3] and the agency will undertake its own investigations of less serious or complex matters by consensus, while other countries have laws which decide the jurisdiction, for example in the United States of America some matters are required by law to be referred to other agencies if they are of a certain level of seriousness or complexity, for example cross state boundary kidnapping in the United States is escalated to the Federal Bureau of Investigation[4] . Differentiation of jurisdiction based on the seriousness and complexity of the non compliance either by law or by policy and consensus can coexist in countries. A LEA which has a wide range of powers but whose ability is restricted geographically, typically to an area which is only part of a country, is typically referred to as local police or territorial police. Other LEAs have a jurisdiction defined by the type of laws they enforce or assist in enforcing. For example, Interpol does not work with political, military, religious, or racial matters[5] . A LEA’s jurisdiction usually also includes the governing bodies they support, and the LEA itself.

Non executive powers jurisdictional coverage of Europol.

Organization and structure of law enforcement agency jurisdiction
Jurisdictionally, there can be an important difference between international LEAs and multinational LEAs, even though both are often referred to as "international", even in official documents. An international law enforcement agency has jurisdiction and or operates in multiple countries and across State borders, for example Interpol. A multinational law enforcement agency will typically operate in only one country, or one division of a country, but is made up of personnel from several countries, for example the European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina[6] [7] . International LEAs are typically also multinational, for example Interpol[8] , but multinational LEAs are not typically international. Within a country, the jurisdiction of law enforcement agencies can be organised and structured in a number of ways to provide law enforcement throughout the country. A law enforcement agency’s jurisdiction can be for the whole country or for a division or sub division within the country.

Law enforcement agency Law enforcement agency jurisdiction within divisions of a country LEA jurisdiction for a division within a country can typically be at more than one level, for example at the division level, that is state, province, or territory level, and for example at the sub division level, that is county, shire, or municipality or metropolitan area level. In Australia for example, each state has its own LEAs. In the United States for example, typically each state and county or city has its own LEAs. As a result, because both Australia and the United States are federations and have federal LEAs, Australia has two levels of law enforcement and the United States has multiple levels of law enforcement, Federal, Tribal, State, County, City, Town, Village, special Jurisdiction and others. Division of law enforcement agency jurisdiction into operations areas Often a LEA’s jurisdiction will be geographically divided into operations areas for administrative and logistical efficiency reasons. An operations area is often called a command [9] or an office [10] [11] . While the operations area of a LEA is sometimes referred to as a jurisdiction, any LEA operations area usually still has legal jurisdiction in all geographic areas the LEA operates, but by policy and consensus the operations area does not normally operate in other geographical operations areas of the LEA. For example, the United Kingdom’s Metropolitan Police is divided in to 33 Borough Operational Command Units[12] , and the New York City Police Department is divided into 123 precincts[13] . Sometimes the one legal jurisdiction is covered by more than one LEA, again for administrative and logistical efficiency reasons, and-or arising from policy and-or historical reasons. For example, the jurisdiction for English and Welsh law is covered by a number of LEAs called constabularies, with each constabulary still having legal jurisdiction over the whole area covered by English and Welsh law, but they do not normally operate out of their areas without formal liaison between the constabularies[14] [15] . The primary difference between separate agencies and operational areas within the one legal jurisdiction is the degree of flexibility to move resources between versus within agencies. When multiple LEAs cover the one legal jurisdicition, each agency still typically organises itself into operations areas. In the United States within a state's legal jurisdcition, county and city Police agency division within England. police agencies do not have full legal jurisdictional flexibility throughout the state, and this has led in part to mergers of adjacent police agencies[16] . Federal and national law enforcement agency jurisdiction When a LEA’s jurisdiction is for the whole country, it is usually one of two broad types, either federal or national. Federal law enforcement agency jurisdiction and responsibilities When the country has a federal constitution a whole of country LEA is referred to as a federal law enforcement agency. The responsibilities of a federal LEA vary from country to country. Federal LEA responsibilities are typically countering fraud against the federation, immigration and border control regarding people and goods, investigating currency counterfeiting, policing of airports and protection of designated national infrastructure, national security, and the protection of the country’s head of state and of other designated very important persons, for example the Protective Service of the Australian Federal Police[17] , or the Protective Mission of the → United States Secret Service [18] ; and the U.S. State Department's Diplomatic Security Service (DSS).

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Law enforcement agency A federal police agency is a federal LEA which also has the typical police responsibilities of social order and public safety as well as federal law enforcement responsibilities. However, a federal police agency will not usually exercise its powers at a divisional level. Such exercising of powers is typically via specific arrangements between the federal and divisional governing bodies. Examples of federal law enforcement agencies are the Australian Federal Police (Australia), Bundeskriminalamt (Germany), → Central Bureau of Investigation (India), Federal Bureau of Investigation (United States), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (United States),Royal Canadian Mounted Police (Canada). A federated approach to the organisation of a country does not necessarily indicate the nature of the organisation of law enforcement agencies within the country. Some countries, for example, Austria (Federal Police (Austria)), and Belgium (Law enforcement in Belgium), have a relatively unified approach to law enforcement, but still have operationally separate units for federal law enforcement and divisional policing. The United States has a highly fractured approach to law enforcement agencies generally, and this is reflected in the country's federal law enforcement agencies (Federal law enforcement in the United States). Jurisdictional relationship between federal LEAs and federated divisional LEAs In a federation, there will typically be separate LEAs with jurisdictions for each division within the federation. A federal LEA will have primary responsibility for laws which affect the federation as whole, and which have been enacted by the governing body of the federation. Members of a federal LEA may be given jurisdiction within a division of a federation for laws enacted by the governing bodies of the divisions either by the relevant division within the federation, or by the federation's governing body. For example, the Australian Federal Police is a federal agency and has the legal power to enforce the laws enacted by any Australian state where that law has a federal aspect[19] . Typically federal LEAs have relatively narrow police responsibilities, the individual divisions within the federation usually establish their own police agencies to enforce laws within the division. However, in some countries federal agencies have jurisdiction in divisions of the federation. This typically happens when the division does not have its own independent status and is dependent on the federation. For example, the Australian Federal Police is the police agency with jurisdiction in Australia’s dependent territories, Jervis Bay Territory[20] , Cocos Islands[21] , Antarctic Territory, and Christmas Island[22] . Similarly, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) is a federal agency and is the police agency for three of Canada’s territories, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon[23] . Note that this is a direct jurisdictional responsibility and is different from the situation when a governing body makes arrangements with another governing body's LEA to provide law enforcement for its subjects. This latter type of arrangement is described under Establishment and constitution of law enforcement agencies. Some federations escalate non compliance with laws with divisional or federal laws which involve multiple divisions within the federation to a federal LEA. The United States for example escalates kidnapping[4] to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. In Australia, states liaise directly with each other when non compliance with laws crosses state boundaries. Some countries provide law enforcement on land and in buildings owned or controlled by the federation by using a federal LEA, for example the United States’s Department of Homeland Security[24] is responsible for some aspects of federal property law enforcement. Other countries, for example Australia, provide law enforcement for federal property via federal LEAs[25] and the LEAs for the division of the federation in which the property is located. Typically LEAs working in different jurisdictions which overlap in the type of law non compliance actively establish mechanisms for cooperation and even establish joint operations and joints task forces[26] [27] [28] [29] . Often, members of a LEA working outside of their normal jurisdiction on joint operations or task force are sworn in as

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Law enforcement agency special members of the host jurisdiction. National law enforcement agency jurisdiction and responsibility A national law enforcement agency is a LEA in a country which does not have divisions capable of making their own laws. A national LEA will have the combined responsibilities that federal LEAs and divisional LEAs would have in a federated country. National LEAs are usually divided into operations areas. A national police agency is a national LEA which also has the typical police responsibilities of social order and public safety as well as national law enforcement responsibilities. Examples of countries with national police agencies are New Zealand, Italy, France and Japan. To help avoid confusion over jurisdictional responsibility, some federal LEAs explicitly advise that they are not a national law enforcement agency, for example the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation does this[26] .

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Types of law enforcement agency and responsibility
LEAs can be responsible for the enforcement of laws affecting the behaviour of people or the general community, for example the New York City Police Department, or the behaviour of commercial organisations and corporations, for example the Australian Securities and Investments Commission, of for the benefit of the country as a whole, for example the United Kingdom’s Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs. A LEA can be responsible for enforcing secular law and-or religious law, for example Sharia or Halakha. The significant majority of LEAs around the world are secular, their governing bodies separating religious matters from the governance of their subjects. Religious law enforcement agencies, for example Saudi Arabia’s Mutaween, exist where full separation of government and religious doctrine has not occurred, and are generally referred to as police agencies, typically religious police, because their primary responsibility is for social order within their jurisdiction and the relevant social order being highly codified as laws. Often, a LEA will have a specific internal unit to ensure that the LEA is complying with relevant laws, for example the United States’ Federal Bureau of Investigation's Office of Professional Responsibility[30] . In some countries and-or divisions within countries, specialised and-or separate LEAs are established to ensure that other LEAs comply with laws, for example the Australian state New South Wales Independent Commission Against Corruption. LEA internal self compliance units and external LEA compliance agencies coexist in many countries. Names given to LEA internal self compliance units are typically, Internal Affairs, Internal Investigations, Professional Standards[31] [32] [33] . Many law enforcement agencies are → police agencies that have a broad range powers and responsibilities. A police agency, however, also often has a range of responsibilities not specifically related to law enforcement. These responsibilities relate to social order and public safety. While this understanding of policing, being more encompassing than just law enforcement has grown with and is commonly understood by society, it is recognised formally by scholars and academics[34] . A police agency’s jurisdiction for social order and public safety will normally be the same as its jurisdiction for law enforcement. Military organisations often have law enforcement units. These units within the military organisation are generally referred to as military police. This may refer to: • a section of the military solely responsible for policing the armed forces (referred to as provosts) • a section of the military responsible for policing in both the armed forces and in the civilian population (most gendarmeries, such as the French Gendarmerie) • a section of the military solely responsible for policing the civilian population (such as the Romanian Gendarmerie) • the civilian preventative police of a Brazilian state (Policia Militar)

Law enforcement agency The exact usage and meaning of the terms military police, provost, and gendarmie varies from country to country. Non military law enforcement agencies are sometimes referred to as civilian police, but usually only in contexts where they need to be distinguished from military police. In most countries the term law enforcement agency when used formally includes agencies other than only police agencies. The term law enforcement agency is often used in the United States of America to refer to police agencies.

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Other responsibilities of a law enforcement agency
Other responsibilities of LEAs are typically related to assisting subjects to avoid non compliance with a law, assisting subjects to remain safe and secure, assisting subjects after a safety impacting event. For example: • policing[34] • social order • public incident mediation • pre-empting anti social behaviour • dangerous event public logistics • public safety • general search and rescue • dangerous event containment and quarantine • crowd control regulation services and facilities disaster victim identification education and awareness campaigns • victim prevention and avoidance • law compliance • public safety Many LEAs have administrative and service responsibilities, often as their major responsibility, as well as their law enforcement responsibilities. This is typical of agencies such as customs or taxation agencies, which provide services and facilities to allow subjects to comply with relevant laws as their primary responsibilities. Regulation Many LEAs are also involved in the monitoring and-or application of regulations and codes of practice. See for example Australian Commercial Television Code of Practice, Building code, Code enforcement. Monitoring of the application of regulations and codes of practice is not normally considered law enforcement. However, the consistent non-compliance by a subject with regulations or codes of practice may result in the revocation of a licence for the subject to operate, and operating without a licence is typically illegal. Also, the failure to apply codes of practice can impact other subjects’ safety and life, which can also be illegal.

• • • •

Law enforcement agency

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Establishment and constitution of law enforcement agencies
Typically a LEA is established and constituted by the governing body it is supporting, and the personnel making up the LEA are from the governing body’s subjects, for example the Australian Federal Police is established and constituted by virtue of the Australian Federal Police Act 1979 [35]. By Definition, federal LEAs can only be established by the governing body of the relevant federation, divisional and sub divisional LEAs can only be established by their relevant governing bodies, and national LEAs can only be established by the national governing body of a country. For reasons of either logistical efficiency or policy, some divisions with a country will not establish their own LEAs but will instead make arrangements with another LEA, typically from the same country, to provide law enforcement within the division. For example, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) is a federal agency and is contracted by most of Canada's provinces and many municipalities to police those divisions, even though law enforcement in Canada is constitutionally a divisional responsibility. This arrangement has been achieved by formal agreement between those divisions and the RCMP and reduces the number of agencies policing the same geographical area[36] . Similarly, the Australian Federal Police (AFP) is a federal agency and is the contracted police agency for the Australian Capital Territory[37] and Norfolk Island[38] . In circumstances where a country or division within a country is not able to establish stable or effective LEAs, typically police agencies, the country might invite other countries to provide personnel, experience, and organisational structure to constitute a LEA, for example the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands which has a Participating Police Force[39] working in conjunction with the Solomon Islands Police Force, or where the United Nations is already providing an administrative support capability within the country, the United Nations may directly establish and constitute a LEA on behalf of the country, for example for Timor-Leste from 1999 to 2002[40] .

Powers and law exemptions of a law enforcement agency
To enable a LEA to prevent, detect, and investigate non compliance with laws, the LEA is endowed with powers by its governing body which are not available to non LEA subjects of a governing body. Typically, a LEA is empowered to varying degrees to: • • • • • • collect information about subjects in the LEA's jurisdiction intrusively search for information and evidence related to the non compliance with a law seize evidence of non compliance with a law seize property and assets from subjects direct subjects to provide information related to the non compliance with a law arrest and detain subjects, depriving them of their liberty, but not incarcerate subjects, for alleged non complaince with a law • lawfully deceive subjects These powers are not available to subjects other than LEAs within the LEA's jurisdiction and are typically subject to judicial and civil overview. Usually, these powers are only allowed when it can be shown that a subject is probably already not complying with a law. For example, to undertake an intrusive search, typically a LEA must make an argument and convince a judicial officer of the need to undertake the intrusive search on the basis that it will help detect and-or prove non compliance with a law by a specified subject. The judicial officer, if they agree, will then issue a legal instrument, typically called a Search warrant, to the LEA, which must be presented to the relevant subject if possible.

Law enforcement agency

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Lawful deception and law exemption by a law enforcement agency
Subjects who do not comply with laws will usually seek to avoid detection by a LEA. When required, in order for the LEA to detect and investigate subjects not complying with laws, the LEA must be able to undertake its activities secretly from the non complying subject. This, however, may require the LEA to explicitly not comply with a law other subjects must comply with. To allow the LEA to operate and comply with the law, it is given lawful exemption to undertake secret activities. Secret activities by a LEA are often referred to as covert operations. To deceive a subject and carryout its activities, a LEA may be lawfully allowed to secretly: • create and operate false identities and personalities and organisations, often referred to as under cover operations or assumed identities, for example Australia’s Australian Federal Police by virtue of Part 1AC of the Crimes Act 1914 [41] • allow and assist the illicit movement of licit and illicit substances and wares, sometimes partially substituted with benign materials, often referred to as controlled operations, for example Australia’s LEAs by virtue of Part 1AB of the Crimes Act 1914 [41] • listen to and copy communications between subjects, often referred to as telecommunications interception or wire tapping when the communication medium is electronic in nature, for example the United States's Federal Bureau Investigation by virtue of United States Code 18 Title 18 Part I Chapter 119 Section 2516 [42], or Australia’s LEAs by virtue of Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979 [43] • intrusively observe, listen to, and track subjects, often referred to as technical operations, for example Australia’s LEAs by virtue of the Surveillance Devices Act 2004 [44] to typically collect information about and evidence of non compliance with a law and identify other non complying subjects. Lawful deception and utilisation of law exemption by a LEA is typically subject to very strong judicial and-or open civil overview. For example, the Australian Federal Police's controlled operations are subject to open civil review by its governing body, the Parliament of Australia[45] [46] .

Secret police
When a LEA's powers are not subject to judicial or open civil overview, and-or the powers are extreme or abused, the LEA is often referred to as a secret police agency. The term 'secret police' when applied to a LEA generally has negative connotations.

Other exemptions from laws
Law enforcement agencies have other exemptions from laws to allow them to operate in a practical way. For example, many jurisdictions have laws which forbid animals from entering certain areas for health and safety reasons. LEAs are typically exempted from these laws to allow dogs to be used for search and rescue, drug search, explosives search, chase and arrest, etc[47] . This type of exemption is not unique to LEAs. Sight assist dogs are also typically exempted from access restrictions. Interpol is an international organisation and is essentially stateless but must operate from some physical location. Interpol is protected from certain laws of the country where it is physically located[48] .

Law enforcement agency

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Law enforcement agencies and society
Because the enforcement of laws has, by definition, a major impact on the society the laws apply to, the agencies which enforce the laws have a specific relevance to the societies in which they operate. Some LEAs have been immortalised in history, literature, and popular media, for example the United Kingdom's Scotland Yard and the United States' Federal Bureau of Investigation. A small number of LEAs, particularly secret police forces which are unnacountable or have unrestricted powers, are not generally respected by their governing bodies’ subjects, due to the negative impact they have on the subjects. Many fictional LEAs have been created in popular media and literature. See for example List of fictional secret police and intelligence organizations and List of fictional police forces.

See also
• Code enforcement • Law enforcement organisation • Specialist law enforcement agency

Lists of law enforcement agencies
• List of law enforcement agencies grouped by sub category • • • • List of federal law enforcement agencies grouped by country List of specialist law enforcement agencies List of protective service agencies List of secret police organizations

References
[1] Europol#Functions [2] " Australian Federal Police Investigation Services (http:/ / www. afp. gov. au/ services/ investigation. html)". Australian Federal Police. . Retrieved 2008-02-01. [3] " Australian Federal Police Case Categorisation and Prioritisation Model (http:/ / www. afp. gov. au/ services/ operational_priorities/ how_the_ccpm_is_applied. html)". Australian Federal Police. . Retrieved 2008-02-01. [4] 18 U.S.C.  § 1201 (http:/ / www. law. cornell. edu/ uscode/ 18/ 1201. html)(a)(1) [5] " Interpol Constitution Article 3 (http:/ / www. interpol. int/ Public/ ICPO/ LegalMaterials/ constitution/ constitutionGenReg/ constitution. asp)". Interpol. . Retrieved 2008-01-31. [6] " Annex 11 of the Dayton/Paris Agreement (http:/ / www. nato. int/ ifor/ gfa/ gfa-an11. htm)". NATO. . Retrieved 2008-02-07. [7] " Establishment of EUPM personnel by country (http:/ / www. eupm. org/ Documents/ Weekly. pdf)" (PDF). European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina. . Retrieved 2008-02-07. [8] " INTERPOL member countries (http:/ / www. interpol. int/ Public/ Icpo/ Members/ default. asp)". Interpol. . Retrieved 2008-02-07. [9] " Metropolitan Police Local Information (http:/ / www. met. police. uk/ local)". Metropolitan Police. . Retrieved 2008-02-04. [10] " Federal Bureau of Investigation Your Local FBI Office (http:/ / www. fbi. gov/ contact/ fo/ fo. htm)". Federal Bureau of Investigation. . Retrieved 2008-02-04. [11] " State and Regional AFP Offices (http:/ / www. afp. gov. au/ contact. html#State)". Australian Federal Police. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [12] " Metropolitan Police Local Information (http:/ / www. met. police. uk/ local)". Metropolitan Police. . Retrieved 2008-02-04. [13] " New York Police Department Precincts (http:/ / www. nyc. gov/ html/ nypd/ html/ home/ precincts. shtml)". New York Police Department. . Retrieved 2008-02-04. [14] Law enforcement in the United Kingdom#Jurisdictions and territories [15] List of police forces in the United Kingdom [16] Policing in the United States#Local policing [17] " Protective Service (http:/ / www. afp. gov. au/ services/ protective. html)". Australian Federal Police. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [18] " United States Secret Service Protective Mission (http:/ / www. secretservice. gov/ protection. shtml)". United States Secret Service. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [19] " Australian Federal Police Act (http:/ / www. austlii. edu. au/ au/ legis/ cth/ consol_act/ afpa1979225/ s4aa. html)". Parliament of Australia. . Retrieved 2008-02-05.

Law enforcement agency
[20] " Jervis Bay Governance and Administration (http:/ / www. ag. gov. au/ www/ agd/ agd. nsf/ Page/ TerritoriesofAustralia_JervisBay_JervisBayGovernanceandAdministration)". Australian Government Attorney General’s Department. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [21] " Cocos Islands Governance and Administration (http:/ / www. ag. gov. au/ www/ agd/ agd. nsf/ Page/ TerritoriesofAustralia_Cocos(Keeling)Islands_CocosIslandsGovernanceandAdministration)". Australian Government Attorney General’s Department. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [22] " Christmas Island Governance and Administration (http:/ / www. ag. gov. au/ www/ agd/ agd. nsf/ Page/ TerritoriesofAustralia_ChristmasIsland_ChristmasIs. GovernanceAdministration)". Australian Government Attorney General’s Department. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [23] " Policing in the Territories (http:/ / www. justice. gov. yk. ca/ pdf/ Pan_Territorial_Police_Review. pdf)". Government of Yukon Department of Justice. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [24] " United States Code Title 40 Subtitle I Chapter 13 Section 1315 (http:/ / frwebgate. access. gpo. gov/ cgi-bin/ getdoc. cgi?dbname=browse_usc& docid=Cite:+ 40USC1315)". United States Congress. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [25] " Bills Digest No 152 2001-02 – Australian Protective Service Amendment Bill 2002 (http:/ / www. aph. gov. au/ LIBRARY/ pubs/ bd/ 2001-02/ 02bd152. htm)". Parliament of Australia. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [26] " Federal Bureau of Investigation About Us Frequently Asked Questions (http:/ / www. fbi. gov/ aboutus/ faqs/ faqsone. htm)". Federal Bureau of Investigation. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [27] " ACT Policing - Media Release – Joint Drug Operation a Success (http:/ / www. afp. gov. au/ __data/ assets/ pdf_file/ 2250/ 02092005_327. pdf)" (PDF). Australian Federal Police. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [28] " Airport Security – Joint Airport Teams (http:/ / www. afp. gov. au/ national/ airport_security)". Australian Federal Police. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [29] " Referring Matters to the AFP – Information Required (http:/ / www. afp. gov. au/ services/ referrals. html)". Australian Federal Police. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [30] " Internal Investigations (http:/ / www. fbi. gov/ libref/ factsfigure/ internal. htm)". Federal Bureau of Investigation. . Retrieved 2008-02-12. [31] " Borough Support Management Information Main Report – March 2007 (http:/ / www. met. police. uk/ foi/ pdfs/ how_are_we_doing/ corporate/ dps_bsmi_main_report_march_2007. pdf)". Metropolitan Police Service. . Retrieved 2008-02-12. [32] " About the AFP - Feedback and Complaints (http:/ / www. afp. gov. au/ about/ complaints. html)". Australian Federal Police. . Retrieved 2008-02-12. [33] " NYPD Frequently Asked Questions (http:/ / home2. nyc. gov/ html/ nypd/ html/ faq/ faq_police. shtml)". New York Police Department. . Retrieved 2008-02-12. [34] Cole, George F.; Smith, Christopher E. (2004). The American System of Criminal Justice. Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. [35] http:/ / www. austlii. edu. au/ au/ legis/ cth/ consol_act/ afpa1979225 [36] " Organization of the RCMP (http:/ / www. rcmp. ca/ about/ organi_e. htm)". Royal Canadian Mounted Police. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [37] " ACT Policing (http:/ / www. afp. gov. au/ act. html)". Australian Federal Police. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [38] " Norfolk Island Policing (http:/ / www. norfolk. gov. nf/ police. htm)". Norfolk Island Government. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [39] " RAMSI's Program Areas: Law and Justice (http:/ / www. ramsi. org/ node/ 16#law)". Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [40] " United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) (http:/ / www. un. org/ peace/ etimor/ etimor. htm)". United Nations. . Retrieved 2008-01-31. [41] http:/ / www. austlii. edu. au/ au/ legis/ cth/ consol_act/ ca191482 [42] http:/ / frwebgate. access. gpo. gov/ cgi-bin/ getdoc. cgi?dbname=browse_usc& docid=Cite:+ 18USC2516 [43] http:/ / www. austlii. edu. au/ au/ legis/ cth/ consol_act/ taaa1979410/ [44] http:/ / www. austlii. edu. au/ au/ legis/ cth/ consol_act/ sda2004210 [45] " Controlled Operations Annual Report 2006-07 (http:/ / www. afp. gov. au/ __data/ assets/ pdf_file/ 61384/ ControlledOps07Senate. pdf)" (PDF). Australian Federal Police. . Retrieved 2008-02-04. [46] " Controlled Operations Inspections Report 2005-06 (http:/ / www. ombudsman. gov. au/ commonwealth/ publish. nsf/ content/ publications_inspectionreports)". Commonwealth Ombudsman. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [47] " Australian Federal Police Act 1979 (http:/ / www. austlii. edu. au/ au/ legis/ cth/ consol_act/ afpa1979225)". Parliament of Australia. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [48] " Interpol Headquarters Agreement (http:/ / www. interpol. int/ Public/ ICPO/ LegalMaterials/ constitution/ hqagreement/ hqagreement. asp)". Interpol. . Retrieved 2008-02-01.

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Police

23

Police
A police service is a public force empowered to enforce the law and provide security through the legitimized use of force. The term is most commonly associated with police services of a state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. The word comes via French Policier, from Latin politia ("civil administration"), from ancient Greek πόλις ("city").[1]

Overview
Important milestones: • Hundred Years War (1337 to 1453): The French Gendarmerie was founded as the Maréchaussée It was renamed as the Gendarmerie during the French Revolution. • 1626: The New York City Sheriff's Office was founded. • 1667 (March 15): King Louis XIV in France created the first police force in the modern sense under an official called the lieutenant général de police ("lieutenant general of police") to police the city of Paris and to carry out national investigations at the king's request. • 1749 : The Bow Street Runners were formed by Henry Fielding in London. • 1789: • July 16: The Paris police force was disbanded at the start of the French Revolution and policing was carried out by the National Guard and Gendarmerie. • September 24, 1789: The US Marshals Service was established. • 1800: • February 17: The Paris police was recreated by Napoleon.[2] • June 30: The City of Glasgow Police was created, the first professional police service in the United Kingdom.[3] • 1829:
Polish Police's Anti-Riot Detachment, filming a gathering. The film could later be presented during a trial as evidence, or used in Police training. A water cannon is seen in the background.

German State Police officer in Hamburg.

• March 12: A decree of the French government created the first uniformed police in France, known as sergents de ville ("city sergeants"), which the Paris Prefecture of Police's website claims were the first uniformed policemen in the world.[4] • September 29: The London Metropolitan Police was established. This promoted the preventive role of police as a deterrent to urban crime and disorder.[5] Law enforcement, however, constitutes only part of policing activity.[6] Policing has included an array of activities in different situations, but the predominant ones are concerned with the preservation of order.[7]

Police In some societies, in the late 18th century and early 19th century, these developed within the context of maintaining the class system and the protection of private property[8] . Alternative names for police force include constabulary, gendarmerie, police department, police service, crime prevention, protective services, law enforcement agency or Garda Síochána, and members can be police officers, troopers, sheriffs, constables, rangers, peace officers or Garda. Russian police and police of the Soviet-era Eastern Europe are (or were) called militsiya.

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New York City Police Department Chevrolet Impala patrol car.

History
Ancient world
Ancient China Law enforcement in Ancient China was carried out by "prefects." The notion of a "prefect" in China has existed for thousands of years. The prefecture system developed in both the Chu and Jin kingdoms of the Spring and Autumn period. In Jin, dozens of prefects were spread across the state, each having limited authority and employment period. In Ancient China, prefects were government officials appointed by local magistrates, who in turn were appointed by the head of state, usually the emperor of the dynasty. The prefects oversaw the civil administration of their "prefecture," or jurisdiction. Prefects usually reported to the local magistrate, just as modern police report to judges. Under each prefect were "subprefects" who helped collectively with law enforcement of the area. Some prefects were responsible for handling investigations, much like modern police detectives. Eventually the concept of the "prefecture system" would spread to other cultures such as Korea and Japan. Law enforcement in Ancient China was also relatively progressive, allowing for female prefects. Some examples of ancient Chinese prefects include: Chong Fu - prefect of the Ying District in the East Han Dynasty and Ching Chow prefect of the modern Shang-tung Province. An example of a female prefect would by Lady Qu[9] of Wuding (serving 1531-ca. 1557). Recent portrayals of prefects in modern popular culture include Jet Li’s portrayal of the nameless prefect in the movie Hero. Roman Empire In most of the Empire, the Army provided security rather than a dedicated police organization. Local watchmen were hired by cities to provide some extra security. In Rome itself, the Urban Cohorts were responsible for law and order and acted as a dedicated police force. Magistrates such as Procurator Fiscals and quaestors investigated crimes. There was no concept of public prosecution, so victims of crime or their families had to organize and manage the prosecution themselves.

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Pre-medieval Europe
In Ancient Greece, publicly-owned slaves were used by magistrates as police. In Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves was used to guard public meetings to keep order and for crowd control, and also assisted with dealing with criminals, handling prisoners, and making arrests. Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves.[10] Before its decline, the Roman Empire had a relatively effective law enforcement system. When under the reign of Augustus the capital had grown to almost one million inhabitants, he created 14 wards, which were protected by seven squads of 1,000 men called "Vigiles," who guarded against fires and served as nightwatchmen. If necessary, they might have called the Praetorian Guard for assistance. Beginning in the 5th century, policing became a function of clan chiefs and heads of state. The Anglo-Saxon system of maintaining public order since the Norman conquest was a private system of tithings, led by a constable, which was based on a social obligation for the good conduct of the others; more common was that local lords and nobles were responsible to maintain order in their lands, and often appointed a constable, sometimes unpaid, to enforce the law.

European development
Spain Modern police in Europe has a precedent in the Hermandades, os "brotherhoods", peacekeeping associations of armed individuals, a characteristic of municipal life in medieval Spain, especially in Castile. As medieval Spanish kings often could not offer adequate protection, protective municipal leagues began to emerge in the 12th century against bandits and other rural criminals, and against the lawless nobility or to support one or another claimant to the crown. These organizations were intended to be temporary, but became a long-standing fixture of Spain. The first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, and protect the pilgrims against robber knights. Throughout the Middle Ages such alliances were frequently formed by combinations of towns to protect the roads connecting them, and were occasionally extended to political purposes. Among the most powerful was the league of North Castilian and Basque ports, the Hermandad de las Marismas: Toledo, Talavera, and Villarreal. As one of their first acts after the war of succession, Ferdinand and Isabella established the centrally organized and efficient Holy Brotherhood (Santa Hermandad) as a national police force. They adapted an existing brotherhood to the purpose of a general police acting under officials appointed by themselves, and endowed with large powers of summary jurisdiction even in capital cases. The original brotherhoods continued to serve as modest local police units until their final suppression in 1835. Holy Roman Empire The Fehmic courts of Germany provided some policing in the absence of strong state institutions. France The Gendarmerie is the direct descendant of the Marshalcy of the ancien regime, more commonly known by its French title, the Maréchaussée. During the Middle Ages, there were two Grand Officers of the Kingdom of France with police responsibilities: The Marshal of France and the Constable of France. The military policing responsibilities of the Marshal of France were delegated to the Marshal's provost, whose force was known as the Marshalcy because its authority ultimately derived from the Marshal. The marshalcy dates back to the Hundred Years War, and some historians trace it back to the early twelfth century. Another organisation, the Constabulary (French: Connétablie), was under the command of the Constable of France. The constabulary was regularised as a

Police military body in 1337. Under King Francis I (who reigned 1515-1547), the Maréchaussée was merged with the Constabulary. The resulting force was also known as the Maréchaussée, or, formally, the Constabulary and Marshalcy of France (French: connétablie et maréchaussée de France). During the revolutionary period, marshalcy commanders generally placed themselves under the local constitutional authorities. As a result, the Maréchaussée, whose title was associated with the king, was not disbanded but simply renamed gendarmerie nationale in February 1791. Its personnel remained unchanged, and the role remained much as it was. However, from this point, the gendarmerie, unlike the marshalcy, was a fully military force. The first police force in the modern sense was created by the government of King Louis XIV in 1667 to police the city of Paris, then the largest city in Europe. The royal edict, registered by the Parlement of Paris on March 15, 1667 created the office of lieutenant général de police ("lieutenant general of police"), who was to be the head of the new Paris police force, and defined the task of the police as "ensuring the peace and quiet of the public and of private individuals, purging the city of what may cause disturbances, procuring abundance, and having each and everyone live according to their station and their duties". This office was first held by Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie, who had 44 commissaires de police (police commissioners) under his authority. In 1709, these commissioners were assisted by inspecteurs de police (police inspectors). The city of Paris was divided into 16 districts policed by the commissaires, each assigned to a particular district and assisted by a growing bureaucracy. The scheme of the Paris police force was extended to the rest of France by a royal edict of October 1699, resulting in the creation of lieutenants general of police in all large French cities and towns. After the French Revolution, Napoléon I reorganized the police in Paris and other cities with more than 5,000 inhabitants on February 17, 1800 as the Prefecture of Police. On March 12, 1829, a government decree created the first uniformed police in France, known as sergents de ville ("city sergeants"), which the Paris Prefecture of Police's website claims were the first uniformed policemen in the world.[11] Britain and Ireland In England a system of sherriffs, reeves, and investigative "juries" had developed under the Anglo-Saxons to provide basic security and law enforcement. After the Norman conquest, these institutions remained though their roles changed. Sherriffs in particular were responsible for keeping law and order, although they were responsible to the king and represented his interests. In the United Kingdom, the development of police forces was much slower than in the rest of Europe. The British police function was Mounted officer of the British Metropolitan [5] historically performed by private watchmen (existing from 1500 on), Police, the first modern police force thief-takers, and so on. The former were funded by private individuals and organisations and the latter by privately-funded rewards for catching criminals, who would then be compelled to return stolen property or pay restitution. In 1737, George II began paying some London and Middlesex watchmen with tax moneys, beginning the shift to government control. In 1750, Henry Fielding began organizing a force of quasi-professional constables. The Macdaniel affair added further impetus for a publicly-salaried police force that did not depend on rewards. Nonetheless, In 1828, there were privately financed police units in no fewer than 45 parishes within a 10-mile radius of London. The word "police" was borrowed from French into the English language in the 18th century, but for a long time it applied only to French and continental European police forces. The word, and the concept of police itself, was

26

Police "disliked as a symbol of foreign oppression" (according to Britannica 1911). Prior to the 19th century, the only official use of the word "police" recorded in the United Kingdom was the appointment of Commissioners of Police for Scotland in 1714 and the creation of the Marine Police in 1798 (set up to protect merchandise at the Port of London). Even today, many British police forces are suffixed with "Constabulary" rather than "Police". On June 30, 1800, the authorities of Glasgow, Scotland successfully petitioned the government to pass the Glasgow Police Act establishing the City of Glasgow Police. This was the first professional police service in the country and differed from previous law enforcement in that it was a preventive police force. Other Scottish towns soon followed suit and set up their own police forces through acts of parliament.[12] The first organized police force in Ireland came about through the Peace Preservation Act of 1814, but the Irish Constabulary Act of 1822 marked the true beginning of the Royal Irish Constabulary. Among its first duties was the forcible seizure of tithes during the "Tithe War" on behalf of the Anglican clergy from the mainly Catholic population as well as the Presbyterian minority. The Act established a force in each barony with chief constables and inspectors general under the control of the civil administration at Dublin Castle. By 1841 this force numbered over 8,600 men. The force had been rationalized and reorganized in an 1836 act and the first constabulary code of regulations was published in 1837. The discipline was tough and the pay poor. The police also faced unrest among the Irish rural poor, manifested in organizations like the Ribbonmen, which attacked landlords and their property. In London, night watchmen were the first paid law enforcement body in the country, augmenting the force of unpaid constables. They guarded the streets since 1663. On September 29, 1829, the Metropolitan Police Act was passed by Parliament, allowing Sir Robert Peel, the then home secretary, to found the London Metropolitan Police. These police are often referred to as ´Bobbies´ or 'Peelers' after Sir Robert (Bobby) Peel, who introduced the Police Act. They became a model for the police forces in most countries, such as the United States, and most of the British Empire. Bobbies can still be found in many parts of the Commonwealth of Nations. The primary role of the police in Britain was keeping the Queen's Peace, which continues into the present day.[13]

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Development of Theory
In Western culture, the contemporary concept of a police paid by the government was developed by French legal scholars and practitioners in the 17th and early 18th centuries, notably with Nicolas Delamare's Traité de la Police [14] ("Treatise on the Police"), first published in 1705. The German Polizeiwissenschaft (Science of Police) was also an important theoretical formulation of police.
"Albertine at the Police Doctor's Waiting Room", 1885-87 painting by the Norwegian writer and painter Christian Krohg illustrating his then very controversial novel Albertine about the life of a prostitute

As conceptualized by the Polizeiwissenschaft, the police had an economic and social duty ("procuring abundance"). It was in charge of demographics concerns and of empowering the population, which, according to mercantilist theory, was to be the main strength of the state. Thus, its functions largely overreached simple law enforcement activities and included public health concerns, urban planning (which was important because of the miasma theory of disease; thus, cemeteries were moved out of town, etc.), and surveillance of prices.[15] Development of modern police was contemporary to the formation of the state, later defined by sociologist Max Weber as achieving a "monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force" and which was primarily exercised by the police and the military. Marxist theory situates the development of the modern state as part of the rise of capitalism, in which the police are one component of the bourgeoisie's repressive apparatus for subjugating the working class.

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British Empire
In British North America, policing was initially provided by local elected officials. For instance, the New York Sheriff's Office was founded in 1626, and the Albany County Sheriff's Department in the 1660s. In the colonial period, policing was provided by elected sherriffs and local militias. In Canada, the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary was founded in 1729, making it the first police force in present day Canada. It was followed in 1834 by the Toronto Police, and in 1838 by police forces in Montreal and Quebec City. A national force, the Dominion Police, was founded in 1868. Initially the Dominion Police provided security for parliament, but its responsibilities quickly grew. The famous Royal Northwest Mounted Police was founded in 1873. (See law enforcement in Canada.) In Australia with the passing of the Police Regulation Act, 1862, the New South Wales Police Force was established and essentially tightly regulated and centralised all of the police forces operating throughout the Colony of New South Wales.

United States
In 1626, the New York City Sheriff's Office was founded. Other Sheriff's offices were also founded in this period, such as the Albany County Sheriff's Department in the 1660s. In the colonial period, policing was provided by elected sherriffs and local militias. In 1789 the US Marshals Service was established, followed by other federal services such as the US Parks Police (1791) and US Mint Police (1791). The first city police services were established in Boston in 1838, New York in 1844, and Philadelphia in 1854. The US Secret Service was founded in 1865 and was for some time it was the main investigative body for the federal government. After the civil war, policing became more para-military in character, with the increased use of uniforms and military ranks. Prior to this, sherriff's offices had been non-uniformed organizations without a para-military hierarchy. In the American Old West, policing was often very poor quality. The Army often provided some policing alongside poorly resourced sherriffs and temporarily organised posses. Public organizations were supplemented by private contractors, notably the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, which was hired by individuals, businessmen, local governments and the federal government. At its height, the Pinkerton Agency's numbers exceeded those of the standing army of the United States.

Other countries
In Lebanon, modern police were established in 1861, with creation of the Gendarmerie.[16] In 1566, the first police investigator of Rio de Janeiro was recruited. By the seventeenth century, most "capitanias" already had local units with law enforcement functions. In July 9, 1775 a Cavalry Regiment was created in Minas Gerais for maintaining law and order. In 1808, the Portuguese royal family relocated to Brazil, due to the French invasion of Portugal. King João VI established the "Intendência Geral de Polícia" (General Police Intendancy) for investigations. He also created a Royal Police Guard for Rio de Janeiro in 1809. In 1831, after independence, each province started organizing its local "military police", with order maintenance tasks. The Federal Railroad Police was created in 1852.

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Personnel and organization
In most Western police forces, perhaps the most significant division is between preventive (uniformed) police and detectives. Terminology varies from country to country. Police functions include protecting life and property, enforcing criminal law, criminal investigations, regulating traffic, crowd control, and other public safety duties.

Uniformed police
Preventive Police, also called Uniform Branch, Uniformed Police, Uniform Division, Administrative Police, Order Police, or Patrol, designates the police which patrol and respond to emergencies and other incidents, as opposed to detective services. As the name "uniformed" suggests, they wear uniforms and perform functions that require an immediate recognition of an officer's legal authority, such as traffic control, stopping and detaining motorists, and more active crime response and prevention. Preventive police almost always make up the bulk of a police service's Brazilian Federal Highway Police at work. personnel. In Australia and Britain, patrol personnel are also known as "general duties" officers.[17] Atypically, Brazil's preventive police are known as Military Police.[18]

Detectives
Police detectives are responsible for investigations and detective work. Detectives may be called Investigations Police, Judiciary/Judicial Police, and Criminal Police. In the UK, they are often referred to by the name of their department, the Criminal Investigation Department (CID). Detectives typically make up roughly 15%-25% of a police service's personnel. Detectives, in contrast to uniform police, typically wear 'business attire' in bureaucratic and investigative functions where a uniformed presence would be either a distraction or intimidating, but a need to establish police authority still exists. "Plainclothes" officers dress in attire consistent with that worn by the general public for purposes of blending in.

New South Wales Police Force officers search the vehicle of a suspected drug smuggler at a border crossing. Wentworth, New South Wales, Australia

In some cases, police are assigned to work "undercover", where they conceal their police identity to investigate crimes, such as organized crime or narcotics crime, that are unsolvable by other means. In some cases this type of policing shares aspects with espionage. Despite popular conceptions promoted by movies and television, many US police departments prefer not to maintain officers in non-patrol bureaus and divisions beyond a certain period of time, such as in the detective bureau, and instead maintain policies that limit service in such divisions to a specified period of time, after which officers must transfer out or return to patrol duties. This is done in part based upon the perception that the most important and essential police work is accomplished on patrol in which officers become acquainted with their beats, prevent crime by their presence, respond to crimes in progress, manage crises, and practice their skills. Detectives, by contrast, usually investigate crimes after they have occurred and after patrol officers have responded first to a situation. Investigations often take weeks or months to complete, during which time detectives spend much of their time away from the streets, in interviews and courtrooms, for example. Rotating officers also promotes

Police cross-training in a wider variety of skills, and serves to prevent "cliques" that can contribute to corruption or other unethical behavior.

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Auxiliary
Police may also take on auxiliary administrative duties, such as issuing firearms licenses. The extent that police have these functions varies among countries, with police in France, Germany, and other continental European countries handling such tasks to a greater extent than British counterparts.[17]

Specialized units
Specialized preventive and detective groups exist within many law enforcement organizations either for dealing with particular types of crime, such as traffic law enforcement and crash investigation, homicide, or fraud; or for situations requiring specialized skills, such as underwater search, aviation, explosive device disposal ("bomb squad"), and computer crime. Most larger jurisdictions also employ specially-selected and trained quasi-military units armed with military-grade weapons for the purposes of dealing with particularly violent situations beyond the capability of a patrol officer response, including high-risk warrant service and barricaded suspects. In the United States these units go by a variety of names, but are commonly known as → SWAT (Special Weapons And Tactics) teams.

After the 2008 Mumbai attacks, the Mumbai Police created specialized, quick response teams to deal with terror threats.

In counter insurgency type campaigns, select and specially trained units of police armed and equipped as light infantry have been designated as police field forces who perform paramilitary type patrols and ambushes whilst retaining their police powers in areas that were highly dangerous.[19] Because their situational mandate typically focuses on removing innocent bystanders from dangerous people and dangerous situations, not violent resolution, they are often equipped with non-lethal tactical tools like chemical agents, "flashbang" and concussion grenades, and rubber bullets. The London Metropolitan police's → Specialist Firearms Command (CO19)[20] is a group of armed police used in dangerous situations including hostage taking, armed robbery/assault and terrorism.

Military police
Military police may refer to: • a section of the military solely responsible for policing the armed forces (referred to as provosts) • a section of the military responsible for policing in both the armed forces and in the civilian population (most gendarmeries, such as the French Gendarmerie, the Italian Carabinieri and the Portuguese Republican National Guard also known as GNR. • a section of the military solely responsible for policing the civilian population (such as the Romanian Gendarmerie) • the civilian preventative police of a Brazilian state (Policia Militar)

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Religious police
Some Islamic societies have religious police, who enforce the application of Islamic Sharia law. Their authority may include the power to arrest unrelated males and females caught socializing, anyone engaged in homosexual behavior or prostitution; to enforce Islamic dress-codes, and store closures during Islamic prayer time.[21] [22] They enforce Muslim dietary laws, prohibit the consumption or sale of alcoholic beverages and pork, and seize banned consumer products and media regarded as un-Islamic, such as CDs/DVDs of various Western musical groups, television shows and film.[23] [24] In Saudi Arabia, religious police actively prevent the practice or proselytizing of non-Islamic religions within Saudi Arabia, where they are banned.[25] [26]

Varying jurisdictions
Police forces are usually organized and funded by some level of government. The level of government responsible for policing varies from place to place, and may be at the national, regional or local level. In some places there may be multiple police forces operating in the same area, with different ones having jurisdiction according to the type of crime or other circumstances. For example in the UK policing is primarily the responsibility of a regional police force; however specialist units exist at the national level. In the US policing there is typically a state police force, but crimes are usually handled by local police forces which usually only cover a few municipalities. National agencies, such as the FBI, only have jurisdiction over federal crimes or those with an interstate component. In addition to conventional urban or regional police forces, there are other police forces with specialized functions or jurisdiction. In the United States, the federal government has a number of police forces with their own specialized jurisdictions. Some example are the Federal Protective Service, which patrols and protects government buildings; the postal police, which protect postal buildings, vehicles and items; the Park Police, which protect national parks, or Amtrak Police which patrol Amtrak stations and trains.. There are also some government agencies which perform police functions in addition to other duties. The U.S. Coast Guard carries out many police functions for boaters. In major cities, there may be a separate police agency for public transit systems, such as the New York City Port Authority Police or the MTA police, or for major government functions, such as sanitation, or environmental functions.

Global policing
Policing plays an increasingly important role in United Nations peacekeeping and this looks set to grow in the years ahead, especially as the international community seeks to develop the rule of law and reform security institutions in States recovering from conflict.[27]

A Police Service of Northern Ireland/Royal Ulster Constabulary barracks in Northern Ireland. The high walls are to protect against mortar bomb attacks.

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Armament and equipment
In many jurisdictions, police officers carry firearms, primarily handguns, in the normal course of their duties. In the United Kingdom, Ireland, Norway, and New Zealand, with the exception of specialist units, officers do not carry firearms as a matter of course. Police often have specialist units for handling armed offenders, and similar dangerous situations, and can (depending on local laws), in some extreme circumstances, call on the military (since Military Aid to the Civil Power is a role of many armed forces). Perhaps the most high-profile example of this was, in 1980 the Metropolitan Police handing control of the Iranian Embassy Siege to the Special Air Service.

VW - Gol of Military Police of Rio de Janeiro in a bus crash - The Fire arm is an IMBEL MD97L

They can also be equipped with non-lethal (more accurately known as "less than lethal" or "less-lethal") weaponry, particularly for riot control. Non-lethal weapons include batons, riot control agents, rubber bullets and electroshock weapons. The use of firearms or deadly force is typically a last resort only to be used when necessary to save human life, although some jurisdictions (such as Brazil) allow its use against fleeing felons and escaped convicts. Police officers often carry handcuffs to restrain suspects. Modern police forces make extensive use of radio communications equipment, carried both on the person and installed in vehicles, to co-ordinate their work, share information, and get help quickly. In recent years, vehicle-installed computers have enhanced the ability of police communications, enabling easier dispatching of calls, criminal background checks on persons of interest to be completed in a matter of seconds, and updating the officer's daily activity log and other required reports on a real-time basis. Other common pieces of police equipment include flashlights/torches, whistles, and police notebooks and "ticketbooks" or citations.

Vehicles
Police vehicles are used for detaining, patrolling and transporting. The common Police patrol vehicle is an improved four door sedan (saloon in British English). Police vehicles are usually marked with appropriate logos and are equipped with sirens and lightbars to aid in making others aware of police presence. Unmarked vehicles are used primarily for sting operations or apprehending criminals without alerting them to their presence. Some police forces use unmarked or minimally marked cars for traffic law enforcement, since drivers slow down at the sight of marked police The black and white pattern of an LAPD Ford vehicles and unmarked vehicles make it easier for officers to catch Crown Victoria patrol car. speeders and traffic violators. This practice is controversial, with for example New York State banning this practice in 1996 on the grounds that it endangered motorists who might be pulled over by people impersonating police officers.[28] Motorcycles are also commonly used, particularly in locations that a car may not be able to access, to control potential public order situations involving meetings of motorcyclists and often in escort

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duties where the motorcycle policeman can quickly clear a path for the escorted vehicle. Bicycle patrols are used in some areas because they allow for more open interaction with the public. In addition, their quieter operation can facilitate approaching suspects unawares and can help in pursuing them attempting to escape on foot. Police departments use an array of specialty vehicles such as helicopters, airplanes, watercraft, command post, vans, trucks, all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, and SWAT armored vehicles.

Old model New Zealand Police highway patrol vehicle

Toronto Police 2008 Chevrolet Suburban police vehicle

Portland Police 2008 Dodge Charger Police car

Strategies
The advent of the police car, two-way radio, and telephone in the early 20th century transformed policing into a reactive strategy that focused on responding to calls for service.[29] With this transformation, police command and control became more centralized. In the United States, August Vollmer introduced other reforms, Police Lenco Bearcat CBRNE Armored Rescue including education requirements for police officers.[30] O.W. Wilson, Vehicle Metropolitan Nashville Police SWAT a student of Vollmer, helped reduce corruption and introduce professionalism in Wichita, Kansas, and later in the Chicago Police Department.[31] Strategies employed by O.W. Wilson included rotating officers from community to community to reduce their vulnerability to corruption, establishing of a non-partisan police board to help govern the police force, a strict merit system for promotions within the department, and an aggressive recruiting drive with higher police

Police salaries to attract professionally qualified officers.[32] During the professionalism era of policing, law enforcement agencies concentrated on dealing with felonies and other serious crime, rather than broader focus on crime prevention.[33] The Kansas City Preventive Patrol study in the 1970s found this approach to policing to be ineffective. Patrol officers in cars were disconnected from the community, and had insufficient contact and interaction with the community.[34] In the 1980s and 1990s, many law enforcement agencies began to adopt community policing strategies, and others adopted problem-oriented policing. Broken windows policing was another, related approach introduced in the 1980s by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling, who suggested that police should pay greater attention to minor "quality of life" offenses and disorderly conduct. This method was first introduced and made popular by New York City Mayor, Rudy Giuliani, in the early 1990s.

34

Anti-riot armoured vehicle of the police of the Canton of Vaud in Lausanne, Switzerland

The concept behind this method is simple: broken windows, graffiti, and other physical destruction or degradation of property, greatly increases the chances of more criminal activities and destruction of property. When criminals see the abandoned vehicles, trash, and deplorable property, they assume that authorities do not care and do not take active approaches to correct problems in these areas. Therefore, correcting the small problems prevents more serious criminal activity.[35] Building upon these earlier models, intelligence-led policing has emerged as the dominant philosophy guiding police strategy. Intelligence-led policing and problem-oriented policing are complementary strategies, both which involve systematic use of information.[36] Although it still lacks a universally accepted definition, the crux of intelligence-led policing is an emphasis on the collection and analysis of information to guide police operations, rather than the reverse.[37]

Power restrictions
In many nations, criminal procedure law has been developed to regulate officers' discretion, so that they do not arbitrarily or unjustly exercise their powers of arrest, search and seizure, and use of force. In the United States, Miranda v. Arizona led to the widespread use of Miranda warnings or constitutional warnings. Police in the United States are also prohibited from holding criminal suspects for more than a reasonable amount of time (usually 72 hours) before arraignment, using torture to extract confessions, using excessive force to effect an arrest, and searching suspects' bodies or their homes without a warrant obtained upon a showing of probable cause.

ACT Police breath testing and command truck in Canberra Australia

Using deception for confessions is permitted, but not coercion. There are exceptions or exigent circumstances such as an articulated need to disarm a suspect or searching a suspect who has already been arrested (Search Incident to an Arrest). The Posse Comitatus Act severely restricts the use of the military for police activity, giving added importance to police → SWAT units. British police officers are governed by similar rules, particularly those introduced under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE), but generally have greater powers. They may, for example, legally search any suspect

Police who has been arrested, or their vehicles, home or business premises, without a warrant, and may seize anything they find in a search as evidence. All police officers in the United Kingdom, whatever their actual rank, are 'constables' in terms of their legal position. This means that a newly appointed constable has the same arrest powers as a Chief Constable or Commissioner. However, certain higher ranks have additional powers to authorize certain aspects of police operations, such as a power to authorize a search of a suspect's house (section 18 PACE) by an officer of the rank of Inspector, or the power to authorize a suspect's detention beyond 24 hours by a Superintendent.

35

Conduct and accountability
Police services commonly include units for investigating crimes committed by the police themselves. These units are typically called Inspectorate-General, or in the USA, "internal affairs". In some countries separate organizations outside the police exist for such purposes, such as the British Independent Police Complaints Commission. Likewise, some state and local jurisdictions, for example, Springfield, Illinois[38] have similar outside review organizations. The Police Service of Northern Ireland is investigated by the Police Ombudsman Motorcycle of the Italian Carabinieri for Northern Ireland, an external agency set up as a result of the Patten report into policing the province. In the Republic of Ireland the Garda Síochána is investigated by the Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission, an independent force that replaced the Garda Complaints Board in May 2007. The Special Investigations Unit of Ontario, Canada, is one of only a few civilian agencies around the world responsible for investigating circumstances involving police and civilians that have resulted in a death, serious injury, or allegations of sexual assault.

Use of force
Police forces also find themselves under criticism for their use of force, particularly deadly force. Specifically, tension increases when a police officer of one ethnic group harms or kills a suspect of another one. In the United States, such events occasionally spark protests and accusations of racism against police and allegations that police departments practice racial profiling. In the United States since the 1960s, concern over such issues has increasingly weighed upon law enforcement agencies, courts and legislatures at every level of government. Incidents such as the 1965 Watts Riots, the videotaped 1991 beating by Los Angeles Police officers of Rodney King, and the riot following their acquittal have been suggested by some people to be evidence that U.S. police are dangerously lacking in appropriate controls.
Lamborghini Gallardo of the Italian State Police

The fact that this trend has occurred contemporaneously with the rise of the US civil rights movement, the "War on Drugs," and a precipitous

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rise in violent crime from the 1960s to the 1990s has made questions surrounding the role, administration and scope of police authority increasingly complicated. Police departments and the local governments that oversee them in some jurisdictions have attempted to mitigate some of these issues through community outreach programs and community policing to make the police more accessible to the concerns of local communities, by working to increase hiring diversity, by updating training of police in their responsibilities to the community and under the law, and by increased oversight within the department or by civilian commissions. In cases in which such measures have been lacking or absent, civil law suits have been brought by the United States Department of Justice against local law enforcement agencies, authorized under the 1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act. This has compelled local departments to make organizational changes, enter into consent decree settlements to adopt such measures, and submit to oversight by the Justice Department.[39]

Norwegian mounted policeman, Oslo

Protection of individuals
The Supreme Court of the United States has ruled numerous times since 1856 that law enforcement officers have no duty to protect any individual, despite the motto "protect and serve". Their duty is to enforce the law in general. The first such case was in 1856 (South v. Maryland) and the most recent in 2005 (Town of Castle Rock v. Gonzales).[40] In contrast, the police are entitled to protect private rights in some jurisdictions. To ensure that the police would not interfere into the regular competencies of the courts of law, some police acts require that the police may only interfere in such cases where protection from courts cannot be obtained in time, and where, without interference of the police, the realization of the private right would be impeded.[41] This would, for example, allow police to establish a restaurant guest's identity and forward it to the inn-keeper in a case where the guest cannot pay the bill at nighttime because his wallet had just been stolen from the restaurant table. In addition, there are Federal Law Enforcement agencies in the United States whose mission includes providing protection for executives such as the President and accompanying family members, visiting foreign dignitaries, and other high-ranking individuals.[42] Such agencies include The → United States Secret Service and the United States Park Police.
A policeman riding a camel in Giza, Egypt

International forces
In many countries, particularly those with a federal system of government, there may be several police or police-like organizations, each serving different levels of government and enforcing different subsets of the applicable law. The United States has a highly decentralized and fragmented system of law enforcement, with over 17,000 state and local law enforcement agencies.[43] Some countries, such as Chile, Israel, the Philippines, France, Austria, New Zealand and South Africa, use a centralized system of policing.[44] Other countries have multiple police forces, but for the most part their jurisdictions do not overlap. In the United States however, several different law enforcement agencies may have authority in a particular jurisdiction at the same time, each with their own command.

Police Other countries where jurisdiction of multiple police agencies overlap, include Guardia Civil and the Policía Nacional in Spain , the Polizia di Stato and Carabinieri in Italy and the Police Nationale and National Gendarmerie in France.[17] Most countries are members of the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol), established to detect and fight trans-national crime and provide for international co-operation and co-ordination of other police activities, such as notifying relatives of the death of foreign nationals. Interpol does not conduct investigations nor arrests by itself, but only serves as a central point for information on crime, suspects and criminals. Political crimes are excluded from its competencies.

37

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Chief of police Criminal justice Fraternal Order of Police → Law enforcement agency Law enforcement and society Law enforcement by country The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc Police academy Police brutality Police certificate Police state Police training officer Public administration Public Security Private Police Sheriff

Lists • • • • • List of basic law enforcement topics List of countries by size of police forces List of law enforcement agencies List of protective service agencies Police rank

External links
• United Nations Police Division. [45]

References
[1] " police (http:/ / www. etymonline. com/ index. php?search=police& searchmode=none)". . Retrieved 2007-02-08. [2] " La Lieutenance Générale de Police (http:/ / www. prefecture-police-paris. interieur. gouv. fr/ documentation/ bicentenaire/ theme_expo1. htm)". La Préfecture de Police fête ses 200 ans Juillet 1800 - Juillet 2000. . [3] Dinsmor, Alastair (Winter 2003). " Glasgow Police Pioneers (http:/ / www. scotia-news. com/ issue5/ ISSUE05a. htm)". The Scotia News. . Retrieved 2007-01-10. [4] " Bicentenaire : theme_expo4 (http:/ / www. prefecture-police-paris. interieur. gouv. fr/ documentation/ bicentenaire/ theme_expo4. htm)". Prefecture-police-paris.interieur.gouv.fr. . Retrieved 2009-06-21. [5] Brodeur, Jean-Paul; Eds., Kevin R. E. McCormick and Livy A. Visano (1992). ”High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political Activities,” Understanding Policing. Canadian Scholars’ Press. pp. 284–285, 295. ISBN 1-55130-005-2.

Police
[6] Walker, Samuel (1977). A Critical History of Police Reform: The Emergence of Professionalism. Lexington, MT: Lexington Books. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-6690-1292-7. [7] Neocleous, Mark (2004). Fabricating Social Order: A Critical History of Police Power. Pluto Press. pp. 93–94. ISBN 978-0-7453-1489-1. [8] Siegel, Larry J. (2005). Criminolgy. Thomson Wadsworth. pp. 515,516. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=PRmhu3M2jv8C& pg=PA515& lpg=PA515& dq=police+ american+ colonies& source=web& ots=Dxk8AuzQR6& sig=KokKB0NmB0Gs5DWxF3Jl3OhQQcI& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=1& ct=result) [9] Whittaker, Jake. "UC Davis East Asian Studies". University of California, Davis.<http://eastasian.ucdavis.edu/research.htm>. [10] Hunter, Virginia J. (1994). Policing Athens: Social Control in the Attic Lawsuits, 420-320 B.C. (http:/ / press. princeton. edu/ titles/ 5349. html). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-4008-0392-7. . [11] " Bicentenaire : theme_expo4 (http:/ / www. prefecture-police-paris. interieur. gouv. fr/ documentation/ bicentenaire/ theme_expo4. htm)". Prefecture-police-paris.interieur.gouv.fr. . Retrieved 2009-06-21. [12] " Glasgow Police (http:/ / www. scotia-news. com/ issue5/ ISSUE05a. htm)". Scotia-news.com. . Retrieved 2009-06-21. [13] " Respect - Homepage (http:/ / www. together. gov. uk/ article. asp?c=442& aid=1275)". Together.gov.uk. . Retrieved 2009-06-21. [14] http:/ / cujas. synasoft. fr/ page. asp?Ouvrage=225& Ftime=1 [15] Michel Foucault, Security, Territory, Population, 1977-78 course (published 2004) [16] " Historical overview (http:/ / www. isf. gov. lb/ English/ LeftMenu/ General+ Info/ History/ )". Interior Security Forces (Lebanon). . Retrieved 2007-06-26. [17] Bayley, David H. (1979). "Police Function, Structure, and Control in Western Europe and North America: Comparative and Historical Studies". Crime & Justice 1: 109–143. doi: 10.1086/449060 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1086/ 449060). NCJ 63672 (http:/ / www. ncjrs. gov/ App/ Publications/ abstract. aspx?ID=63672). [18] " PMMG (https:/ / www. policiamilitar. mg. gov. br/ _pmmg. htm)". Policiamilitar.mg.gov.br. . Retrieved 2009-06-21. [19] p.Davies, Bruce & McKay, Gary The Men Who Persevered:The AATTV 2005 Bruce & Unwin [20] formerly named SO19 " Metropolitan Police Service - Central Operations, Specialist Firearms unit (CO19) (http:/ / www. met. police. uk/ co19/ )". Metropolitan Police Service. . Retrieved 2008-08-04. [21] SAUDI ARABIA Catholic priest arrested and expelled from Riyadh - Asia News (http:/ / www. asianews. it/ view. php?l=en& art=5869) [22] BBC NEWS | Middle East | Saudi minister rebukes religious police (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ middle_east/ 2399885. stm) [23] SAUDI ARABIA Catholic priest arrested and expelled from Riyadh - Asia News (http:/ / www. asianews. it/ view. php?l=en& art=5869) [24] BBC NEWS | Middle East | Saudi minister rebukes religious police (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ middle_east/ 2399885. stm) [25] SAUDI ARABIA Catholic priest arrested and expelled from Riyadh - Asia News (http:/ / www. asianews. it/ view. php?l=en& art=5869) [26] BBC NEWS | Middle East | Saudi minister rebukes religious police (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ middle_east/ 2399885. stm) [27] " Top UN police, rule of law officials meet in Italy to discuss global policing (http:/ / www. un. org/ apps/ news/ story. asp?NewsID=25538& Cr=UN& Cr1=police)". Un.org. 2008-02-07. . Retrieved 2009-06-21. [28] Dao, James (1996-04-18). " Pataki Curbs Unmarked Cars' Use - The (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9800E1DB1E39F93BA25757C0A960958260& n=Top/ Reference/ Times Topics/ Subjects/ R/ Roads and Traffic)". New York Times. . Retrieved 2009-06-21. [29] Reiss Jr, Albert J. (1992). "Police Organization in the Twentieth Century". Crime and Justice 51: 51. doi: 10.1086/449193 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1086/ 449193). NCJ 138800 (http:/ / www. ncjrs. gov/ App/ Publications/ abstract. aspx?ID=138800). [30] " Finest of the Finest (http:/ / jcgi. pathfinder. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,899019,00. html)". TIME Magazine. February 18, 1966. . [31] " Guide to the Orlando Winfield Wilson Papers, ca. 1928-1972 (http:/ / content. cdlib. org/ view?docId=tf3v19n6s0& doc. view=entire_text)". Online Archive of California. . Retrieved 2006-10-20. [32] "Chicago Chooses Criminologist to Head and Clean Up the Police". United Press International/The New York Times. February 22, 1960. [33] Kelling, George L., Mary A. Wycoff (December 2002). Evolving Strategy of Policing: Case Studies of Strategic Change. National Institute of Justice. NCJ 198029 (http:/ / www. ncjrs. gov/ App/ Publications/ abstract. aspx?ID=198029). [34] Kelling, George L., Tony Pate, Duane Dieckman, Charles E. Brown (1974). " The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment - A Summary Report (http:/ / www. policefoundation. org/ pdf/ kcppe. pdf)" (PDF). Police Foundation. . [35] Kelling, George L., James Q. Wilson (March 1982). " Broken Windows (http:/ / www. theatlantic. com/ doc/ 198203/ broken-windows)" (subscription). Atlantic Monthly. . [36] Tilley, Nick (2003). Problem-Oriented Policing, Intelligence-Led Policing and the National Intelligence Model (http:/ / www. jdi. ucl. ac. uk/ publications/ short_reports/ problem_oriented_policing. php). Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science, University College London. . [37] " Intelligence-led policing: A Definition (http:/ / www. rcmp-grc. gc. ca/ crimint/ intelligence_e. htm)". Royal Canadian Mounted Police. . Retrieved 2007-06-15. [38] Amanda Reavy. " Police review board gets started (http:/ / www. sj-r. com/ sections/ news/ stories/ 112655. asp)". The State Journal-Register Online. . [39] Walker, Samuel (2005). The New World of Police Accountability. Sage. pp. 5. [40] " Castle Rock v. Gonzales (http:/ / straylight. law. cornell. edu/ supct/ html/ 04-278. ZS. html)". Cornell University Law School. . Retrieved 2009-03-21. [41] See e.g. § 1 section 2 of the Police Act of North Rhine-Westphalia:" Police Act of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (http:/ / www1. polizei-nrw. de/ im/ Recht/ Polizeigesetz/ )" (in German). polizei-nrw.de. Land Nordrhein-Westfalen. . Retrieved 2008-08-10. [42] The United States Park Police Webpage, http:/ / www. nps. gov/ uspp

38

Police
[43] " Law Enforcement Statistics (http:/ / www. ojp. gov/ bjs/ lawenf. htm)". Bureau of Justice Statistics. . Retrieved 2007-05-23. [44] Das, Dilip K., Otwin Marenin (2000). Challenges of Policing Democracies: A World Perspective. Routledge. pp. 17. [45] http:/ / www. un. org/ Depts/ dpko/ police/ division. shtml

39

SWAT
Special weapons and tactics

Active 1968–Present Type Role Special Operations Domestic Counter-Terrorism and → Law Enforcement

A SWAT (special weapons and tactics)[1] [2] team is an elite tactical unit in American and some international law enforcement departments. They are trained to perform high-risk operations that fall outside of the abilities of regular officers. Their duties include performing hostage rescues and counter-terrorism operations, serving high risk arrest and search warrants, subduing barricaded suspects, and engaging heavily-armed criminals. A SWAT team is often equipped with specialized firearms including assault rifles, submachine guns, shotguns, carbines, riot control agents, stun grenades, and high-powered rifles for snipers. They have specialized equipment including heavy body armor, entry tools, armored vehicles, advanced night vision optics, and motion detectors for covertly determining the positions of hostages or hostage takers inside of an enclosed structure. The first SWAT team was established in the Los Angeles Police Department in 1968. Since then, many American police departments, especially in major cities and at the federal and state-levels of government, have established their own elite units under various names; these units, regardless of their official name, are referred to collectively as SWAT teams in colloquial usage.

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History
The development of SWAT in its modern incarnation is usually given as beginning with reference in particular to then-inspector Daryl Gates of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD). As far as the LAPD SWAT team's beginning, Gates' explained in his autobiography Chief: My Life in the LAPD, that he neither developed SWAT tactics nor its distinctive equipment. Gates wrote that he supported the concept, tried to empower his people to develop the concept, and lent them moral support.[3] Gates originally named the platoon "Special Weapons Assault Team", however, due to popular protest this name was turned down by his boss, then-deputy police chief Ed Davis for sounding too much like a military organization. Wanting to keep the acronym "SWAT", Gates changed its expansion ("explanation") to "special weapons and tactics".

The LAPD SWAT was the first in the United States.

While the public face of SWAT was made known through the LAPD, perhaps because of its proximity to the mass media and the size and professionalism of the Department itself, the first SWAT operations were conducted far north of Los Angeles in the farming community of Delano, California on the border between Kern and Tulare Counties in the great San Joaquin Valley. César Chavez' United Farm Workers were staging numerous protests in Delano, both at cold storage facilities and in front of non-supportive farm workers' homes on the city streets. Delano Police Department answered the issues that arose by forming the first-ever units using special weapons and tactics. Television news stations and print media carried live and delayed reportage of these events across the nation. Personnel from the LAPD, having seen these broadcasts, contacted Delano PD and inquired about the program. One officer then obtained permission to observe Delano Police Department's special weapons and tactics in action, and afterwards took what he had learned back to Los Angeles where his knowledge was used and expanded on to form their first SWAT unit. John Nelson was the officer who came up with the idea to form a specially trained and equipped unit in the LAPD, intended to respond to and manage critical situations involving shootings while minimizing police casualties. Inspector Gates approved this idea, and he formed a small select group of volunteer officers. This first SWAT unit initially consisted of fifteen teams of four men each, for a total staff of sixty. These officers were given special status and benefits. They were required to attend special monthly training. This unit also served as a security unit for police facilities during civil unrest. The LAPD SWAT units were organized as "D Platoon" in the Metro division.[3] A report issued by the Los Angeles Police Department, following a shootout with the Symbionese Liberation Army in 1974, offers one of the few firsthand accounts by the department regarding SWAT history, operations, and organization.[4] On page 100 of the report, the Department cites four trends which prompted the development of SWAT. These included riots such as the Watts Riots, which in the 1960s forced police departments into tactical situations for which they were ill-prepared, the emergence of snipers as a challenge to civil order, the appearance of the political assassin, and the threat of urban guerrilla warfare by militant groups. "The unpredictability of the sniper and his anticipation of normal police response increase the chances of death or injury to officers. To commit conventionally trained officers to a confrontation with a guerrilla-trained militant group would likely result in a high number of casualties among the officers and the escape of the guerrillas." To deal with these under conditions of urban violence, the LAPD formed SWAT, notes the report. The report states on page 109, "The purpose of SWAT is to provide protection, support, security, firepower, and rescue to police operations in high personal risk situations where specialized tactics are necessary to minimize casualties."

SWAT On February 7, 2008 a siege and subsequent fire fight with a gunman in Winnetka, California led to the first line-of-duty death of a member of the LAPD's SWAT team in its 41 years of existence.[5]

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SWAT duties
SWAT duties include: • • • • • • • • Hostage rescue. Crime suppression. Perimeter security against snipers for visiting dignitaries. Providing superior assault firepower in certain situations, e.g. barricaded suspects. Rescuing officers and citizens captured or endangered by gunfire. Countering terrorist operations in U.S. cities. Resolving high-risk situations with a minimum loss of life, injury, or property damage. Resolving situations involving barricaded subjects (specifically covered by a Hostage Barricade Team).

• Stabilizing situations involving high-risk suicidal subjects. • Providing assistance on drug raids, arrest warrants, and search warrants. • Providing additional security at special events. • Stabilizing dangerous situations dealing with violent criminals (such as rapists, serial killers or gangs).
Members of the U.S. Air Force → 60th Security Forces Squadron SWAT Team, Travis Air Force Base, California, USA practice hostage rescue.

Notable events
The first significant deployment of LAPD's SWAT unit was on December 9, 1969, in a four-hour confrontation with members of the Black Panthers. The Panthers eventually surrendered, with three Panthers and three officers being injured. By 1974, there was a general acceptance of SWAT as a resource for the city and county of Los Angeles. On the afternoon of May 17, 1974,elements of a group which called itself the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA), a group of heavily-armed left-wing guerillas, barricaded themselves in a residence on East 54th Street at Compton Avenue in Los Angeles. Coverage of the siege was broadcast to millions via television and radio and featured in the world press for days after. Negotiations were opened with the barricaded suspects on numerous occasions, both prior to and after the introduction of tear gas. Police units did not fire until the SLA had fired several volleys of semi-automatic and automatic gunfire at them. In spite of the 3,772 rounds fired by the SLA, no uninvolved citizens or police officers sustained injury from gunfire. During the gun battle, a fire erupted inside the residence. The cause of the fire is officially unknown, although police sources speculated that an errant round ignited one of the suspects' Molotov cocktails. Others suspect that the repeated use of tear gas grenades, which function by burning chemicals at high temperatures, started the structure fire. All six of the suspects suffered multiple gunshot wounds and perished in the ensuing blaze.

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By the time of the SLA shoot-out, SWAT teams had reorganized into six 10-man teams, each team consisting of two five-man units, called elements. An element consisted of an element leader, two assaulters, a scout, and a rear-guard. The normal complement of weapons was a sniper rifle (apparently a .243-caliber bolt-action, judging from the ordnance expended by officers at the shootout), two .223-caliber semi-automatic rifles, and two shotguns. SWAT officers also carried their service revolvers in shoulder holsters. The normal gear issued them included a first aid kit, gloves, and a gas mask. In fact it was a change just to have police armed with semi-automatic rifles, at a time when officers were usually issued six-shot revolvers and shotguns. The encounter with the heavily-armed Symbionese Liberation Army, however, sparked a trend towards SWAT teams being issued body armor and automatic weapons of various types. The Columbine High School massacre in Colorado on April 20, 1999 was another seminal event in SWAT tactics and police response. As noted in an article in the Christian Science Monitor, "Instead of being taught to wait for the SWAT team to arrive, street officers are receiving the training and weaponry to take immediate action during incidents that clearly involve suspects' use of deadly force."[6]

U.S. Air Force 37th Training Wing's Emergency Services Team use a team lift technique to enter a target building during training at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, USA.

The article further reported that street officers were increasingly being armed with rifles, and issued heavy body armor and ballistic helmets, items traditionally associated with SWAT units. The idea is to train and equip street officers to make a rapid response to so-called active-shooter situations. In these situations, it was no longer acceptable to simply set up a perimeter and wait for SWAT. As an example, in the policy and procedure manual of the Minneapolis, Minnesota, Police Department, it is stated, "MPD personnel shall remain cognizant of the fact that in many active shooter incidents, innocent lives are lost within the first few minutes of the incident. In some situations, this dictates the need to rapidly assess the situation and act quickly in order to save lives."[7] With this shift in police response, SWAT units remain in demand for their traditional roles as hostage rescue, counter-terrorist operations, and serving high-risk warrants.

Organization
The relative infrequency of SWAT call-outs means these expensively-trained and equipped officers cannot be left to sit around, waiting for an emergency. In many departments the officers are normally deployed to regular duties, but are available for SWAT calls via pagers, mobile phones or radio transceivers. Even in the larger police agencies, such as the Los Angeles PD, SWAT personnel would normally be seen in crime suppression roles—specialized and more dangerous than regular patrol, perhaps, but the officers wouldn't be carrying their distinctive armor and weapons. By illustration, the LAPD's website shows that in 2003, their SWAT units were activated 255 times,[8] for 133 SWAT calls and 122 times to serve high-risk warrants. The New York Police Department's Emergency Service Unit is one of the few civilian police special-response units that operate autonomously 24 hours a day. However, this unit also provides a wide range of services, including search and rescue functions, and vehicle extraction, normally handled by fire departments or other agencies. The need to summon widely-dispersed personnel, then equip and brief them, makes for a long lag between the initial emergency and actual SWAT deployment on the ground. The problems of delayed police response at the 1999

SWAT Columbine High School shooting has led to changes in police response,[9] mainly rapid deployment of line officers to deal with an active shooter, rather than setting up a perimeter and waiting for SWAT to arrive.

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Training
SWAT officers are selected from volunteers within their law enforcement organization. Depending on the department's policy, officers generally have to serve a minimum tenure within the department before being able to apply for a specialist section such as SWAT. This tenure requirement is based on the fact that SWAT officers are still law enforcement officers and must have a thorough knowledge of department policies and procedures. SWAT applicants undergo rigorous selection and training. Applicants must pass stringent physical agility, written, oral, and psychological testing to ensure they are not only fit enough but also psychologically suited for tactical operations. Emphasis is placed on physical fitness so an officer will be able to United States Mint Police Special Response withstand the rigors of tactical operations. After an officer has been Team selected, the potential member must undertake and pass numerous specialist courses that will make him or her a fully qualified SWAT operator. Officers are trained in marksmanship for the development of accurate shooting skills. Other training that could be given to potential members includes training in explosives, sniper-training, defensive tactics, first-aid, negotiation, handling K9 units, rappelling and roping techniques and the use of specialized weapons and equipment. They may also be trained specifically in the handling and use of special ammunition such as bean bags, flash bang grenades, tasers, and the use of crowd control methods, and special less-than-lethal munitions. Of primary importance is close-quarters defensive tactics training, as this will be the primary mission upon becoming a full-fledged SWAT officer.

SWAT

44

SWAT equipment
SWAT teams use equipment designed for a variety of specialist situations including close quarters combat (CQC) in an urban environment. The particular pieces of equipment vary from unit to unit, but there are some consistent trends in what they wear and use.

Weapons
While a wide variety of weapons are used by SWAT teams, the most common weapons include submachine guns, assault rifles, shotguns, and sniper rifles. Tactical aids include K9 Units, flash bang, stinger and tear gas grenades. Semi-automatic pistols are the most popular sidearms. Examples may include, but are not limited to: M1911 pistol series,[10] [11] Sig Sauer series [12] [13] (especially the Sig P226[11] [13] [14] and Sig P229) Beretta 92 series,[13] Glock pistols,[12] [15] [11] [16] [17] [18] and H&K USP series.[13] [19] Common submachine guns used by SWAT teams include the 9 mm and 10 mm Heckler & Koch MP5.[10] [11] [12] [13] [17] [18] [19] Standard assault formation for a SWAT team. The H&K UMP[11] has begun to replace the MP5 due to its lower cost and larger caliber, though an UMP has a shorter effective range, and more recoil. Common shotguns used by SWAT units include the Benelli M1,[17] [14] [17] and 1100, Mossberg 500 and 590.[13]
[18] [20]

Benelli M1014, Remington 870[10]

[11]

Common carbines include the Colt CAR-15 [10] [11] [16] [17] & M4 [11] [12] [14] [19] and H&K G36[18] & HK416. While affording SWAT teams increased penetration and accuracy at longer ranges, the compact size of these weapons is essential as SWAT units frequently operate in CQB environments. The Colt M16A2[12] [14] [19] can be found used by marksmen or SWAT officers when a longer ranged weapon is needed.[10] The Heckler & Koch G3 series [17] is also common among marksmen or snipers, as well as the M14 rifle and the Remington 700P.[10] [12] [14] [17] [18] [19] Many different variants of bolt action rifles are used by SWAT, including limited use of .50 caliber [21] sniper rifles. To breach doors quickly, battering rams, shotguns, or explosive charges can be used to break the lock or hinges, or even demolish the door frame itself. SWAT teams also use many less-lethal munitions and weapons. These include Tasers, pepper spray canisters, shotguns loaded with bean bag rounds, and PepperBall guns. PepperBall guns are essentially paint ball markers loaded with balls containing Oleoresin Capsicum ("pepper spray").

SWAT

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Vehicles
SWAT units may also employ ARVs, (Armored Rescue Vehicle[22] ) for insertion, maneuvering, or during tactical operations such as the rescue of civilians/officers pinned down by gunfire. Helicopters may be used to provide aerial reconnaissance or even insertion via rappelling or fast-roping. To avoid detection by suspects during insertion in urban environments, SWAT units may also use modified buses, vans, trucks, or other seemingly normal vehicles.
Dallas Police SWAT's Lenco BearCat Armored

Units such as the Ohio State Highway Patrol's Special Response Team Rescue Vehicle. Similar Lenco models are also used by larger departments such as the LAPD and (SRT) used a vehicle called a B.E.A.R., made by Lenco Engineering NYPD. which is a very large armored vehicle with a ladder on top to make entry into the second and third floors of buildings. Numerous other agencies such as the LAPD,[23] [24] LASD [24] and NYPD use both the B.E.A.R. and the smaller BearCat variant. The Tulsa Police Department's SOT (Special Operations Team) uses an Alvis Saracen, a British-built armored personnel carrier. The Saracen was modified to accommodate the needs of the SOT. A Night Sun was mounted on top and a ram was mounted to the front. The Saracen has been used from warrant service to emergency response. It has enabled team members to move from one point to another safely. The police departments of Killeen and Austin, Texas and Washington, D.C. use the Cadillac Gage Ranger,[14] as does the Florida Highway Patrol.[25] The Beijing SWAT Team of the People's Republic of China (PRC) uses a specially designed Hummer in addition to other armored vehicles.

Controversies
The use of SWAT teams in non-emergency situations has been criticized.[26] In 2006, two SWAT members served a warrant on Salvatore Culosi, a 37-year old optometrist in the Fair Oaks section of Fairfax County, Virginia, a suburb of Washington, D.C., who was accused of sports gambling; the attempted arrest ended with his accidental death.[27] The officer who was responsible, Deval V. Bullock, was suspended for three weeks without pay.[28] One critic is Radley Balko, a policy analyst at the Cato Institute, author of Overkill: The Rise of Paramilitary Police Raids in America.[29] Other studies include Warrior Cops: The Ominous Growth of Paramilitarism in American Police Departments by Diane Cecilia Weber from the same institute and Militarizing American Police: The Rise and Normalization of Paramilitary Units by Dr. Peter Kraska and his colleague Victor Kappeler, professors of criminal justice at Eastern Kentucky University, who surveyed police departments nationwide and found that their deployment of paramilitary units had grown tenfold since the early 1980s..

See also
• • • • • • List of Special Response Units in the United States List of Special Response Units SWAT World Challenge Manhunt (law enforcement) SWAT videogame series Swatting

SWAT

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External links
• [30] The National Tactical Officers Association, a national organization of tactical professionals. • [31] The International Tactical Officers Training Association, an organization of tactical professionals more recently established than the NTOA. • SWAT USA [32] Court TV program that broadcasts real SWAT video. • Cato Institute [33] Overkill: The Rise of Paramilitary Police Raids in America • Detroit Swat [34] • The Armored Group, LLC. [35] Manufacturer of SWAT Vehicles • ShadowSpear Special Operations: SWAT [36]

References
[1] American Heritage Dictionary http:/ / www. bartleby. com/ 61/ 47/ S0934750. html [2] Merriam-Webster Dictionary http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ SWAT [3] " Development of SWAT (http:/ / www. lapdonline. org/ metropolitan_division/ content_basic_view/ 849)". Los Angeles Police Department. . Retrieved 19 June 2006. [4] " Report following the SLA Shoot-out (PDF) (http:/ / www. courttv. com/ archive/ trials/ soliah/ docs/ lapdreport. pdf)" (PDF). Los Angeles Police Department. . Retrieved 2008-07-04. [5] " Siege in Winnetka, California (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ news/ local/ la-me-fivedead9feb09,1,5439551. story?ctrack=1& cset=true)". Latimes.com. 2008-02-09. . Retrieved 2009-06-05. [6] " Report following the Columbine High School Massacre (http:/ / csmonitor. com/ cgi-bin/ durableRedirect. pl?/ durable/ 2000/ 05/ 31/ fp2s2-csm. shtml)". Christian Science Monitor. . Retrieved 19 June 2006. [7] " Policy & Procedure Manual (http:/ / www. ci. minneapolis. mn. us/ mpdpolicy/ 7-900/ 7-900. asp#P94_7168)". Minneapolis, Minnesota, Police Department. . Retrieved 19 June 2006. [8] " official website of THE LOS ANGELES POLICE DEPARTMENT (http:/ / www. lapdonline. org/ metropolitan_division/ content_basic_view/ 850)". Lapdonline.org. . Retrieved 2009-06-05. [9] CSMonitor.com (2000-05-31). " Change in tactics: Police trade talk for rapid response (http:/ / www. csmonitor. com/ 2000/ 0531/ p2s2. html)". csmonitor.com. . Retrieved 2009-06-05. [10] Katz, Samuel M.. " Felon Busters: On The Job With LAPD SWAT (http:/ / www. popularmechanics. com/ technology/ military_law/ 1280896. html?page=3)". Popular Mechanics. . Retrieved 2009-06-05. [11] " SWAT Round-Up International 2006: Team Insights | Tactical Response Magazine (http:/ / www. hendonpub. com/ resources/ articlearchive/ details. aspx?ID=1022)". Hendonpub.com. . Retrieved 2009-06-05. [12] " SWAT Team (http:/ / www. edcgov. us/ sheriff/ swat. asp)". Edcgov.us. . Retrieved 2009-06-05. [13] " HowStuffWorks "How SWAT Teams Work" (http:/ / people. howstuffworks. com/ swat-team2. htm)". People.howstuffworks.com. . Retrieved 2009-06-05. [14] " TacLink - Washington DC ERT (http:/ / www. specwarnet. net/ taclink/ Police/ WA_DC_Metro_ERT. htm)". Specwarnet.net. . Retrieved 2009-06-05. [15] " Glock 38 and 39 Pistols...the .45 GAP | Manufacturing > Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing from (http:/ / www. allbusiness. com/ manufacturing/ nonmetallic-mineral-product/ 4098860-1. html)". AllBusiness.com. . Retrieved 2009-06-05. [16] Hotle, David (2006-09-27). " Golden Triangle Media.com - SWAT team practices law enforcement with a bang (http:/ / www. zwire. com/ site/ news. cfm?newsid=17254514& BRD=1142& PAG=461& dept_id=568956& rfi=6)". Zwire.com. . Retrieved 2009-06-05. [17] " TacLink -Penn State Police SERT (http:/ / www. specwarnet. net/ taclink/ Police/ PA_State_Police_SERT. htm)". Specwarnet.net. . Retrieved 2009-06-05. [18] " TacLink - US Capitol Police CERT (http:/ / www. specwarnet. net/ taclink/ Police/ WA_DC_Capital_Police_CERT. htm)". Specwarnet.net. . Retrieved 2009-06-05. [19] " TacLink - Chattanooga PD SWAT (http:/ / www. specwarnet. net/ taclink/ Police/ ChattanoogaSWAT. htm)". Specwarnet.net. . Retrieved 2009-06-05. [20] " The Bountiful Benelli (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0BQY/ is_12_48/ ai_93317490)". Findarticles.com. 2002-12-01. . Retrieved 2009-06-05. [21] Eden Pastora. " SWAT February 2003 (http:/ / www. tacticaloperations. com/ swatfeb2003/ index. html)". Tacticaloperations.com. . Retrieved 2009-06-05. [22] http:/ / www. highbeam. com/ doc/ 1P3-1421340761. html [23] Tegler, Eric. " Loaded For Bear: Lenco's Bearcat Is Ready For Duty (http:/ / www. autoweek. com/ article/ 20050509/ FREE/ 505090718)". Autoweek.com. . Retrieved 2009-06-05. [24] " Bulletproof - Berkshire Eagle Online (http:/ / www. berkshireeagle. com/ berkshirebusinessoutlook/ ci_3609336)". Berkshireeagle.com. . Retrieved 2009-06-05.

SWAT
[25] " FHP Special Activities and Programs (http:/ / www. flhsmv. gov/ fhp/ html/ spec_act. html)". Flhsmv.gov. . Retrieved 2009-06-05. [26] Steve Macko, "SWAT: Is it being used too much?" (http:/ / www. emergency. com/ swat0797. htm), Emergency Response and Research Institute, July 15, 1997 [27] Tom Jackman, "Va. Officer Might Be Suspended For Fatality" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2006/ 11/ 24/ AR2006112401308. html), Washington Post, November 25, 2006 [28] "A Tragedy of Errors" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 01/ 19/ AR2007011901464. html), Washington Post, November 25, 2006 [29] Radley Balko, "In Virginia, the Death Penalty for Gambling" (http:/ / www. foxnews. com/ story/ 0,2933,193652,00. html), Fox News, May 1, 2006 [30] http:/ / www. ntoa. org [31] http:/ / www. itota. net [32] http:/ / www. courttv. com/ onair/ shows/ swat_usa/ [33] http:/ / www. cato. org/ pub_display. php?pub_id=6476 [34] http:/ / www. detroitswat. com/ [35] http:/ / www. armoredcars. com/ [36] http:/ / www. shadowspear. com/ united-states-special-operations/ other-government-agency-special-operations/ special-weapons-and-tactics. html

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48

Special Response Units of the World

49

Albania
Reparti i Neutralizimit te Elementit te Armatosur
The Reparti i Neutralizimit te Elementit te Armatosur ("Unit for the Neutralisation of Armed Elements"), commonly known by its acronym RENEA, is the main Albanian counter-terrorist and critical incident response unit. The force was constituted the early 1990s in response to the growing crime levels in the country after the fall of communism. RENEA's responsibilities are only rescue operations, counter-terrorism and response to particularly violent forms of crime. Since 1991, the unit has lost three men in action and more than forty wounded. Their skills are highly regarded and well thought-of inside Albania and in the West.

Background
Following the emergence of democracy in Albania after 1990 and in order to eradicate all semblances to and associations with the communist state, many investigators, attorneys and police officers were simply dismissed. This confused situation soon allowed organised and individual crime to flourish to the point that it soon became the norm of everyday life. Kidnapping, extortion, prostitution, murder and illegal trafficking were at an all-time high, and the Albanian fledgling democracy did not have the legal, administrative and organisational experience to combat these problems — in fact its infrastructure was almost non-existent. During communism, the force that was entrusted with CT and other special missions was Unit 326, but because of its role in suppressing public unrest during the popular uprising against communism, it had been neglected. The new public order authorities recognised the need for a small professional force, and after exhaustive trials and training finally established what subsequently came to be known as RENEA. It was also known as Unit 88. It was composed of eighty members, or operatives, who were elected from the 600 original members of Unit 326. The rest of the operators joined subsequent special intervention groups that came into existence.

Composition of the unit
The real number is a highly guarded secret. Initially, its organisation was military in nature, dividing each team in groups of four, after the reputable British SAS system. In case of an open conflict, the police were expected to assume military duties. However, after the administrative reform of the Albanian Police, such duties were excluded from the police curriculum. Consequently, even RENEA was reorganised, this time modelling itself after sister units such as GSG-9, GIS, → NOCS, GIGN etc. The tactics are still primarily SAS-based, but not the actual duties. The unit is composed of negotiators, infiltrators, divers, rock-climbers, sappers, snipers and a small nucleus of logistics operatives.

Selection and training
The selection process is held only once a year and lasts twelve weeks. Subsequently, recruits are trained for an additional nine months in other skills such as linguistics, signals, photography, and hostage negotiations. Candidates also continue undergoing strict psychological and physical tests. Only after a period of three years may the recruit become a RENEA operator cleared in participating in hostage rescue operations. About 90 per cent of candidates come from other branches of the police and the National Guard, while the rest are military. The military candidates that pass selection must also complete a six-month course on jurisprudence. The maximum age for selection is 26 years and candidates are expected to have been members of their respective previous units for no less than two years.

Reparti i Neutralizimit te Elementit te Armatosur The first two weeks are called the "shake-down", in which almost everyone takes part. Only the negotiators and part of the logistics group (not including drivers) are exempted. Candidates undergo long and complicated psychological and durability tests designed to weed out weaker applicants. "Shake-down" is harsh, consisting of forced marches in full combat gear. True to their SAS origins, the operatives must carry a 35 kg (77 lb) backpack, AK-47 with eight full magazines, handgun and magazines, knives, gas mask, and radio. Their training routes take part in the worst weather, in some of the toughest terrain that Albania has to offer: in the northeastern mountain range (the highest peak is Korabi, at 2,751 metres (9,025 feet)), the marshes of Vlora, and the swamps of Durrës and Lezha. Approximately 75 per cent of the candidates fail at this initial phase. The last day is reserved for infiltration tests. The candidates that have successfully accomplished the first phase are left helpless in some remote part of Albania, at a safe distance from the capital, with 200 commandos and national guardsmen at their heels. Each is expected to make it back to headquarters in Tirana unintercepted. If they are caught they go home. Training, preparation and tests change according to the whims of the instructors, who are themselves veterans of the unit. They have a reputation for being unyielding and unmerciful.

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The role of the negotiator
From 1991, the unit's negotiators have resolved, without resorting to violence, more than 500 of the 600 cases involving kidnappers and armed occuaptions. What makes this particularly hard is the existence of Kanun - a collective body of ancient rules passed down orally from one generation to the next for the past millennium. Kanun regulates all aspects of life based on an intricate code, which includes blood feuding and killing for honour. Albania is a tiny country, but there are marked differences between one region and the next - different creeds, traditions, temperaments, dialects and ways of life. These historical differences have left the country isolated, conservative, and patriarchal. (It must be said, that the Cannon originally sanctioned only fines and exile for the highest offences, i.e. murder. Killing for honor and blood feuding became prevalent as the Albanian society impoverished under the Ottoman rule and families could not afford these penalties. As a consequence, killing replaced the original rulings.) All negotiators must have served for minimum of ten years with the police force and are persons of good temperament and mental balance, with knowledge of all dialects and regional mentalities. They all either have a degree in jurisprudence or have attended the police academy. In addition they complete training courses with the FBI at Quantico FBI Academy and with other United States federal agencies. The negotiators are the first to intervene in cases of an occupation with or without hostages. Nobody intervenes without their explicit order, except in cases when the hostage is already dead. Unfortunately, many homicides and kidnapping in Albania are the results of personal vendettas, which usually means the victim will be killed.

Weaponry and equipment
The force uses a motley collection of weapons. One of the primary tools is undoubtedly the AK-47, which Albania possesses in abundance. However, the unit is also known to have used the HK G3 7.62 mm NATO. Submachine guns, such as the HK MP5, and shotguns are also highly regarded. The fighting knives are of mixed origins Camillus, Randall, Gerber, Fox, and an assortment of locally manufactured products depending on the preferences of the operatives themselves. Knife fighting is a considered vital skill and the operatives are highly trained. RENEA's weaponry is currently being updated and brought in line with weapons that are conventionally used by sister units abroad. The sniper rifle is another tool of the trade for RENEA. Initially, the unit favoured the Russian Dragunov SVD, which, is still in use with the military and various law enforcement agencies. However, the SVD is actually intended to extend the effective range of fire of infantry squads up to 600 metres. Given the delicate nature of their missions, RENEA reverted to "proper" sniper rifles and currently employs SAKO TRG-22 and TRG-42 rifles. Search and rescue training is effected with live ammunition. Operatives themselves simulate the hostage. Many special halls and rooms are built to conduct this type of training, and are known as "SAS Rooms" by the unit. In

Reparti i Neutralizimit te Elementit te Armatosur addition, "Good faith shooting" is practised, which consists of the operatives standing in line facing one another and shooting at targets placed between them. The bulletproof Kevlar vest and helmet are the same as those used by the German GSG-9. They are quite heavy, but they can stop a .30-06 projectile. All types of flash-bang, tear gas and non-lethal ammunition are in the unit's arsenal. British Avalon anti-gas masks, fireproof clothing (the same as used by the Italian → GIS, and → NOCS), kneepads, fireproof and tear-proof gloves are also used. Most of the personal equipment is of US origins, but a few Italian types are also in use, such as Vega and Radar. In special situations the use of machine-guns (Russian 7.62 x 39 mm RPDs and 7.62 x 54 mm R RPKs) is authorised. Beretta 92FSs, Makarovs, TT33s, SIG P226s and P228s, and Israeli Jericho 941s are the favourite sidearms. Glock 17, Walther P99s, CZ75s, H&K USPs, and Walther PPKs can also be found. Vehicles in use include IVECO vans, Mitsubishi SUVs, and a motley collection of armoured and private cars, usually donated by sister agencies across Europe. In waterborne operations, Zodiac boats confiscated from traffickers are in use. Depending on the circumstances, the Albanian Navy could place at their disposal various types of boats and other craft. Mil Mi-8, Puma and Bell helicopters are used if a situation demands infiltration by air.

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Notable missions
• January 1991: In riots at the Shenkoll (Saint Nicholas) maximum security prison, an armed prisoner took several guards hostage. The attention of national and foreign media was drawn to the crisis. The government of the time sent in Unit 326, the predecessor of RENEA, which quelled the riots using tear gas and rubber bullets, without bloodshed. One operative was lightly wounded in the process. • November 1992: Albania was plagued by massive floods, which inundated many parts of the country. RENEA distributed food and provided shelter and medical assistance for the uprooted via speedboat and helicopter. One operative (killed in the line of duty in August 1993) selflessly dived into the icy waters and saved three drowning shepherds. • April 1996: In a diplomatic high-level meeting between the Italian president Oscar Luigi Scalfaro and Sali Berisha in Tirana, a deranged individual armed with a grenade with the safety pin removed sought to approach the two presidents. The two officials were immediately taken away from the scene, while a RENEA negotiator steadily approached the perpetrator and made contact by twisting his arm, taking the grenade from his hand and putting the safety pin back onto the weapon. • January 1997: A female student in depressive state roamed the streets of Tirana with a grenade in her hand. A RENEA operator approached her and defused the situation without bloodshed. • 1997: During the crisis that threw Albania in a state of anarchy as a result of the collapse of various pyramid schemes, where three quarters of the population lost their savings, RENEA was entrusted with the task of safeguarding the monetary and gold reserves of the National Bank and other financial institutions. RENEA accomplished the task by removing all valuables from the facilities in unarmed IVECO vans. No money was lost in the process. This operation, at a time when many police officers were killed by angry civilians, is remembered by the unit as Operation Kamikaze. During the same year, 90 per cent of all police stations were looted and taken over by armed individuals. RENEA retook possession of these facilities, recalled all officers to work, and re-established communications and security systems. In many cases, the operatives repaired all damaged property themselves. • 1998–1999: During these years RENEA was engaged in fights with multiple gangs across the nation, which, as a result of the previous year's anarchy, were armed with weaponry ranging from personal equipment to artillery and anti-aircraft batteries looted from military depots. • July 1998: The unit conducted a CT mission by arresting five Egyptian terrorists connected to Bin Laden's Al-Qaeda.

Reparti i Neutralizimit te Elementit te Armatosur • March 1999: Three armed criminals murdered three police officers and four civilians. Subsequently they barricaded themselves into a house, taking hostage a couple and their 7 month-old daughter. A RENEA team went in, freed the hostages, and in the process killed the criminals. • May 1999: An Albanian emigrant in Greece, disgruntled over payment with his employer, after complained to the Greek authorities and was escorted to the border and deported to Albania. After buying an AK-47 and two grenades, he returned to Greece and went to Thessaloniki, where he took hostage a bus carrying fourteen people. The Greek government gave him the $250,000 that he had asked for and allowed him to enter Albania with his hostages. Close to Tirana, the negotiators sought to convince him to let the hostages free. He wounded one and was killed in return by a RENEA sniper. • 1999: Zani Caushi, leader of one of the most ruthless Albanian gangs, was arrested. The same fate befell the senior leaders of many other gangs. • 1999: A gang that had held hostage and then released a senior police official was arrested. • 1999: Acting on the request of the Italian government, an individual suspected of the murder of three police officers in Udine was arrested. Although exonerated of this murder, the individual remained behind bars due to other criminal activities. • 2000–2001: In three separate operations, three individuals sought for the murder of Azem Hajdari, an Albanian MP, were arrested. This mission was important because Hajdari was one of the most unorthodox and controversial leaders of the political opposition at the time. • February 2001: During Operation Journey Italia, RENEA took credit for destroying an Albanian-American gang, which, in partnership with the Medellín drug cartel and Italian and Albanian mafia, was exploring the possibility of turning Albania into a major international launching pad for the trafficking of cocaine. RENEA arrested all suspects, including a former senior police officer. • January 2002: RENEA destroyed a gang of narcotics traffickers, which was trafficking than 100 kg (202.5 lb) heroin per trip. More than 1,000 kg (2,205 lb) of pure heroin was confiscated. • 1990–2004: During the last decade and a half, RENEA has provided escort security to such high-level officials as: former United States Secretaries of State James Baker and Madeleine Albright, Pope John Paul II, former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Italian President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, and various Italian and Greek prime ministers, in addition to Albanian officials and international officials in government missions in Albania.

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Casualties
Over the years (until 2002) the unit has suffered only 3 casualties: specialist Lulezim R. Sulollari (1991), Warrant Officer Arben N. Ujka (1993), Captain Elam S. Elezi (1998).

Name
Loosely translated RENEA stands for "Unit for the Neutralisation of Armed Elements", whereby "RE" accounts for REparti (Unit), "N" for Neutralizimit (Neutralisation), "E" for Elementit (Element), and "A" for Armatosur (Armed). A common misconception is the adding of the word "Elimination" to account for the second "E". Therefore the name would get a new meaning: "Unit for the Elimination and Neutralisation of Armed Elements".

Reparti i Neutralizimit te Elementit te Armatosur

53

Trivia
The force has as a mascot a little three-legged dog called Tricickle, who is considered to bring great fortune to the unit.

See also
• EURALIUS, European Assistance Mission to the Albanian Justice System

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Argentina
Grupo Especial de Operaciones Federales
The Grupo Especial de Operaciones Federales (Federal Operations Special Group, GEOF) is a special operations division of the Argentine Federal Police trained to strategically perform counterterrorist and counternarcotics missions. It is also used for VIP protection and hostage rescue situations. The GEOF is a specialized → police unit of the General Directorate of International Terrorism and Complex Crimes. Although the existence of special forces in Argentina begins in 1930, the unit was officially created after the AMIA bombing. In 1994 its first section was established in Tucumán and in 1997 a second division was constituted in Rosario. In the next year the Buenos Aires group was formed. The unit's main training course stands for 20 weeks and is divided in two periods, with only 15% common approvals. Topics include sniping, HALO/HAHO parachuting, martial arts, offensive driving, and explosives, known as the "brechero" one. The GEOF constantly trains with special units of other countries like the FBI Hostage Rescue Team, the US Army Green Berets and numerous → SWAT groups. The GEOF has full powers in all the country, and that's because the unit has been nicknamed 4T (todo tiempo-todo terreno, all time-all land).

Equipment
• • • • • • Heckler & Koch USP Heckler & Koch MP5 SG 550 SPAS 12 M4A1 carbine Remington 700P

See also
• • • • • Scorpion Group Albatross Group → Hawk Special Operations Brigade Special Operations Troops Company Argentine Federal Police

Brigada Especial Operativa Halcón

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Brigada Especial Operativa Halcón
The Brigada Especial Operativa Halcón (BEOH; Hawk Special Operations Brigade) is a special operations division of the Buenos Aires Police in Argentina. Argentina did not possess a viable counter-terrorist capability until 1978, when it hosted the football World Cup. At that time, the military dictatorship ruling Argentina accepted the possibility that such a widely-televised event was a likely forum for a terrorist incident. The result was the formation of a special counter-terrorist team, the Brigada Halcón. Today, the unit is made up of seventy-five commandos, subdivided into fifteen-man tactical teams. Each team has two snipers, one medic, one negotiator, an explosive ordnance disposal expert, a communications specialist, an intelligence specialist, and eight tactical assaulters. Initial training is divided into three two-month stages. Skills such as combat shooting, heliborne insertion, HALO/HAHO parachuting, explosives, sniping, intelligence gathering, martial arts, and offensive driving are covered in this period. The unit also handles VIP protection and is also responsible for hijacked aircraft throughout the nation. While many current members are veterans of the Argentine Army, the Brigada Halcón is under the operational control of the federal police, under the direct command of the Buenos Aires Police Department. Brigada Halcón members use foreign weapons and gear, as well as locally manufactured protective gear and uniforms. Weapons include: GLOCK 17, HK MP5, M4 Carbine, HK UMP, M16A2 and the Franchi SPAS-12 shotgun. For sniping purposes the Heckler & Koch G3 GS/1 is commonly used. This special operations group was involved in the "Ramallo massacre", when operatives from the Brigada Halcón shot dead one alleged bank robber and his two hostages.

See also
• • • • • Grupo Alacrán Grupo Albatros Grupo Especial de Operaciones Federales Compañía de Tropas de Operaciones Especiales Policía Federal Argentina

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Australia
Specialist Response and Security
Specialist Response and Security Team Active Branch Role Size Part of Nickname 1978 - Present Australian Federal Police Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement 60 full-time Officers Under control of the Australian Federal Police SRS

Engagements Pong Su incident, 2003 Canberra bushfires Commanders Current commander Detective Superintendent Rob Gilliland

The Specialist Response and Security Team is the Special Operations and Police Tactical Group of the the Australian Federal Police (AFP) having responsibility for the Australian Capital Territory. The Operational Response Group (ORG) has responsibility for AFP National and International tactical operations.[1]

History
SRS are part of the Australian Government's National Anti-Terrorism Plan which requires, since 1978 each State/Territory Police Force to maintain a specialist counter-terrorist and hostage rescue unit with specialist capabilities. The SRS fulfils this role within the Australian Capital Territory. Originally known as the Armed Offender Squad, then re-named the Special Operations Team (SOT) the unit underwent significant changes in 2002 and was renamed to reflect the changes in early 2003 to Specialist Response and Security.[2] Currently commanded by Superintendent Mark Colbran the Specialist Response and Security (SRS) section of ACT Policing provides a full time tactical operations unit who also perform search and rescue and riot control duties, a K9 section and bomb squad. The unit also commands the AFP's Police Negotiation Team, Water Police, Police Divers and Major Events Planning Team.

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Role
SRS officer undertake the following duties within the ACT: • • • • • • • • • • Resolving siege and hostage situations, as well as armed offender situations; Providing a negotiation service in high risk and critical situations; Undertaking searches of premises in high risk situations; The arrest of armed and dangerous offenders; Escorting and securing dangerous prisoners in high risk situations; Providing support services for major operations;[3] Rescue and bomb disposal operations; Counter-terrorism and hijacking operations; The escort and security of VIPs, internationally protected persons, Heads of State; Testing and evaulation of specialist less than lethal weapons/devices;[4]

SRS officers also provide support to international AFP deployments overseas prior to the formation of the Operational Response Group [previously known as the Operational Response Team (ORT)].[5] Their role on such operations includes: • effect high risk searches, search warrants and arrests • support to public order policing remote rural patrols • protection of people in high risk situations[6] • support to the security of members deployed to mission.

Units
The section consists of a number of units including: • Water operations team • Canine (K9) operations team[7] • Bomb response team[8] • Tactical Response Team (SRS-TR)[3] The section also provides close personal protection to important dignitaries and heads of state visiting Australia.[6]
SRS officers in Canberra during a training exercise, 2004.

See also
• Australian Federal Police • Australian Capital Territory Police • Police Tactical Group • Australian Federal Police - Specialist Response and Security Team •  New South Wales - → Tactical Operations Unit •  Northern Territory - → Territory Response Group •  Queensland - → Special Emergency Response Team •  South Australia - → Special Tasks and Rescue Group •  Tasmania - → Special Operations Group • •  Victoria - → Special Operations Group  Western Australia - → Tactical Response Group

Specialist Response and Security • • • • • • → Armed Offenders Squad (AOS), New Zealand → Special Tactics Group (AOS), New Zealand Tactical Assault Group National Anti Terrorism Exercise → SWAT Counter-terrorism

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References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / www. afp. gov. au/ __data/ assets/ pdf_file/ 89127/ AFPAnrep2007-08. pdf Showcasing special police unit's talents :: ABC Canberra (http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ canberra/ stories/ s789990. htm) ACT Policing Annual Report 2004-2005 (https:/ / www. aps. gov. au/ __data/ assets/ pdf_file/ 3659/ actpolicing_ar0405. pdf) Police SRS team adopts Tasers - AFP (http:/ / www. afp. gov. au/ media_releases/ act/ 2006/ police_srs_team_adopts_tasers) http:/ / www. afp. gov. au/ international/ IDG/ operational_response_group/ tactical_response_teams. html Royal visit to Canberra - AFP (https:/ / aps. gov. au/ act/ on_the_beat/ on_the_beat_archives/ 2006/ 14_march) Canine (K9) operations - AFP (https:/ / www. aps. gov. au/ act/ action/ current_operations/ canine_k9_operations) Microsoft Word - Corbell Police final 07 24.doc (http:/ / www. parliament. act. gov. au/ downloads/ issues-papers/ Corbell Police. pdf)

State Protection Group
State Protection group

Subdued NSW Police Force Patch worn by some SPG units. Active Branch Role Part of 1991–present Counter Terrorism & Special Tactics Command Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement New South Wales Police Force

Garrison/HQ Sydney Police Centre Nickname Motto SPG 'Stamus Una' - We stand as one

Engagements 1993 Cangai siege, Ivan Milat arrest, 2000 Sydney Olympics, APEC Australia 2007, World Youth Day 2008 Commanders Current commander Notable commanders Chief Superintendent Wayne Benson Assistant Commissioner Norm Hazzard

New South Wales Police Force

State Protection Group

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agency information

Motto

Culpam Poena Premit Comes Punishment Follows Close On Guilt Agency overview

Formed Employees Legal personality

1862 18,500 Governmental: Government agency Jurisdictional structure

Operations jurisdiction* General nature

State of New South Wales, Australia
• • → Law enforcement

Local civilian police

Operational structure Headquarters Officers Minister responsible Agency executive Units Facilities Stations 500+ Website
http:/ / www. police. nsw. gov. au

Parramatta, New South Wales 15,500 David Campbell, New South Wales Ministry for Police Andrew Scipione APM, Commissioner

Footnotes * Divisional agency: Division of the country, over which the agency has usual operational jurisdiction. this information

The State Protection Group (SPG) is part of the Specialist Operations division of the New South Wales Police Force, having been established in 1991[1] [2] to deal with extraordinary policing responses. The SPG directly supports police in high-risk incidents such as sieges with specialised tactical, negotiation, intelligence and command-support services. The unit also provides rescue and bomb disposal support, witness security, armoury services and general security for police and other government institutions[1]

State Protection Group

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History
Established in June 1991, the State Protection Group replaced four former specialist units—the Special Weapons and Operations Squad|Special Weapons and Operations Section (SWOS), the Witness Security Unit, regional Tactical Response Groups and the Rescue Squad.[2]

Principal roles
• • • • • • • • • • • Protecting endangered witnesses; Resolving siege and hostage situations, as well as armed offender situations; Providing a negotiation service in high risk and critical situations; Undertaking searches of premises in high risk situations; The arrest of armed and dangerous offenders; Escorting and securing dangerous prisoners in high risk situations; Providing support services for major operations; Rescue and bomb disposal operations; Counter-terrorism and hijacking operations; The escort and security of VIPs, internationally protected persons, Heads of State; Building security through the Security Management Branch; and

• Providing specialist engineering services and supply of ammunition and firearms for the NSW Police Force through the Armoury.

Organisation
The Assistant Commissioner (Counter Terrorism), Nick Kaldas, is responsible (as of May 2009) for both the Counter Terrorist Co-ordination Command (CTCC) and the State Protection Group (SPG), the former being headed by Detective Chief Superintendent Peter Dein, and the latter by Chief Superintendent Wayne Benson.[1] The SPG consists of the following sections:

Tactical Operations Unit (TOU)
Since 1978, the Australian Government's National Anti-Terrorism Plan has required each state police force to maintain a specialist counter-terrorist and hostage-rescue unit (Police Tactical Group). The NSW Tactical Operations Unit, formed in 1991, aims to resolve high-risk incidents by containment and negotiation, with minimal or judicious use of force to be applied only as a last resort and based on full and careful assessment. Unlike the former Special Weapons and Operations Squad Tactical Operations Unit officers at a (SWOS) (1979-1991) and Tactical Response Group (TRG) (1981-91), the siege in Sydney, 2007. TOU is a full-time assignment and is not assigned to riot control or crowd control situations, which are handled by the Public Order and Riot Squad (PORS). The unit is available to provide extraordinary assistance to operational police in high-risk incidents. The TOU is equipped with 'less-lethal' devices as well as specialist firearms and equipment for 'domestic' and counter-terrorist operations. Members of the TOU are sometimes armed with Heckler & Koch UMP submachine guns.[3]

State Protection Group

61

State Protection Support Units (SPSU)
To contain emergency situations in country/regional locations (such as sieges, hostage situations and suicide intervention), 300 part-time volunteer SPSU officers are on call across the state under regional command. Although the SPG TOU is a full-time statewide unit, part-time SPSU personnel are frequently called out in addition to or in lieu of the TOU. SPSU tactical officers are also used for high-risk operations such as arrests of armed offenders and forced-entry raids.

SPSU officers at a siege in Western

The SPG, in conjunction with the NSW Police Academy, is responsible for NSW the initial selection and training of SPSU volunteers, followed up by monthly local training. The SPSU officers also attend an annual training camp organised by the School of Operational Safety and Tactics Unit to maintain consistency in their training levels. The majority of SPSU team leaders are former TOU officers.[2] As SPSU are part-time unit and are not responsible for counter terrorist operations (responsibility lies with the TOU) they are not trained or equipped to the same level as the TOU. SPSU teams are equipped with a range of specialist tactical gear including less than lethal munitions such as Tasers, beanbags as well as various shotguns and M4/M16 semi automatic rifles.

Negotiation Unit
Under the supervision of a small full-time cadre, highly trained negotiators are on call across the state on a part-time, as-needed basis.

Intelligence Unit
This unit provides intelligence information to negotiators and other TOU officers involved in high-risk incidents. Such intelligence may include information on people involved (offenders, hostages or suspects), or the provision of plans and photographs of premises.< [4].

Negotiation team on the way to a siege.

Police Rescue and Bomb Disposal Unit
Originally created in 1942 as the Police Cliff Rescue Squad for the express purpose of recovering the bodies of suicide victims, or rescuing persons trapped on cliffs, the Police Rescue and Bomb Disposal Unit has undergone numerous changes and expansions over the years.[5] Apart from responding to 000 (emergency calls) calls, the Police Rescue Unit provides specialist search and rescue support of operational police in situations of any risk category. This support extends from searches for evidence, to working with negotiators at extreme heights.[6]

Rescue & Bomb Disposal Unit officers at an incident

Police Rescue operators are trained to use equipment such as Jaws of Life, metal detectors, trapped person locaters, sophisticated communication equipment and cutting tools etc. These officers are experts in abseiling, climbing, single rope techniques and stretcher escorts with cliff machines. Some of the Rescue Unit's responsibilities and challenges include:

State Protection Group • Rescuing people trapped in difficult high or deep places such as mines, storm-water drains, cliffs, scaffolding and remote places. • Rescuing people involved in industrial, traffic, railway and aircraft accidents or who may have become trapped in household equipment, machinery or playground equipment. • Providing power or lighting in emergencies or for police operations • Rescuing livestock and animals in accidents • Working in toxic or hazardous environments In 1993 the Department of Defence handed over bomb disposal responsibilities to the NSW Police Force. The Bomb Disposal section was established within Forensic Services and then in 1997, the section was relocated to the SPG.[7] Prior to the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games, the Bomb Disposal section was amalgamated with the Rescue Unit. The Police Rescue and Bomb Disposal Unit is based in Zetland (Sydney). Part-time units are based in Wollongong, Cooma, Goulburn, the Blue Mountains, Bathurst, Newcastle and Lismore. The part-time units are responsible for land rescue and bomb=appraisal operations.
Police Rescue conducting rope rescue training at 'The Gap' in Sydney with a 'heavy' and 'medium' rescue vehicle.

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The unit was the subject of an Australian ABC television series (1991–1996) and a 1994 feature film, Police Rescue.

Armoury Section
The Armoury Section provides specialist engineering services, maintenance and supply of ammunition and firearms for the NSW Police Force.

Dog Unit
More commonly referred to as the Dog Squad, the Police Dog Unit was initially created in NSW between 1935 to 1953 and was reintroduced in 1979.[8] The unit was established to support police in locating offenders and missing persons, detecting and detaining fleeing criminals and detecting drugs, firearms and explosives Dogs used for patrol duties are German Shepherds or Rottweilers. The Labrador retriever is the breed of choice for specialist detection for narcotics and explosives, etc.[9]

After training, all police dog teams are able to track and find wanted offenders or missing persons, search all types of buildings, detect illicit drugs, and support foot-patrolling of public places to deter crime and make these places safer for the community. There are 14 police dogs and handlers operating in each region and three located at the Police Dog Training Centre, a total of 59 teams. NSW Dog Squad [10]. Dog Squad officers may be called upon to chase and apprehend offenders who may be escaping arrest and may be armed and dangerous or act as a deterrent and back up in dangerous situations such as brawls, sieges, riots and domestics. They are also used to provide high profile foot patrols in places such as schools, industrial areas, shopping complexes and during large public events such as New Years Eve or sporting events, etc. NSW Police Force dogs are also issued their own sets of canine body armour/ballistic vests [11].

Dog Unit officers with general purpose dogs

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See also
Other NSW Police
• Public Order and Riot Squad (NSW Police riot unit)

Similar Australian units
• Australian Defence Force - Tactical Assault Group • Corrective Services - → Hostage Response Group

International units
• → SWAT (Special Weapons And Tactics) • List of Special Response Units

Related articles
• National Anti Terrorism Exercise • Counter-terrorism

External links
• New South Wales Police official website [12]

References
[1] Counter Terrorism & Special Tactics (http:/ / www. police. nsw. gov. au/ about_us/ structure/ specialist_operations/ counter_terrorism_and_public_order_management) on NSW Police official site [2] State Protection Group (http:/ / www. policensw. com/ info/ gen/ spg. html) in 'Thin Blue Line' unofficial police site [3] Photo: Police at siege incident, Lakes Hotel Rosebery, 31 May 2009 (http:/ / www. news. com. au/ gallery/ 0,23607,5055820-5010140-8,00. html) [4] http:/ / www. policensw. com/ info/ gen/ spg. html [5] Police Rescue Squad: the early days (http:/ / www. policensw. com/ info/ gen/ u3a. html) in 'Thin Blue Line' unofficial police site [6] NSW Police Rescue & Bomb Disposal Unit (http:/ / www. policensw. com/ info/ gen/ u3. html) in 'Thin Blue Line' unofficial police site [7] NSW Police Rescue & Bomb Disposal Unit (http:/ / www. policensw. com/ info/ gen/ u3. html) in 'Thin Blue Line unofficial police site' [8] Police Dog Squad (http:/ / www. policensw. com/ info/ gen/ u5. html) in 'Thin Blue Line' unofficial police site. [9] Dog Unit (http:/ / www. police. nsw. gov. au/ recruitment/ police_career/ role_and_careers/ careers/ dog_unit) NSW Police official site. [10] http:/ / www. specialoperations. com/ Foreign/ Australia/ NSW/ Default. htm [11] http:/ / www. policeone. com/ police-products/ k9/ articles/ 96270/ [12] http:/ / www. police. nsw. gov. au/

Hostage Response Group

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Hostage Response Group
The Hostage Response Group (HRG) is the tactical and special operations unit of the New South Wales Department of Corrective Services. Corrective Services facilities have their own Immediate Action Teams (riot and emergency units), and larger 'on-call' Regional Security Units and the K9 units for major disturbances. The roles of the HRG though are similar to that of the NSW Police → Tactical Operations Unit, that is, to provide specialist tactical support and solutions in high risk operations involving Corrective Services facilities and/or staff [1].

Principal Roles
• Resolving siege and hostage situations [2]; • • • • • Providing a negotiation service in high risk and critical situations; Escorting and securing dangerous prisoners in high risk situations; Undertaking searches of cells in high risk situations; Armed escort of high risk offenders in custody; Specialist surveillance operations;

HRG Unit patch

See also
• Department of Corrective Services • New South Wales Police Force • Police Tactical Group • Australian Federal Police - → Specialist Response and Security Team •  New South Wales - → Tactical Operations Unit •  Northern Territory - → Territory Response Group •  Queensland - → Special Emergency Response Team •  South Australia - → Special Tasks and Rescue Group •  Tasmania - → Special Operations Group •  Victoria - → Special Operations Group •  Western Australia - → Tactical Response Group • → Armed Offenders Squad (AOS), New Zealand • → Special Tactics Group (AOS), New Zealand • → SWAT • Tactical Response Group - Former NSW Police Force unit • Special Weapons and Operations Squad - Former NSW Police Force unit

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65

External links
• Department of Corrective Services [3]

References
[1] http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ 4corners/ content/ 2005/ s1497258. htm [2] http:/ / www. highbeam. com/ doc/ 1P1-43475821. html [3] http:/ / www. dcs. nsw. gov. au/

Territory Response Group

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Territory Response Group
Territory Response Group Active Role Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement

The Territory Response Group (TRG) is the Police Tactical Group of the Northern Territory Police. Part of the Territory Response Section (formerly Territory Support Division) the TRG is tasked to provide general and specialist support to other units of the Northern Territory Police. It is closely aligned with the The NT Police Counter Terrorism Security Coordination Unit (CTSCU) which was formally established in July 2003 [1] .

History
The TRG are part of Australian Governments National Anti-Terrorism Plan which requires, since 1978 each State Police Force to maintain a specialist counter-terrorist and hostage rescue unit with specialist capabilities.[2]

Organisation
The Territory Support Division consists of the following sections:[2] • Bomb Response Unit • Close personal protection (CPP) The CPP group is responsible for the co-ordination and conduct of personal protection of witnesses or dignitaries within the Northern Territory. • Counter disaster operations Under counter disaster plans the group forms survey and rescue teams to provide a framework for operations in the field in conjunction with other government departments.[3] • Manpower assistance • Police Dive Unit • Police Tactical Group The group to provides a → SWAT capability to deal with the containment and resolution of violent offences beyond the capability of general duties police. • Public disorder • Response patrol One of the group's roles is providing rapid tactical assistance to general duties police in the event of armed offenders or during high risk operations. An element is available for this purpose as an interim measure before deployment of a larger group. • Search and rescue • Vertical Rescue Unit • Training unit/wing
NT Police TRG member with MP5 during a high risk arrest of an armed offender.

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References
[1] " Counter Terrorism Security Coordination Unit (http:/ / www. nt. gov. au/ pfes/ PFES/ index. cfm?fuseaction=page& p=150)". Northern Territory Police. . [2] " Territory Support Division (http:/ / www. nt. gov. au/ pfes/ police/ services/ trg/ index. html)". Northern Territory Police. . [3] " Watching Brief on the War on Terrorism (http:/ / www. aph. gov. au/ HANSARD/ joint/ commttee/ J6711. pdf)". Commonwealth of Australia Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade. 17 July 2003. . Retrieved 2007-10-22.

• NT Police Counter Terrorism Report (http://www.aph.gov.au/HANSARD/joint/commttee/J6711.pdf)

See also
Similar Australian units
• Australian Defence Force - Tactical Assault Group

International units
• → SWAT (Special Weapons And Tactics) • List of Special Response Units

Related articles
• National Anti Terrorism Exercise • Counter-terrorism

Special Emergency Response Team (Queensland)

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Special Emergency Response Team (Queensland)
Special Emergency Response Team

SERT subdued shoulder patch Active Role Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement

Special Emergency Response Team (SERT) is the Police Tactical Group of the Queensland Police, Australia. SERT is part of the Specialist Response Branch which incorporates Explosive Operations Response Team (Bomb Squad) and the Negotiator Coordination Unit.

History
Initially formed in 1975 and originally known as the Emergency Squad, the unit underwent several name changes over the years and up until 1992 was known as the Special Weapons and Operations Squad (SWOS). Prior to 1992 the unit was part time made up of officers drawn from other areas of the Police and performing tactical duties as required. Since 1992 the unit is a full-time dedicated police tactical unit and is now known as the Special Emergency Response Team (SERT).

Mission
To provide a specialist service to the community and support police operations by the attainment of a high level of expertise and professionalism in resolving incidents which exceed normal police capabilities.

Selection
To qualify for the selection course Special Emergency Response Team (SERT) hopefuls have to undergo a gruelling fitness regime. They must complete a minimum of 10 chin ups, 35 push ups and 100 sit ups, then run 10km in under 46 minutes and finally swim 400 metres in under 10 minutes. All this is done without a rest. The three-day selection course is regarded as the most difficult and physically demanding course within the Queensland Police Service (QPS). It tests physical and mental endurance through individual and team tasks, problem solving, sleep deprivation, basic survival skills and by challenging phobias (heights and closed spaces).

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69

Principal roles
• • • • • • • • • • Protecting endangered witnesses; Resolving siege and hostage situations, as well as armed offender situations; Providing a negotiation service in high risk and critical situations; Undertaking searches of premises in high risk situations; The arrest of armed and dangerous offenders; Escorting and securing dangerous prisoners in high risk situations; Providing support services for major operations High angle rescue Less lethal tactics deployment Water and Airborne operations and insertion

See also
Similar Australian units
• • • • • • • • Australian Defence Force - Tactical Assault Group Australian Federal Police - → Specialist Response and Security Team  New South Wales - → Tactical Operations Unit  Northern Territory - → Territory Response Group  South Australia - → Special Tasks and Rescue Group  Tasmania - → Special Operations Group  Victoria - → Special Operations Group  Western Australia - Tactical Response Group

International units
• → SWAT (Special Weapons And Tactics) • List of Special Response Units

Related articles
• National Anti Terrorism Exercise • Counter-terrorism

External links
• Queensland Police official website [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. police. qld. gov. au/

Special Tasks and Rescue

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Special Tasks and Rescue
Special Emergency Response Team

STAR Force tactical uniform breast patch Active Role Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement

Special Tasks and Rescue (STAR Force) is the Police Tactical Group of the South Australia Police.

History
Formed on 30 November, 1978 the South Australian Police STAR Force was a rationalisation of specialist resources into one command/unit. Specialist units had existed prior to 1978 within SAPOL to deal with emergency situations such as sieges and armed offenders situations [1]. As in other states, SAPOL decided that it would be more practical and expedient to combine all the skills of various tactical/special units in one unit and to have specialist personnel on duty or available on call, at all times to deal with emergencies. Further restructuring in 1994 saw STAR Force expand its role to include Water Police and the Coordination of Negotiators.

Mission
STAR Force is designed to handle problems and situations which require more concentrated attention than can normally be provided by the General Patrol Police and/or which call for tactics which cannot be used by patrol members in uniform [2]. The unit consists of highly trained personnel skilled in the use of firearms, counter-terrorist tactics, crowd control, crime prevention techniques, underwater recovery, water policing, Close Personal Protection and search and rescue operations. Thus there is available at all times a mobile patrol force to assist other line units in emergencies of any kind, and to act as a support force in crime control operations [1].

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Principal roles
• • • • • • • Search and rescue Helicopter operations The arrest of armed and dangerous offenders Provide close-quarter CPP and related security measures as necessary. VIP Security Patrol deployment as a crime prevention Resolving siege and hostage situations, as well as armed offender situations; • Riot/crowd control
STAR Group members at a siege

Structure
STAR Group is a branch of the SAPOL Operations Support Service[3] , and comprises several sections: • Operations Section The Operations Section is responsible for a number of different tasks including high risk policing, counter terrorist response, search and rescue operations and the supplementation of general duty patrols.[4] Each member is required to develop and maintain skills in weapons handling, high risk policing, counter terrorist standard operating procedures, VIP protection, search and rescue operations, civil disorder techniques and many other functions peculiar to S.T.A.R. Operations. Select individuals within S.T.A.R. Operations develop specialist skills in one key area allowing the provision of helicopter aircrew, marksmen/observers, VIP drivers, Search and Rescue Coordination and bomb technicians.[4] • Dog Operations Unit The Dog Operations Unit provides support to operational police through the deployment of trained dog teams. Each team comprises a dog, being either a German Shepherd or Labrador retriever dog and handler. Teams are trained to carry out duties involving tracking, searching, criminal apprehension, drug detection and explosive detection.[4] • Water Operations Unit The Water Operations Unit is responsible for policing the costal and inland waters of South Australia, through the use of several police vessels, and the provision of police divers, to assist local police in the recovery of bodies or submerged objects from the sea, inland waters and caves. The unit also conducts marine search and rescue activities as the need arises.[4] • Mounted Operations Unit The Mounted Operations Unit conducts a range of tasks, including mounted patrols, escort duties, searches of bushland for missing persons, crowd control and ceremonial duties.[4] Since the inception of mounted patrols in South Australia in 1840, the Mounted Operations Unit has used grey horses. They are bred and trained at the Thebarton Police Barracks, just outside the central business district of Adelaide. These police 'Greys' as they are known, are ideal for police work as the light grey tones make the horse highly visible at night. They are also highly recognisable in the community and are often involved in community events such as leading the annual Christmas pageant and ANZAC day parade.[5] • Negotiator Coordinator Section

Special Tasks and Rescue The Negotiator Coordination Section provides support to operational police by deployment of trained negotiators throughout the State. Under the National Guidelines, negotiation is considered the first option to achieve a peaceful resolution in high-risk incidents and negotiators respond to all types of incidents where their expertise may be of assistance.[4] • Explosive Coordination Section The Explosive Coordination Section is the bomb squad of South Australia Police. Responsibilites of this section include the disposal of improvised explosive devices (IED) and other explosive material, clearing explosives scenes before post-blast examination, conducting high risk searches for bombs, explosives, booby traps etc and coordinating responses for military ordnance.[4] • Training and Development Section

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See also
• • • • Tactical Assault Group → SWAT (Special Weapons And Tactics) List of Special Response Units National Anti Terrorism Exercise

• Counter-terrorism

External links
• Official website [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. sapolice. sa. gov. au/ sapol/ about_us/ structure/ operations_support_service/ special_tasks_rescue_group. jsp [2] http:/ / www. police. sa. gov. au/ sapol/ about_us/ structure/ operations_support_service/ special_tasks_rescue_group. jsp?text_only=true [3] " South Australia Police :: Operations Support Service (http:/ / www. police. sa. gov. au/ sapol/ about_us/ structure/ operations_support_service. jsp)". . Retrieved 2008-09-03. [4] " South Australia Police :: Special Tasks & Rescue Force (http:/ / www. police. sa. gov. au/ sapol/ about_us/ structure/ operations_support_service/ special_tasks_rescue_group. jsp)". . Retrieved 2008-09-03. [5] http:/ / www. inthelineofduty. com. au/ timeline. asp?startyear=2002& iID=812

Special Operations Group of the Tasmania Police

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Special Operations Group of the Tasmania Police
Special Operations Group

SOG subdued overalls insignia patch Active Role Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement

The Special Operations Group (SOG) is the Police Tactical Group of the Australian Tasmania Police. SOG is a highly trained group within the Tasmania Police Service, made up of current serving Tasmania Police members from varied sections and branches[1] .

Mission
The role of the Group is to offer, via specific tactical training, support to state-wide police operations where police or members of the Tasmanian public have been or are likely to be exposed to violence or other threats deemed to be of high risk [2] . This also includes potential deployment in a national counter-terrorism role in support of the National Anti Terrorist Plan (NATP). The Special Operations Group is deployed by the Assistant Commissioner (Crime & Operations). Negotiation is the primary tool for resolution, wherever possible, however the SOG provides high level containment skills and a National "best practice" resolution capability.

SOG officers training

History
The SOG commenced in 1978 with police officers undertaking basic tactical training. Since that time the Group has gone through a number of significant changes, primarily brought about by national trends that saw extreme violence and related threats used and/or targeted against members of Australian communities. Since 1978, the Group has experienced several changes in name and training philosophies – from the Armed Offenders Squad to Special Weapons Squad and now Special Operations Group, a name which more accurately reflects the true nature of the Group's duties[2] . The Tasmanian Police SOG was involved in the infamous 1996 Port Arthur massacre helping to bring the event to conclusion by arresting the heavily armed gunman Martin Bryant[3] .

Special Operations Group of the Tasmania Police

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Principal roles
• • • • • • Resolving siege and hostage situations, as well as armed offender situations; Counter-terrorism and hijacking operations; The escort and security of VIPs, internationally protected persons, Heads of State; Undertaking searches of premises in high risk situations; The arrest of armed and dangerous offenders; Escorting and securing dangerous prisoners in high risk situations;

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •  Tasmania Tasmania Police Police Tactical Group Australian Federal Police - → Specialist Response and Security Team  New South Wales - → Tactical Operations Unit  Northern Territory - → Territory Response Group  Queensland - → Special Emergency Response Team  South Australia - → Special Tasks and Rescue Group  Tasmania - Special Operations Group  Victoria - → Special Operations Group  Western Australia - → Tactical Response Group → Armed Offenders Squad (AOS), New Zealand → Special Tactics Group (AOS), New Zealand Tactical Assault Group National Anti Terrorism Exercise → SWAT Counter-terrorism

External links
• Tasmania Police official website [4]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] 7.30 Report - 15/10/1999: Elite police group pushes hard to find the right stuff (http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ 7. 30/ stories/ s59767. htm) Tasmania Police - Special Operations Group (http:/ / www. police. tas. gov. au/ on-the-beat/ sog) The Port Arthur Massacre: A Killer Among Us (http:/ / www. crimelibrary. com/ serial/ bryant/ ) http:/ / www. police. tas. gov. au/

Victoria Police Special Operations Group

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Victoria Police Special Operations Group
Special Operations Group

SOG tactical uniform shoulder insignia Active Role Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement

The Special Operations Group (SOG) is the Police Tactical Group of the Victoria Police.

History
The Special Operations Group was formed in 1977[1] . Its main function was to provide a response to politically motivated and criminal terrorist activity. Today, this remains the number one priority for the Special Operations Group. The SOG is the Victoria Police equivalent of a full-time tactical (→ SWAT) team. Victorian SOG officers assisted the Tasmanian Special Operations Group during the infamous Port Arthur massacre in 1996.[2]

Mission
The SOG responds to unplanned operational critical incidents such as sieges and siege hostage situations, armed offender tasks and bomb response incidents. They also assist operational police in planned operations involving apprehension of dangerous suspects[1] .

Principal roles
• Protecting endangered witnesses • Resolving siege and hostage situations, as well as armed offender situations • Providing a negotiation service in high risk and critical situations • Undertaking searches of premises in high risk situations • The arrest of armed and dangerous offenders • Escorting and securing dangerous prisoners in high risk situations • Providing support services for major operations • Escorting and protecting VIPs and other at risk or important persons • Bomb disposal operations The SOG also provides specialist assistance in performing tasks which are beyond the scope of operational police. Some of these tasks may require specialist equipment or expertise in certain areas.
SOG officers practicing tactical operations

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Unofficial name
SOG has the unofficial nickname within the police as being the "Sons of God", an acronym made from the initials S.O.G. and named in reference to the fact that special operations officers are involved in dangerous and high risk situations. The nickname also draws from the SOGs own view towards themselves as being the "peacemakers" which is also noted as being a passage in the Bible, "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called the Sons of God." - Matthew 5:9. SOG officers are also affectionately known within Victoria Police circles as "soggies" although it is noted within police circles that it is not advisable to use the nickname directly towards SOG officers [3]
SOG officers during an exercise

See also
Similar Australian units
• Australian Defence Force - Tactical Assault Group

International units
• → SWAT (Special Weapons And Tactics) • List of Special Response Units

Related articles
• National Anti Terrorism Exercise (NATEX) • Counter-terrorism

External links
• Victoria Police official website [4]

References
[1] Victoria Police - Special Operations Group (SOG) (http:/ / www. police. vic. gov. au/ content. asp?Document_ID=173) [2] " Elite police group pushes hard to find the right stuff (http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ 7. 30/ stories/ s59767. htm)". ABC. 1999-10-15. . Retrieved 2009-05-05. [3] One false move... - General - In Depth - theage.com.au (http:/ / www. theage. com. au/ news/ general/ one-false-move/ 2005/ 10/ 15/ 1128796742694. html) [4] http:/ / www. police. vic. gov. au/

Critical Incident Response Team

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Critical Incident Response Team
Victoria Police Critical Incident Response Team are part of the Victorian Police Force Response Unit Command.

Overview
The Critical Incident Response Team (CIRTs) respond to incidents that wouldn’t warrant the attendance of the → Special Operations Group but for which the general duties police are not trained or equipped to deal with, such as offenders armed with knives or potential suicides and 'suspect parcels' [1] [2] CIRT also respond to incidents including hostage situations, violent prisoner control or transfer, suspicious substance attacks and terrorist actions [3] in support of the → Special Operations Group.
CIRT officer in tactical gear during an emergency response searching for a gunman.

In high risk situations CIRT response is to cordon and contain an area until the arrival of the → Victoria Police Special Operations Group. CIRT officers have a range of specialised equipment and weapons in their inventory ranging from ballistic and tactical vests, shotguns, tasers, bean bag rounds and various OC (pepper spray) delivery systems [1] [2]

Vision Statement
Provide service excellence through the unit's Discipline, Leadership and Development

Role of the Force Response Unit
The primary functions of the Force Response Unit are to provide support to police operations and protection to witnesses at risk. The FRU provides support to Regions in their response to emergency, public disorder and general operational situations that have proved, or are anticipated to be beyond the resources of the Region concerned. FRU personnel are deployed mainly in circumstances where for one reason of another, local police are unable to adequately respond to the situation [2]. In March 2004, the FRU launched the Critical Incident Response Teams (CIRT) concept after a gap in the resources available to Regional Police members was identified [2]. In situations where incidents pose a threat to members or are difficult to resolve due to violence or other dangers and do not fall into the call out criteria of the Special Operations Group (SOG) there is another option, CIRT deployment. The provision of the CIRT has since become the main function of the FRU and an invaluable resource to Victoria Police [2]. FRU continues to offer a variety of other support and specialist services such as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Crowd, public disorder and Riot response Close Personal Protection The provision of trained and qualified Police Negotiators and equipment The provision of security for protected witnesses High risk escorts Members and equipment for evidence search operations

7. Prison/ Police Cell assaults/extractions

Critical Incident Response Team 8. The provision or supplementation of members for high level security within the Supreme, County and Magistrates 9. The conduct or assistance with covert or overt operations in support of investigations and /or the apprehension of offenders 10. Suspicious substance response and/or advice 11. Chemical, Biological, and/or Radiological (CBR) response capabilities and equipment 12. Training

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See also
• • • • Police Tactical Group National Anti Terrorism Exercise → SWAT Counter-terrorism

Australia National organisations • Australian Federal Police • → Specialist Response and Security Team Victoria • → Special Operations Group Other Australian States • • • • • • → NSW Tactical Operations Unit → NT Territory Response Group → QLD Special Emergency Response Team → SA Special Tasks and Rescue Group → TAS Special Operations Group → WA Tactical Response Group

New Zealand • → Armed Offenders Squad • → Special Tactics Group

External links
• Victoria Police official website [4]

References
[1] " Critical Incident Response Team (http:/ / www. tpass. com. au/ _documents/ Journals/ 2006/ June/ 34e7e4ed-9bb3-4189-b6cc-17c758e2326b/ page18_19. pdf)" (PDF). . Retrieved 2008-07-02. [2] http:/ / www. tpav. org. au/ _documents/ Journals/ 2006/ June/ 34e7e4ed-9bb3-4189-b6cc-17c758e2326b/ page18_19. pdf [3] (http:/ / www. asisaustralia. com. au/ Events. htm)

Western Australia Police Tactical Response Group

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Western Australia Police Tactical Response Group
Western Australia Police

Logo of the Western Australia Police.

Mission statement

To enhance the quality of life and wellbeing of all people in Western Australia by contributing to making our State a safe and secure place. Agency overview

Formed Employees Legal personality

January 1, 1834 7,526 Governmental: Government agency Jurisdictional structure

Operations jurisdiction*

State of Western Australia, Australia

Map of Western Australia Police's jurisdiction.

Size Governing body General nature

2,645,615 km2 Government of Western Australia
• • → Law enforcement

Civilian police

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Operational structure

Headquarters

2 Adelaide Terrace, East Perth, WA 6004 31°57′41″S 115°52′43″E Karl J O'Callaghan APM, Commissioner

Agency executive Units

Facilities Stations 162 Website www.police.wa.gov.au Footnotes * Divisional agency: Division of the country, over which the agency has usual operational jurisdiction.
[1]

The Western Australia Police services an area of 2.5 million square kilometres, the world's largest non-federated area of jurisdiction. In 2008, its 7,526 employees include 5,647 police officers.

History
Early history
The genesis of the police was the appointment of a sheriff by Captain Stirling in June 1829, as part of the proclamation of the Swan River Colony. The proclamation provided for the appointment of a sheriff having under his direction a high constable, constables, bailiffs and surveyors of highways. The sheriff still exists as an officer of the Western Australian Justice Department—no longer having police or highways under his jurisdiction. The sheriff retains responsibility The Lincoln Street Vent, used as a police radio tower in Highgate for enforcement of court judgments and the administration of jury service. Police continue to carry out sheriff & bailiff duties, particularly in remote country locations. Early colonial policemen were recruited by magistrates and worked part-time. They were paid only for specific tasks, such as one shilling for serving a summons. By 1830, there were fifteen part-time constables in the state, of whom five worked in Perth. A mounted force was established in 1834, proving unpopular with citizens on the grounds that it was not efficient and was being paid out of their taxes for duties which the military should be performing. It was involved in the "Battle of Pinjarra", in which the police superintendent was killed together with a large number of Aboriginal people. The first full-time constable for Perth was appointed in 1840. The Legislative Council passed a police ordinance in 1849 that outlined police powers and responsibilities. An organised police force was formally established in 1853.

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Convict period
After convicts started arriving in the colony in 1849, the police acquired the duties of registering and supervising the ticket-of-leave men. By 1870, after transportation had ceased, some 1,244 ticket-of-leave men had to be supervised by 146 police employees. Applicants for police service were required to be aged under forty, literate and physically fit. Leave was difficult to obtain and officers were not to appear in public when out of uniform. Until the end of the nineteenth century, the monthly pay day was marked by a parade with band. A Criminal Investigation Department was set up in 1873, although two detectives had been sent out from Britain in 1854. A fingerprint bureau was set up in 1902 and the first female officer was appointed in 1921.

Imported commissioners, 1994-2004
Between 1994 and 1999, police commissioners were head-hunted from outside WA police ranks. In 1994, Victorian Bob Falconer APM was imported from the Victoria Police where he had been a deputy commissioner. Falconer was effective in implementing the Delta Program designed to achieve organisational and cultural change.[2] Falconer later argued that internal measures were inadequate and that a standing crime and corruption commission was necessary to combat police corruption.[3] In 1999 Barry Matthews, then a deputy commissioner of the New Zealand Police, was appointed and served until 2004.[4] Matthews was, however, succeeded in June 2004 by Dr Karl O'Callaghan APM, PhD who had been employed in the WA service since age 17 and was one of the service's first officers to achieve a PhD.[5]

2002 Royal commission
Throughout the 1990s there was widespread public concern about police activities and perceived shortcomings in internal integrity, resulting in development by the Labor parliamentary opposition of draft terms of reference for a proposed royal commission.[6] In 2002, the Kennedy Royal commission commenced to examine aspects of the behaviour and culture of the service. It concluded in 2004, finding that ... the full range of corrupt or criminal conduct from stealing to assaults, perjury, drug dealing and the improper disclosure of confidential information have been examined. [the Western Australian Police force] has been ineffective in monitoring those events and modifying its procedures to deal with that conduct and to prevent its repetition. ... The fact that there remain in WAPS a number of officers who participated in this conduct, and who not only refused to admit it, but also uniformly denied it with vehemence, is a matter of concern.

Death in custody
The royal commission investigated the death of 18-year-old Stephen Wardle, who died of a drug overdose whilst in custody in the East Perth Lockup.[7] . The commission's report noted: "The royal commission has no authority under its terms of reference to go beyond the determination of whether or not there has been criminal or corrupt conduct by any Police officer with respect to the death of Stephen Wardle. The evidence does not sustain any contention that there was corrupt or criminal conduct by any Police officer or officers in relation to his death"[8]

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Organisation
The Police Headquarters is located in East Perth overlooking the Causeway, near the WACA Ground. The 1960s curved building also houses the East Perth Lockup and is entered on the State Heritage Register. Recruits are trained at the Western Australian Police Academy at Joondalup. Previously the Academy was located at Maylands, in premises still used by various units including the mounted and K-9 (police dog) sections. The Perth Police Station is located at Curtin House, Beaufort Street. All police recruits begin their service as uniformed constables and are required to serve time in a country district.
Western Australia Police attending a minor traffic accident

The command structure has the state divided into three regions and sub-divided into fourteen districts. The highest-ranking police officer in the Western Australia Police holds the title of Commissioner of Police. The current Commissioner is Karl O'Callaghan, appointed in June 2004, with two deputy commissioners - Murray Lampard (Operations), and Chris Dawson (Standards and Reform). Politically, the service comes within the portfolio of the Minister for Police. A number of specialist units have been established, including the Tactical Response Group (TRG), Crime Investigation and Intelligence Services, Major Incident Group, Water Police Branch, Community Safety Branch, Traffic Enforcement Group, Regional Operations Group and Air Support Unit and the Gold Stealing Detection Unit.[9]

Ranks
Constable Commissioner First Senior Sergeant Senior Inspector Superintendent Commander Assistant Deputy Class Constable Sergeant Commissioner Commissioner Constable

Equipment and weaponry
All officers are armed when on duty. The standard firearm is the Glock 22 .40 S&W pistol. Officers also carry and regularly deploy the taser high-voltage electrical stun-gun, controversially described as a "less-than-lethal-force" option. Because of the weight of equipment carried on officers' belts, Western Australian uniformed officers are being progressively issued with equipment vests fitted with pockets to safely contain equipment including a taser, ammunition magazines for the service pistol, pepper spray, baton, handcuffs, radio and mobile phone. The vests are navy blue in colour, although a fluroscent yellow version is worn for some operations. The Commissioner of Police has been reported as saying that his department will invest $A4 million to provide 1100 additional tasers, making a total of 1350 in use by officers. Further specialised equipment is utilised by the TRG, as detailed in that section below.

Western Australia Police Tactical Response Group

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Police Air Wing
The Western Australian Police operate an Air Support Unit of one helicopter and three fixed-wing aircraft. The helicopter is a Kawasaki BK 117 with a callsign Polair 61, based at Jandakot Airport. The fixed-wing aircraft include two Piper PA-31 Navajo twin engine planes, and a Cessna 182 single engine aircraft with the callsign Polair 62. In May 2005, the State Government announced A$10 million dollars for the purchase of two Pilatus PC-12 planes to replace the existing ageing fleet. Recently, One of these aircraft was delivered. VH-PWE as it was registered is now a part of the Western Australian Police Air Support Unit

Polair 61

Polair One Crash
On 8 May 1992, the Polair One helicopter crashed while attempting to land on a sports oval for a public display in Kelmscott. The helicopter, an Aerospatiale AS355F1, was destroyed after a fire started in the engine bay following ground impact. The Bureau of Air Safety Investigation report determined "The helicopter probably entered a vortex ring state during the final approach."[10]

Polair One

Newman Plane Crash
On the 26 January 2001, four police officers lost their lives when their Cessna 310R plane crashed at night near the mining town of Newman. The plane was returning from Kiwirrkurra, on the edge of the Gibson Desert, when the aircraft's engines failed due to fuel starvation on the approach to Newman airstrip. The crash was the single biggest loss of police lives in West Australian history, and the first involving a police aircraft.[11] [12] The officers killed in the crash were: Senior Constable Donald Richard Everett 4600 - 49 years - Pilot of Karratha Police Airwing; Senior Constable Phillip Gavin Ruland 7877 - 32 years - Newman Police Station; First Class Constable David Adrian Dewar 9178 - 31 years - Newman Police Station; Constable Gavin Ashley Capes 10305 - 27 years - Newman Police Station

Tactical Response Group
The Tactical Response Group (TRG) is a Police Tactical Group, a component of the Counter-Terrorism and State Protection Group (CT&SP TRG). It is a civilian body accountable under the state's police legislation (1892)[13] and criminal code [14] . Since 1978, the Australian Government's National Anti-Terrorism Plan[15] has required each state police force to maintain a specialised counter-terrorist and hostage-rescue unit. TRG officers are trained for high-risk physical situations. They provide support to WAPOL and other agencies [16] . Such situations include
TRG officers during a training exercise in 2007.

Western Australia Police Tactical Response Group dealing with armed offenders, attending sieges and civil-disorder incidents, protecting endangered witnesses, undertaking searches of premises, securing and escorting dangerous prisoners, heads of state, VIPs and internationally protected persons, as well as the state's counter-terrorist responsibility. Specialist positions include marksmen, bomb technicians and negotiators [17] . The TRG is equipped with a wide range of less-lethal devices as well as specialist firearms and equipment for 'domestic' and counter-terrorist operations. Training includes tactical roping, fieldcraft, paramedical courses, the use of chemical, biological and radiological equipment, self-contained breathing apparatus and weapons.

84

Image gallery

Police Headquarters 'Booze bus' Major Incident Group (MIG) unmarked sedan

Curtin House

See also
• Constable Care • Crime in Perth • Western Australia Police Pipe Band

References
Sources
• • • • • Western Australia Police Annual Reports [18] (Series from 2001) Western Australian Year Book 1974. Lieutenant-Governor Stirling's Proclamation of the Colony, 18 June 1829 (UK) Western Australia Police Service 2003 WA Parliamentary Select Committee on the Western Australian Police Service [19] Interim Report, June 1996

Western Australia Police Tactical Response Group

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External links
• • • • • Western Australia Police website [20] Crime Stoppers WA [21] Neighbourhood Watch [22] Office of Crime Prevention [23] Burglar Beware [24]

References
[1] http:/ / www. police. wa. gov. au [2] WA Ombudsman's Report, 1999—Chapter 3 (http:/ / www. ombudsman. wa. gov. au/ documents/ annualreports/ 1999. pdf) [3] Cop watchdog's leash too tight—The Australian, 12 October 2007 (http:/ / www. theaustralian. news. com. au/ story/ 0,25197,22571953-2702,00. html) [4] Government media release (http:/ / www. mediastatements. wa. gov. au/ Pages/ CourtCoalitionGovernmentSearch. aspx?ItemId=114126& minister=Prince& admin=Court& page=2) [5] ABC Radio PM report, 15 June 2004 (http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ pm/ content/ 2004/ s1132535. htm) [6] Hansard record, 11 October 2000 (http:/ / www. parliament. wa. gov. au/ hansard/ hans35. nsf/ (ATT)/ 3F8A7912A242EE90482569BC003C51E7/ $file/ A35+ S4+ 20001011+ p1926b-1927a. pdf) [7] ABC AM report, 3 March 2004 (http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ am/ content/ 2004/ s1057680. htm) [8] Kennedy Royal Commission report, Chapter 12 (http:/ / www. ccc. wa. gov. au/ pdfs/ Volume I Final Report - Part 2. pdf) page 367 [9] Gold Squad' celebrates its 100th birthday (http:/ / www. mediastatements. wa. gov. au/ Lists/ Statements/ DispForm. aspx?ID=124104) Government Media Office - Ministerial Media Statements, accessed: 25 June 2009 [10] Accident Investigation Report: B/921/1036 (http:/ / www. atsb. gov. au/ publications/ investigation_reports/ 1992/ AAIR/ pdf/ aair199203840_001. pdf). Department of Transport and Communications - Bureau of Air Safety Investigation. [11] Newman, WA: Police Aircraft Crash (http:/ / www. ema. gov. au/ ema/ emadisasters. nsf/ 0/ ff2b116359487164ca256d330005aea8?OpenDocument). Australian Government - Attorney General's Department. September 13, 2006. [12] ATSB releases report on fatal aircraft crash near Newman, WA (http:/ / www. atsb. gov. au/ newsroom/ 2002/ speech/ speech002. aspx). Australian Government - Australian Transport Safety Bureau. October 23, 2002. [13] Police Act (1892) (http:/ / www. slp. wa. gov. au/ statutes/ swans. nsf/ PDFbyName/ DF1D05BF16460A87482565DC00083C63?openDocument) [14] W.A. Criminal Code (http:/ / www. slp. wa. gov. au/ statutes/ swans. nsf/ PDFbyName/ 33020351352A05ED4825673600082D53?openDocument) [15] Australia's National Anti-Terrorism Plan (http:/ / www. nationalsecurity. gov. au/ agd/ WWW/ rwpattach. nsf/ VAP/ (5738DF09EBC4B7EAE52BF217B46ED3DA)~NCTP_Sept_2005. pdf/ $file/ NCTP_Sept_2005. pdf) [16] W.A. Police recruitment information site (http:/ / www. stepforward. wa. gov. au/ trg. php) [17] ibid. (http:/ / www. stepforward. wa. gov. au/ trg. php) [18] http:/ / www. police. wa. gov. au/ Aboutus/ AnnualReport/ tabid/ 935/ Default. aspx [19] http:/ / www. parliament. wa. gov. au/ Parliament%5Ccommit. nsf/ (Report+ Lookup+ by+ Com+ ID)/ CC85C5333638220148256674000551B4/ $file/ po007. pdf [20] http:/ / www. police. wa. gov. au/ [21] http:/ / www. wa. crimestoppers. com. au/ [22] http:/ / www. nhw. wa. gov. au/ [23] http:/ / www. crimeprevention. wa. gov. au/ [24] http:/ / www. burglarbeware. wa. gov. a/

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Austria
EKO Cobra
EKO Cobra

Patch of EKO Cobra Active Country Branch Type Role Size 1972 - Present Austria Austrian Federal Police Special Forces Domestic Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism 450 operatives

Garrison/HQ Wiener Neustadt, Austria Nickname As Gendarmerieeinsatzkommando: GEK As Einsatzkommando Cobra: EKO

Engagements OPEC Hostage Crisis

EKO Cobra (Einsatzkommando Cobra) is the Counter-Terrorism unit of the Austrian Federal Police.[1] [2] [3]

History
The Einsatzkommando Cobra, formerly known as GEK (Gendarmerieeinsatzkommando) was formed in 1972, primarily to protect Jewish immigrants who were using Austria as a throughroute to Israel from attack by Palestinian militant groups, and as a response to the attack on Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics. Its main office is in Wiener Neustadt, with sub-offices in Graz and Linz and Innsbruck. It is directly subordinate to the Federal Ministry of Interior. The Federal Ministry of Interior changed the unit's name from GEK to EKO Cobra in 2002. Cobra was the internal code name for this Special Operations unit, influenced by the TV-Show Mission: Impossible (German: Cobra, übernehmen Sie!), and now it has become part of the official name. The 450 men (1 woman) of EKO Cobra are a well trained Counter-Terrorist commando unit, and have trained with some of the the most elite special forces units.

EKO Cobra

87

Known Operations
EKO Cobra was involved in trying to end the OPEC siege led by Carlos (the Jackal) in 1975, a hostage rescue in the Graz-Karlau Prison in 1996, and numerous other operations. Although it has never participated in the same type of hostage rescues that GIGN, → GIS, → GSG 9 and the SAS have , the EKO Cobra is the only Counter-Terrorism unit to end a hijacking while the plane was still in the air: On October 17, 1996, 4 Cobra officers were on board an Aeroflot Tupolev 154 escorting deported prisoners to Lagos when a Nigerian man threatened the cockpit crew with a knife and demanded a diversion to Germany or South Africa. The team overcame the man and handed him to the authorities after landing. The officers received a decoration by Russian President Putin.

Weapons
EKO Cobra is armed mainly with Austrian-produced weaponry. For example, in line with other Austrian executive bodies, they are equipped with the Steyr AUG (mil. StG77) assault rifle and the Glock 17 9mm pistol. Their sniper rifle of choice is the Steyr SSG 69 (SD). Depending on the situation, they also use the 9mm Steyr TMP machine pistol (another Austrian weapon), the Franchi SPAS 12, the Heckler & Koch M512, the Remington 870, the Heckler & Koch MP5 A3, the Heckler & Koch MP7, the Glock 18 or the Heckler & Koch MZP-1 40 mm.

WEGA
Austria's capital city, Vienna, has its own counter-terrorist SWAT team, called WEGA (Wiener Einsatzgruppe Alarmabteilung; in English: Vienna Operation Group Alarmdepartment) which is equally trained and capable of handling serious situations such as hostage taking.[1]

External links
• (German) Official website [4] • (German) Unofficial website [5] • ShadowSpear.com Special Operations [6]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. specialoperations. com/ Foreign/ Austria/ Default. html http:/ / www. specwarnet. net/ europe/ gek. htm http:/ / mycountryonline. com/ about/ GEK. htm http:/ / www. bmi. gv. at/ cobra/ http:/ / www. doppeladler. com/ misc/ cobra. htm http:/ / www. shadowspear. com

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Bangladesh
SWAT (Bangladesh)
Special Weapons And Tactics (Bangladesh) Active Type Role Part of 15 January 2009–Present Special Operations Domestic Counter-Terrorism and → Law Enforcement Under direct command of DMP Commissioner

SWAT (Special Weapons And Tactics) is an elite tactical unit of the Dhaka Metropolitan Police, Bangladesh. They operate under the Detective Branch of DMP. Eventually, the newly formed DMP unit SWAT is going to be expanded outwards forming one or more battalions. The force would remain as a part of the police force. There are 44 members currently in the team. And posted in Dhaka, but they can be called up for any emergency to anywhere. [1] The SWAT will go for action whenever existing law enforcing agencies even the elite force Rapid Action Battalion (RAB) would fail to deal with the criminal groups or any criminal. The members of this team equipped with sophisticated weapons will act as 'quick response' and conduct 'risky' operations in Dhaka City and even outside if requires. This is a special wing of the Detective Branch, will work under direct control of the Dhaka Metropolitan Police Commissioner. [2] The team will be more powerful than the Rapid Action Battalion (RAB),[3] especially since "This new force has been created especially to recover illegal arms and arrest the hardcore terrorists," said the DMP Commissioner Nayeem Ahmed.[3]

Duties
• • • • • • • • • • • • Hostage rescue. Crime suppression. Perimeter anti-sniper security for VIPs. Providing superior assault firepower in certain high-risk situations. Rescuing officers and citizens captured or endangered by gunfire. Countering urban terrorist operations. Resolve high-risk situations with a minimum loss of life, injury or property damage. Resolve situations involving barricaded subjects, (specifically covered by a Hostage Barricade Team). Stabilise situations involving high-risk suicidal subjects. Provide assistance during drug raids, and serving high-risk arrest and search warrants. Provide additional security at special events. Stabilising dangerous situations by dealing with violent criminals (such as serial killers or heavily-armed gangsters ). [1]

SWAT (Bangladesh)

89

Operations
The SWAT was established on February 28, 2009 and was supposed to be deployed in Dhaka on March 1 of that year. [4] However the SWAT was operational before that date and seized the hosted service company Aktel, which was illegaly providing service to five VoIP carriers. There were arrests and the equipment was confiscated as VoIP is banned in Bangladesh. [5] They were also deployed for security during the Bangladeshi general election, 2008 and at Shaheed Minar during celebrations for International Mother Language Day. Countering the rising car thefts in Dhaka is an immediate and top priority. plans to reinforce security at hotels around the nation.[6]
[3]

The Dhaka Metropolitan Police also

Training
SWAT applicants undergo rigorous selection and training, similar to the training some special operations units in the military receive. Applicants must pass stringent physical agility, written, oral, and psychological testing to ensure they are not only fit enough but also psychologically suited for tactical operations. Applicants must successfully pass a stringent background investigation and job performance review. Emphasis is placed on physical fitness so an officer will be able to withstand the rigors of tactical operations. Operatives are trained in marksmanship for the development of accurate shooting skills, although the use of firearms is considered a last resort in law enforcement. Other training that could be given to potential members includes training in explosives, sniper-training, defensive tactics, first-aid, negotiation, handling K9 units, abseiling (rappelling) and roping techniques and the use of specialized weapons and equipment. They may also be trained specifically in the handling and use of special ammunition such as bean bags, flash bang grenades, tasers, and the use of crowd control methods, and special less-lethal munitions. Basic training was conducted in Dhaka and Tangail districts. Afterwards SWAT members are sent to the Blackwater Training Academy, North Carolina, United States for six weeks advanced training. Three US agencies such as the FBI, US Police SWAT and US Army provided training locally also. In addition DMP SWAT has trained with a South Korean counter-terrorist unit too.[1]

Weapons
• • • • • Precision Arms Sniper Rifle (.308 cal) M4 Carbines MP5 submachine guns Remington 870 shotguns Glock 17 pistols

and other typical weapons associated with Western SWAT teams. [1] Behind this team, the funding comes from the United States of America.

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Vehicles
Usually SWAT members are transported by soft skin Toyota Hilux utility vehicles. Command vehicles and APCs are also used during operations. There are plans to procure Humvees as well. Even Police helicopters are to be used for their operations. [1]

References
[1] " Dhaka Metropolitan Police SWAT - Overview (http:/ / www. bdmilitary. com/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=275& Itemid=132)". bdmilitary. . Retrieved 22 February 2009. [2] " US experts train SWAT men to fight hardcore criminals (http:/ / www. thedailystar. net/ story. php?nid=23933)". The Daily Star. . Retrieved 22 February 2009. [3] " US-trained SWAT more powerful than RAB underway (http:/ / nation. ittefaq. com/ issues/ 2008/ 02/ 18/ news0867. htm)". The New Nation. . Retrieved 22 February 2009. [4] " The Specialised Weapon and Tactics (SWAT) to launch special drive form March 1 (http:/ / www. newstoday-bd. com/ frontpage. asp?newsdate=#10950)". The News Today. . Retrieved 22 February 2009. [5] " SWAT Team shuts Bangladeshi VoIP providers (http:/ / www. fiercevoip. com/ story/ swat-team-shuts-bangladeshi-voip-providers/ 2007-04-05)". fiercevoip. . Retrieved 22 February 2009. [6] " DMP plans watch on hotels, tactic team to curb crimes (http:/ / www. newagebd. com/ 2008/ mar/ 17/ nat. html#1)". New Age. . Retrieved 22 February 2009.

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Belgium
Federal Police Special Units
The Directorate of Special Units (DSU) is the Belgian Federal Police's Counter-Terrorism unit. The DSU is deployed in cases of terrorism, kidnappings, hostage taking and other forms of serious crime. In major terrorist operations outside the country, the DSU would be replaced by the Belgian Army Special Forces Group. The Federal Police's website says the DSU has a total of 430 personnel. As the unit's commander, Eric Liévin, said, "a criminal dealing with the DSU, has a better chance of surviving than another; they try to use a minimal level of violence/force, and yet try to attain a maximum level of efficiency."[1]. The DSU consists of an intervention unit, observation unit and a DSU logo, featuring Diana. technical unit all stationed in the Police caserne in Etterbeek, also the home of the Police Cavalry units and part of the general reserve. The unit believed to employ about 50 officers, all of which have a background as a sharpshooter. Overall control of the DSU lies with the Ministry of Internal Affairs, but depending on circumstances the unit can be deployed under operational control of the Ministry of Justice. Prior to 1994 the unit was commanded by the Ministry of Defense. Weapons in use include, among others, Glock 17 9mm pistols, Heckler & Koch MP5 9mm submachineguns, FN P90 5.7mm submachineguns, Remington 870 12 gauge shotguns, Accuracy International Arctic Warfare and Sako TRG-21 7.62mm sniper rifles, Heckler & Koch HK69 40mm grenade launcher and FN 303 less lethal launcher. Two more specialised units also exist, one team has six trained police dogs for detecting the presence of explosive materials or ammunition, the other one is the Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) team, which was created in 1978 after the Los Alfaques Disaster. Four decentralized DSU teams exist in Antwerp, Ghent, Charleroi and Liege; the so-called POSA (Protection, Observation, Support, Apprehension) units.

History
The original DSU was created in the aftermath of the Munich massacre and was called Diane, and the DSU is still commonly referred as groep Diane. In 1974 the name was changed from Diane to SIE (also outside of Belgium, Dutch: Speciaal Interventie Eskadron) or ESI (French: Esquadron Spécial d'Intervention, also known as Groupe Interforces Antiterroriste). In 2001, the DSU was created.

External links
• Belgian Federal Police [2]

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References
[1] http:/ / www. specialoperations. com/ Foreign/ Belgium/ SIE/ [2] http:/ / www. polfed-fedpol. be

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Brazil
BOPE
Batalhão de Operações Policiais Especiais

"Faca na Caveira" (Portuguese for "Knife In The Skull"), BOPE logo and motto Active Country Type Role Size 1978 - Present Brazil Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement Urban warfare, Law Enforcement, Operations in favelas (slums) (Counter-Terrorism) Around 400

Garrison/HQ Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Nickname Colors Mascot BOPE Black "Faca na Caveira" ("Knife In The Skull") Commanders Current commander Colonel Alberto Pinheiro Neto

BOPE (Batalhão de Operações Policiais Especiais, Portuguese for Special Police Operations Battalion) is the elite special forces unit in the Military Police of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Due to the nature of crime in favelas, BOPE units have extensive experience in urban warfare as well as progression in confined and restricted environments. It also utilizes equipment deemed more powerful than traditional civilian law enforcement. Currently serving with 400 soldiers, BOPE is believed to be one of the most violent military forces in Latin America.[1] [2]

History and origins
The origins of BOPE date back to 19 January 1978 when Núcleo da Companha de Operações Especiais (Special Operations Company Nucleus or NuCOE) was formed and placed under the command of the chief of staff for the state's military police. In 1982 the company was moved to the Batalhão de Polícia de Choque, thus becoming part of that unit. Its name was changed again to Companhia de Operações Especiais (Special Operations Company, or COE). In 1984 the name was changed once again to NuCOE and was, again, under the command of the chief of staff. In 1988, the Companhia Independente de Operações Especiais – (Special Operations Independent Company, or CIOE) was created, with its jurisdiction spanning all over the State of Rio de Janeiro. It became BOPE on 01 March 1991.

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Significant Roles
• Break barricades constructed by drug traffickers • Shoot to kill at criminals threatening human life • Exterminate drug ghettos as well as its gangs • Extract police officers or civilians injured in confrontations • Serve high-risk arrest warrants • Hostage rescue • Suppress prison riots • Support civil police in combat • Special missions in swamps or mountainous terrains such as reconnaissance, planning and infiltration • Engage in combat serving state sovereignty

BOPE operators.

Weapons and vehicles
The force has a fleet of Armoured fighting vehicles, which are known as "Pacificador" ("Peacemaker"), or "Caveirão" ("Big Skull")[3] . These vehicles are used in operations in the slums (favelas) where BOPE faces intense conflicts with drug dealers, they are heavily equipped with .30 Carbines. BOPE soldiers are equipped with heavy armament: • M16 rifle A2 • M4 carbine A1 • M1 carbine • H&K PSG1 sniper rifle • Benelli M3 shotgun • FN P90[4] • IMBEL MD2 • H&K MP5 A2 and K • H&K G3 • H&K 21 • Taurus PT92 • IMBEL 9mm • C-4 explosives • Frag grenades • FN FAL • Knife
AR15 is the main BOPE weapon (here in the form of a M4)

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Tropa de Elite
In 2006, the book Elite da Tropa was published. Written by sociologist Luiz Eduardo Soares and two BOPE officers, Major André Batista and Captain Rodrigo Pimentel, it provides a semi-fictional account of the daily routine of BOPE as well as some historical events, based on the experiences of the latter two. It describes BOPE as a "killing machine" and details an alleged aborted assassination attempt by some police officers on then-governor Leonel Brizola. The book was controversial at the time of release, and reportedly resulted in Batista being reprimanded and censured by the Military Police. [5] The book has been made into a movie, Tropa de Elite (Elite Squad), directed by José Padilha (the director of Bus 174), with a screenplay by Academy Award-nominated screenwriter Bráulio Mantovani.

Criticism
In 2004, the Project on Extrajudicial Executions at New York University School of Law reported that BOPE had been implicated in the killing of four youths under the false pretense of their being drug traffickers who resisted arrest.[6] According to Amnesty International, "Brazil's police forces use violent and repressive methods that consistently violate the human rights of a large part of the population," and attribute a number of civilian deaths to BOPE in particular.[7] In March 2006, Amnesty specifically condemned the use of the Caveirão. It stated that deploying the vehicle aggressively, indiscriminately targeting whole communities, highlighted the ineffectiveness of excessive use of force.[8]

See also
• • • • • • • • • • Brazilian Military Police Military of Brazil → GATE (Brazil) → SWAT (U.S.A) UIM (The Netherlands) → GSG 9 (Germany) GIGN (France) GOE (Portugal) Joint Task Force 2 (Canada) Agrupación de Fuerzas Especiales Antiterroristas Urbanas (Colombia)

External links
• • • • • • • • • BOPE official website, in Portuguese [9] Military Police of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil [10] Official web site, in Portuguese http://www.diariodeumpm.net/ http://g1.globo.com/Noticias/Rio/0,,MUL12558-5606,00.html http://aledesousa.multiply.com/tag/caveirao http://www.viaseg.com.br/artigo_vinicius_viatura_blindada.htm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NdRGSeGvYCk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N1H8RGgn5RE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FGIUETq9-SM

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References
[1] http:/ / www. observatoriodaimprensa. com. br/ artigos. asp?cod=456CID004 [2] http:/ / www. radioagencianp. com. br/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=3314& Itemid=43 [3] " Campanha Contra o "Caveirão" (http:/ / www. global. org. br/ portuguese/ campanhacontracaveirao. html)". Justiça Global. . Retrieved 2008-09-19. [4] Lasterra, Juan Pablo (2008). "La Police Militaire Brésillienne en état de Guerre" (in Spanish). Police Pro No. 11 (September 2008). [5] Mario Hugo Monken (2006-04-29). " Livro sobre elite da PM do Rio causou punição, diz autor (http:/ / www1. folha. uol. com. br/ folha/ cotidiano/ ult95u120946. shtml)". Folha de S. Paulo. . Retrieved 2007-09-05. [6] " Human Rights in Brazil (http:/ / www. extrajudicialexecutions. org/ communications/ brazil. html)". Center for Human Rights and Global Justices, New York University School of Law. . Retrieved 2008-09-19. "BOPE officers falsified the crime scene to incriminate the victims in an attempt to make them seem like members of a drug trafficking gang. No weapons were found with the victims and none of them had a history of criminal activity." [7] " They come in shooting": Policing socially excluded communities (http:/ / web. amnesty. org/ library/ Index/ ENGAMR190252005)". Amnesty International. 2005-12-02. . Retrieved 2008-09-19. [8] " Brazil: Caveirão -- Rio’s real “bogeyman” (http:/ / web. amnesty. org/ library/ Index/ ENGAMR190092006)". Amnesty International. 2006-03-13. . Retrieved 2008-09-19. "“The caveirão has become a powerful symbol of the failings of public security policies in Rio de Janeiro. It typifies the police’s confrontational and divisive approach to Rio’s public security crisis,” said Marcelo Freixo of Global Justice at the launch of a campaign against the use of the caveirão in Brazil’s favelas." [9] http:/ / www. boperj. org/ [10] http:/ / www. policiamilitar. rj. gov. br

Grupo de Ações Táticas Especiais
GATE is a special force of São Paulo military police. Tactical force, their mission is rescue hostages and disarming bombs.

Weapons
Various types of weapons used by GATE: • • • • • • • IMBEL MD97- Assault Rifle Taurus PT92 - Pistol PSG1 - Sniper Rifle HK MP5A3 - Submachine gun M4 - Assault Rifle M16 rifle - Assault Rifle Benelli M3 - shotgun
GATE operation.

C-4 (explosive) - explosive

Curiosity
The statistics of the team prove their capacity as one of the best in the world.( in 197 cases only 2 hostages died).

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Canada
Correctional Service Canada
Correctional Service of Canada Service correctionel Canada
Common name Abbreviation Corrections Canada CSC/SCC

Uniform Shoulder Patch of CSC Officers

Crest of the CSC

Motto

Futura Recipere "To Grasp the Future" Agency overview

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December 21, 1978
• •

Formed Preceding agencies Employees Legal personality

Canada Penitentiary Service (CPS) National Parole Service

10,000+ (2006) Governmental: Government agency Jurisdictional structure

Federal agency Governing body Constituting instrument General nature

Canada Public Safety Canada Corrections and Conditional Release Act
• • [1]

Federal law enforcement Civilian agency Operational structure

Elected officer responsible Agency executive Regions

Peter Van Loan, Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Don Head, Commissioner

Website www.csc-scc.gc.ca
[2]

The Correctional Service of Canada (French: Service correctionnel du Canada), or CSC, is a Canadian government agency responsible for the incarceration and rehabilitation of convicted criminal offenders. The Correctional Service of Canada came into being on December 21, 1978, when Queen Elizabeth II signed authorization for the newly commissioned agency and presented it with its Coat of Arms. The Commissioner of the Correctional Service of Canada is recommended for appointment by the Prime Minister and approved by an Order-in-Council. This appointed position reports directly to the Minister of Public Safety Canada and is accountable to the public via the Parliament. The current Commissioner of the Correctional Service of Canada is Don Head, who held this post since June 27, 2008 and previously served as Senior Deputy Commissioner from 2002 until June 2008.

Mission statement
"The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC), as part of the criminal justice system and respecting the rule of law, contributes to public safety by actively encouraging and assisting offenders to become law-abiding citizens, while exercising reasonable, safe, secure and humane control."[3]

Legislative jurisdiction
The operation of the CSC is governed by federal statute under the Corrections and Conditional Release Act and Corrections and Conditional Release Regulations. In addition, the statute provides for discretion under the directive of the Commissioner. However, all Commissioner's Directives must remain within the parameters of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Corrections and Conditional Release Act. The Correctional Service of Canada only has jurisdiction over offenders in Canada for court-imposed sentences greater than 24 months (two years).

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International treaties applying to CSC operations
• • • • • • • United Nations Charter Universal Declaration of Human Rights Convention on the Rights of the Child International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhumane or Degrading Treatment or Punishment Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners

Court-imposed sentencing
There are two types of court-imposed sentences: 1. a determinate sentence; 2. an indeterminate sentence. A determinate sentence is a sentence with a completion date (example five years, seven months), called a "Warrant of Expiry". This date is court imposed, at which time the Correctional Service of Canada no longer has jurisdiction over the offender. An indeterminate sentence is a sentence that is commonly referred to as a "life sentence". The Correctional Service of Canada has jurisdiction over the offender until the offender passes away. Although the court does impose a minimum number of years before the offender can apply to the National Parole Board for conditional release. Thus, a court-imposed sentence of life with no parole for twenty-five years would indicate that the offender would be incarcerated for a minimum of twenty five years prior to consideration for a potential conditional release to the community, under the supervision of a community parole officer. As of 2006 the incarceration rate in Canada was 107 per 100,000 people; one seventh that of the United States'.[4]

Security classification of offenders
There are three levels of security within the Correctional Service of Canada. They include maximum, medium, and minimum. Case management is completed by institutional parole officers (PO's) within institutions, and by community parole officers in the community. The National Parole Board has the complete responsibility in making liberty decisions at the point in the court-imposed sentence where an offender is allowed to live in the community on conditional release. Once an offender is sentenced by a court to a sentence of two (2) years or more the offender comes under the jurisdiction of the Correctional Service of Canada. An institutional parole officer completes a comprehensive assessment of the offender's criminality and formulates an "offender security classification report" and a "correctional plan". It is this correctional plan that the offender will be assessed against for the entire court-imposed sentence. For offenders who receive a life sentence, there is a mandatory two year residency at a maximum security institution, regardless of the offender's behaviour.

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Employees
Most personnel are plain clothed including, Parole Officers, Program Facilitators, Psychologists, Staff Training Officers, Assessment and Intervention Managers, Security Intelligence Officers, Assistant/Deputy Wardens, and the Institutional Head, called the "Warden". Each Region of Canada has a "Deputy Commissioner" who reports directly to the Commissioner of the Correctional Service of Canada, who is based in the National Capital Region (Ottawa, Ontario).

Obsolete shoulder patch

Employees working at federal penitentiaries are designated as federal Peace Officers under Section 10 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act[5].

Uniformed officers
A Correctional Officer is an employee of the Public Service of Canada. All CSC Correctional Officers are uniformed and are designated as federal Peace Officers under Section 10 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act[5]. The rank structure in CSC begins at entry as a Correctional Officer I, otherwise known as COI. These officers are responsible for security functions at the institution including patrol, security posts, and escorts. A Correctional Officer II, or COII, is typically assigned to positions requiring a more senior officer including living units, communications, or visits. Correctional Officers who are specifically designated for Federally Sentenced Women (FSW) are called Primary Workers and have an entry rank of COII. Once officers move into a supervisory role, which starts at Staff Training Facilitator, the uniform shirt color is changed from navy blue to light blue. The Correctional Manager, or CM, is the Institutional Supervisor, and historically had been referred to as the "Keeper of the Keys", or in short the "keeper". All rank insignia is worn as shoulder epaulettes attached to the shoulder straps of the uniform as either the word "RECRUIT" for officer recruits currently in training, or as 1, 2, 3, or 4 gold bars. Uniformed Correctional Officers employed by CSC are unionized with and supported by the Union of Canadian Correctional Officers (UCCO). Grievances filed in relation to potential breaches of the union contract have three appeals. The first level grievance is within the institution, the second level at the regional headquarters, and the third being the national headquarters. If resolution with the management, at the lowest level does not transpire, then some issues may be sent forward to the Public Service Labour Relations Board. The decision of the Board is then legally enforcable and binding on both parties, as it is with all other government departments.

Correctional Officer I

Correctional Officer II

Institutional Emergency Response Team

Staff Training Facilitator

Similar to those of Canadian police forces including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the CSC has formed Emergency Response Teams to support existing security functions. The IERT will respond to situations that require or may require a use of force or a special tactical response. These teams can be established across an entire region or within a single institution, depending on the size. See also → Correctional Emergency Response Team

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CSC institutions
Atlantic • • • • Nova Institution for Women Atlantic Institution Dorchester Penitentiary Springhill Institution

Correctional Manager

Officer Recruit

• Westmorland Institution Quebec • • • • • • • • • • • • Archambault Institution Cowansville Institution Donnacona Institution Drummond Institution Federal Training Centre Joliette Institution La Macaza Institution Leclerc Institution Montée St.-François Institution Port-Cartier Institution Regional Reception Centre Sainte-Anne-des-Plaines Institution

Ontario • • • • • • • • • • • • Grand Valley Institution for Women Bath Institution Beaver Creek Institution Collins Bay Institution Fenbrook Institution Frontenac Institution Isabel McNeil House Joyceville Institution Kingston Penitentiary Millhaven Institution Pittsburgh Institution Regional Treatment Centre

Correctional Service Canada • Warkworth Institution • Prison for Women Prairies • • • • • • • • • • • • • Edmonton Institution for Women Bowden Institution Drumheller Institution Edmonton Institution Grande Cache Institution Grierson Centre Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge Pê Sâkâstêw Regional Psychiatric Centre Riverbend Institution Rockwood Institution Stony Mountain Institution Saskatchewan Federal Penitentiary

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Pacific • • • • • • • • • Fraser Valley Institution for Women Ferndale Institution Kent Institution Kwìkwèxwelhp Healing Lodge Matsqui Institution Mission Institution Mountain Institution Regional Health Centre William Head Institution

Citizens' Advisory Committees
Under section 7 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Regulations and further by Commissioner's Directives CD 023[6] , each institution and parole office must established a Citizens' Advisory Committee (CAC) who are mandated to "contribute to the public safety by actively interacting with staff of the Correctional Service of Canada, the public and offenders, providing impartial advice and recommendations, thereby contributing to the quality of the correctional process." [7] Each institution and parole office forms the 'local committee' for which the CSC consult with on matters regarding correctional operations, programs, policies, and plans. They in turn participates in the regional committee (Atlantic, Quebec, Ontario, Prairies and Pacific) to coordinate initiatives for the region. Finally, the National Executive Committee is made up of the five CAC Regional Chairpersons as well as by the National Chairperson who are responsible for liaison between the committes and the CSC HQ, monitor and review all policies or actions of the CSC at the local, regional and national levels and adopts cohesive stragety for all committees.[8] All CAC members have, by law, the authority to have reasonable access to every part of the institution/parole office they are attached to, talk with all the staff and offenders or parolee within the organization and access to hearings (if the offender consents).[9] These authorities are given to members once they have their application approved and security clearance approved by CSC National Headquarters.

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Year of the Veteran participation
In 2005, the Department of Veterans Affairs had the year designated the Year of the Veteran. At Kent Maximum Security Institution Officer Shane Firlotte submitted a proposal for all Correctional Officers who were also veterans, to be able to wear the Year of the Veteran pin on their uniforms. The Commissioner of Corrections, with the support of the Chief of the Defence Staff, authorized the wearing of the pin, via a national memorandum to all staff, on the left breast pocket until December 31, 2005. This being in recognition of veterans continued service to the Public Service of Canada.

Criticism and controversy
In 2003, the CSC was criticized for its policies for reportedly releasing certain prisoners on a quota system. Scott Newark, a former prosecutor and executive director to the Canadian Police Association, who is now special counsel to the Ontario Attorney General's Office for Victims of Crime, stated that the Correctional Service of Canada is out of control and that "I think Canadians have good reason to be outraged."[10] Newmark stated that there is a big push in Correctional Services to get more offenders out of penitentiaries and onto the street in what is called "The Reintegration Project." Although this policy is cheaper than keeping convicts imprisoned, Newark's office contends convicts are being shoved out the door to meet a release quota. Newark stated that he had obtains documents to prove this, including memos, minutes, and confidential Corrections correspondence, and an internal memorandum talk about setting a "goal of a 50/50 split of offenders between institutions and the community."[10] Lawrence MacAulay, who was the Solicitor General in charge of the CSC when the documents were written, denied that there were any quotas, stating that: "There are no quotas. There never was... If anybody has the idea of a quota, they forgot to check with the minister." However, shortly after this interview, MacAulay resigned and Wayne Easter took over as solicitor general.[10] An internal Corrections audit reported that parole officers are overwhelmed. A senior union official said some parole officers, especially in cities, have caseloads of 40 or more instead of the recommended 18, and as a result, they are unable to do all of the crucial collateral checks in the community, such as talking to employers, landlords, neighbours and other family members.[10] Police officers have also complained that when parole violators are apprehended, they are often immediately re-released back on parole. Officer Greg Sullivan, who is part of a team that tracks down parole violators, criticized the CSC, stating that "It gets really frustrating especially when you see violent offenders who are out several times over and we've gone after them two and three times in an eight- month period."[10]

See also
• Provincial correctional services in Canada

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / laws. justice. gc. ca/ en/ showtdm/ cs/ C-44. 6/ / / en http:/ / www. csc-scc. gc. ca/ http:/ / www. csc-scc. gc. ca/ text/ organi/ organe01_e. shtml " Fact Sheet Research from the National Council on Crime and Deliquency (http:/ / www. nccd-crc. org/ nccd/ pubs/ 2006nov_factsheet_incarceration. pdf)" (PDF). The National Council on Crime and Delinquency. . Retrieved 2008-06-18. [5] http:/ / laws. justice. gc. ca/ en/ C-44. 6/ 230765. html#rid-230776 [6] Commissioner's Directive (http:/ / www. csc-scc. gc. ca/ text/ plcy/ cdshtm/ 023-cde-eng. shtml) [7] The CAC Mission (http:/ / www. csc-scc. gc. ca/ text/ cac/ mission-eng. shtml) [8] The CAC System (http:/ / www. csc-scc. gc. ca/ text/ cac/ resrces/ rm/ 2-eng. shtml) [9] CCRR (http:/ / laws. justice. gc. ca/ en/ showdoc/ cr/ SOR-92-620/ bo-ga:l_I-gb:s_3/ / en#anchorbo-ga:l_I-gb:s_3)

Correctional Service Canada
[10] Easy Out: Catching those on the lam (http:/ / www. ctv. ca/ servlet/ ArticleNews/ story/ CTVNews/ 1036533023878_6/ ?hub=WFive), CTV News, Apr. 22 2003.(retrieved on August 15, 2008)

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7 .Joly de Lotbiniere, Edmond. Administrative Secretary to the Governor General. Letter from Government House, Rideau Hall. To: Blais, Jean-Jacques, Solicitor General of Canada. April 20th.

External links
• Correctional Service Canada Official Website (http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/)

MIERT
The Municipal Integrated Emergency Response Team, or MIERT, is an → emergency response unit formed as a joint venture of → police agencies in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. It was formed in 2006 and is composed of members of the Delta Police Department, the Abbotsford Police Department, the New Westminster Police Service, and the Port Moody Police Department.

See also
• List of law enforcement agencies in British Columbia • → Emergency management • Emergency Response Team

References
Delta Police MIERT Site [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. deltapolice. ca/ miert/ index. php

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Emergency Response Team (RCMP)
The Emergency Response Team (ERT) (French: Groupe tactique d'intervention) is the paramilitary tactical → police arm of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

Purpose and history of the ERT
The ERT assumed the tactical role held by the disbanded Special Emergency Response Team in 1993 to provide tactical response within Canada. The ERT is called in to deal with situations that are beyond the abilities of regular police personnel. Situations they are called in to deal with include: • • • • Serious Crime arrest warrants Hostage rescue Armed barricaded subjects Protective duties

The ERT dates back to 1976; prior to this, a Hostage and Rescue Patrol (HARP) team was called in to deal with like situations, though its duties mainly ended at the containment of the incident. In order to apply to be an ERT member, the potential candidate must meet the following criteria: 1. Have a minimum of two (2) years of operational policing experience; 2. Attained a minimum score of 225 in his / her most recent PPC qualification; 3. Must be in good physical condition. Prior to attending the ERT course, the applicant must undergo a standardized selection process with the ERT in his / her area which includes shooting and physical testing. The candidate will receive familiarization training on the MP5 and M16 firearms, in addition to additional pistol training. The current minimum physical standard is the following: * * * * * 1.5 mile run in under 11 minutes; 40 consecutive and uninterrupted pushups; 40 sit-ups in one minute; 5 wide-grip lat pull-ups; Bench press 135 lbs.

This physical standard will soon be replaced with a timed obstacle course effective April 1st, 2009. A psychological evaluation must also be completed before a member can attend the ERT course. Some of the requirements in this regard include not having phobias of water, heights or confined spaces.

Equipment
• • • • • • SIG-Sauer P226 handgun  Switzerland, more and more replaced by Glock 17 and Glock 19 Smith & Wesson 5946 handgun  United States Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine gun  Germany Colt Canada C8 carbine  Canada Remington 700 sniper rifle  United States Remington 870 shotgun  United States

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Roles in the ERT
The roles of the ERT members are:

Assaulter
Assaulters are the general members of the team. They must be trained to use handguns, submachine guns, and rifles. They also learn • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Close-quarter shooting Use of specialized breaching tools Diversion devices Explosive entry tactics Aircraft and tubular assault High-risk vehicle assault, dynamic and stealth Building assault High-risk operational planning: immediate action, stronghold, open-air, ambush Bush training Camouflage Stealth movement Dynamic entry Chemical weapons Communications

Sniper/Observer
One of the more specialized roles, a sniper/observer is especially skilled in field craft and marksmanship who will keep watch over the situation and neutralize a selected suspect with a single aimed rifle shot. In addition to assault skills, they learn: • • • • • • • • • • • Weapon safety Ballistics: weight, velocity, energy, trajectory Marksmanship: positioning, holding, pointing, aligning Position: prone, sitting, kneeling, standing, Weather / light conditions: sub-zero, snow, rain, wind, fog, cloud, heat, dawn, day, dusk, darkness Cover and concealment, movement without detection Target indication: arc and field of fire Distance judgment Image intensifiers Map and compass Communications

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Helicopter Rappel Master
The ERT Rappel Master acts as the communication link between the flight crew and operational units aboard the aircraft and on the ground. The rappel master is responsible for the safe, swift, and efficient deployment of the assault group using signals to direct movement. In addition to Assaulter Training, they learn: • • • • • • Ropecraft Rappel anchor system Fastrope Telecommunications Equipment assembly and installation Tactical deployment methods

ERT Joint Operations
Depending on the circumstances, ERTs work as a separate unit or in cooperation with other RCMP special operations units including Tactical Troops, Proceeds of Crime, Drug Enforcement, Police Dog Service Teams, and Protective Services. ERTs also assist Government of Canada departments, such as Canada Border Services Agency, and join forces and share resources with other Canadian law enforcement agencies in the fight against crime.

Other Agencies' ERT
Several other law enforcement agencies employ tactical teams known as an ERT. Examples are the Ontario Provincial Police, the Correctional Service of Canada, the Vancouver Police Department, among others. The Greater Vancouver area in British Columbia, Canada, employs a Municipal Integrated Emergency Response Team. Both Nishnawbe Aski Police Service and Treaty Three Police Service are developing their own Emergency Response Teams.

See also
• • • • • • • → SWAT Royal Canadian Mounted Police → Emergency management → Emergency Task Force, Toronto Police Service Joint Task Force 2 (JTF2)  Canada → GSG 9 CO19

 Ontario

External links
• • • • • ERT Official Homepage [1] ERT Official Homepage [2] (French Version) Royal Canadian Mounted Police [3] Service de Police de la Ville de Montréal [4] Toronto Police ETF Homepage [5]

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References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. rcmp-grc. gc. ca/ ert-gti/ index-eng. htm http:/ / www. rcmp-grc. gc. ca/ ert-gti/ index-fra. htm http:/ / www. rcmp-grc. gc. ca/ http:/ / www. spvm. qc. ca/ fr/ http:/ / www. torontopolice. on. ca/ etf/

Emergency Task Force
The Emergency Task Force (ETF) is the tactical unit of the Toronto Police Service (TPS). It is mandated to deal with high risk situations like gun calls, hostage taking, barricaded persons, emotionally disturbed persons, high risk arrests and warrant service, and protection details. The unit was created in 1965, and inspired the television show Flashpoint. An earlier non-SWAT Riot and Emergency Squad emerged in 1961.[1] Part of its role is now undertaken by the ETF, Public Safety and Emergency Management and the Mounted Unit. Unlike most SWAT teams, the ETF is not a pure paramilitary unit. The ETF mission profile includes terrorism threats, which are also handled by Joint Task Force 2.

Three ETF officers

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Organization
The three officers pictured make up the unit's administrative support section. Their main responsibilities include budget and personnel oversight. Though they wear the grey ETF uniform they are not qualified as tactical officers. The Emergency Task Force currently comprises 82 officers from all units who are tactically trained. There are seven Special Weapons Teams consisting of 10 officers each. The teams are on-call 24 hours a day, every day of the week. Each tactical team has a team leader, assaulters, snipers, bomb technicians, and a negotiator. All team members are trained as assaulters, and thus are able to perform any necessary tasks requiring force. The unit is located in Toronto's Don Mills neighbourhood, in a 35000-square-foot (3300 m2) building that was built in 1989. It contains: • • • • • meeting rooms two shooting ranges a rappelling tower an exercise room a large garage to house the unit's specialized vehicles

Three of the TPS's specialized units comprise the ETF. These include the special weapons teams (tactical), explosive disposal unit (EDU), and the emergency response unit (ERU). The ERU provides specialized equipment for the ETF, including high powered lights, crane, and the mobile command post. The teams train at their Don Mills station, as well as at CFB Borden, a Canadian Forces (CF) base approximately 45 minutes north of Toronto. The unit also trains with members of the CF's anti-terrorism unit Joint Task Force 2 (JTF2), who are based at the Dwyer Hill Training Facility outside of Ottawa. In a medical situation, Toronto EMS tactical paramedics in body armour work along with the ETF. In order to better serve the city of Toronto, the ETF maintains a close working relationship with other police tactical teams of the Greater Toronto Area, including the York Regional Police Emergency Response Unit (ERU), the Durham Regional Police Tactical Support Unit (TSU) and the Peel Regional Police Tactical and Rescue Unit (TRU).

Equipment
The ETF use the MP5A3 9 mm submachine gun, Remington 700 bolt-action sniper rifle, Remington 870 shotgun, and the Diemaco C8 carbine. Less than lethal options are also at the disposal of team members: these include the X26 Tasers, pepper spray (OC Spray) and Tear Gas (CS Gas) and Rubber Bullets or bean bag rounds. ETF also operates Northrop Grumman Remotec Andros MK V1A bomb disposal remote robots to defuse suspected bombs or suspicious objects. The newest robot used by the team is the Remotec Andros F6B. The vehicles used by the team include the Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor and the Chevrolet Suburban. The ETF also have an armoured car which can be used to rescue injured civilians or officers. The current armoured car, an Armet Armored Vehicles "Balkan" was put into service during the summer of 2005.
An Emergency Task Force Chevrolet Suburban.

Emergency Task Force Currently, the Toronto Police Service does not have their own helicopter, but has access to the helicopters from York and Durham Regional Police, along with the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

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Operation highlights
ETF responded to an operation that involved rescuing a hostage-taking situation on August 25, 2004. A man with a history of domestic violence took a woman hostage, holding her at gunpoint during morning rush hour just outside Union Station in downtown Toronto. The incident ended when an ETF sharpshooter fired a shot, killing the man. The hostage was traumatized but unharmed.[2] [3] ETF responded to another operation that involved an off-duty 33 Division Officer inside a CIBC bank on Lawrence and Victoria Park. On February 26, 2008, ETF, K-9 and officers from 33 Division were called to a bank robbery in progress. Unknown to the 16-year-old suspect, officers surrounded the bank and waited for the suspect to exit. The suspect left the bank only to be tackled by the off-duty officer and awaiting ETF.[4]

Three ETF officers

ETF officers were involved with Project Fusion arrests. This was an investigation led by the Province of Ontario Guns and Gangs Task Force, whose officers were working hand-in-hand with other services, mainly the Durham Regional Police Drug and Gang Enforcement Units. These arrests happened on the morning of April 1, 2009 and saw over 120 locations raided by not only by Toronto Police tactical officers, but officers from surrounding police services as well from as far away as Belleville and London, Ontario. In total, 38 police tactical units were used for these warrants. The centre of the raids was at the area of Markham and Eglinton, but also included locations in Peel and York Region, along with several locations in Durham Region.

See also
• Royal Canadian Mounted Police → ERT • Canadian Forces Joint Task Force 2 • → SWAT

External links
• Emergency Task Force [5] • Documentary on the ETF [5]

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References
[1] (http:/ / www. torontopolice. on. ca/ publications/ files/ reports/ 1997annualreport/ building. html#emergency) [2] " Canadian Police Sniper Ends Hostage Situation With Head Shot (http:/ / www. officer. com/ article/ article. jsp?id=16429)". Associated Press. . Retrieved 2008-04-16. [3] " Toronto hostage-taker had history of domestic violence: reports (http:/ / www. cbc. ca/ canada/ story/ 2004/ 08/ 25/ hostage_union040825. html)". CBC. 2004-08-26. . Retrieved 2008-04-16. [4] Cherry, Tamara; Don Peat (2008-02-26). " Police foil east-end bank robbery (http:/ / www. torontosun. com/ News/ TorontoAndGTA/ 2008/ 02/ 26/ 4877596. html)". Toronto Sun. . Retrieved 2008-04-17. [5] http:/ / www. ctv. ca/ servlet/ ArticleNews/ story/ CTVNews/ 20061130/ wfive_noescape_061130/ 20061202?hub=WFive/

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China, People's Republic of
Snow Wolf Commando Unit
Snow Wolf Commando Unit (SWRU)

The arm patch of the SWRU Active Country Branch Type Role Size Part of Colors March December 2002 (existence only revealed in 2005) - Present People's Republic of China People's Armed Police Special Forces Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement No official figures, estimated at 300+ Special Armed Police Corps White With Blood Specs Goose Step

Engagements Conducted security operations in the 2008 Summer Olympics

The Snow Wolf Commando Unit (Abbreviation: SWRU; Simplified Chinese: 雪狼突击队) is a special police unit of the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.) tasked with counter-terrorism, riot control, and other special tasks such as anti-hijacking, and bomb disposal. The SWRU, along with the People's Armed Police Beijing SWAT unit, was tasked with many of the security responsibilities of the 2008 Summer Olympics.

History
The SWRU and the Beijing SWAT unit were unveiled in a demonstration at the Beijing Police Academy in April 27, 2006 as part of a public relations effort to illustrate the capabilities of the People's Armed Police to deal with terrorism issues, protection of delegates, and to enforce law and order in the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Due to the highly-classified nature of their operations, the unit did not display any of their high-tech equipment nor perform particularly special small-unit tactics during their demonstration, although they did co-participate with the SWAT team during that demonstration.

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Training and selection
Only officers who have served in the People's Armed Police for a period of 1 to 2 years are eligible to apply, after which they will be put through a process of interviews, physical and psychological tests. The current average age (as of 2006) of SWRU officers is 22 years, as most of them entered the unit when they were about 18, thus making them amongst the youngest in the counter-terrorist community. The officers who are eventually selected for the course go through an arduous period of physical training, vehicle driving lessons for various vehicles, and weapons training.

Origin of the name
The Snow Wolf name was chosen because of the known tenacity of arctic wolves and their ability to survive (and thrive) in extremely harsh conditions, which is expected of SWRU officers.

Weapons and equipment
The SWCU was shown in the demonstrations armed with the QBZ-95 series of rifles and QSZ-92 pistols, but they will most probably also be armed with a wide variety of sub-machine guns and other weapons. They may also employ other equipment typically associated with counter-terrorism.[1] The unit has spent about CNY 2 million (approximately US$ 258,000) in domestically manufactured armoured personnel carriers for riot-control and has also imported CNY 4 million worth of American manufactured vehicles and equipment[2]. Each SWCU officer is estimated to be outfitted with CNY 300,000 [3] (approximately US$ 39,000) worth of equipment, including their body armour, communications equipment, etc.

Uniform
The standard uniform layout has the arm patch sewn on the right arm, with the unit badge above the right breast pocket. The words "SPECIAL POLICE GRP" (Special Police Group) is embroidered on the right side of the tactical vest or body armour. It is interesting to note that this is a divergence from all the other P.R.C. uniformed units, which have their badges and patches embroidered on the left side of their uniforms instead.

References
• Xinhua Net (2006). Snow Wolf Commando Unit gears up for Beijing Games [4]. Accessed on 11 August, 2006. • 王秀宇 (2006). 《少年科学画报》 - 装备堪比欧美:中国雪狼突击队揭开神秘面纱 (Equipped to European and American Standards: China's Snow Wolf Commando Unit revealed) [5]. Accessed on 23 October, 2006 • 杨磊 (2006). 《21世纪经济报道》 - 直击北京奥运反恐训练:雪狼突击队秘密集训3年 (Counter-Terrorism at the Beijing Olympics: SWCU Trained in Secret for 3 Years) [6]. Accessed on 23 October, 2006

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External links
• Photo Gallery at Sina News.com [7] • CCTV-7 News Snippet [8]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / 2008. sohu. com/ 20080106/ n254486971. shtml http:/ / china-defense. blogspot. com/ 2006_04_01_china-defense_archive. html http:/ / finance. sina. com. cn/ xiaofei/ xfqqsh/ 20060810/ 09182808929. shtml http:/ / en. beijing2008. com/ 27/ 49/ article212034927. shtml http:/ / jczs. news. sina. com. cn/ p/ 2006-09-13/ 1559397837. html http:/ / news. sina. com. cn/ c/ 2006-08-10/ 100110685092. shtml http:/ / news. sina. com. cn/ c/ p/ 2006-04-28/ 17479744759. shtml http:/ / www. ku6. com/ view_video_18428_18741_1. htm

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Croatia
ATJ Lučko
ATJ Lučko (Croatian: Antiteroristička jedinica Lučko) is an elite Anti-Terrorist Unit of the Croatian Police stationed in Lučko near Zagreb, the capital of Croatia. The unit was established on September 7, 1990 and was the first Croatian fighting unit in the Croatian War of Independence. It was also the only fighting unit of Croatian forces at the time. During the course of the Croatian War of Independence, only 14 officers were killed and 52 wounded in the unit of 350 members. Famous MMA fighter Mirko 'Cro Cop' Filipović was a member of this unit for 6 years.
Members of unit

Equipment
• • • • • M4A1 SOPMOD MP5 G36C MP7 H&K UMP

External links
• Prvi Hrvatski Redarstvenik [1] (English) • Antiteroristička jedinica "Lučko" (Zagreb) - MUP-a RH [2] (Croatian) • FBI and ATJ Lučko cooperate; ATJ Lučko officers receive training in hostage negotiation from FBI agents [3]
(Croatian)

References
[1] http:/ / www. phrkkz. hr/ index. php?eng [2] http:/ / www. domovinskirat. hr/ content/ view/ 1945/ lang,hr/ [3] http:/ / www. ezadar. hr/ clanak/ u-atj-lucko-zavrsen-tecaj-fbi-a

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Denmark
Politiets Aktionsstyrke
Politiets Aktionsstyrke (AKS) is the special forces unit of the Danish police. AKS is a national → SWAT unit. It is meant to handle extraordinarily difficult or life-threatening criminal situations, such as terrorism, hostage situations, and kidnapping. It also deals with emergency rescue situations that would be too dangerous for others to handle. The AKS holds responsibility for all anti-terror and counter-terrorism missions in Denmark. It is known that AKS cross-trains with the army and navy elite-units Jægerkorpset and Frømandskorpset. AKS led the operation of clearing and evicting the anarchist and leftist groups from Ungdomshuset on March 1, 2007 Other duties include • Counter sniper operation. • • • • Forced entrance operations. Apprehension of armed suspects. Apprehension of barricaded suspects. Force protection during deployment.

History
The unit's operational functions are closely guarded secrets, so not much is known. What has been published is that the unit was created just after the Munich Summer Olympic incident in 1972. In 1998 the unit was re-organized to include a fixed force of roughly 100 police officers; it previously "borrowed" officers from regular units on an as needed basis. The Unit is supposed to be transferred to the responsibility of the Danish Security Intelligence Service.

Leader
AKS is led by Rigspolitiet, but soon it will be under PET.

Equipment
• Heckler & Koch MP5

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Estonia
K-Commando
K-Commando (K-Komando) is a special unit of the Estonian Criminal Police, created in the 1991. It is a special unit of the Estonian police force similar in function to the → SWAT teams in the U.S., and is responsible for such issues as managing hostage situations, riot management, high-risk raids and close-protection. The name K-Commando comes from the name of the group's former leader, Lembit Kolk (retired). They were trained by the FBI and other foreign agencies. K-Commando is known for its fearsome reputation and high level of professionalism. Recruitment involves rigorous testing and requires the approval of all current team members. Only when a consensus has been reached will the candidate be accepted into the unit. As in other special police units, applicants must have a long service record. The number of members is undisclosed, and there are no known casualties thus far. Unit operates under the command of the Central Crime Police (Keskkriminaalpolitsei).

Sources
• ShadowSpear Special Operations Community Website- K-Komando [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shadowspear. com/ estonia-special-operations/ k-komando. html

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Finland
Karhuryhmä
Karhuryhmä

The sword insignia of Finnish police Active Country Size 1972 – Present Finland 90

Garrison/HQ Helsinki Police Department Nickname Motto Karhukopla (literally Bear Gang. Karhukopla is the Finnish name of the Beagle Boys.)

The Karhu Team (Karhu-ryhmä in Finnish, Karhu-gruppen or Beredskapsenheten in Swedish), officially called Helsingin poliisilaitoksen valmiusyksikkö ("Rapid Deployment Unit of the Helsinki Police Department") special operations and counter-terrorism unit of the Finnish police, equivalent to → SWAT teams in the United States. Though it is situated in Helsinki City Police Department Karhu is a national police special unit that is used all around the Finland. Karhu was formed after the Munich massacre in 1972 to provide security for the OSCE Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe that was held in Helsinki in 1975. According to law all counter-terrorist operations belong to the Police or the Finnish Border Guard - Finnish Defence Forces are not involved in CT during peace time. The Karhu Team includes, in addition to leadership and training groups, direct action, technical, dog (K9), and explosive disposal groups. It can also be reinforced with a negotiation group for hostage situations. The leader of the Karhu Team used to be called rautanyrkki ("Ironfist"). The Karhu Team operates under the authority of the Finnish Ministry of the Interior and is headquartered in Helsinki. Its members are all volunteers and alternate between normal police work and SWAT duties. The group had a strength of about 90 police officers in 2008. The team's weaponry consists almost entirely of standard Finnish police weapons. It uses the H&K MP5 as its primary submachinegun and the Remington 870 as shotgun. The only significant difference is the use of H&K USP as personal pistol. The sniper rifles used by the group are Sako TRG -series of rifles TRG-21 and TRG-42. Group also uses Valmet series of assault rifles. The colloquial name for the group is Karhukopla, i.e. Beagle Boys, after the Disney comics characters.

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External links
• A picture of a squad member [1], Finnish Police Force's homepage

References
[1] http:/ / www. poliisi. fi/ poliisi/ periodic. nsf/ vwDocuments/ 51E0AAE77AA0F321C2256EA6004C8807

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France
GIPN
Groupes d'Intervention de la Police Nationale Active Country Branch Type Role Size Motto 1972 - Present France French National Police Special Forces Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement 170 Operators in 9 units "La cohésion fait la force " ("cohesion makes the force.")

Engagements Neuilly hostage crisis Anti-Action Directe arrests Anti-GIA operations 2005 Paris Riots

GIPN is an initialism for Groupes d'Intervention de la Police Nationale or French National Police Intervention Groups. Its motto is " La cohésion fait la force " or "cohesion makes the force."

History
After the tragic events of the Munich massacre in which the Israeli team was kidnapped and then killed by Palestinian commandos, the various European police forces decided to form special units able to fight against forms of terrorism and for other crises such as excessive use of force, taking of hostages, escorts etc. The first GIPN was created on October 27, 1972 and could only intervene at the request of judges or prosecutors. It was composed of thirty men who have the latest weapons and sophisticated equipment. The National Police initially formed 11 intervention groups but reduced them to 7 by 1985. This was then expanded to 9 with the creation GIPN units in Réunion in 1992 and in New Caledonia in 1993. All the GIPN are in contact with each other and after each mission they send their synthesis and their strategies to the other groups to share knowledge and if it is needed their intervention techniques. The Ministerial Circular of August 4, 1995 established the policies of the use of the GIPN: organization, rules of engagement, territorial competence, missions, principles of actions, implemented, means and coordination.

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Recruitment
Organised at the national level by the DCSP, the selections take place once a year and roll within a structure DFPN (ENP Saint-Malo or Nimes) with the assistance of a group of psychologists. All the National policemen and senior police officers apply, as long as they meet the administrative criteria a minimum of 5 years of service and be no more than 35 years old. About fifty candidates are selected and conveyed to the selected site where, during a first week, they must pass a series of events, records review, personality tests, combat ability, claustrophobia, giddiness, athletic ability, swimming etc…. At the end of this first week, part of the candidates are eliminated, and them others continue with mental tests during 4 days. After finishing these tests, a score of candidates will be admitted into the GIPN where their training now starts.

Organisation
The GIPN are units of the Central Directorate of Public Security (Fr: Direction Centrale de la Sécurité Publique or DCSP) which is the uniformed patrol and response branch of the French National Police. The DCSP has competency in 75 departments and within the territorial services of 9 large provincial towns and overseas (Lille, Strasbourg, Lyon, Nice, Marseilles, Bordeaux, Rennes, La Réunion and the New Caledonia). → RAID is a similar intervention force directly under the management of the National police force and of which the geographic competence which includes the 21 departments of Paris. Composed of police officers recruited according to very selective criteria, equipped with the best and latest matériels and subjected to a rigorous and followed drive, the GIPN can furnish groups of police officers to the service of other police units. They intervene with other services of the National police force, each time the situation requires it with the constant concern for the preservation of the physical integrity of negotiators and only to use necessary force strictly that as a last resort.

Deployment GIPN in France
In France there are nine GIPN units with two more in DOM-TOM containing over 170 personnel. • In métropole there are 7 units: • • • • • • • Lille with 16 men Strasbourg with 16 men Lyon with 24 men Nice with 16 men Marseilles with 24 men Bordeaux with 16 men Rennes with 16 men

• Overseas there are 2 units: • New Caledonia with 16 men • Réunion with 16 men

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Weapons and equipment
The GIPN arsenal includes a wide range of weapons such as: • Pistols - Sig Sauer SIG Pro SP2022 (specially developed for the French Polices in the biggest single sidearm contract since WW2 with 250000 ordered guns for both polices), Glock 17 and Glock 26. • Revolvers - Manurhin MR-73, Blacksmith and Smith & Wesson 686. • Machine pistols - H&K MP5 A3 and SD6. • Assault rifles - H&K G36K and G36C, and the firm of the SSG 551 and 552 commando. • Sniper rifles - PGM Ultima Ratio and Steyr-Mannlicher SSG. As for personal protection, the GIPN maintains kevlar helmets with bullet proof visors, bullet proof vests of different categories (II; III; IV or V), guards and knuckles; and armored shields.

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Gendarmerie Nationale → GIGN and EPIGN, France Polícia Militar do Rio de Janeiro BOPE, Brazil Royal Canadian Mounted Police → Emergency Response Team, Canada Toronto Police Service Emergency Task Force, Canada → National Security Guards, India Metropolitan Police → CO19, United Kingdom Karhu Ryhmä, Finland → Federal Police Special Units, Belgium, Counter-terrorist Unit Bundespolizei → GSG 9, Germany, Counter-terrorist Unit State Police MEK/→ SEK units, Germany Hong Kong Police → Special Duties Unit, Hong Kong Garda Síochána Emergency Response Unit, Republic of Ireland Polizia di Stato → NOCS, Italy New Zealand Police → Armed Offenders Squad, New Zealand Special Emergency Force (‫ ,)قوة الطوارئ الخاصة‬Saudi Arabia Guardia Civil → UEI, Spain → Nationella insatsstyrkan, Sweden → SWAT, United States Beijing's Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) team Polícia de Segurança Pública → GOE, Portugal

External links
• Unofficial Site [1] • Specwarnet report (in English) [2]

References
[1] http:/ / le. raid. free. fr/ accueil. htm [2] http:/ / www. specwarnet. net/ europe/ GIPN. htm

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Recherche Assistance Intervention Dissuasion
Recherche Assistance Intervention Dissuasion Active Country Branch Type Role Size Nickname Motto 1985 - Present France French National Police Special Forces Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement 60 Operators RAID, Black Panthers Servir sans Faillir (To serve without failing)

Engagements Neuilly hostage crisis Anti-Action Directe arrests Anti-GIA operations 2005 Paris Riots

Recherche Assistance Intervention Dissuasion (Research, Assistance, Intervention, Deterrence) or RAID. RAID is like the GIPN a local → SWAT unit of the Police Nationale with more menpower and equipment. Its responsibility areas are Paris and the suburbs as well as "Plan Piratair" (for plane hijackings), nuclear sites, the Channel Tunnel, the trains, and other strategic sites. It is the Police Nationale's primarly Counter-terrorism unit and the counterpart of the → GIGN of the Gendarmerie Nationale. RAID was founded by Robert Broussard and Ange Mancini in 1985, in response to a bombing and murder campaign.

History
On 13 May 1993, a disturbed man named Eric Schmitt, calling himself "HB" (for "Human Bomb", in English), and carrying large quantities of explosives, took 21 children hostages in a school in Neuilly. Nicolas Sarkozy, mayor of Neuilly at the time, managed to obtain the liberation of several children, though he was put aside of the negotiation process later on, being not a professional negotiator and thus risking interference with the police forces. After 46 hours, with the hostage-taker falling asleep, members of RAID crept into the school to evacuate the 6 remaining children. Schmitt is believed to have been shot dead as he suddenly woke up and tried to reach the explosives; though it is highly possible he was murdered by police forces as he was headshot by 3 bullets[1] . All the children were safe, as well as their teacher and a nurse. RAID also arrested members of Action Directe in a more counter-terrorist action. Recently, RAID operators saw action during the 2005 and 2006 riots in France, as well as in a hostage situation in Versailles, where an armed man was shot dead by RAID operators after coming under attack. RAID is in charge of the protection of foreign dignitaries traveling in France. Three of its members have died in service.

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Organisation
RAID has a strength of around 180 men and is divided into three main sections with about 60 members each: • First Section The first section deals with the usual tasks of special forces: intervention, monitoring, protection. • Second Section The second section is the Research and Development unit of the RAID. It studies techniques and collects information. This section is divided into three groups: • Intelligence Group • Technical Group • Weaponry Group • Third section The Third section deals with the psychological aspects of the interventions. It is in charge of negotiations and crisis management. It also provides psychological support for the policemen in the unit and in the whole French Police. It is composed of forensic experts, a psychologist and physicians. The Negotiation group is on permanent alert. It deals with suicides, violent crises, mental disorders, hostage crises and other major troubles, independently from the rest of the RAID. It assesses the dangers of the situation, suggests possible solutions, and helps with the negotiations and the resolution of the crises. If the whole RAID has to intervene, the Negotiations section is used as a reconnaissance unit, and prepares the intervention of the other sections. For joining the unit an officers needs five years duty within the Police Nationaleand after passing trough test he will serve in the RAID for five years. With a commendation he can expand it further five years. After ten years every men must leave the tactical unit. Officers over thirty-five can not make an application.

Specialities
• • • • • • • • • • Assault Groups Sniper Parachutist Diver Demolition Effraction Group of Research and Information Dog handlers Logistics Negotiators

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Equipment
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Benelli M3 Beretta M3P Colt M4A1 FN Herstal Minimi FN Herstal P90[2] Franchi SPAS-15 Glock 17 / 17L / 18 / 19 / 26 / 34 Heckler & Koch G36 Heckler & Koch HK53 Heckler & Koch HK69A1 Heckler & Koch MG3 Heckler & Koch MP5K Heckler & Koch PSG1 Manurhin MR 73 PGM Precision Hecate II PGM Precision Ultima Ratio

• Remington 870 • Sig Sauer SG553

Bibliography
All the following articles are in French • Le RAID, l'ultime recours (RAID, the last resort) by Jean-Louis Courtois published by Crépin-Leblond in 2000 • Le RAID, Unité d'élite de la Police Nationale publié aux éditions The RAID, an elite unit of the National Police published by Crépin-Leblond in 2005 (DVD included) • Le RAID, l'unité d'élite de la Police Française de Jean-Louis Courtois RAID, an elite unit of the French police by Jean-Louis Courtois published by Pygmalion-Gérard Watelet in 1999 • HB, 46 heures qui ont bouleversé la France de Jean-Pierre About HB, 46 hours that shook France Jean-Pierre About editions Tarcher in 2005 • Le jour où j'ai tué HB de Daniel Boulanger The day I killed HB Daniel Boulanger Literature published by Hachette in 2007 • Le RAID en action Hors Série RAIDS n°19 paru The RAID action RAIDS Off Series No. 19 issued in 2005 • RAID, 20 ans d'action , RAID, 20 years of action, article published in the magazine Commando No. 20 January-December 2005 • La sélection du RAID , The selection of RAID, article published in the magazine Police Pro No. 8 March-April 2008 • Le RAID, 20 ans d'opérations , RAID 20 years of operations, article published in the magazine RAIDS No. 233 in October 2005 • RAID: refuser la fatalité paru RAID: reject the inevitability published in the magazine Police Frequency No. 2 October 1987 • La police face à l'exception: flics de choc article paru dans le magazine Civic n°53 août-septembre 1995 The police deal with the exception of shock cops article published in the magazine Civic No. 53 in August-September 1995

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See also
• → GIGN,GIPN and EPIGN, France

External links
• Unofficial Site [1] • Specwarnet report (in English) [3]

References
[1] http:/ / www. affaires-criminelles. com/ bio_32. php [2] Collectif. "Le RAID: Unité d'élite de la police nationale" (in French). Crépin-Leblond (September 15, 2005). ISBN 978-2703002642. [3] http:/ / www. specwarnet. net/ europe/ raid. htm

Service de Protection des Hautes Personnalités
The Service de Protection des Hautes Personnalités (SPHP) is a French national police unit in charge of the protection of VIPs and the provision of technical security support. The SPHP also implements the necessary measures for the organization and security of official visits in France and abroad.

Organization
The service includes nearly 600 police officers and is based in Paris, rue de Miromesnil, not far from the Ministry of the Interior and the Palais de l'Élysée. The SPHP also has a permanent office in Strasbourg, where sat several European institutions including the European Parliament. Its members are recruited on internal competition, after three years of minimum service in the National Police, and after a period of training, holding office for a term, renewable for 5 years. The service, run from November 2007 by the Inspector General Jean-Louis Fiamenghi, former head of RAID, includes: a staff; the Security Group of the Presidency of the Republic (GSPR); Sub-Directorate of French dignitaries, in which include: the Security Group of the Prime Minister (GSPM) the Security Group of the Ministry of Interior (GSMI); Sub-directorate for foreign dignitaries; Sub-directorate for persons at risk; Sub-direction of resources and operational support (which has an operational support group). History Established under the name Travel Services Official (VO) after the assassination of King Alexander I and Louis Barthou in Marseilles in 1934, it was reformed and changed its name in 1994 after the suicide of Pierre Bérégovoy with weapon officer in charge of its protection. The unit, with operators of → Recherche Assistance Intervention Dissuasion (RAID)is responsible for the protection of the President of France, Nicolas Sarkozy under the name Groupe de sécurité de la présidence de la République.

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Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale
Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale

Official GIGN insignia Active Country Branch Type Role Size 1973 - Present France French Gendarmerie Special Forces Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement about 380 gendarmes

Garrison/HQ Satory, France Nickname Motto GIGN Servitas Vitae (To Save Lives, Unofficial)

Engagements Air France Flight 8969 hijacking Kosovo Crisis Various anti-FLNC operations Arrest of Bob Denard Commanders Notable commanders Christian Prouteau, Paul Barril, Philippe Legorjus

The National Gendarmerie Intervention Group, commonly abbreviated GIGN (French: Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale), is the French Gendarmerie's elite counter-terrorism and hostage rescue unit; it is part of the military force (military body charged with police duties and act as Military Police /Provost. It is composed of 380 men, including 11 commissioned officers. It is the counterpart to RAID of the Police Nationale with enhanced resources and expanded areas of responsibility. In contrast to RAID, GIGN is also responsible for conducting operations outside of France (such as hostage rescue for example). Its missions include the arrest of armed criminals, in particular those taking hostages, counter-terrorism and dealing with aircraft hijacking, and prevention of mutiny in prisons.

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History
After the Munich massacre during the Olympic Games in 1972, and a prison mutiny in Clairvaux Prison the next year, France started to study the possible solutions to extremely violent attacks, under the assumptions that these would be difficult to predict and deflect.[1] In 1973, the GIGN became a permanent force of men trained and equipped to respond to these kind of threats while minimizing risks to the public and hostages, for the members of the unit, and for the attackers themselves. The GIGN became operational on the first of March, 1974, under the command of Lieutenant Christian Prouteau. Ten days later, a deranged person was successfully stopped in Ecquevilly, validating the techniques of the unit and proving its necessity. GIGN initially had 15 members, which increased to 48 by 1984, 57 by 1988, and 87 by 2000.[1]

Structure
The GIGN is divided into a command cell, an administrative group, four operational troops of twenty operators, an operational support troop including negotiation, breaching, intelligence, communications, marksmanship, dogs and special equipment cells.[2] The special equipment group equips the unit with modified and high-tech equipment, by either selecting or designing it. GIGN is called about 60 times each year.[3] All members go through training which includes shooting, long-range marksmanship, an airborne course and hand-to-hand combat techniques (Krav Maga). Members of the GIGN are widely regarded as having some of the best firearms training in the world.[1] It is for this reason that many of the world's special operations and counterterrorist units conduct exchange programs with the GIGN.[1] Mental ability and self-control are important in addition to physical strength. Like most special forces, the training is stressful with a high washout rate of only 7-8% of volunteers making it to the training process. GIGN members must be prepared to disarm suspects with their bare hands.[3] There are two tactical specialties in the group : HALO/HAHO and divers. Members learn several technical specialties among police dogs, breaching, long-range sniping, negotiation, etc.[1]

Future
In the future, the newly recruited police officers will be trained for intervention, then will have the opportunity to be trained in protection and/or research/observation (GSPR old missions and the EPIGN). The total will increase to about 420 soldiers in 2010, compared to 380 today. It will then be possible to hire up to 200 men, trained and accustomed to working together in large-scale interventions (mass hostage-taking for example, as in Beslan). The acronym GSIGN has become moot and the acronym "GIGN" refers no longer the same small unit. The collaboration of GIGN and RAID is more and more practiced in large hostage-rescue exercises.

Operations
Since its creation, the group has taken part in over 1000 operations, liberated over 500 hostages, arrested over 1000 suspects, and killed a dozen terrorists. The unit has seen two members killed in action, and seven in training, since its foundation, and two of its dogs in action and one in training.[4] Past actions include: • The liberation of 30 school children from a school bus captured by the FLCS (front de libération de la côte somalienne, "Somali Coast Liberation Front") in Djibouti in 1976.
Boarding of the Pascal Paoli by the GIGN, on 28 September 2005. The ship had been occupied by the Corsican trade union STC.

Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale • Planning the liberation of diplomats from the French embassy in San Salvador in 1979 (the hostage-takers surrendered before the assault was conducted). • GIGN commandos were instrumental in regaining control during the Grand Mosque Seizure in Mecca, Saudi Arabia on November and December 1979. • Arrest of a Corsican terrorist of the National Liberation Front of Corsica in Fesch Hostel in 1980. • Liberation of hostages of the Ouvéa cave hostage taking in Ouvea in the New Caledonia in May 1988. • Protection of the 1992 Olympic Winter Games in Albertville. • In December 1994, the liberation of 229 passengers and crew from Air France Flight 8969 in Marseille. The plane, hijacked by four GIA terrorists that wished to destroy the Eiffel Tower, had been completely mined, and three passengers had been executed during the negotiations with the Algerian government. The mission was widely publicized. • Arrest of Bob Denard in 1995 in Comoros. • Operations in Bosnia to arrest persons indicted for war crimes. • Seizing of 6 Somali pirates and recovery of part of the ransom after making sure "Le Ponant" luxury yacht hostages were freed in the coast of Puntland in Somalia on the Gulf of Aden. In conjunction with French Commandos Marines (Naval commandos) on April 2008. The GIGN was selected by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) to teach the special forces of the other member states in hostage-rescue exercises in planes.

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Training
• • • • • • • • • • • • Combat shooting and marksmanship training Airborne courses, such as HALO or HAHO jumps, paragliding, and heliborne insertions. Combat/Underwater swimming, diving and underwater combat. Hand to hand or unarmed combat (e.g., Knife fighting and martial arts) Psychological warfare, such as prisoner interrogation Police and detective work (investigating cases) Infiltration and escape techniques Sabotage and demolition. Weapon handling, such as knives, firearms, etc. Survival and warfare in tropical, arctic, mountain and desert environments. Language and culture: GIGN operatives are trained to know basic language and culture skills of several countries. Diplomacy skills, such as negotiating.

Equipment
• Manurhin Revolver MR73 (4", 5" ¼, 8" & 10") in .357 Magnum • Smith & Wesson Model 686 GFS Stainless in .357 magnum (4", till 10") for underwater actions • • • • • • Glock 19 with the M73 is one of favorite weapon of the team with Insight Technology M3 LED or M6 with Laser Glock 17 and Glock 26 FN Five-seveN Tactical IOM (5.7x28mm) with Insight Technology M6X Laser SIG P228 with 20rd Mag & 15rd Mag SIG P226 with 20rd Mag & weaponlight Insight Technology M3 LED SIG SP2022 - standard sidearm of French interior security forces

• GIAT / Nexter PA MAC Modèle 1950 (MAC50) - standard French Army sidearm (French gendarmerie is part of French Army) Could support the punch of 9x19mm for SMG ammunition • GIAT / Nexter PAMAS-G1S (Licence Beretta 92G) - standard French Army & Gendarmerie sidearm

Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale • GIAT / Nexter MAT Modèle 1949 Submachingun (MAT49) in (9x19mm Parabellum) - standard gendarmerie weapons • H&K MP5 A5 (3-Round Burst), SD3 (SEF), SD6, and K-PDW (SEF) (Build by GIAT and Sound Silencer from STOPSON TFM) • H&K UMP (9x19mm Parabellum) - standard gendarmerie weapons • FN P90 Tactical with Gemtech SP90 Silencer (5.7x28mm) • GIAT / Nexter FAMAS-F1 Infantry 5.56x45mm NATO - standard French Army weapon (French gendarmerie is part of French Army) • H&K G3 TGS (with HK 79 de 40 mm and MSG-90 Stock) • H&K 33 EA2 with A3 Folding stock • SIG SG550 with Hensoldt 6 x 42 BL (5.56x45mm NATO) • SIG SG551 SWAT with Hensoldt 6 x 42 BL (5.56x45mm NATO) • SIG SG552 Commando with Bushnell HOLOsight (5.56x45mm NATO) • Remington 870 • Benelli Super 90 M3T • Franchi SPAS 12 • FN 1200/1300 Shotgun (Winchester 1200/1300 build by FN When GIAT-Nexter hold the Both Compagnie) standard Gendarmerie weapons • • • • • • • • • • • GIAT / Nexter FRF1 (7,5mm MAS Rifle with converion in 7.62x51mm NATO) GIAT / Nexter FSA MAS 49/56 MSE - standard Gendarmerie weapons Tikka (Beretta Holding Group) T3 Tactical (7.62x51mm NATO) - standard Gendarmerie weapons Accuracy International AICS AW with Schmidt & Bender Mil-Dot Mk.II 3-12 × 50 scope (7.62x51mm NATO) Accuracy International AICS AWS (7.62x51mm NATO) Accuracy International AICS SM in (.338 Lapua Magnum) Barrett M82 (.50BMG) Barrett M95 (.50BMG) McMillan 87R (.50BMG) PGM Ultima Ratio (7.62x51mm NATO) PGM Hecate II with Scrome J10 10 × 40 (.50BMG)

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GIGN leaders
• • • • • • • • • Lieutenant Christian Prouteau : 1973-1982 Capitaine Paul Barril : 1982-1983 (Interim) Capitaine Philippe Masselin : 1983-1985 Capitaine Philippe Legorjus : 1985-1989 Major (Commandant or Chef d'Escadron in Cavalry) Lionel Chesneau : 1989-1992 Capitaine Denis Favier : 1992-1997 Major (Commandant or Chef d'Escadron in Cavalry) Eric Gerard : 1997–2002 Lieutenant-Colonel Frédéric Gallois : 2002-2007 Brigade General Denis Favier : 2007-present

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In fiction
GIGN members are present in several video games such as SOCOM: U.S. Navy SEALs Tactical Strike,Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six: Lockdown, Joint Operations: Typhoon Rising, and Hitman: Contracts. GIGN uniforms are available in the games Counter-Strike and SWAT 4.

See also
• • • • • Counter-terrorism PI2G → RAID GIPN National Liberation Front of Corsica

Comparable Special Forces
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Australia: APS, Australian SAS Austria: → EKO Cobra, Einsatzkommando Cobra Brazil: COT, Comando de Ações Táticas Canada: JTF2, Joint Task Force 2 Croatia: ATJ, Anti Teroristička Jedinica Czech Republic : Urna - Utvar Rychleho NAsazeni Denmark: → AKS, Politiets Aktionsstyrke Egypt: HRF, Hostage Rescue Force Finland: Karhu-ryhmä Germany: → GSG 9, Grenzschutzgruppe 9 Greece: → EKAM, Eidiki Katastaltiki Antitromokratiki Monada Iceland: → Víkingasveitin India: → NSG, National Security Guards Indonesia: DK88, Detasemen Khusus 88 Ireland: → ERU, Emergency Response Unit Israel: Yamam, Yeḥidat Mishtara Meyuḥedet Italy: → GIS, Gruppo Intervento Speciale Japan: → SAT, Special Assault Team Malaysia: → PGK, Pasukan Gerakan Khas Netherlands: UIM, Unit Interventie Mariniers New Zealand: → STG, Special Tactics Group Norway: → Beredskapstroppen Philippines: → SAF, Special Action Force Portugal: GOE, Grupo de Operações Especiais Romania: GSPI Acvila, Grupul Special de Protecţie şi Intervenţie Russia: Vympel Serbia: → SAJ, Special Anti-Terrorist Unit Slovakia: UOU, Útvar Osobitného Určenia South Korea: 707th Special Mission Unit Spain: → GEO, Grupo Especial de Operaciones, UEI (Unidad Especial de Intervención), GEI (Grup Epecial d'Intervenció - Catalunya) Taiwan (Republic of China): → Thunder Squad UK: SAS

Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale • USA: Delta Force, SEAL Team Six

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References External links
• • • • • • • GIGN Official webpage [5] (French) Gendarmerie Nationale's Official webpage [6] (English) Gendarmerie Nationale's Official webpage [7] (French) Unofficial webpage, officially endorsed [8] (French) Book le GIGN aujourd’hui [9] (French) Article in Raid Magazine about the new organization & duties [10] (French) Blog of an Former member of GIGN [11] (French)

References
[1] SOC - France - GIGN (http:/ / www. specialoperations. com/ Foreign/ France/ GIGN/ default. htm) SpecialOperations.com Retrieved 14 April 2007. [2] (http:/ / www. gign. org/ structure-du-gign/ organisation. php) [3] Group Intervention of the National Gendarmerie (http:/ / la-gendarmerie. ifrance. com) (French) Retrieved 15 April 2007. [4] (http:/ / www. gign. org/ groupe-intervention-gign/ hommage. php) [5] http:/ / www. gendarmerie. interieur. gouv. fr/ gign [6] http:/ / www. defense. gouv. fr/ gendarmerie_uk [7] http:/ / www. gendarmerie. interieur. gouv. fr/ [8] http:/ / www. gign. org [9] http:/ / livres. histoireetcollections. com/ en/ publication-1381-gign-tome-1-le-gign-aujourd-hui. html [10] http:/ / raids. histoireetcollections. com/ en/ article-23160-elite-gign-raid-convergence-sans-fusion. html [11] http:/ / www. gign-hommesdaction. com/

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Germany
GSG 9
GSG 9

Old GSG 9 Badge Active Country Branch Type Role Size Part of April 17 1973 - Present
 Germany

Bundespolizei Special Operations Domestic and international counter-terrorism and → law enforcement about 300 Operators Directly under control of the Bundespolizei and the Ministry of the Interior

Garrison/HQ Sankt Augustin-Hangelar, Bonn Engagements Lufthansa Flight 181 Commanders Current commander Notable commanders Olaf Lindner Ulrich Wegener, Jürgen Bischoff, Friedrich Eichele

The GSG 9 der Bundespolizei (originally the German abbreviation of Grenzschutzgruppe 9 or Border Guard Group 9) is the elite counter-terrorism and special operations unit of the German Federal Police.

History and name
In 1972, the Palestinian terrorist movement Black September used the Summer Olympic Games in Munich, Germany, to kidnap 11 Israeli athletes, killing two in the Olympic Village in the initial assault on the athletes' rooms. The incident tragically culminated when German police, neither trained nor equipped for counter-terrorism operations, attempted to rescue the athletes. They failed miserably and the operation led to the deaths of one policeman, five of the eight kidnappers and the remaining nine hostages (subsequently called the Munich massacre). Apart from the human tragedy, Germany's law enforcement found itself severely embarrassed, in part due to its historic relationship to Jews and Israel.

GSG 9 As a consequence of the incident's mismanagement, German officials created the GSG 9 under the leadership of then Oberstleutnant Ulrich Wegener so that similar situations in the future could be responded to adequately and professionally. Many German politicians opposed its formation fearing GSG 9 would rekindle memories of the Nazi Party's Schutzstaffel (SS). The decision was taken to form the unit from police forces as opposed to the military as is the model in other countries on the grounds that German federal law expressly forbids the use of the military forces against the civilian population, whereas if the special forces were composed of police personnel, this is within the law. The unit was officially established on April 17, 1973 as a part of Germany's federal police agency, the Bundesgrenzschutz (federal border guard service, renamed Bundespolizei or federal police in 2005). The name GSG 9 stood for Grenzschutzgruppe 9 (border guard group 9) and was chosen simply because the BGS had eight regular border guard groups at the time. After the 2005 renaming, the abbreviation "GSG 9" was kept due to the fame of the unit and is now the official way to refer to the unit. Its formation was based on the expertise of the Israeli Sayeret Matkal. GSG 9 is deployed in cases of hostage taking, kidnapping, terrorism and extortion. The group may also be used to secure locations, neutralize targets, track down fugitives and sometimes conduct sniper operations. Furthermore, the group is very active in developing and testing methods and tactics for these missions. Finally, the group may provide advice to the different Länder, ministries and international allies. The group assists the Bundespolizei and other federal and local agencies on request. At the time of the 1977 Mogadishu mission, the Commander of the Israeli Border Police Tzvi War described GSG 9 as "The best anti-terrorist group in the world." From 1972 to 2003 they reportedly completed over 1,500 missions[1] , discharging their weapons on only five occasions. At the SWAT World Challenge in 2005, GSG 9 won an impressive seven out of seven events, beating 17 other teams. GSG 9 defended its championship the following year[2] , but placed fifth in 2007.[3] Germany offered to give assistance to India in the wake of the November 2008 Mumbai attacks. GSG 9 helped train and upgrade the → National Security Guards, the primary Indian counter-terrorism unit.[4] Further help was provided to the Mumbai Police so that they could raise a → SWAT team.[5]

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Missions
Its first mission, which is still one of the most well-known and established the GSG 9's reputation as an elite unit, was "Operation Feuerzauber" (Operation Fire Magic). It was carried out in 1977 when Palestinian terrorists hijacked the Landshut, a Lufthansa plane on the way from Palma de Mallorca to Frankfurt, demanding that imprisoned members of the German "Red Army Faction" terrorist group be freed. The aircraft was then flown to several destinations throughout the Middle East. During this time, the Lufthansa captain was executed by the leader of the hijackers in Aden. Following a four-day odyssey the hijackers directed the Boeing 737 to Mogadishu, Somalia, where they waited for the arrival of the Red Army Faction members after the German government had (falsely) signaled they would be released. In the night between October 17 and October 18, Somalian ranger units created a distraction, while members of the GSG 9, accompanied by two British SAS operatives as observers[6] , stormed the plane. The operation lasted seven minutes and was successful: all hostages were rescued, three hijackers died, the fourth was seriously injured. Only one GSG 9 member and one flight attendant were injured. The international counter-terrorism community applauded GSG 9 for the excellent and professional handling of the situation, especially because assaults on planes are considered one of the most difficult scenarios a hostage rescue force could face.

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Publicly known missions
• October 17 1977/October 18 1977: Lufthansa Flight 181 was hijacked by four Arab terrorists demanding the release of Red Army Faction members. GSG 9 officers stormed the aircraft on the ground in Mogadishu, Somalia and freed all 86 hostages. • 1982: Arrest of RAF terrorists Mohnhaupt and Schulz • June 27 1993: Arrest of RAF terrorists Birgit Hogefeld and Wolfgang Grams in Bad Kleinen. Some people believe that Wolfgang Grams was executed in revenge for the death of GSG 9 operative Michael Newrzella during the mission. Grams had shot and killed Newrzella when Newrzella tried to tackle him. However, the official investigation determined that Grams committed suicide. • 1993: Ending of the hijacking of a KLM flight from Tunis to Amsterdam, redirected to Düsseldorf, without firing a single shot. • 1994: Ended a hostage situation in the Kassel Penitentiary • 1994: Involved in the search for the kidnappers Albert and Polak • 1998: Arrest of a man trying to extort money from the German railway company Deutsche Bahn • 1999: Arrest of Metin Kaplan in Cologne • 1999: Arrest of two suspected members of the Rote Zellen (Red Cells) in Berlin • 1999: Involved in ending the hostage situation in the central bank in Aachen • • • • • 2000: Advised the Philippines in relation to a hostage situation 2001: Arrested two spies in Heidelberg 2001: Assisted in the liberation of four German tourists in Egypt 2002: Arrested a number of terrorists related to the September 11, 2001 attacks 2003: Protection of the four members of the German Technisches Hilfswerk (THW) (the governmental disaster relief organization of Germany) in Baghdad, Iraq. The THW's mission was to repair the water distribution network. • 2004: GSG 9 is responsible for protecting German embassy property and personnel, including the embassy in Baghdad, Iraq. On April 7 2004 two members were attacked and killed near Fallujah while in a convoy travelling from Amman (Jordan) to Baghdad. The men, aged 25 and 38, were travelling in a car at the rear of the convoy, and therefore received most of the enemy fire after passing the ambush. The men were shot after their armoured Mitsubishi Pajero/Shogun was hit and stopped by RPGs. In a later statement, the attackers apologized for mistaking the German convoy for an American convoy. One of the bodies is still missing. • 2007: Three suspected terrorists were seized on Tuesday, 4 September 2007 for planning huge bomb attacks on targets in Germany. The bombs they were planning to make would have had more explosive power than those used in the Madrid and London terror attacks.[7] They wanted to build a bomb in southern Germany capable of killing as many as possible. Fritz Gelowicz, 29, Adem Yilmaz, 29 and Daniel Schneider, 22, were charged with membership in a terrorist organization, making preparations for a crime involving explosives and, in Schneider's case, attempted murder.[8] • 2009: The GSG 9 were on the verge of boarding a German freighter, the Hansa Stavanger, which had been kidnapped by Somali pirates. The case of the Hansa Stavanger, this time off the Somali coast seemed sufficiently symbolic to justify another potentially successful rescue operation, though on a much larger scale. More than 200 GSG 9, equipped with helicopters, speedboats and advanced weapons, had been secretly brought, via Kenya, to a location 80 kilometres (50 mi) from the German freighter. The Americans had lent the Germans one of their ships, the USS Boxer (LHD-4), to use as their flagship in the planned attack—and a fleet of German Navy vessels flanked the enormous helicopter carrier. The ships had been patrolling near the Hansa Stavanger for days, waiting just beyond the horizon to evade detection on the pirates' radar screens. But the commandos were called off before the rescue effort could begin. US National Security Advisor James L. Jones had called the Chancellery to cancel the operation. The US government, worried that the operation could turn into a suicide mission, was sending the USS Boxer back to the Kenyan port of Mombasa, where the German forces were to disembark.

GSG 9 Officials at the German Federal Police headquarters in Potsdam, outside Berlin, concerned about the potential for a bloodbath, had also spoken out against the operation.[9] Note: The majority of this unit's missions are confidential and public information is not available. Since the founding of the GSG 9 the group has participated in over 1500 missions, yet reportedly fired shots only on five occasions (official count, prior to the 2003 Iraq War). These occasions were Mogadishu in 1977, Bad Kleinen in 1993, Aachen in 1999 and two more missions where firearms were used to shoot dogs of the persons being arrested.

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Organization
The unit forms part of the German Bundespolizei (Federal Police, formerly Bundesgrenzschutz), and thus has normal → police powers, including, for example, the power of arrest. The Federal Police of Germany (and thus the GSG 9) is under the control of the Federal Ministry of the Interior. The Bundespolizei also provides aerial transportation for the GSG 9. In contrast, regular police forces are subordinate to the various States or Länder, as are their → Spezialeinsatzkommando (SEK) teams, while the military is responsible for the Kommando Spezialkräfte (KSK) (Special Forces command) and the Kampfschwimmer. The GSG 9 is based in Sankt Augustin-Hangelar near Bonn and consists of three main sub-groups, plus a number of support groups: Regular operations The first sub-group of the GSG 9 is used for regular land-based counter-terrorism actions. This may involve cases of hostage taking, kidnapping, terrorism or extortion. The group may also be used to secure locations, neutralize targets, sniping and tracking fugitives. The group has approximately 100 members. Maritime operations The second sub-group of the GSG 9 is used for operations at sea, for example the hijacking of ships or oil platforms. The group has approximately 100 members. Airborne operations The third sub-group of the GSG 9 is used for airborne operations, including parachuting and helicopter landings. The group has approximately 50 members. Technical unit This unit supports other units in gaining entry to target areas and is responsible for the procurement, testing and issuance of non-weapon equipment. The members of the technical unit are also explosive ordinance disposal experts. They are trained in the rendering safe and disposal of improvised explosive devices Central services This service group maintains the GSG 9 armoury and is involved in testing, repairing and purchasing weapons, ammunition, and explosives. Documentation unit This unit handles communications, including the testing, repairing and purchasing of communications and surveillance equipment. Operations staff Handles the administration of GSG 9. Training unit This unit trains existing members, and selects, recruits and trains new members.

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Training
Members of the Bundespolizei and other German police services with two years of service can join the GSG 9. The 22-week training period includes thirteen weeks of basic training and nine weeks of advanced training. Besides medical tests there are many physical and psychological requirements, for example running 5000 meters in 23 minutes and jumping a distance of at least 4.75 meters (also rule for German Sports Badge). The identity of GSG 9 members is classified as top secret. Further training often involves co-operation with other allied counter-terrorism units. Only one in five pass the training course.

Equipment
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine gun, in various versions/configurations. Heckler & Koch MP7A1 submachine gun Heckler & Koch G36 assault rifle, G36K, and G36C Heckler & Koch 416 Commando carbines Heckler & Koch 417 Commando carbines G8 automatic rifle. AMP Technical Services DSR-1 sniper rifle SG 550 assault rifle family Steyr AUG A3 assault rifle Glock 17 pistol USP 45 Tactical (called P12) Smith & Wesson and Ruger .357 Magnum revolvers Various shotguns Heckler Koch MZP-1 grenade launcher MBB Armbrust anti-tank weapon GSG9 Tactical Boot Designed specifically for GSG 9 by Adidas

In popular culture
• The GSG 9 has been referenced in various media. In Germany, there was a television program based on the actions of GSG 9 known as GSG 9 - Ihr Einsatz ist ihr Leben. It was canceled in May 2008. • The GSG 9 are playable models for the counter-terrorist team in the Counter-Strike series of video games. • One of the bosses in the 1987 video game Metal Gear is a former GSG 9 operator. • The character Patch from Command & Conquer Renegade was formerly in GSG 9 • Often mentioned by author and former United States Navy SEAL Richard Marcinko in his fiction books. • Also mentioned in the Swedish thriller The Man from Majorca which describes the connection between Swedish and German intelligence. • In the novel Rainbow Six by Tom Clancy and its related video games, one of the Rainbow operators, Dieter Weber, was a former GSG 9 sniper prior to being selected for Rainbow. • In the episode "Games of Chance" of the TV series The Unit, a 2 year winning streak of GSG 9 in an international counter-terrorism challenge is mentioned. This loosely refers to GSG 9 defending the SWAT World Challenge title around the same time the episode was produced • The fictional Anti-Terrorist and Cyber Warfare group Public Security Section 9 from Masamune Shirow's Ghost in the Shell manga and anime series bears a striking resemblance in purpose and ability to GSG 9. • In the comic book series Preacher, Herr Starr was a member of GSG 9 who was frustrated by what he saw as weakness and inefficiency in dealing with terrorism, before he was recruited by The Grail. • Mentioned in Heinz Rudolf Kunze's 1984 song Sicherheitsdienst [10]

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See also
• • • • • • • Kommando Spezialkräfte, Special Forces of the Bundeswehr → Zentrale Unterstützungsgruppe Zoll, Special Support Team for Customs. German commando frogmen Kampfschwimmer, Special Forces of the German Navy (Deutsche Marine). Munich massacre, initial incident to form the GSG 9. Special Activities Division Delta Force United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group

Comparable Special Forces
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Austria: → EKO Cobra, Einsatzkommando Cobra Bangladesh: RAB, Rapid Action Battalion Bangladesh: DMP SWAT, Dhaka Metropolitan Police SWAT Brazil: COT, Comando de Ações Táticas Canada: JTF2, Joint Task Force 2 Croatia: → ATJ Lučko, Anti Teroristička Jedinica Denmark: → AKS, Politiets Aktionsstyrke Egypt: HRF, Hostage Rescue Force Finland: Karhu-ryhmä France: → Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale, GIGN Greece: → EKAM, Eidiki Katastaltiki Antitromokratiki Monada Iceland: → Víkingasveitin India: → NSG, National Security Guards Indonesia: DK88, Detasemen Khusus 88 Ireland: ERU, Emergency Response Unit, Irish Army Rangers Israel: Yamam, Yeḥidat Mishtara Meyuḥedet Italy: → GIS, Gruppo Intervento Speciale, → NOCS, Nucleo Operativo Centrale di Sicurezza Japan: → SAT, Special Assault Team Lithuania: Aras, Lithuanian Police Anti-terrorist Operations Force Malaysia: → PGK, Pasukan Gerakan Khas Netherlands: UIM, Unit Interventie Mariniers New Zealand: → STG, Special Tactics Group Norway: → Beredskapstroppen Philippines: → SAF, Special Action Force Poland: GROM, Grupa Reagowania Operacyjno-Manewrowego Portugal: GOE, Grupo de Operações Especiais Romania: GSPI Acvila, Grupul Special de Protecţie şi Intervenţie Russia: → OMON, Otryad Militsii Osobogo Naznacheniya Slovenia: SEP, Special Unit of the Slovenian Police Serbia: → SAJ, Special Anti-Terrorist Unit Slovakia: UOU, Útvar Osobitného Určenia South Korea: 707th Special Mission Unit Spain: → GEO, Grupo Especial de Operaciones Sweden: Nationella Insatsstyrkan Taiwan (Republic of China): → Thunder Squad Turkey: Özel Harekât, Special Operation Team UK: → Specialist Firearms Command/ SAS,Special Air Service

GSG 9 • USA: → HRT, Hostage Rescue Team

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External links
• • • • • • Official GSG 9 page of the German Federal Police [11] Site of the GSG 9 companionship [12] GSG 9 [13] SpecialOperations.com Demonstration video [14] Historical video [15] from bpolgsg9.de [16] GSG 9 at shadowspear.com [17]

References
[1] Federal Police, Duties and Organisation (http:/ / www. bundespolizei. de/ nn_249932/ DE/ Home/ 06__Presse/ Infobroschuere__down,templateId=raw,property=publicationFile. pdf/ Infobroschuere_down. pdf), page 17. [2] History of The Original SWAT WORLD Challenge (http:/ / www. swatseries. com/ html/ History. php) "Team GSG-9, the Federal Border Police of Germany, swept the competition and won all seven events." [3] http:/ / www. swatseries. com/ html/ Result2007. php [4] http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ elite-german-police-wing-to-train-nsg/ 400650/ [5] http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ german-counterterror-force-to-help-set-up-mumbai-swat-team/ 440320/ [6] Interview with Ulrich Wegener, Welt Online, 13. Oktober 2007 (http:/ / www. welt. de/ politik/ article1260097/ Ich_war_ueberzeugt_dass_es_laufen_wuerde. html) retrieved on 12-01-2008 [7] (http:/ / www. spiegel. de/ international/ germany/ 0,1518,504037,00. html) [8] (http:/ / www. spiegel. de/ international/ germany/ 0,1518,576332,00. html) [9] (http:/ / www. spiegel. de/ international/ germany/ 0,1518,622766,00. html) [10] http:/ / www. heinzrudolfkunze. de/ musik/ songs/ sicherheitsdienst. html [11] http:/ / www. bundespolizei. de/ nn_249940/ DE/ Home/ 03__Organisation/ 1Bundespolizeipraesidium/ GSG9/ gsg9__node. html?__nnn=true [12] http:/ / www. gsg9. de/ [13] http:/ / www. specialoperations. com/ Foreign/ Germany/ GSG9. htm [14] http:/ / de. youtube. com/ watch?v=8nXQVxb28cs [15] http:/ / www. bpolgsg9. de/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=12& Itemid=16 [16] http:/ / www. bpolgsg9. de/ [17] http:/ / www. shadowspear. com/ germany-special-operations/ gsg-9. html

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Spezialeinsatzkommando
Spezialeinsatzkommandos (SEK) (previously also known as Sondereinsatzkommando) are the special response units of the German state police forces. German SEKs are full-time units whose members do not perform any other duties, and are essentially the equivalent of American → SWAT Teams. The comparable unit of the German Federal Police is the → GSG 9.

Organization
The organization of special police forces varies from state to state. Whilst most states have created one SEK in their capital city, have others taken regional crime focuses into account and established SEK units in major cities known as hotspots for violent crime, such as the North Rhine-Westphalia Police or Rheinland-Pfalz State Police. The Bavarian State Police and Hessen State Police have two SEKs each, one covering the north and one covering the south of the state. A SEK unit can be attached to the (barracked) Rapid Reaction Police or to big regional police headquarters. However, the common trend is to put the SEK units under control of the State Investigation Bureau, whenever possible in a unit also consisting of the Mobiles Einsatzkommando (MEK, mobile special response unit) or other specialized forces like crisis negotiation teams. The internal organisation of SEKs rests with the units and therefore differs as well. The SEK of South Bavaria has an alpine component and the SEK units of Bremen and Hamburg have elements trained for maritime tasks. Some SEKs also have specialized negotiation groups (Verhandlungsgruppen, commonly abbreviated as VGs) for cases like hostage situations or suicide attempts.

Eligibility and training
Any state police officer is eligible to apply for service in an SEK but it is common only to consider applications from officers with at least two years of duty experience. The age limit is mostly between 23 and 35 years, whilst operatives have to leave the entry teams when they reach the age of 42 (or 45 in some states). Both sexes can be recruited, however only a few policewomen have been able to handle the extensive and challenging tests. At the moment, only the SEK units of Hamburg (note: the SEK-equivalent unit in Hamburg is also called MEK), Schleswig-Holstein and Southern Hesse have women in their ranks. Basically the requirements demand physical and mental strength, discernment and capacity for teamwork. Only about 30 percent of all candidates pass the tests. The length of the training necessary to become an operative in a SEK unit differs but is generally five to eight months long and covers a wide range of required skills.

Missions
Mainly unrecognized by media and public, the main tasks of SEK units are to serve arrest warrants and to deal with barricaded suspects. Hostage sieges, kidnappings and raids also belong to their missions as well as other scenarios like personal security detail for VIPs or witnesses. Since the 1970s, each SEK has handled several thousand deployments. The front-runner is the SEK of the Berlin State Police with - arithmetically speaking - 1.4 deployments a day and up to 500 deployments a year.

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Equipment and uniforms
Unlike other police institutions, SEKs are not bound to normal procurement policies and can order the equipment they feel is best for their mission. The basic gear for every officer is a standard sidearm and a submachine gun, typically the Heckler & Koch MP5. Other weapons in a unit's inventory include assault rifles such as the Heckler & Koch G36 or the Austrian Steyr AUG rifle, and shotguns of different manufacturers. The most common precision rifles used are the Heckler & Koch PSG1 and bolt action rifles manufactured by Blaser, Unique Alpine and Accuracy International. Some units also field specialized or heavy weapons such as the G8 machine gun or the French PGM Hecate II .50-caliber sniper rifle. SEK members do not always operate in uniform and wear masks to protect their identities. If cited in a trial they are only referred to as numbers. When off-duty SEK officers are called to a crime scene, they may appear plainclothed, only wearing their special protective gear and carrying their weapons.

MEKs
Mobile special response units (Mobile Einsatzkommandos or MEKs) operate hand-in-hand with the SEKs. These plain-clothed units are specialized in surveillance, quick arrests and mobile hostage sieges or kidnappings. They are often used in investigations against organized crime or blackmailers. The MEK is often also the unit providing close protection for the state's senior leaders, including the state's minister president. Requirements for the duty as a MEK officer are similar or partially less strict than the requirements for the SEK.

German Democratic Republic
The SEK units of the states that belonged to the German Democratic Republic prior to 1990 do partially consist of officers who were members of East Germany's GSG 9 counterpart, a unit called Diensteinheit IX. DE IX members had to fulfill similar requirements. Alexander Schalck-Golodkowski, the regime's leading trader, purchased West German weapons and ammunition for DE IX in the mid-80s to fill capability gaps.

See also
• • • • • • Kommando Spezialkräfte (KSK) Kampfschwimmer → Zentrale Unterstützungsgruppe Zoll Special Activities Division Delta Force SEAL Team Six

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External links and references
• (German) Polizei.de [1] • (German) Spezialeinsatzkommando (SEK) at Sondereinheiten.de [2] • (German) Reinhard Scholzen: Spezialeinsatzkommandos der deutschen Polizei Motorbuchverlag, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-613-02016-5.

References
[1] http:/ / www. polizei. de [2] http:/ / www. sondereinheiten. de/ einheiten/ sek/

Zentrale Unterstützungsgruppe Zoll
Zuz redirects here, Zuz could also refer to Zuz Hebrew coin. The Zentrale Unterstützungsgruppe Zoll (Central Customs Support Group, ZUZ) is the → SWAT unit of the German customs service (Bundeszollverwaltung) and subordinate to the German Customs Investigation Bureau (Zollkriminalamt, ZKA). It was formed in 1997 as the customs SWAT team for use when regular officers would be in too much danger. Preservation of the various basic skills (i.e., shooting, sport and self-defence) is a top priority on the ZUZ training plan as well as driving and safety training and courses on new technical devices.

See also
• • • • KSK Kampfschwimmer → GSG 9 → Spezialeinsatzkommando

External links
• Official page [1] (in German)

References
[1] http:/ / www. zoll. de/ d0_zoll_im_einsatz/ h0_zollfahndung/ a0_zka/ a0_aufgaben/ a0_zuz/ index. html

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Greece
Special Anti-Terrorist Unit
Eidiki Katastaltiki Antitromokratiki Monada Active Country Branch Type Role Size Part of 1978 - Present Greece Hellenic Police Special Forces Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement 200 operators Directly under control of the Hellenic Police

Garrison/HQ Most operators based in Athens Nickname EKAM, Special Suppressive Anti-Terrorist Unit (English translation of unit name)

The Special Suppressive Anti-Terrorist Unit (Greek: Ε.Κ.Α.Μ. - Ειδική Κατασταλτική Αντιτρομοκρατική Μονάδα, Eidiki Katastaltiki Antitromokratiki Monada) is the Greek counter-terrorism unit of the Hellenic Police. It is the most distinguished part of the Hellenic Police. It was formed in 1978 when the first 2 antiterrorist units were created within the 2 Police Divisions that existed then (Hellenic Gendarmerie and the Hellenic Urban Police) and in 1984 were united into a single body, the Hellenic Police. In the beginning the Unit had only 150 men but when Greece became the host country of the Olympic Games of 2004 their number increased to 200 after reassessing the needs for the magnitude of the event.

Training
The EKAM force is based in Athens, but have several detachments spread throughout Greece's major cities. Each officer is a full time member who must have at least five years on the force before being allowed to try out. Many receive training from the Greek Army's Ranger School before going on to the police counter-terrorism school.[1] The Special Suppressive Anti-Terrorist Unit of the Hellenic Police follows a three month training program every year. For its training modern, purpose-built facilities are being used. Training can also take place in other locations such as buildings in urban or rural areas (inhabited or not), the Athens International Airport, planes of Olympic Airways, the Piraeus port infrastructure, the Hellenic Railroad system, the Athens Metro. Other places that have been decided as suitable to cover its training needs can also be used. The Unit is in constant cooperation with other Special Units abroad such as The FBI and SAS .

Operations
The Special Suppressive Anti-Terrorist Unit of the Hellenic Police, operates all around Greece and abroad whenever is deemed necessary. It has confronted challenges such as hostage situations and it has contributed in the arrests of many dangerous criminals. The SRATU played a key role in the dismantling of the November 17 and Revolutionary People's Struggle terrorist organizations. In March 2003, it confronted successfully an incident on a Turkish Aeroplane which was hijacked while it flew from Istanbul to Ankara (flight no. 160) and ended up at the Athens International Airport at the order of the hijacker. In a successful operation the Unit stormed the plane and arrested

Special Anti-Terrorist Unit the hijacker by incapacitating him with a taser[2] and releasing all hostages safely.[3]

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Duties
• • • • • Hostage situation response High risk arrests High risk VIP's escort W.M.D (Weapons of mass destruction) (C.B.R.N) hostage situation, intrusion response Special antiterrorism operations and operations against organized crime in collaboration with the Hellenic Security Forces • Rescue operations in general including physical disasters in cooperation with the Fire Brigade

Equipment
• • • • • • • • • • • Accuracy International AW[4] Colt M4 carbine[4] AK47[4] FN Herstal Five-Seven[4] [5] FN Herstal P90[4] [5] [6] FN Herstal FAL FN Herstal MAG[4] Glock 21[4] Heckler & Koch MP5[4] Remington 870[4] Sig Sauer P229[4]

References
[1] ::Rieas:: - Greek Special Forces Outlook (http:/ / rieas. gr/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=183& Itemid=66) [2] " TASER International, Inc. commends Greek Police Special Forces on use of ADVANCED TASER M26 to arrest Turkish Airlines Flight 160 hijacker (http:/ / www. prnewswire. co. uk/ cgi/ news/ release?id=100343)". TASER International. . Retrieved 2007-06-09. [3] " Turkish Aeroplane hijacked (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 2897667. stm)". BBC News (BBC). 2003-03-29. . [4] " Greece Ministry of Public Order Press Office: Special Anti-Terrorist Unit (http:/ / www. astynomia. gr/ images/ stories/ DOCS/ Attachment11480_ENHMEROTIKO_EKAM_ENGL. pdf)". http:/ / astynomia. gr - Official Website of the Hellenic Police. July 2004. . Retrieved 2009-10-13. [5] Milosevic, Milan (2005). " Trojanski Konj za Teroriste (http:/ / www. kalibar. rs/ code/ navigate. php?Id=74)" (in Serbian). Kalibar. . Retrieved 2009-10-13. [6] "EKAM: Athens' Specialist Force" (June 01, 2004). Intersec UK Magazine (ISSN: 09630058), Volume 14 Issue 6, pp 182.

145

Hong Kong
Police Tactical Unit (Hong Kong)
Police Tactical Unit (PTU) - formerly Police Tactical Contingent (1958-1968)

The PTU during the WTO 2005 meeting protests Active Country Branch Type Role Size Part of Garrison/HQ Nickname Anniversaries Engagements 1958-Present
 Hong Kong

Hong Kong Police Force Special Forces internal security, illegal immigration operations, crowd management, anti-crime operations and disaster response duties 1,020 Hong Kong Police Force Operations Wing 1 Wu Tip Shan Road, Fanling Blue Hat Brigade 2008 riot control Commanders

Current commander

Tony Wong Chi-hung

The Police Tactical Unit (PTU, Chinese: 警察機動部隊) is a special unit of the Hong Kong Police Force. This unit is made up of six companies, comprising in total about 1,020 officers. Each company (under the command of a Superintendent)is made up of 4 platoons, each led by an Inspector or Senior Inspector. A platoon comprises 32 Officers with 1 Station Sergeant (senior NCO) and 8 Sergeants. The PTU provides an immediate manpower reserve for use in any emergency. PTU companies are attached to all land Regions and are available for internal security, crowd management, riot control, anti-crime operations and disaster response duties throughout Hong Kong. The PTU also provides up-to-date instruction and training in internal security and crowd management techniques for a wide cross-section of Force members.

Police Tactical Unit (Hong Kong) The division is often referred to as 'The Blue Hat Brigade' by Hong Kong locals. The name is in reference to the blue (now black) berets worn as part of their uniform The → Special Duties Unit was formed out of the PTU's Sniper Squad in 1974.

146

Firearms
• • • • Smith & Wesson Model 10 Remington 870 Federal Model 201-Z Riot Gun AR-15

Vehicles
• Mercedes-Benz Vario • Mercedes-Benz Sprinter • Saxon (vehicle) AT105

In popular culture
• The unit is portrayed in the 2003 film PTU, directed by Johnnie To. • 2007 TVB series On The First Beat • The unit is also portrayed in the 2009 film series Tactical Unit, directed by Johnnie To and with the same leading actors and actress of the 2003 film PTU. • The PTU also appear briefly in The Sniper 2009.

See also
• → Special Duties Unit • → Airport Security Unit • VIP Protection Unit

External links
• History of PTU - Hong Kong Police [1] • PTU [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. info. gov. hk/ police/ hkp-text/ english/ history/ history_03. htm [2] http:/ / www. info. gov. hk/ gia/ general/ 200811/ 21/ P200811210279. htm

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Special Duties Unit
Special Duties Unit (SDU)

Post-Royal Hong Kong Police SDU Patch Active Country Branch Type Role Size Part of Nickname Engagements July 1963- Present
 Hong Kong

Hong Kong Police Force Special Forces Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement No official figures, estimated at 120+
→ Police Tactical Unit

Fei Foo Dui (飛虎隊) or Flying Tigers Various anti-crime operations Commanders

Notable commanders

Peter Yam Tat-wing (任達榮) Insignia

Identification symbol

SDU Armpatch

The Special Duties Unit (Abbreviation: SDU; Traditional Chinese: 特別任務連, nicknamed 飛虎隊 Flying Tigers) is a secretive and elite paramilitary → police unit of the Hong Kong Police. Established in July 1974, it is a sub-division of the → Police Tactical Unit (PTU).[1] Its primary functions include counter-terrorism, anti-narcotic raids, hostage rescue and other crimes (usually involving firearms) which are deemed too dangerous for local police to handle. The unit holds regular training exercises with similar units from around the world and used to be trained by the British SAS before the handover of Hong Kong to China.

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Origins & history
The establishment of SDU can be traced back to an incident on March 13 1971, when a plane from Philippine Airlines was hijacked and landed in Kai Tak Airport. Though the incident was resolved peacefully, the Hong Kong Police Force became concerned that a similar incident would occur in the future.[2] A "marksmen squad" (神槍手隊) was assembled in 1973 and later reorganized into the Special Duties Unit in 1974.[3] The unit is modeled after the British SAS. When SAS personnel came to Hong Kong in 1978 to refine their CQB techniques as well as training syllabus, SDU received their training from the SAS.[2] [4] [3]
The arm-patch of the SDU, pre-'97. Note the "Royal Hong Kong Police" name on the patch.

Reports of a proposal to slash down salaries of SDU operators were shot down in a press conference to disprove the said reports, saying that the people "can rest assured that the high level of anti-terrorist capability and readiness will always be maintained."[5]

Organisation
It consists of a support group, administration group and the action group. The action group is the core of the unit, further categorised into the land assault team, the water assault team and the sniper team. The following units include:[2] • Operation Team, which is divided into Team A and Team B, together with the Sniper team. Team C is responsible for the training of SDU officers. • The medical team, which consists of SDU officers with special trainings on battlefield first aids. • The headquarter, which is responsible for all administrative works, as well as providing intelligences to the operations. • The boat team, which maintains and operate the Zodiac vessels. The Zodiac vessels are also used by the US Navy SEAL Special Operation Force. • The maintenance team, which maintain all land vehicles as well as the Asia's most advanced Close Quarter Battle (CQB) House. • special duties paramedics - introduced in 2000

The SDU Water Team
British SBS operators also helped SDU develop its own specialist marine attack unit (known as the Marine Counter Terrorist Team; nicknamed: 水鬼隊 "Water Ghosts") after an incident in the early 1980s.[3] Due to its highly specialist nature, the Marine Counter Terrorist Team has often been compared with the United States Navy SEALs. An SDU sniper in the team was seriously injured when having joint training with SEAL Team 6 in 1991, during a ship-boarding exercise. The Marine Counter Terrorist Team was later disbanded in 2000, because all current SDU operators are equally trained and proficient in maritime operations.

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Training & Selection
To maintain the SDU's high standards, recruitment exercises are not open to the general public. To even qualify for the recruitment, one must have a minimum two years service in the → Police Tactical Unit and complete training under the PTU,[6] and to be both a non-smoker and non-drinker. The selection process is very stringent, with a high drop-out rate; only about 100 are selected to enlist in the SDU. Contrary to popular belief, the unit does not train with mainland China special forces. The SDU's training program has been merged with the → ASU recently to prevent potential candidates from dropping out from either unit.[7] The officers in the unit maintain a high degree of secrecy and only the closest family members know their true identity. Interestingly, the SDU does not enforce a retirement age, due to the unit's emphasis on overall personal capability rather than physical prowess alone; an officer only retires when he wishes to resign or has become incapable of fulfilling his duties. At their retirement, they are paid a lump sum of Hong Kong dollar (HK) $2,000,000 and would still receive a monthly pension thereafter. SDU operators had conducted training exercises with foreign special forces units, including the Navy SEALs, Delta Force, STAR, GIGN, SBS and the British SAS.[6]

Equipment & weapons
The SDU has been known to be armed/formerly armed with the following weapons and equipment:[8] [9] Pistol S&W M10 (Early 70s - late 70s) Browning Mk3 (Late 70s - early 90s) Glock 17 (Early 90s - present) Submachine Guns Sterling submachine gun (Early 70s - late70s) MP5A3 (Early 80s - present) MP5A5 (Early 80s - present) MP5SD3 (Early 80s - present) Assault Rifle AR-15 (Early 70s - early 80s) XM-177 (1982 - 2000) MC-51 (1992 - 1996) M-4 (2001 - present, as medium range sniper rifle) G-36KV (2001 - present, as medium range sniper rifle) Shotguns Remington 870 (Early 80s - present) Benelli M1 Super 90 (Early 80s - present) Sniper Rifles G3SG-1 (Early 80s - early 90s) PSG-1 (Late 80s - 2005) L42A1 (Early 80s - 90s) L96A1 (Early 90s - present) SR-25 (Late 90s - present) SSG-2000 (Early 90s - present)

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Known Operations
During a robbery in 1992, four robbers with AK-47 assault rifles battled the SDU, resulting in 7 operatives injured.[2] As a result of this incident, their CQB technique was further refined in order to fit Hong Kong's unique urban environment, and new equipment was added to the SDU's arsenal.[2] Before Christmas Eve of 2003, Kwai Ping Hung the most wanted person in Hong Kong was arrested in a joint raid between the SDU and Criminal Intelligence Branch (CIB, Team D) with no gunshots being reported.[10] When the WTO Ministerial Conference of 2005 was held in Hong Kong, the SDU was deployed to protect WTO delegates in the country.[11]

SDU in Popular Culture
Similar to the LAPD → SWAT team, the unit is known for their numerous fictional appearances in TV shows and movies in Hong Kong. • The SDU appear in Stephen Chow's Fight Back To School trilogy. The first time Stephen Chow's character is participating in a SDU training program, the second movie the SDU appear to eliminate European/American terrorists in a hostage situation in a international school. • The SDU appear in Hard Boiled, but in few numbers to help Inspector Tequila Yuen remedy a large hospital hostage situation. • The SDU made an appearance in a computer game, in the last mission of Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six: Rogue Spear: Urban Operations, but have been already gunned down by the time the Rainbow team reaches them. There are also numerous reference to the Flying Tigers nickname in the neon-signs throughout the level. • The SDU also appear in Dante Lam's Hit Team (2001). However these particular operatives have gone rogue and are portrayed as the main anti heroes of the film. • The SDU are a playable Counter Terrorist team from downloading their skins from Counter Strike source in the 2003 game Counter Strike. • The SDU was recently realistically portrayed in Breaking News. However, they were made famous in Hong Kong cinema from the Final Option, First Option and New Option series of movies starring Michael Wong as the brash troop leader of a SDU platoon. • The SDU were also featured in the highly popular and multiple award winning Benny Chan film, New Police Story, featuring Jackie Chan and Nicholas Tse. The SDU were referenced multiple times throughout the film and appeared in force near the end of the film during the final confrontation scene. • The SDU appear in large numbers in Invisible Target to assist in taking down the Ronin gang. • The SDU also appear in The Dark Knight when Batman apprehends Lau in Hong Kong and takes him back to Gotham City. • The SDU made a recent appearance in Dante Lam's 2009 action film The Sniper either as backup or as support for the Sniper situation scenes.

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151

See also
• → Airport Security Unit • → Police Tactical Unit

External links
• SDUPro.com [12]

References
[1] " Hong Kong Special Duties Unit (http:/ / www. specialoperations. com/ Foreign/ Hong_Kong/ Default. htm)". Special Operations. . Retrieved 2009-01-07. [2] " Unofficial SDU History (http:/ / hk. geocities. com/ sduhongkong/ origin. html)". . Retrieved 2009-01-07. [3] " Unofficial SDU History Page (http:/ / www. sdupro. com/ info. html)" (in Traditional Chinese). . Retrieved 2009-01-07. [4] " "Flying Tigers" Roar for Consular Corps (http:/ / www. police. gov. hk/ offbeat/ 610/ ehead. html)". . Retrieved 2009-01-07. [5] " No plan to cut resources for Special Duties Unit : Hong Kong Police (http:/ / www. police. gov. hk/ pprb/ peb/ english/ H021701_e. html)". . Retrieved 2009-01-07. [6] " Unofficial SDU Training Page (http:/ / hk. geocities. com/ sduhongkong/ )". . Retrieved 2009-01-07. [7] " Joint recruitment for SDU and ASU (http:/ / www. info. gov. hk/ gia/ general/ 200108/ 29/ 0829219. htm)". 2001-08-29. . Retrieved 2009-01-07. [8] " Unofficial SDU Equipment Page (http:/ / hk. geocities. com/ sduhongkong/ equipment. html)". . Retrieved 2009-01-07. [9] " Unofficial SDU Kit Page (http:/ / www. sdupro. com/ kit. html)" (in Traditional Chinese). . Retrieved 2009-01-07. [10] " "O記"聯同"飛虎隊"攻破械劫集團 擒獲頭號通緝犯 - 季炳雄 2003-12-24 (http:/ / www. sdupro. com/ news/ 20031224. html)" (in Traditional Chinese). . Retrieved 2009-01-07. [11] " HK in tight security for WTO ministerial conference (http:/ / english. people. com. cn/ 200512/ 11/ print20051211_227220. html)". Xinhua. . Retrieved 2009-01-07. [12] http:/ / www. sdupro. com/

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152

Airport Security Unit (Hong Kong)
Airport Security Unit (ASU) or 機場保安組 Active Country Branch Type Role Part of Garrison/HQ Colors Anniversaries 1977-present
 Hong Kong

Hong Kong Police Force New Territories South Regional Headquarters - Airport District Airport security Airport security Hong Kong Police Force Operations Wing Chek Lap Kok Police station, 8 Catering Road West, Chek Lap Kok, New Territories blue 1997 Commanders

Current commander

DC Nelson Lui Hon Kwok

The Airport Security Unit (Abbreviation: ASU; Traditional Chinese: 機場保安組) is a special branch of the Hong Kong Police tasked with the security of Hong Kong's airport. The ASU was formed in 1977 and began operations at Kai Tak Airport and moved to the new Chep Lap Kok Airport in 1997. Regular uniform officers do not patrol the Hong Kong Airport and assignment is provided by the ASU. ASU officers wear security pass identifying themselves. ASU is responsible for safety and security at the airport. Aviation Security Company (AVSECO) is responsible for screening and general security needs. Unlike regular officers, the ASU officers, generally regarded as the elite of the Hong Kong Police Force because of their extraordinary physical prowess, bear automatic weapons and wear uniforms similar to tactical or paramilitary units. Since 2001, the ASU has had joint recruitment with the → Special Duties Unit. [1]

SDU / ASU Recruitment Poster, 2005

Weapons
• AR15 • GLOCK 17 • Heckler & Koch MP5 • Telescopic batons
ASU on duty

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153

In popular culture
The ASU made a rare appearance in the movie Connected (2008). This is one of their rarest portrayals in the Hong Kong Movie cinema

See also
• Counter-terrorist units, by country
ASU on patrol

• → Special Duties Unit

External links
• ASU fan site [2] (Archived [3] 2009-10-24) • http://tw.myblog.yahoo.com/jw!fxpUnmGBGEF8PLYkT_Q-/article?mid=926&prev=1098&next=-1

References
[1] Government of Hong Kong; Joint recruitment for SDU and ASU (http:/ / www. info. gov. hk/ gia/ general/ 200108/ 29/ 0829219. htm); 2001 August 29 [2] http:/ / www. geocities. com/ hkpf_asu/ [3] http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5kmDnWFTN

154

Iceland
Víkingasveitin
Sérsveit Ríkislögreglustjórans

Active Country Type Role Size Nickname Motto

October 19 1982 – Present
 Iceland

Special forces Security of the state and state officials, Security of foreign dignitaries, Counter-Terrorism and → Law Enforcement About 50 Víkingasveitin ("The Viking squad") Með lögum skal land byggja

Engagements Yugoslav wars, Operation Enduring Freedom Commanders Current commander Jón Bjartmarz

Víkingasveitin (English: The Viking Squad), or Sérsveit ríkislögreglustjóra (English: Special Unit of the National Police Commissioner) is Iceland's elite counter-terrorism unit, specializing in various types of armed and unarmed infantry combat. It is designated to perform the same missions as → SWAT teams and CO19 of the United Kingdom, → FBI:HRT of the United States, → OMON and OSNAZ of the Russian Federation, and Germany's → GSG 9. It is in many ways modeled on the → Norwegian Delta counter-terrorist unit with which it conducts many exercises, both in Norway and Iceland. The Viking squad has about 50 police officers. The National Police Commissioner has published that the squad will be fully manned at 52 police officers.

Víkingasveitin

155

Duties
The unit is tasked with several duties, including but not limited to: • • • • Security of the state and state officials. Security of foreign dignitaries. Counter-Terrorism Support of local police forces.

Additionally, the unit is designated to protect important installations in wartime, and it is often involved in exercises with Norwegian and Danish military special forces. During the stay of the U.S. military forces in Iceland, it conducted anti-special forces training operations and was responsible for its defences against terrorism.

Squads
The Viking Squad has five main squads: • Alpha Squad: A bomb squad specializing in bomb defusal. • Bravo Squad: A boat squad specializing in operations on sea and water, diving and underwater warfare, and boat operations. • Charlie Squad: A sniper squad specializing in sniper warfare, entries, and close target reconnaissance. • Delta Squad: An intelligence squad specializing in anti-terrorism intelligence, surveillance, and infiltration. • Echo Squad: An airborne squad specializing in aircraft hijacking operations, skydiving and surprise assault operations, along with port security.

Firearms
• • • • • • Heckler & Koch MP5 Heckler & Koch G36 Assault rifle Blaser R93-7.62×51 NATO Glock 17 Steyr SSG 69 Mossberg 500

History
Armed police
Although the first Icelandic law enforcement officers, the nightwatchmen of Reykjavík in the 18th century, were heavily armed with morningstars, the armed capabilities of early 20th century police were very limited. However the threat of a communist revolution and later invasion by foreign militaries forced the Icelandic government to rethink its position on police weaponry. As a response to the forming of an illegal communist paramilitary unit Officers practicing rifle shooting in 1940. the Icelandic police acquired Krag-Jørgensen rifles, Mauser C96 and Royal 7.65 mm pistols and in late 1939 officers of the Capital Police were to form the officer corps of an Icelandic military defence force. This rearming was spearheaded by Hermann Jónasson prime minister and former police chief and Agnar Kofoed Hansen Chief of Capital Police and Officer graduate from the Danish Army. This military force never went from the training grounds as it was still training on 10 May 1940, the day 740 Royal Marines invaded Iceland.

Víkingasveitin During the war Agnar did his best to continue acquiring weapons despite the unwillingness of British occupational forces to permit such imports. Nonetheless Reising cal 45. sub-machine guns and Federal laboratories grenade launchers were bought from the U.S. along with tear and nerve gas grenades. The forming of a military defence force from the military trained portion of the Icelandic police didn't continue after the war, as it was eventually decided that the U.S. Armed Forces would continue to defend Iceland from military threats while Icelandic police concentrated on internal threats from communist revolutionary forces.

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The Viking Squad
The Special Unit is considered to have been officially founded in 19 October 1982, when its first members finished training with Norwegian Special forces. There were many reasons for commissioning the unit, including a hijacked airliner that landed at Keflavík International Airport in 1976, Eco-terrorists who sunk whaling ships in 1986 and a few occasions of criminals using firearms against unarmed policemen. It had become clear that the Icelandic Police needed an effective tool to combat such violent, armed situations. Members of the unit were deployed in the Balkans as a part of operations lead by NATO, and some members have been deployed to Afghanistan. The unit used to be under the command of the Reykjavík Chief of Police, however, in 1997, a new law was passed that put the unit directly under the National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police. In December 2003, Minister of Justice, Björn Bjarnason, introduced plans to strengthen the unit in response to the War on Terrorism, and further its responsibility in all operational issues covering more than one local jurisdictions. Today, members of the unit are stationed in three different police districts, Höfuðborgarsvæðið police district (metropolitan police), Suðurnes police district and Akureyri police district. So far, in spite of being heavily trained in it, the use of lethal force has never been required by members of the Viking squad, which its members are reported to be very proud of.

Videos
Videos of Viking squad training. • • • • • Training video [1] Training video [2] Training video [3] Training video [4] Training video [5]

References
• http://www.police.is • http://www.bjorn.is in Icelandic

See also
• Icelandic National Police • Military of Iceland

References
[1] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=_4zJKDFV_m4 [2] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=kd6B8KyncKA& feature=related [3] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=PZUjvtKdDN8& feature=related [4] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=nJmmQjHUCw0& feature=related [5] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=O3EQ6opoYpY& feature=related

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India
National Security Guards
National Security Guard राष्ट्रीय सुरक्षा गार्ड Rashtriya Suraksha Guard
Abbreviation NSG

NSG Logo

Motto

Sarvatra Sarvottam Surakhsha Everywhere the Best Protection Agency overview

Formed Legal personality

1984 Governmental: Government agency Jurisdictional structure

Federal agency Constituting instrument General nature Specialist jurisdiction

India National Security Guard Act, 1986
• •

Federal law enforcement Civilian agency

Paramilitary law enforcement, counter insurgency, armed response to civil unrest, counter terrorism, special weapons operations. Operational structure

Parent agency

Indian Police Service Indian Army Website www.nsg.gov.in
[1]

The National Security Guard (NSG)(Hindi: राष्ट्रीय सुरक्षा गार्ड) is a Special Response Unit in India that has primarily been utilized for counter-terrorism activities and was created by the Cabinet Secretariat under the National Security Guard Act of the Indian Parliament in 1986. It works completely within the Central Paramilitary Force structure. The NSG operates under the oversight of the Ministry of Home Affairs and is headed by the Director General of the Indian Police Service (IPS).[2] The DG has always been an IPS officer whereas the recruitment is done from the

National Security Guards Central Paramilitary Forces Of India and the Indian Armed Forces. The NSG members are also known as Black Cats because of the black nomex coveralls and balaclavas or assault helmets they wear. In response to criticism of the time taken for the NSG commandos to arrive in Mumbai from their base in Manesar, Haryana during the November 2008 Mumbai attacks, the Government of India has decided to deploy NSG contingents in major cities across India like Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Chennai.

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Functions
The NSG's roles include protecting VIPs, conducting anti-sabotage checks, rescuing hostages, neutralizing terrorist threats to vital installations, engaging terrorists and responding to hijacking and piracy. The NSG is much sought after for VVIP security for high-risk VVIPs in India; this task is done by the Special Rangers Group of the NSG. The Special Action Group is the strike force in anti-terrorist and anti-hijack operations, supported by the SRG and others. The NSG's specific goals include: • Neutralization of terrorist threats • Handling hijacking situations in air and on land. • Bomb disposal (search, detection and neutralisation of IEDs). • PBI (Post Blast Investigation) • Engaging and neutralizing terrorists in specific situations. • Hostage Rescue The NSG has a total personnel strength of about 14,500. The NSG is modelled on Germany's → GSG-9 [3] [4] . It is a task-oriented force and has two complementary elements in the form of the Special Action Group (SAG) and the Special Ranger Groups (SRG). All the personnel are on deputation from Indian Armed Forces. The SAG is the offensive wing drawn from units of the Indian Army. The SRG consists of members from Central Police Organisations (CPOs) such as the Border Security Force (BSF), the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) and State Police forces and other units. The NSG Training Centre is a Centre of Excellence and the National Bomb Data Centre holds international conferences. Both are located at Manesar in Haryana. The NSG Headquarters Exchange is located at Mehramnagar, Palam.

History
The NSG was established under the National Security Guard Act of 1986. The NSG was formed after an analysis of 1984 Operation Blue Star. During this operation, in which the Indian Army removed Sikh militants who had seized control of the Golden Temple, there was significant civilian collateral casualties. The temple also suffered damages during that operation. The operation highlighted the need for a force specialising in counter-terrorist operations with greater efficiency. The NSG commandos were first used to combat the insurgency movement in the Indian state of Punjab in 1986. They are now primarily utilised for counter-terrorist activities and have been continuing major combat operations in Jammu and Kashmir. NSG deployments are usually not made public, with most of its operations remaining classified. Some of the NSG's known operations include: • April 30, 1986 - attack on Khalistani militants who took over the Golden Temple during Operation Black Thunder I • May 12, 1988 — attack on Khalistani militants hiding in the Golden Temple during Operation Black Thunder II

National Security Guards • April 25, 1993 — rescue of hijacked plane Indian Airlines Boeing 737 by Islamic militants during Operation Ashwamedh • October, 1998 — major combat missions in Jammu and Kashmir • July 15, 1999 — rescue of 12 hostages held by armed terrorists who had stormed an apartment complex in Kashmir and killed 4 people • September 25, 2002 — Operation Vajra Shakti to free hostages held by terrorists who had killed 26 worshippers at the Akshardham temple in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. They suffered their first combat death in this operation. A second commando, who was seriously injured and was in a coma, died after 18 months. • November 26 2008 Mumbai attacks — Operation Black Tornado and Operation Cyclone to flush out terrorists & rescue hostages after multiple attacks across Mumbai, India. Major Sandeep Unnikrishnan and Gajender Singh Bisht of the Special Action Group lost their lives during the operations. As on December 2008, Germany offered to give additional assistance and training to the NSG by the famous → GSG-9. [5]

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Equipment
• SG 552 Commando • Heckler & Koch MP5 • • • • • Glock 17 Glock 19 Heckler & Koch PSG1 IMI Galil Sniper Heckler & Koch 512

Former Chiefs
The following had commanded the NSG in the past:[2]
• • • • • • • • • • • RT Nagrani MC Mishra KL Watts SD Pandey HP Bhatnagar Ved Marwah DVLN Ramakrishna Rao Dr S Subramanian RK Wadehra BJS Sial AK Tandon • • • • • • • • • • • RD Tyagi GS Pandher TR Kakkar Nikhil Kumar Gurbachan Jagat Dr R Rajagopalan R.S. Mooshahary AK Mitra Dr GS Rajagopal Jyoti Krishna Dutt NPS Aulakh (Present)

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In fiction
• • • • • • Sacred Games - A book by Vikram Chandra. Kashmeeram - A Malayalam movie by Rajiv Anchal; starring Suresh Gopi. Keerthi Chakra -- A Malayalam movie by Major Ravi; starring Mohanlal. Mission 90 Days - A Malayalam movie by Major Ravi; starring Mammooty. Baazi - A Hindi movie by Ashutosh Gowarikar; starring Aamir Khan. Vaaranam Aayiram -- A 2008 Tamil movie by Gautham Menon portrays Surya Sivakumar's character as an NSG agent. • Angrakshak hindi movie starring Sunny Deol.

See also
• Special Forces of India • Paramilitary forces of India • List of special response units

External links
• • • • • NSG. "National Security Guard [1]".: Official Website of NSG India Defence. "National Security Guards [6]". Retrieved May 14 2006. Bharat Rakshak. "National Security Guards [7]". Retrieved May 14 2006. Federation of American Scientists. "National Security Guards [8]". Retrieved May 14 2006. Bharat Rakshak. "National Security Guards [9]". Retrieved November 30 2008.

References
[1] http:/ / www. nsg. gov. in [2] FORMER DGS. " NSG (http:/ / nsg. gov. in/ FormerDGs. htm)". OFFICIAL WEBSITE NSG. . Retrieved 2007-10-05. [3] India Today 2009 01 09 Modernising the NSG article (http:/ / indiatoday. digitaltoday. in/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=24796& sectionid=30& Itemid=1& issueid=88) [4] Indian Express article on GSG-9 re-training the NSG (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ elite-german-police-wing-to-train-nsg/ 400650/ ) [5] http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ elite-german-police-wing-to-train-nsg/ 400650/ [6] http:/ / www. india-defence. com/ military/ nationalsecurityguards [7] http:/ / www. bharat-rakshak. com/ LAND-FORCES/ Special-Forces/ NSG. html [8] http:/ / www. fas. org/ irp/ world/ india/ mod/ nsg. htm [9] http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 19980419131938/ http:/ / www. bharat-rakshak. com/ ARMY/ NSG. html

MARCOS

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MARCOS
MARCOS (India) Active Country Branch Type Nickname 1987 - Present India Navy Special Forces Magarmach (Crocodiles)

Operation Cactus, Operation Pawan, Kargil War, Raid on LTTE in 1987, Operation Black Tornado, Operation Operations Cyclone AK-47 and variants, Colt M16A2, INSAS 5.56 mm, Type 56 assault rifle, Tavor assault rifle, HK MP5 sub-machine Equipment gun and 7.62 mm SLR assault rifle, H-3 Sea King and Chetak helicopters, Cosmos CE-2F/X100 two-man submarines.

MARCOS (previously named as Marine Commando Force (MCF)) is an elite special operations unit of the Indian Navy. "MARCOS" is short for "Marine Commandos", and MCF is an acronym for "Marine Commando Force". The force started off as the Indian Marine Special Force, the first batch qualifying in February 1987. It was later renamed as the Marine Commando Force (MCF) in 1991. The force has gradually acquired experience and a reputation for professionalism over the two decades it has been in existence. It is one of India's highest trained and best equipped forces. The force was initially trained by the other special forces of the country, including those under the Home Ministry, the Army, Air Force, Police and paramilitary units. This was later supplemented by foreign training facilities, notably the SEALS of the US Navy. Over the years, the force set up its own training facility, first as an adjunct of the operational company at Mumbai, later as the Naval Special Warfare Tactical Training Centre. Wide exposure to different forms of warfare have been obtained through field operations in counter insurgency and anti terrorist operations within the country, and joint exercises with more than a dozen countries across the world.

Strength and operations
The MCF presently has approximately 2000 personnel. Operations undertaken: • Operation Pawan (Hindi for Wind): Part of the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) in Sri Lanka in 1988. • Demolition of boats at Gurunagar Jetty. In the early part of operations in Sri Lanka, during India's peace keeping operations in the Tamil dominated parts of the country, a handful of marcos blew up a small flotilla of boats (reportedly belonging to the LTTE) at Gurunagar Jetty on the North of Jaffna City. • Operation Cactus: Part of the Indian Navy contingent defending the democratic government of President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom of the Maldives from a coup. The force played a supporting role in India's successful military aid in helping foil the attempted coup by Sri Lankan militants from the PLOTE and ENDLF. A group of 47 mercenaries attempted to escape by sea with 23 hostages, on a hijacked vessel, MV Progress Light. The MCF was pressed into service along with INS Godavari, a multi role frigate carrying Seaking helicopters, Alize aircraft operating from the Navy's base at Kochi. INS Godavari trailed the hijacked vessel for a couple of days, firing intermittently with her guns on the vessel's superstructure. An Alize anti-submarine aircraft dropped two depth charges near the vessel, causing the motley collection of militants to come up on the upper decks and surrender. A contingent of the Marcos operating from Ratmalana Airfield on the outskirts of Sri Lanka, with some help from

MARCOS the Sri Lankan Army, thereafter boarded the ship and accepted the surrender of the militants and took them into custody. • The MARCOS are presently deployed at the Wular Lake in Kashmir, one of Asia's largest fresh-water lakes, where they have achieved significant success in counter insurgency operations against Kashmiri separatist militants. • Kargil War. Covert operations behind enemy lines. • Protecting offshore oil rigs and platforms • In its first ever action in the Gulf of Aden, MARCOS thwarted an attempt by pirates to capture the Indian merchant vessel MV Jag Arnav on November 11, 2008.[1] • Operation Black Tornado: MARCOS stormed the Trident and Taj Hotels at Mumbai during the recent terrorist attacks on 27 November, 2008 during the November 2008 Mumbai attacks [2] , wounding one terrorist at the Taj, and sustaining two casualties (injuries). They were replaced by the NSG when the latter arrived later in the day, withdrawing to a supporting role. • On December 13, 2008 MARCOS units operating from the Indian Naval warship INS Mysore foiled another pirate hijack attempt of Ethiopian vessel MV Gibe off the Somali coast. In the process twenty three pirates were arrested[3]

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Training
Training includes the following:• Open and closed circuit diving. • Basic commando skills including advanced weapon skills, demolitions, endurance training and martial arts. • Para training. • Intelligence training. • Operation of submersible craft. • Offshore operations. • Anti terrorist operations. • Operations from submarines. • Skydiving. • Various special skills such as language training, insertion methods, etc. • Explosive ordnance disposal techniques. Typical qualifying rates are very low, due to which the force is presently understaffed. The selection process is two staged. Personnel wishing to serve with the MCF are first required to qualify a 3 day aptitude test of physical fitness, that screens out 80% or more of aspirants. Those reporting for selection then undergo an arduous five week screening process culminating in a 'hell's week' of sleep deprivation and grueling physical activity. Only about 20 25% of these trainees finally get to wear the marco badge. Training lasts between a year and a half and two years, which sees the trainee pass through the basic diving and commando skills, which are conducted both at the inhouse training facility at the NSWTTC, and at various armed forces, para military, home ministry and civilian establishments across the country. This phase prepares a marco for life as a general duty combatant in the force, and he has to undergo further training to take his place in a Prahar (the smallest independent section that can independently undertake operations). Basic training is followed by six months to a year of advanced training in specialised skills, that help the marco integrate into a Prahar with one or (usually

MARCOS commando on training exercise in the Philippine Sea.

MARCOS multiple) responsibilities.

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Activities
Candidates use tactics similar to the Israeli undercover special warfare units called Mistaravim (Hebrew for "Those who pretend to be Arabs"), sporting beards and wearing the 'pheren' (Kashmiri suit), thus making them indistinguishable from the locals. Marcos have been active in Jammu and Kashmir as part of the Army's counter-terrorist efforts. Their main task is to control the infiltration of terrorists from across Pakistan into Jammu and Kashmir through the Jhelum River and Wullar, a 65 square kilometer freshwater lake. Some Marcos personnel are also attached with the Army special forces units conducting counter-terrorism operations in the area. During 2003, the MCF participated in training exercises called Exercise Balance Iroquois 03-1/Vajra Prahar, with American Special Operations Forces in Mizoram [4]. During September 2005, the MCF participated in the joint US/Indian naval exercises called Malabar 05.

Bases
The MCF currently operates out of the naval bases at Mumbai, Visakhapatnam and Port Blair. Plans are afoot to shift the existing training facility the (Naval Special Warfare Training and Tactical Centre) to a new facility to be set up at the erstwhile Naval Academy in Goa on the lines of the Indian Army's Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School (CIJWS) in Warangte, Mizoram.

Equipment
• Small Arms: AK-47 and variants, AKS-74U, AK103, APS, INSAS 5.56 mm, Tavor Assault Rifles, Commando Carbines HK MP5 sub-machine gun with variants, M4 carbine. The 7.62 mm SLR assault rifle and the SVD_Dragunov sniper rifle is used in long range and sniping roles respectively and Uzi. • Support Weapons: Carl Gustav 84mm RL (M2), C90 RL, FN 7.62 mm MMGs, 40 mm grenade launchers, automatic grenade launchers, shoulder fired anti aircraft missiles, • Transport: H-3 Sea King,Chetak and HAL Dhruv helicopters, Cosmos CE-2F/X100 two-man submarines

See also
• • • • • • • • SEAL Team Six US Navy SEAL CIA Special Activities Division MARSOC Marine Force Recon Marines Special Forces of India Indian Naval Academy

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References
• De Lionis, Andres. "Marine Commandos: India's Flexible Elite", Jane's Intelligence Review, 8:230-232, May 1996 • "Naval marine commandos bag gallantry awards for operations against ultras", Indian Express, March 10, 2000 • Bharat Rakshak [5], an Indian defence analysis website

References
[1] " Navy foils Indian ship's hijack attempt off Aden (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ India/ Navy_foils_Indian_ship_hijack_off_Aden/ articleshow/ 3699918. cms)". Times of India. . Retrieved November 11, 2008. [2] " MARCOS - Bravehearts who rescued Mumbai's hostages (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ thehindu/ holnus/ 001200811281760. htm)". The Hindu. . Retrieved November 28, 2008. [3] " India plays globo cop off Somali coast as Western navies play safe (http:/ / www. bharat-rakshak. com/ NEWS/ newsrf. php?newsid=10510)". Bharat Rakshak. . Retrieved December 24, 2008. [4] http:/ / www. hvk. org/ articles/ 0503/ 157. html [5] http:/ / www. bharat-rakshak. com/ NAVY/ Marines. html

Central Bureau of Investigation

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Central Bureau of Investigation
Central Bureau of Investigation केंद्रीय अन्वेषण ब्यूरो Kendriya Anveshan Byuro
Motto Industry, Impartiality and Integrity Agency overview Formed Preceding agency Legal personality 1963, April 1 Special Police Establishment (SPE) (1941) Governmental: Government agency Jurisdictional structure Federal agency Governing body General nature India Government of India
• •

Federal law enforcement Civilian agency

Operational structure Headquarters Agency executive Parent agency Child agency Regions Facilities Branchs 52 Notables Person Significant issues
• • • • • •

New Delhi, India Ashwani Kumar, Director Department of Personnel and Training Interpol National Central Bureau India branch

D. P. Kohli, Executive Director, for being the founding director (1963 to 1968) Bofors ISRO spy ring Hawala Nithari Killings Priyadarshini Mattoo Website
http:/ / www. cbi. gov. in/

The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) (Hindi: केंद्रीय अन्वेषण ब्यूरो 'Kendriya Janch Bureau'), is India's premier investigating agency, responsible for a wide variety of criminal and national security matters. It was established on 1 April, 1963 and evolved from the Special Police Establishment founded in 1941. The Central Bureau of Investigation is controlled by the Department of Personnel and Training in the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pension of the Union Government usually headed by a Union Minister who reports directly to the Prime Minister. While analogous in structure to the FBI, the CBI's powers and function are severely limited to specific crimes based on Acts (mainly the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946). The CBI is the official Interpol unit for India.The current director of CBI is Ashwani Kumar (since August 02, 2008).

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Introduction
The Central Bureau of Investigation traces its origin to the Special Police Establishment (SPE) (Hindi: विशेष पुलिस संस्थापन Vishesh Police Sansthapan), which was set up in 1941 by the Government of India. The functions of the SPE then were to investigate cases of bribery and corruption in transactions with the War & Supply Deptt. Of India during World War II. Superintendent of the SPE was vested with the War Department. Even after the end of the War, the need for a Central Government agency to investigate cases of bribery and corruption by Central Government employees was felt. The Delhi Special Police Establishment Act was therefore brought into force in 1946. This Act transferred the superintendence of the SPE to the Home Department and its functions were enlarged to cover all departments of the Govt. of India. The jurisdiction of the SPE extended to all the Union Territories and could be extended also to the States with the consent of the State Government concerned.

Founder Director
The founder director of the CBI was D.P. Kohli who held office from 1 April 1963 to 31 May 1968. Before this, he was Inspector-General of Police of the Special Police Establishment from 1955 to 1963. Before that he held responsible positions in police in Madhya Bharat, Uttar Pradesh and Govt. of India. He was Police Chief in Madhya Bharat before joining the SPE. Kohli was awarded 'Padma Bhushan' in 1967 for his distinguished services. Kohli was a visionary who saw in the Special Police Establishment the potential of growing into the national investigative agency. He nurtured the organisation during his long stint as Inspector General and as Director and laid the solid foundation on which the organisation grew over the decades to become what it is today.

DP Kohli the founder Director of CBI

CBI takes shape
As the CBI, over the years, established a reputation of being India's premier investigative agency with adequate resources to deal with complicated cases, demands were made on it to take up investigation of more cases of conventional crime such as murder, kidnapping, terrorism, etc. Apart from this, the Supreme court and even the various High Courts of the country also started entrusting such cases for investigation to the CBI on petitions filed by aggrieved parties. Taking into account the fact that several cases falling under this category were being taken up for investigation by the CBI, it was found expedient to entrust such cases to the Branches having local jurisdiction. It was therefore decided in 1987 to constitute two investigation divisions in the CBI, namely, Anti-Corruption Division and Special Crimes Division, the latter dealing with cases of conventional crime, besides economic offences. The CBI is a central subject under the Constitution of India, meaning that it reports to the Indian Government and not to the individual states.

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Role and Functions
The CBI is the premier investigating → police agency in India. It is an elite force playing a major role in preservation of values in public life and in ensuring the health of the national economy. It is also the nodal police agency in India which coordinates investigation on behalf of Interpol Member countries. The services of its investigating officers are sought for all major investigations in the country. CBI as an organisation is held in high esteem by the Supreme Court, the High Courts, the Parliament and the public. The CBI has to investigate major crimes in the country having interstate and international ramifications. It is also involved in collection of criminal intelligence pertaining to three of its main areas of operation, viz., Anti-Corruption, Economic Crimes and Special Crimes. CBI investigations have a major impact on the political and economic life of the nation. The following broad categories of criminal cases are handled by the CBI: • Anti Corruption Division: Cases of corruption and fraud committed by public servants of all Central Govt. Departments, Central Public Sector Undertakings and Central Financial Institutions. • Economic Crimes Division: Deals with cases including bank frauds, financial frauds, Import Export & Foreign Exchange violations, large-scale smuggling of narcotics, antiques, cultural property and smuggling of other contraband items etc. • Special Crimes Division: Deals with cases such as cases of terrorism, bomb blasts, sensational homicides, kidnapping for ransom and crimes committed by the mafia/the underworld.

Structure of CBI
The CBI is headed by a Director. Director is selected based on the procedure laid down by CVC Act 2003 and has a tenure of 2 years. The other important ranks in the CBI are Special Director, Additional Director, Joint Director, Deputy Inspector General of Police,Sr. Superintendent of Police, Superintendent of Police, Additional Superintendent of Police, Dy. Superintendent of Police, Inspector, Sub-Inspector, Assistant Sub-Inspector, Head Constable and Constable.[1] According to annual reports Staff of CBI is usually divided between Ministerial staff, Ex-cadre posts which are usually of technical nature, Executive Staff and EDP Staff. Hindi Bhasha staff belongs to the Deptt of official languages. Ministerial Staff includes LDC, UDC, Crime Assistants etc. Executive Staff includes Constables, ASI, Sub-Inspectors, Inspectors etc. EDP Staff includes Data Entry Operators, Data Processing Assistants, Assistant Programmers, Programmers and SSA.

Problems within CBI
EDP Staff or technical staff, and ministerial staff is demanding 25% salary addition which is otherwise available to executive staff of CBI. This is termed by them as a differentiation because executive staff is also entitled to 13 months salary. The sanctioned strength of CBI is 5960, of which 81% post is already posted as on 2008[2] .

Jurisdiction Powers, privileges and liabilities
The legal powers of investigation of CBI are derived from the DSPE Act 1946. This Act confers concurrent and coextensive powers, duties, privileges and liabilities on the members of Delhi Special Police Establishment (CBI) with Police Officers of the Union Territories. The Central Government may extend to any area, besides Union Territories, the powers and jurisdiction of members of the CBI for investigation subject to the consent of the Government of the concerned State. While exercising such powers, members of the CBI of or above the rank of Sub

Central Bureau of Investigation Inspector shall be deemed to be officers incharge of Police Stations of respective jurisdictions. The CBI can investigate only such of the offences as are notified by the Central Government under the DSPE Act.

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Jurisdiction of CBI vis-a-vis State Police
Law and Order is a State subject and the basic jurisdiction to investigate crime lies with State Police. Besides, due to limited resources, CBI would not be able to investigate crimes of all kind. CBI may investigate: • Cases which are essentially against Central Govt. employees or concerning affairs of the Central Govt. and the employees of the Central Public Sector Undertakings and Public Sector Banks. • Cases in which the financial interests of the Central Government are involved. • Cases relating to the breaches of Central Laws with the enforcement of which the Government of India is mainly concerned. • Big cases of fraud, cheating, embezzlement and the like relating to companies in which large funds are involved and similar other cases when committed by organised gangs or professional criminals having ramifications in several States. • Cases having interstate and international ramifications and involving several official agencies where, from all angles, it is considered necessary that a single investigating agency should be incharge of the investigation.

Former Directors (1961 - Present)
Name D P Kohli F. V. Arul D Sen S N Mathur C V Narsimhan John Lobo R D Singh J S Bajwa M G Katre A P Mukherjee R Sekhar Vijay Karan S K Datta K V R Rao J Singh R C Sharma Period 1963–68 1968–71 1971-77 1977 1977 1977–79 1979-80 1980–85 1985-89 1989–90 1990 1990–92 1992–93 1993–96 1996–97 1997–98 Acting Acting Acting Acting Notes

D R Karthikeyan 1998 T N Mishra R K Raghavan P C Sharma U S Misra 1998–99 1999–2001 2001–2003 2003–2005

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V S Mishra A Kumar 2005–2008 2008-Present

Controversies
Normally, cases assigned to the CBI are sensitive and of national importance. It is a usual practice for the respective state → police departments, to initially register any case coming under its jurisdiction, and if necessary, through mediation by the central government, the cases may be transferred to the CBI. The CBI handles many high profile cases, and is never far from controversy.

Bofors issue
In January 2006, it was found that CBI had quietly unfrozen bank accounts of Italian businessman Ottavio Quattrocchi, one of the prime accused in the Bofors scandal of 1986 which had tainted the Rajiv Gandhi government.[3] The Central Bureau of Investigation has been responsible for the inquiry into the Bofors Case. Associates of the late prime minister Rajiv Gandhi were linked to alleged pay-offs made in the mid-1980s by the Swedish arms form AB Bofors, with $40 million in kickbacks moved from Britain and Panama to secret Swiss banks. The $1,300 million arms purchase of 410 howitzer field guns involved in the sale were reported to be inferior to those offered by a French competitor. The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), which defreezed Rs 21 crore stashed in a London bank in two accounts held by Bofors scam accused Ottavio Quattrocchi and his wife Maria in 2006, has facilitated his travel across the globe by asking Interpol to take him off the “wanted” list on 29 Apr 2009. Following a communication from the CBI, the Interpol has withdrawn the Red Corner Notice against the Italian. The development that comes barely three weeks before the end of the Manmohan Singh government’s tenure has brought back the issue of the Bofors scandal to the centre stage.

ISRO spy ring case
In 1994 two scientists with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and two Indian businessmen were arrested for allegedly conspiring to sell space secrets to two Maldivian women, who were originally described by newspapers as agents of Pakistani intelligence, for money and sex. The CBI investigation did not reveal the existence of a spy ring, and by early 1995 it was clear that the case was more a product of inexperience and over exuberation on the part of the police and Intelligence Bureau.It was a well planned scheme to remove the then DGP Ramon S by concocted links to Maldivian lady. The scheme was plotted by some officers of Kerala police, the media and Muslim League as DGP was made of sterner stuff.

Hawala scandal
In 1991 an arrest linked to militants in Kashmir led to a raid on hawala brokers, revealing evidence of large-scale payments to national politicians. The prosecution that followed was partly prompted by a public interest petition (see Vineet Narain), and yet the court cases of the Hawala scandal eventually all collapsed without convictions. The CBI's role was again criticised. In concluding the Vineet Narain case, the Supreme Court of India directed that the Central Vigilance Commission should be given a supervisory role over the CBI.[4]

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Priyadarshini Mattoo murder case
The CBI has been under a cloud owing to its handling of the Priyadarshini Mattoo case, in which the alleged murderer of a 22-year old law student was acquitted for what the case judge called "deliberate inaction" by the investigating team. The accused was the son of a high ranking officer in the Indian Police Service, due to which the case had been shifted from the regular police force to the CBI. However, the 1999 judgment commented on how "the influence of the father of the accused has been there". Embarrassed by the judgment, the-then CBI Director, R K Raghavan, requested two Special Directors, P C Sharma and G H Achari, to study the judgement. Subsequently the CBI appealed the verdict in Delhi High court in 2000, after which the High Court issued a bailable warrant against the accused. The case again shot into limelight in 2006 after much media coverage and public bashing (this was mainly due to a similar acquittal in another high profile case though not handled by the CBI). The CBI filed an application for early hearing in July 2006. The High Court subsequently found Santosh Kumar Singh guilty of rape and murder and awarded death sentence for the same in October 2006.

Nithari Killings
The CBI was given the responsibility of investigating the murders of dozens of children in the Nithari village near Noida, UP. This was after the local police was found to be incompetent and lethargic in their investigations. The serial killings were in the Indian and international media for weeks since decomposing bodies were found outside the house of the accused Moninder Singh.

Dawood Ibrahim case
In August 2007, the CBI asked its Pakistani counterpart, the Federal Investigation Agency, for its comments on recent media reports about the detention of Dawood Ibrahim by authorities in Karachi.

Sister Abhaya murder case
Sister Abhaya murder case concerns a nun, who was found dead in a water well in Saint Pius X convent hostel in Kottayam, Kerala on 27 March 1992. Altogether there were five CBI inquiries into the murder case so far without any tangible results. Kerala HC had observed that even the CBI had lied in this case.[5] It was later revealed that Catholic lobby had been preventing the truth from emerging and had even arranged psychological training the guilty clergymen and nun who were found in a compromising position by sister Abhaya. Kerala High court recommended to take action against CBI officer Agarwal for giving false information and editing the CD, which he received from forensic lab Bangalore .[6]

Convictions
CBI has a high conviction rate.

Central Bureau of Investigation

171

Year

Conviction Rate

2008 66.2% [2] 2007 67.7% [7]

CBI Academy
CBI Academy at Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, started functioning in 1996. The Academy is situated towards east of Delhi, in Ghaziabad district of Uttar Pradesh[8] at a distance of around 40 km from New Delhi Railway Station and about 65 km from Indira Gandhi International Airport, Delhi. It is spread over of 26.5 acres (107,000 m²) of lush green fields and plantations with a covered area consisting of the Administrative, Academic, Hostel and Residential Blocks. Prior to that a small Training Centre was functional at Lok Nayak Bhawan, New Delhi only for conducting short term in-service courses. CBI then, was dependent on State Police Training Institutions and NPA, Hyderabad for training basic courses of Dy.SsP, SIs and constables. The Academy now caters to the training needs of all ranks of CBI. Training facilities for certain specialised courses are also made available to the officials of State Police, Central Police Organisations (CPO), Vigilance organisations of public sector undertakings, banks and government departments and Indian Armed Forces.

In popular media
The CBI film series is a set of Malayalam films directed by K. Madhu starring Mammootty as Sethurama Iyer, a sharp and highly intelligent investigative officer of the CBI. Till 2005, four films were released in the series:Oru CBI Diary Kurippu (1988, A CBI diary note) and Jagratha (1989, Caution), Sethuramayyar CBI (2004) and Nerariyan CBI (2005, In pursuit of truth CBI). The Recent CBI Series Film is Kandhaswamy (2009) in Tamil. The budget is around Rs 120 Cr. This film shows how the CBI is cracking down Recovering Black Money which are deposited in Swiss Banks. But unlike the malayalam CBI-film series, Kandhaswamy's story is not that realistic. In this movie the director of CBI supports illegal ways of distributing black money acquired from the riches.

Further reading
The 24th Report of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on the Working of CBI 2008[9]

External links
• Official site [10]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] CBI - Organisation Chart (http:/ / www. cbi. gov. in/ orgnchart/ orgchartnew. htm) http:/ / www. cbi. gov. in/ annualreport/ cbi_annual_report_2008. pdf Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) - India (http:/ / www. globalsecurity. org/ intell/ world/ india/ cbi. htm) Vineet Narain Case, Directions of the Court accessed at (http:/ / cbi. nic. in/ Judgements/ dsc. htm) November 2, 2006 " Sr Abhaya murder: CBI Lies in HC kerala (http:/ / mathrubhumi. com/ php/ newsFrm. php?news_id=1246582& n_type=HO& category_id=1& Farc=& previous=Y)". mathrubhumi. . [6] http:/ / www. manoramaonline. com/ cgi-in/ MMOnline. dll/ portal/ ep/ malayalamContentView. do?articleType=Malayalam+ Home& contentId=4462968& tabId=0& contentType=EDITORIAL& BV_ID=@@@ [7] http:/ / www. cbi. gov. in/ annualreport/ cbi_annual_report_2007. pdf [8] Welcome to CBI Academy School of eLearning (http:/ / www. cbiacademy. gov. in/ )

Central Bureau of Investigation
[9] http:/ / 164. 100. 47. 5:8080/ committeereports/ reports/ EnglishCommittees/ Committee%20on%20Personnel,%20PublicGrievances,%20Law%20and%20Justice/ 24th%20Report%20-%20Working%20of%20CBI. htm [10] http:/ / cbi. nic. in

172

173

Indonesia
Brigade Mobil SOF
Brigade Mobil Special Operations Force Active 1945 - Special Police Force (Pasukan Polisi Istimewa) August 14, 1946 - Mobile Brigade August 14, 1961 - Brigade Mobil
 Indonesia

Country Branch Type Role Size

Indonesian Republic National Police (POLRI) Paramilitary Police Domestic Counter Terrorism and Law Enforcement Gegana - Special Response Squad Detachment 88 - CT Team

Garrison/HQ POLRI HQ, Jakarta Colors Dark Blue berets

Engagements World War II, East Timor, Malaysia-Indonesia Confrontation

Brigade Mobil (English: Mobile Brigade) is one of the oldest Indonesian National Police special operations force units.

History
Formed in late 1945, it was originally assigned the tasks of disarming remnants of the Japanese Imperial Army and protecting the chief of state and the capital city. It fought in the revolution, and its troops took part in the military confrontation with Malaysia in the early 1960s and in the conflict in East Timor in the mid-1970s. In 1981 the Mobile Brigade spawned a new unit called the Explosive Ordnance Devices Unit.

Organisations
In 1992 the Mobile Brigade was essentially a paramilitary organization trained and organized along military lines. It had a strength of about 12,000. The brigade was used primarily as an elite corps for emergencies, aiding in police operations that required units to take quick action. The unit was employed in domestic security and defense operations and was issued special riot-control equipment. They were trained to deal with mass demonstrations. Since the May 1998 upheaval, PHH (Pasukan Anti Huru-Hara, Anti Riot Unit) have received special anti-riot training. Elements of the force were also trained for airborne operations.

A BRIMOB vehicle

Brigade Mobil SOF

174

Branches
GEGANA
Gegana is the Indonesian Police special response unit. This unit was formed in 1976 as a detachment. Later in 1995, with the expansion of Brimob, the Gegana Detachment was expanded to become 2nd Regiment BRIMOB. Its duties are anti-terror, dealing with armed criminals, close protection, search and rescue (SAR), and explosive disposal operations in urban settings. In general, each Gegana member is capable of performing these duties. However, there are a select few who are very skilled in these special duties. Gegana does not have Battalion or Company. The Regiment is broken down into several detachments. Within each detachment they are split into sub-detachments (sub-den), and within each sub-den they are further sub-divided into several units. Each unit usually consists of 10 personnel. One sub-den consists of 40 personnel, and one detachment consists of about 280 personnel. One operation is usually assigned to one unit. Therefore, from the 10 people in that unit, six are required to have special skills: two for EOD (Explosives and Ordnance Disposal), two for SAR operations, and two for counter-terrorist operations. In any operation, two experts are designated Operators One and Two while the rest of the unit members become the Support Team. For example, in counter-terrorist operations, the designated Operators must have sharp-shooting skills, ability to negotiate, and be an expert in storm-and-arrest procedures. These skills and operations are not meant to be lethal because the main goal of every Gegana operation is to arrest suspects and bring them to the court. Unless there is a situation that Gegana has to do otherwise, there will be no shooting. In SAR operation, the personnel are required to have the basic capabilities of diving, rappelling, shooting, and first aid. In anti-bomb operation, the Operators have to be the expert in their respective fields. Each Gegana personnel has been introduced to various types of bombs in general, including the risks of handling them. There are specific procedures for handling each bomb, including the required timing. Currently, Gegana has three Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) tactical vehicles. This number is far from sufficient because ideally each Gegana unit is supposed to have one. Other than three EOD vehicles at Gegana offices, there is one EOD vehicle in West Java Police Department (PD), Central Java PD, and East Java PD. So, overall there is only six EOD units available in Indonesia. The Indonesian Police Chief has the highest command in each Gegana operation, executed by his Operation Assistant.

Enternal links
• 51 Tahun Si Baret Biru [1] • (English) February 1962 – Summer 1963: In to Action [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. hamline. edu/ apakabar/ basisdata/ 1996/ 11/ 15/ 0034. html/ [2] http:/ / 64. 233. 179. 104/ search?q=cache:i5Z4nDleDzQJ:aga. nvg. org/ oppgaver/ chapter2. html+ mobrig& hl=en& gl=us& ct=clnk& cd=4/

175

Ireland
Emergency Response Unit (Garda)
The Emergency Response Unit (Irish: Aonad Práinnfhreagartha) of the Garda Síochána is a specialist armed intervention unit under the Special Detective Unit,[1] formed to deal with situations that cannot be handled by regular Garda officers.

Duties
The Emergency Response Unit is responsible for handling the following operations in service of the Garda Síochána:[2] [3] 1. Armed response in anti-criminal/subversive operations 2. Implementation of search techniques, including use of forced entry 3. Execution of high-risk warrants 4. VIP Protection

Garda Síochána Emergency Response Unit member in Dublin.

5. Provide specialist patrols as directed 6. Provide ground and air regional patrols

Origins
The ERU was formed as the Special Task Force in 1978, following a decision of Justice Ministers at the Ninth Council of the EEC at Brussels in 1975.[2] The Special Task Force was based in Dublin and it formed part of the Special Detective Unit in Harcourt Street. This unit was renamed the Emergency Response Unit in 1987.[3] Most recently the ERU has been deployed to trouble spots in Dublin and Limerick to tackle gun crime. One incident in the latter half of 2006 involved an ERU team pursuing armed suspects in Limerick after a shooting incident in the city. The ERU stopped and arrested the suspects after a chase which the media reported reached speeds of 240km/h near the village of Croom.[4]

Controversy
The Barr Tribunal's investigation into the shooting of John Carthy in Abbeylara in 2000 brought the ERU's existence and role to public attention in recent years, and individual ERU members were criticised in the tribunal's report on the incident.

Manpower
The membership of the ERU consists exclusively of serving officers in the Garda Síochána.[3] The ERU consists of 50 members as of October 2004.[5]

Emergency Response Unit (Garda)

176

Training
Training of the ERU is carried out in the Garda's Tactical Training Unit, established in 1983 under the authority of the Garda college, Templemore. Members of the ERU have received training with the → FBI's Hostage Rescue Team.[3] In addition, ERU officers have been trained abroad in Germany, the UK and the US.[2] ERU officers are required to qualify three times per year in all firearms being used by the unit.[3] Training consists of in-house tactical training on an ongoing basis from the ERU’s own firearms instructors and refresher range practice.[3]

Weapons and equipment
Primary
• Remington 870,[6] fitted with Reflex sights • Uzi submachine gun[7] • Heckler & Koch MP7[6] • Steyr SSG 69[6] • Heckler & Koch G3KA4 • Heckler & Koch 33[8]

Secondary
• Smith & Wesson 10 revolver • Smith & Wesson Model 59[9] • Sig Sauer P226[7]

Less Lethal
• Bean bag shot [10] [11] • Pepper spray device [10] [11] • Ferret Pepper spray shot[10]
ERU members during counter-terrorist exercise

• TASER stun gun[12]

Equipment
• Ballistic shields • Ballistic helmets and vests • Diversionary devices (Stun Grenades etc.)

Operational Procedure
For the need of ERU operators in the city of Dublin, a request to the Detective Chief Superintendent of the Special Detective Unit by the Divisional Officer would be made.[2] For operations in other parts of Ireland, the Divisional Officer would make the request to the appropriate Assistant Commissioner.[2]

Emergency Response Unit (Garda)

177

See also
• John Carthy • Irish Army Rangers • CO19

References
[1] " The Crime & Security Branch (http:/ / www. garda. ie/ Controller. aspx?Page=40& Lang=1)". Garda Síochána. 2009. . Retrieved 2009-05-03. [2] " EMERGENCY RESPONSE UNIT (E.R.U.) (http:/ / www. barrtribunal. ie/ OpenStatement. html#ERU)". . Retrieved 2009-05-04. [3] " Rank and Structure in the Garda Sı´ocha´na and the Role of the Emergency Response Unit (http:/ / www. mulley. net/ BarrTribunalReport/ BarrTribunalReportChapter10. html)". . Retrieved 2009-05-03. [4] " Limerick’s gang leaders recruit children for killing missions (http:/ / archives. tcm. ie/ irishexaminer/ 2006/ 11/ 07/ story17695. asp)". Irish Examiner. November 7, 2006. . Retrieved 2008-07-21. [5] Lally, Conor (October 20, 2004). " Plan to have fewer armed Gardaí (http:/ / www. irishtimes. com/ newspaper/ ireland/ 2004/ 1020/ 1097847304618. html)". Irish Times. . Retrieved 2006-11-26. [6] " Unofficial ERU Weapons Page (http:/ / www. freewebs. com/ gardaeru/ wepons. htm)". 2007. . Retrieved 2009-09-22. [7] " The Aftermath — Post-Mortem, Forensic and Ballistic Examination (http:/ / www. mulley. net/ BarrTribunalReport/ BarrTribunalReportChapter7. html)". . Retrieved 2009-05-03. [8] " THE EXIT OF JOHN CARTHY FROM THE HOUSE (http:/ / www. barrtribunal. ie/ OpenStatement. html#Exitl)". . Retrieved 2009-05-03. [9] " Oireachtas Joint Committee on Justice, Equality, Defense and Women's Rights on Abbeylara Shooting, Page 1 (http:/ / www. irlgov. ie/ committees-00/ c-justice/ Reports/ abbeylara/ page1. htm)". Oireachtas. . Retrieved 2009-05-04. [10] " Garda Use of Less Lethal Weapons (http:/ / www. justice. ie/ en/ JELR/ Pages/ PR07000911)". Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform. 2006-07-20. . Retrieved 2009-05-03. [11] " Less-Lethal Weapons (http:/ / www. justice. ie/ en/ JELR/ Pages/ Other_Garda_equipment)". Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform. . Retrieved 2009-05-04. [12] " ERU authorised to use TASER type devices (http:/ / www. justice. ie/ en/ JELR/ Pages/ PR07000210)". Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform. 2007-04-03. . Retrieved 2009-05-03.

178

Israel
YAMAM
The Yamam (Hebrew: ‫ימ"מ‬‎), is the acronym for Special Police Unit (‫ ,יחידת משטרה מיוחדת‬Yeḥidat Mishtara Meyuḥedet), Israel's elite civilian counter-terrorism unit. The Yamam is capable of both hostage-rescue operations and offensive take-over raids against targets in civilian areas. Besides military duties, it also performs → SWAT duties and undercover police work.

Name and organization
Yamam stands for Special Police Unit. In Israel it is also called "The Unit for Counter-Terror Warfare" (‫ .)היחידה ללוחמה בטרור‬The Yamam answers to
Yamam symbol

the Ministry of Defense central command and belongs to the civilian Israel Police forces on paper, rather than the military, but is actually independent in many ways. Its operators and officers are professional policemen on payroll, always with infantry experience from their military service within the Israel Defense Forces. Yamam recruits its members exclusively from Israeli units. Yamam is an integral part of the Israeli Border Guard (Magav) for the purpose of pay checks and budget only. The name being the acronym for the unit's Hebrew name: Yechida Mishtartit Meyuchedet (=Special Police Unit.) The unit is primarily responsible for civilian hostage rescue within Israel's borders, but from about the mid-1990s it has been used for tasks such as arresting police suspects who have barricaded themselves in and required specialized extraction methods, and in counter-terror operations within the Arab West Bank and Gaza. The Yamam are schooled in basic Arabic and dress to assimilate within the Arab population to avoid detection similar to Duvdevan, in order to carry out raids to arrest those suspected of conducting terrorist activities within the Israeli homeland. Unit Yamam is about 200 members strong and comprises a headquarters element, an intelligence section and a small team responsible for the development of new operational techniques and testing new equipment. These central elements apart, the bulk of the unit is divided into a number of sections, each consisting of five teams, each containing operators with a particular specialization, so that the section includes within its numbers all the elements needed for a successful operation: roping team, entry team, medic team, sniping team, dog team, EOD team (demolition and bomb disposal). Thus, whereas an IDF special forces operation needs to assemble elements from different specialist units, in Yamam, they are all permanently part of the same unit, living, training and operating together. Applicants for Yamam must be between 22 and 30 years of age and must have completed their three-year infantry service in the IDF with a level 7 of IDF training or higher, but no previous police experience is required. Unlike American SWAT teams, the YAMAM is a professional unit with only combat duties and no other police type work. The selection process includes a "hell week" said to be one of the hardest in the world. This level of difficulty is achieved because all the applicants are already seasoned combat soldiers, like the US Delta force.The skills they are looking for in every candidate are: intelligence, physical fitness, motivation, trustworthiness, accountability, maturity, stability, judgment, decisiveness, teamwork, influence, and communication. Training lasts 12 months and is carried out in the unit's own training center, although some use is made of the facilities at the IDF Counter Terror Warfare School (LOTAR, Unit 707.) The course is divided into an eight-month general CT training period at the end

YAMAM of which recruits are selected for their specialization and then concentrate for the remaining four months on that specialization. Upon graduation, individuals are posted to fill gaps in the sections. Yamam considers that it has several advantages over the IDF counter-terror units, first, because the men are more mature, most in their mid 30's and early 40's, and spend much longer in the unit than the equivalent military units, and, second, because the units contain a far broader range of ages and experience. The Yamam is self-dependent, training its own operators in all fields, such as sniping, reconnaissance, dog operating, bomb disposal, etc. As a result, the Yamam has a rapid deployment time and high coordination between various squads (sniping squad, entry team, engagement force, etc.). The Yamam's primary duties are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Hostage rescue. Offensive or preemptive operations.Direct action → SWAT duties - handling dangerous criminals. Arrests/Kidnaping Undercover police operations. VIP security.

179

Most of the Yamam's activity is classified, and published Yamam operations are often credited to other units. Nevertheless, the Yamam enjoys a high reputation among SF professionals and the Israeli public.

History
The Yamam was established after the Ma'alot massacre, where a failed operation by military special forces units ended with 21 children murdered before the hostage takers were killed. Since hostage rescue in friendly territory is different from that in hostile areas, it was decided to establish an elite civilian force, which develops and practices a special CQB (Close Quarters Battles) doctrine for "counter-terrorism" operations in friendly territory and hostage rescue. In late 1974, the Yamam was established and has since fallen under the direct jurisdiction of the Israel Border Police — the combat arm of the Israel Police.

Operational record 1974 - September 2000
The Yamam has carried out many paramilitary operations. Some of the missions known to the public prior to the al-Aqsa Intifada are listed below: • In March 1988, the Yamam was called into action after a group of three Palestinians hijacked a bus full of women returning from work at the Negev Nuclear Research Center near Dimona, in an incident known as the "Mothers Bus". The Yamam struck, killing all three hijackers, but not managing to prevent three Israeli passengers from being killed. • On March 3, 2000, the Yamam captured an armed group hidden in the Israeli-Arab town of Taibe with the aid of Sayeret Duvdevan and an IDF Caterpillar D9 bulldozer. In the end of the raid, one man was arrested and four were killed.[1] (password-restricted link)

YAMAM

180

Equipment
• • • • • • • • • Glock-17 Pistol Glock-18c SMG Glock-19 Pistol Glock-26 back-up weapon Tavor TAR-21 Assault Rifle in all versions Para Micro-Uzi M4 carbine Remington 870 Combat Shotgun M24 Sniper Weapon System

See also
• Israeli Special Forces: • Sayeret • Sayeret Matkal • Shayetet 13 • Israeli security forces: • • • • Israel Border Police Israeli police Israeli Defence Forces Shin Bet

• Similar foreign counter terrorism units: • List of Special Response Units
[2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. isayeret. com/ content/ operations/ taibeh. htm [2] The Illustrated Directory of Special Forces By Ray Bonds

Yasam

181

Yasam
The Yasam (Hebrew: ‫יס"מ‬‎) is the Israel Police Special Patrol Unit (Hebrew: ‫יחידת סיור מיוחדת‬‎ Yehidat Siyur Meyuhedet), a police unit dedicated to continuous security, riot and crowd control and other special operations. The Yasam were heavily involved in the Israeli disengagement of August 2005 and Amona evacuation, and have been under widespread criticism for these and other operations.

See also
• Yamam

Submachinegun wielding Yassam officers mounted on a motorcycle securing First Lady Laura Bush at Ben Gurion International Airport.

External links
• Yasam at the Israel Police website [1] (Hebrew) Geographical coordinates: 27°22′N 86°17′E

References
[1] http:/ / www. police. gov. il/ districtmain. asp?path=/ web_jerusalem/ agam. xml#3

182

Italy
Nucleo Operativo Centrale di Sicurezza
Nucleo Operativo Centrale di Sicurezza

Nucleo Operativo Centrale di Sicurezza Official Insignia Active Country Branch Type Nickname Mascot Engagements 1974 - Present Italy Polizia di Stato Special Forces NOCS, Central Security Operations Service Sicut Nox Silentes Anti-crime operations against terrorist groups, including Red Brigades Commanders Notable commanders Andrea Sgandurra, Maurizio Genolini

The Nucleo Operativo Centrale di Sicurezza (Central Security Operations Service, NOCS) is a special operations division of the Italian police.

Nucleo Operativo Centrale di Sicurezza

183

History
In 1974 the Chief of the Polizia di Stato Anti-Terrorism Bureau, Emilio Santillo, announced the necessity to establish a tactical unit with the capability to arrest known terrorists and to support the local counter-terrorism field office. Personnel were selected from Police Sports Group "Gold Flames", particularly trained in martial arts. The 35-man team was denominated "counter-commando unit" and commanded by Maj. Andrea Sgandurra, an officer with counter-insurgency experiences, and a skilled proponent of hand-to-hand combat skills. After one year of training (offensive driving, sniping, various Photo of Army Parade in Rome, 2 june 2006, Republic Day. NOCS shooting skills, and a Tactical Assault Course) in 1975 special groups the unit became operational and immediately started mission against the left wing terrorist organization NAP (Proletarian Armed Service). Later they operated against the right wing group "New Order", which resulted in the arrests of well-known terrorists Gentile Schiavone and Pierluigi Concutelli. In 1978, the Italian government decided to modify the structure of the Anti-Terrorist Bureau to improve its capabilities. This change resulted in the formation of SISMI (military intelligence), SISDE (civilian intelligence) and a → police counter-terrorism agency (UCIGOS, General Investigations and Special Operations Central Office). This office was the only responsible for Italian counter-terrorism. The UCIGOS's tactical unit became the NOCS (Nucleo Operativo Centrale di Sicurezza, Central Security Operations Service), the old counter-commando unit with far more operatives, training, and responsibilities. During its 22 years of existence, NOCS has effected more than 4,500 missions and 205 arrests. The 25-42 operatives studied terrorist methodology and created innovative tactics procedures. Their motto is Sicut Nox Silentes (as silent as night). In 1982 under the tactical command of Capt. Edoardo a 12-man section, without firing a single shot, freed Brigadier General James Dozier, who had been held hostage by Red Brigades terrorists. In the following years NOCS expanded in size and capabilities and under new command, then Maj. Maurizio Genolini, became a full fledged counter-terrorism unit, with capabilities of operations on aircraft, trains, buses, embassies, and stadium areas and established good relations with several counter-terrorism units in the western world. Recently, NOCS has undergone another change and become the Anti-Terrorism Special Operations Division. The unit improved capabilities in C3I and a computer and video section was added. NOCS was innovative regarding the incorporation of computers in training formalizing this with the addition of a separate video section. NOCS also expanded its training in VIP protection and driving, augmented by training with the well-established → United States Secret Service. This relationship sparked the creation of a unit similar in form and function to → USSS counter-terrorism teams as well. It should be noted that while VIP protection is not a main mission for NOCS, but they are responsible for this duty when high risk personalities come to Italy.

Nucleo Operativo Centrale di Sicurezza

184

The unit today
Today, SOD/NOCS have 3 tactical assault teams and 1 protection division. All operatives have HALO training and several have SCUBA training, EOD, sniper and combat shooting. SOD has a logistics branch with specialized personnel in support of operatives. NOCS has several specialized vehicles, operated by specially trained drivers. The basic training last 6 months and is followed by an advance training program lasting an additional six months. NOCS has trained with many international units including the FBI → Hostage Rescue Team, Israeli Yamam, German → GSG 9 The NOCS and → SEK, Spanish → GEO, French → RAID, Japanese → SAT, Swiss DEE10, Saudi Arabian National Guard CT Team, Belgian → ESI, US 10th Special Forces Group, Danish Jægerkorpset and Dutch KCT and has graduated operatives through the NATO's International LRRP School in Weingarten, Germany. SOD/NOCS continues to be a leading unit in Europe and the new senior officers have establish liaisons with similar units of former East Bloc countries and the Austrian → EKO Cobra.

Equipment
• • • • • • HK MP5 Bernardelli VB-SR (an italian adaptation of the Galil SAR) Franchi SPAS-12 HK PSG-1 Glock-17 Glock-19

External links
• (Italian) Official website [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. poliziadistato. it/ pds/ chisiamo/ territorio/ reparti/ nocs/

Gruppo di Intervento Speciale

185

Gruppo di Intervento Speciale
Gruppo di Intervento Speciale

Gruppo di Intervento Speciale Official Insignia Active Country Branch Type 1978 - Present Italy Carabinieri Special Forces

Nickname GIS, Teste di cuoio ("Leatherheads")

Gruppo di Intervento Speciale (GIS, in English "Special Intervention Group") is a counterterrorism asset inside the Italian Carabinieri military police, first formed in 1978. In 2004 the GIS evolved into a special forces unit. They are the premier force called on from NATO for counterterrorism. The unit has taken part in counterterrorism operations and VIP protection details in Afghanistan and Iraq.

Equipment
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Beretta M92-FS, standard handgun Glock 17 and 19 Smith & Wesson Model 28 .357 Magnum revolver (for backup in VIP Protection duties) Benelli M1 Super 90 Benelli M3 - replaced the older Franchi SPAS-12, Franchi PA-3, Franchi PA-7/PA-8 series and Beretta M3P shotguns Benelli M4 Super 90 - replaced the Franchi SPAS-15, deemed "unsatisfactory" as its detachable box magazine made it too bulky and compromised maneuverability Beretta PM-12 series submachineguns, still in arsenal yet mostly superseded Heckler & Koch MP5, the most common weapon to equip GIS operators FN P90 (in limited quantities) Steyr TMP (employed for VIP Protection duties) Heckler & Koch MP7 (in limited quantities, most probably tested to supersede the Steyr TMP) Beretta 70/90 Weapons system Steyr AUG - adopted for ease of use from vehicles and helicopters, now mostly superseded Bushmaster M4 carbine - procured in limited quantities jointly with the "Tuscania" Regiment to supersede the Steyr AUG

• Heckler&Koch HK-53 - mostly superseded (last seen fielded during Operation Ancient Babylon, sometimes paired with the British-made Istec ISL-201 40 mm undercarried grenade launcher) • Heckler&Koch G-36 family of weapons (in limited quantities)

Gruppo di Intervento Speciale • M203 grenade launcher, either under-carried or in Stand-alone configurations - interface/mounting system for weapons, as well as some parts (most notably the receiver) manufactured in Italy by PMAL (Polo di Mantenimento delle Armi Leggere, Italian Army arsenal) in Terni • Heckler & Koch PSG1 • Mauser 86-SR • Barrett M82 - procured in limited quantities jointly with the "Tuscania" Regiment The wide array of missions and duties tasked to the GIS, its military status and its growing participation in international peacekeeping/peace enforcing operations, allow the unit a high degree of autonomy in selection and procurement of weapons and equipments, unmatched by most law enforcement Special units. Some of the weapons recently tested by the GIS for adoption include the Beretta Cx4 Storm and Rx4 Storm semi-automatic carbines (both dismissed), the FN Mk-16 SCAR-L and possibly the IWI Tavor, although this remains unconfirmed.

186

187

Japan
Special Assault Team
Special Assault Team

Special Assault Team Shoulder Patch Active Country Branch Type Role Size Part of (Special Armed Police) September 28, 1977 - April 1, 1996 (Special Assault Team) - April 1, 1996 - Present Japan National Police Agency Special Forces Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement 300 operators Directly under control of the National Police Agency

Garrison/HQ Tokyo (Most SAT operatives) at the Metropolitan Police HQ, others at Osaka, Hokkaidō, Chiba, Kanagawa, Aichi, Fukuoka and Okinawa Nickname Tokyo Branch (Former) - Special Operations Company (Current) - Unknown Osaka Branch - Zero Company SAT, Special Forces (特殊部隊 in Japanese)

Engagements Neomugicha incident, Arrest of Hisato Obayashi Commanders Current commander Notable commanders Classified Classified Insignia Identification symbol SAT Shoulder Patch

The Special Assault Team (特殊急襲部隊 Tokushu Kyūshū Butai) is the official civilian counter-terrorist unit under the Japanese National Police Agency. Like the → GSG 9, the KSK and the SAS, most information on the unit has been confidential, its existence officially revealed only in 1996. The military counterpart of the SAT is the Japanese Ground Self-Defense Force's Japanese Special Operations Group.

Special Assault Team

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History
Pre-SAT
The roots of the Special Assault Team can be traced back to September 28, 1977 when Tōkyō and Ōsaka began to train Special Armed Police (SAP) units as an armed response to criminal incidents involving firearms, especially after the Dhaka Incident.[1] After its establishment, the unit had its first known incident on January 26, 1979 when the SAP's Osaka branch were deployed during a Mitsubishi Bank hostage incident in Osaka. In the incident, they shot dead Akiyoshi Umekawa after he gunned down two employees and two policemen. It was the first shooting incident in Japan involving armed police officers. In 1992, the SAP was dispatched to Machida city to resolve an armed criminal incident.

SAT establishment
On June 21, 1995, All Nippon Airways Flight 857 was hijacked at the Hakodate Airport in Hokkaido by a lone hijacker named Fumio Kutsumi (九津見 文雄).[2] This incident marked the first time that the Japanese Air Self-Defense Forces cooperated with the SAP by providing Kawasaki C-1 aircraft as means of transportation from Haneda Airport. The plane was stormed by SAP officers and the hijacker was arrested and subdued, with assistance from the Hokkaido Police's Riot Squad.[3] The incident had made National Police Agency (NPA) officials work for the establishment of the Special Assault Team. On the same year, SAP units were dispatched to Yamanashi Prefecture. The attempted hijacking marked the need for a specialized counter-terrorist team that would operate under the auspices of the National Police Agency. On April 1, 1996, the Special Assault Team (SAT) was established after a year's training with the → GSG 9,[4] GIGN [5] and the British SAS.[4] During the Japanese embassy hostage crisis in Peru, the SAT had simulated raids on retaking buildings similar to the Japanese Embassy as a possible counter-measure to a similar incident in Japanese soil.[3] In June 1997, the SAT was involved in its first anti-hijacking case when it stormed a bus and captured a hijacker alive. On June 11, 1999, a lone man armed with a hunting rifle stormed the Keiyo Bank in Narashino, Chiba Prefecture. The SAT's Chiba unit was deployed to resolve the incident, but the hostage was released and the man was arrested by police through negotiations. The incident then forced Chiba Police to create the Attack Rescue Team, which would take responsibility for the SAT in low level criminal incidents. The unit has similar responsibilities to the Tokyo Metropolitan Police's SIT (Special Investigation Team) and the Osaka Police's MAAT (Martial Arts Attack Team).

Post-SAT
The SAT became known in Japanese media again when its Fukuoka branch took part in recapturing a hijacked bus in Fukuoka in the Neomugicha incident in 2000, capturing the lone hijacker alive.[6] The hijacking event showcased the SAT's dedication to protect the public with their counter-terrorist skills in subduing felons such as criminals and terrorists with as little force as possible. In September 2003, the SAT's Aichi unit was deployed to resolve a hostage incident. However, the hostage-taker Noboru Beppu (別府 昇) committed suicide in an explosion which killed three and injured 41 others.[7] Recent moves by NPA officials lead to an increase in manpower. In 2005, NPA officials increased the SAT's manpower from 200 to 250 operators. Another increase followed in 2006 when they increased the unit's manpower from 250 to 300 operators. The unit has also been featured recently in various Japanese TV documentaries.

Special Assault Team In April 2007, the SAT's Tokyo branch had been involved in capturing Yuji Takeshita (竹下 祐司), a known yakuza wanted for gunning down another gangster and attempting to wound/kill police officers when squad cars had arrived near his apartment.[8] In May 2007 in another incident in Nagoya, an ex-yakuza gangster named Hisato Obayashi (大林 久人) was captured by SAT officers based from the Aichi Prefecture after he killed Kazuho Hayashi (林 一歩), an SAT operative with the rank of Sergeant. Posthumously promoted to Captain, he is the first in the SAT to die in the line of duty.[9] His death has forced National Public Safety Commission Chairman Kensei Mizote to issue a press report, stating that SAT gear will be checked to see if it was responsible for Hayashi's unfortunate death.[10]

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Organization
Locations
The Tokyo branch, formerly called "Special Operations Company" (特科中隊), is under 6th Mobile Unit, Security Department of Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department (警視庁警備部第六機動隊). In Osaka Prefecture, it was created under the 2nd Mobile Unit (第二機動隊) and was unofficially called the "Zero Company" (零中隊). Today, the official name of SAT in Japanese is simply "特殊部隊" or "Special Forces." Currently other branches exist in the prefectural Police departments of Hokkaidō, Chiba, Kanagawa, Aichi, Fukuoka and Okinawa. Nationwide SAT maintains about 300 personnel.[10] SAT operators conduct routine training in their own kill-house at certain prefectures in the Kantō region. The SAT has also conduct joint training with the Japanese Self-Defense Forces in order to maintain their state of readiness. For instance, SAT personnel have been tutored by the 1st Airborne Brigade on insertion techniques.[3]

Structure
Each SAT division consists of a subduing group, the sniping group, the technical support group and the command section.[11] The subduing group leads the operation and the sniping group takes charge of sniping and reconnaissance. The technical support group is in charge of electronic equipment such as microphones and cameras. The command section is responsible for tactical planning.[11] [12]

Miscellaneous
• Upon recruitment to the SAT, the officer's name is deleted from the roster of active police officers; this is done similarly to the British SAS and → GSG 9 so as to protect them from being attacked by criminals, extremist and terrorist groups, as well as being prosecuted.[3] • SAT operators have recently entered joint training with the FBI SWAT teams on CQC tactics.[3]

Equipment
Weapons
Assault Rifles • M4 Carbine (Used for CQC only) • Howa Type 89[13]

Special Assault Team Submachine Guns • Heckler & Koch MP5: The following models are used by the SAT.[4] • • • • • MP5A4 MP5A5 MP5SD4 MP5SD6 MP5-J[14]

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Shotguns • Unknown, but known shotguns in possession include Mossberg and Remington-type shotguns Sniper Rifles • • • • • Heckler & Koch PSG1 Howa Type 64 Rifles modified for sniping use[15] Remington 700 Howa M1500 Howa Golden Bear

Handguns/Revolvers • • • • • • • Glock 19 Heckler & Koch P9 Heckler & Koch USP 9 Nambu Model 60 Sig Sauer P226 Sig Sauer P228 Smith and Wesson M3913 (Rumored to be in use by the Hokkaido SAT unit)

Support Items
• • • • • Ballistic Helmet with faceshield Ballistic Shield Flashbang Night Vision Goggles SAT Assault Vehicle with platform for sniping use

Ranks
The following ranks are observed in the SAT: • Commander = Inspector - Keibu (警部) • Team Captain = Assistant Inspector - Keibuho (警部補) • Squad Leader = Sergeant - Junsabucho (巡査部長)

Areas of Responsibility (AOR)
Tokyo
• The SAT Tokyo unit is responsible for the Haneda Airport and other facilities such as the Imperial Palace, the Prime Minister's residence or Kantei and the National Diet Building. The unit is also in charge of resolving

Special Assault Team situations involving any hostile act against foreign embassies.

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Osaka
• The SAT Osaka unit takes charge of the Kansai Airport and the Osaka Airport.

Hokkaido
• Included in the SAT Hokkaido unit's AOR is the New Chitose Airport and the Hakodate Airport

Chiba
• The Narita International Airport is the responsibility of the SAT Chiba unit.

Kanagawa
• Kanagawa's SAT unit takes charge of securing the US Navy's 7th Fleet headquarters.

Aichi
• Aichi's SAT unit is responsible for the Chubu Centrair International Airport.

Fukuoka
• Security for the Fukuoka Airport and the various foreign consulates are left to the Fukuouka SAT unit.

Okinawa
• Various US Military installations, such as the Naha Military Port, and the Naha Airport are left to the responsibility of the Okinawa SAT unit. This was the latest SAT unit to be established on September 10, 2005.[12]

In Popular Culture
The SAT has been portrayed in various manga/anime, movies, television shows and even in video/computer games as protagonists or allies assisting protagonist characters. However, the following involve the SAT in significant ways: • The SAT team comes out Room of King when the culprit goes into the Prada shop and tries to steal things to get money but the SAT team and the sings with the non-related negotiator • The SAT team comes out in 20th century boys • The SAT team comes out in Unfair the movie, when the terrorists are in the hospital and the people are all out. But then the captain falls into the trap and all of the A team die. • The SAT team goes into training in Bayside Shakedown 2 when the sergeant of the local police wins against SAT • The SAT, in First President of Japan, is shown as a scapegoat of political negligence in areas of the Japanese government when numerous casualties were inflicted on them by ex-North Korean commandos due to failure to warn SAT forces on the security upgrades placed on the Mihama nuclear power plant.[16] • Seen in the early stages of Deleted Scenes in Counter-Strike: Condition Zero in the Japan stage. They are called Kidoutai, though this may be an error on the part of the developers. However, SAT operatives do wear Kidoutai uniform to avoid attracting attentions on occasions. This was later omitted in the final version, though it could still be accessed. • One of the characters in Police 911 2 is a SAT operative armed with a Heckler and Koch MP5K Submachine gun, as a part of a joint investigation team consisting of Japanese and American authorities. • Players play as SAT operatives in the Lethal Enforcers 3/Seigi no Hero (Diet Building) stage of Lethal Enforcers 3/Seigi no Hero battling against a mutinous JGSDF regiment.

Special Assault Team • In the anime Elfen Lied, SAT forces are used to track down and capture Lucy/Nyu as the response of the Japanese government over their disappearance, being portrayed as antagonists. Bandou is one of the fictional members of the SAT. • In Pokémon, the SAT has been featured in two instances: 1. SAT forces try to track down the Terrorists who attack the Rayquaza Tournament 2. The MRT (Mewtwo Response Team) are created to deal with Mewtwo threats. Their equipment and weapons look similar to the real-life GSG 9 and the SAT. • In the five-volume anime series The Analog Complex, SAT forces work with Vector 18 operatives to retake a Japanese military base taken over by terrorists from Azerbaijan. • A fictional police anti-terrorist unit based on the SAT is featured in the Playstation 2 game, Simple 2000 Series Vol. 108: The Nippon Tokushubutai (Japan Special Forces). • A subplot of You're Under Arrest's 2nd Season involves conflict between Miyuki and Natsumi due to the latter's selection by Special Assault Team officials. • In Densha Otoko, SAT forces were trying to retake a convenient store while Densha Otoko was trying to get a cell phone charger. • In Counter-Strike Online, players can select SAT operatives as their skin when playing as counter-terrorists though the SAT skin itself requires real cash to be played with. • SAT troops have also been seen in the manga series Akumetsu, where they attempt to kill the Akumetsu clones in several occasions though never quite succeed.

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External links
• • • • • • • Special Operations link [17] (English) SpecWarNet link [18] (English) Unofficial SAT page [19] (Japanese) Unofficial SAT bio [20] (Japanese) Unofficial SAT information page [21] (Japanese) You Tube Training Video [22] You Tube Demo Video [23]

References
[1] " Special Operations.com's Japan Page (http:/ / specialoperations. com/ Foreign/ Japan/ )". . Retrieved 2008-06-18. [2] Archive copy (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20031204122843/ http:/ / insite-tokyo. com/ column/ itaru/ index. html) at the Internet Archive [3] Archive copy (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060202053018/ http:/ / www5f. biglobe. ne. jp/ ~sbu/ DATABASE-JAPAN-SAT. htm) at the Internet Archive [4] " The new Tokyo Marui AEG: MP5 Japanese Police/Military Version (http:/ / www. renegaderecon. com/ recon_details. php?id=138)". 2004-05-13. . Retrieved 2009-01-26. [5] " Specwarnet's Special Assault Team Page (http:/ / www. specwarnet. net/ oceana/ sat. htm)". . Retrieved 2009-01-26. [6] " Riot police end hijack drama (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ asia-pacific/ 735318. stm)". BBC. 2000-05-03. . Retrieved 2009-01-26. [7] " Three killed, 41 injured in Japan when office worker takes hostages (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qn4188/ is_20030916/ ai_n11410898)". 2003-09-16. . Retrieved 2009-01-26. [8] " Police storm Machida apartment after gangster shoots himself (http:/ / www. japantoday. com/ jp/ news/ 404460)". The Japan Times. . Retrieved 2007-04-22. [9] " Aichi standoff ends after shooter gives himself up (http:/ / www. japantoday. com/ jp/ news/ 407042)". The Japan Times. . Retrieved 2007-05-19. [10] " Security chief pledges to reexamine special assault gear after officer's death (http:/ / www. japantoday. com/ jp/ news/ 407041/ all)". The Japan Times. . Retrieved 2007-06-18. [11] Archive copy (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060202053018/ http:/ / www5f. biglobe. ne. jp/ ~sbu/ DATABASE-JAPAN-SAT. htm) at the Internet Archive [12] " Okinawa police form assault team for response to terrorism (http:/ / www. estripes. com/ article. asp?section=104& article=30665& archive=true)". Stars and Stripes. 2005-09-10. . Retrieved 2009-01-26.

Special Assault Team
[13] Though it is said that the SAT has possessed a quantity of these rifles, they are not known to be used in any of the SAT's operations [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] MP5-J. (http:/ / www. tokyo-marui. co. jp/ products/ 01/ 01_mp5j/ index. html) Retrieved on April 2, 2008. (Japanese) " SAT (http:/ / policeenter-blog. 269g. net/ article/ 3360440. html)" (in Japanese). . Retrieved 2009-01-25. First President of Japan: Volume 3. Page 126-127 http:/ / specialoperations. com/ Foreign/ Japan/ http:/ / www. specwarnet. net/ oceana/ sat. htm http:/ / www5f. biglobe. ne. jp/ ~sbu/ DATABASE-JAPAN-SAT. htm http:/ / www. kiui. ac. jp/ ~yamatosh/ students/ syun/ SAT. htm http:/ / hanran. tripod. com/ terro/ c-sat. html http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=UBLZ4LlEz4g http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=m47sfQcgSyk

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Latvia
Latvian Special Tasks Unit
The Special Tasks Unit (Latvian: Speciālo uzdevumu vienība (SUV)) is a special operations unit of the National Armed Forces. It was established in September 1991. The unit is specially organized, trained and equipped for the performance of high-danger tasks. The soldiers in the unit continuously train to enhance their professional preparedness and are provided with specialized equipment in order to carry out their tasks efficiently. As a Special forces group most information about its actions are based on speculation and rumors.

Structure
The Special Tasks Unit consists of trained professional soldiers who are specialized in certain areas, e.g. airborne troops, combat divers, snipers, dog handlers and other.
SUV official seal

Mission
The unit is developed in a way, which allows it to provide assistance to state security and law-enforcement institutions in counter-terrorist operations and perform special tasks within the entire range of military operations: defense, attack and detention operations, airborne, sea landing and underwater operations, operations in a special environment (built-up territories, forests, limited visibility conditions, mountains,arctic and cold weather conditions, deserts and hot weather conditions), as well as search and rescue operations in collaboration with the Naval and Air Forces. The main mission of The Special Tasks Unit is to: • Perform special operations for national defense and security interests; • Participate in counter-terrorist operations; • Perform search and rescue operations on land and sea.
Sniper taking aim

Latvian Special Tasks Unit

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Equipment
The Special Tasks Unit's equipment and weaponry includes the Heckler & Koch MP5, Heckler & Koch G36, Steyr AUG, Glock 17, M249 SAW, L96A1 and many other weapons.

References
• Latvian Ministry of Defense site [1]

References
[1] http:/ / old. mod. gov. lv/

OMEGA
OMEGA is the premier counter-terrorism unit of Latvia. Founded in 1992, OMEGA cooperates with many other counter-terrorism units over the world. Its equipment and weaponry includes the Heckler & Koch MP5, the HK G36C and the Walther P99.

OMEGA official seal

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Malaysia
Pasukan Gerakan Khas
Pasukan Gerakan Khas

The RMP Pasukan Gerakan Khas Maroon Flag. Active Country Branch Type Role Size Part of Garrison/HQ Nickname Motto Color of Beret Anniversaries October 20, 1997 - Present
 Malaysia

Royal Malaysian Police Special Operations Domestic and International Counter Terrorism and → Law Enforcement ~2,000 Malaysian Special Operations Force Bukit Aman Police HQ, Kuala Lumpur, and PGK Training Centre Ulu Kinta, Perak PGK Alpha Detachment - UTK PGK Bravo Detachment - VAT 69 "Inheritance of The Blood of Warriors" - VAT 69 "Quick to Overcome Terror" - UTK Sandy coloured berets - VAT 69       Maroon beret - UTK October 23, March 25 (Police Days Anniversaries), August 31 (Independence Day Anniversaries) Recaptured Mas Selamat Kastari, Genting Sempah Incident, Operation Fire Palm 2, Operation Fire Barrel, Operation Dawn, Reformation Raid, Operation Astute Commanders

Engagements

Commandant Inspector General of Police Notable commanders

Senior Assistant Commissioner II Dato' Muhammad Fuad bin Abu Zarin Tan Sri Musa Haji Hassan SAC II Muhammad Sabtu bin Osman

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Insignia

PGK Chief Instructor Airborne Wing

The Pasukan Gerakan Khas PDRM (Abbreviation: PGK; English: Police Special Operations Force; PSOF) is an elite counter-terrorism and special operations tactical unit of the Royal Malaysian Police (RMP). The PGK has two distinct subdivisions; VAT 69 (Very Able Trooper-69; Komando 69) and the Special Actions Unit (Malay: Unit Tindakan Khas; UTK). The PGK is capable of dealing with a wide range of special operations from counter-terrorism operations to rescue operations. The actual size and organisation of the Directorate is classified. Tasked with enforcing Malaysian law through sea, air and land operations, the PGK is a vital component of the RMP.

Identities
Maroon berets A symbol of Pasukan Gerakan Khas Detachment A or Special Actions Unit (UTK). Sand coloured berets A symbol of Pasukan Gerakan Khas Detachment B or 69th Commando Battalion (VAT 69). Trimedia Parachute Wings The recognized symbol of the PGK. It also identifies the abilities of parachutist, airborne unit and air assault operations.

Functions
Current PGK roles are believed to include: • Intelligence collection in deep reconnaissance missions and warfare. • Special operations to support the RMP Special Branch in combating subversive organizations or terrorist activities. • Counter Terrorism operations inside Malaysian territory in conjunction with armed forces. • Law enforcement operations in dealing with armed criminals inside Malaysian territory. • Counter terrorism operations outside Malaysian territory; including Operation Astute in Timor Leste. • Search and rescue operations inside or outside Malaysian territory, such as aid operations in the aftermath of the 2006 tsunami in Acheh, Indonesia. • Protection of senior Malaysian dignitaries, ministers and VIPs.

Pasukan Gerakan Khas

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Organization
Previously separate entities, both the VAT 69 and the UTK were amalgamated into the PGK on October 20, 1997, when it was launched by the 5th Inspector General of Police, Tan Sri Rahim Noor. However, the VAT 69 and the UTK are still operationing as separate units. The UTK is now officially known as Pasukan Gerakan Khas Detachment A and VAT 69 has been deputized to Pasukan Gerakan Khas Detachment B. Currently based at the Royal Malaysian Police Headquarters in Bukit Aman, Kuala Lumpur, the PGK is under the direct command of the RMP's Internal and Public Security (Malay: Keselamatan Dalam Negeri / Ketenteraman Awam) Director. The current unit commander holds the rank of Senior Assistant Commissioner II (SAC) and is the Deputy Director of the RMP's Internal and Public Security Branch.

Sgt 126456 As'ari Md Dahal (right) with three PGK operatives on standby. They are armed with MP5-Ns equipped with Aimpoint CompM2 Sight and Insight Technology flashlight.

With the growing threat of terrorism since the September 11th attacks, this unit has increasingly adapted itself to conduct counter-terrorism duties.[1] With the aim of creating teams that are capable of dealing with a broad range of operations (especially counter-terrorism operations), the PGK small patrol team consist of six to ten operatives led by officers ranked from Police Inspector to Superintendent of Police with different expertise such as an attack units, snipers, EOD experts, communications experts and field medics. The PGK has also forged closer relations with the special forces of the Malaysian Armed Forces, including the 10 Paratrooper Brigade, Grup Gerak Khas, PASKAL and PASKAU, so as to enable them to more effectively enforce security within Malaysia's borders.

Roles
The UTK is primarily a → SWAT-style unit but with a difference; UTK operatives operate mostly in plain-clothes and also perform undercover missions. It has approximately 300 members. The unit operates to execute special security services such as anti-terrorism and counter-terrorism in Malaysian urban area, supporting the police on missions such as dealing with armed criminals, and escorting and protecting top leaders and VVIPs.[2] VAT 69 operatives however are jungle warfare specialists given the VAT 69's origins as a force established to fight the communist threat in 1969 and the insurgency years. Originally trained by the SAS, PGK operators practice storming a ship during a PGK VAT 69 conducts in land, sea and air special operation techniques exercise. with specialty in jungle warfare and deep reconnaissance missions, VAT 69 mission is to execute special operation in support of Police's Special Branch fight against subversive organization and terrorist activities, offensive operations using special weapons and tactics, anti-terrorism, counter-terrorism, hostage rescue, close protection and supporting the Malaysian Armed Forces special forces, RDF or infantry force in any security measures. Currently there are four infantry squadrons in VAT 69 with its own logistic unit, totaling around 1900 members. PGK snipers, technicians and explosive experts regularly cross-train with foreign special forces including the Special Air Service Regiments of Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, the Royal Thai Border Patrol Police and

Pasukan Gerakan Khas a number of US services including the US Navy SEALs, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) and others. UTK members wear maroon berets while VAT 69 members wear the sand coloured beret given to them by their founding trainers, the 22nd SAS. In November 14, 2006, for the first time in the history of PGK, the maroon and sand coloured berets were honoured as Royal Berets by Yang Dipertuan Agong Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin Syed Putera Jamalullail, the then King of Malaysia.

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Training and Selection
Primary selections period is as long as two days. As criteria to join the PGK Special Forces, all personnel must be younger than 30 years old and have a good health record. Prospective trainees are expected to exceed the minimums. The minimum requirements of the Physical Screening Test (PST) are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 6 km running in 40 minutess Freestyle swimming for 8-10 laps At least 9-13 chin-ups At least 30 sit-ups At least 60 push-ups At least 30 squad thrusts

To accomplish its varied mission profiles, the PGK ensures that its members are well trained in the required aspects of special operations. These include:Insertion Techniques 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. HALO/HAHO Fast roping techniques Helo casting Abseiling Combat diving

Several PGK operatives moving crosshairs during a Close Quarters Combat drill at the killing house. The first operative is equipped with a Tactical Shield.

Combat Techniques 1. Close Quarters Combat (CQC) 2. Unconventional warfare 3. Sabotage 4. Close VIP protection 5. Vehicular assault 6. Unarmed combat 7. Knife combat 8. Marksmanship 9. Booby-trap defusal 10. Underwater demolitions (BUD) Intelligence Gathering 1. Intelligence 2. Special reconnaissance 3. Long-range Combat Patrol Task Oriented

Pasukan Gerakan Khas

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1. Combat, Search and Rescue (CSAR) 2. Hostage rescue (HR) 3. Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Hazmat Disposal Operations In Built-up Areas - OBUA Foreign languages FIBUA Assaults on trains, airfield and aircraft K9 Handling

The PGK regularly trains abroad with units such as the British SAS, → Indonesian Brigade Mobil, → Singapore Special A PGK officer rappelling. Tactics and Rescue, Australian Special Air Service Regiment, New Zealand Special Air Service, FBI Hostage Rescue Team, US Green Berets and the US Special Operation Command Pacific Unit (SOCPAC). On December 10 2003, the then Inspector General of Police, Tan Sri Mohd Bakri Haji Omar, launched the training programme between the USSOCPAC and the PGK at the General Operations Force Training Center in Ulu Kinta, Perak. The team of SOCPAC were to conduct joint exercise with the PGK, under codename Vector Balance Mint for a duration of 2 weeks. Only 42 out of the 194 participants completed the inaugural programme.

Famous PGK Members
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • DSP G/9045 Mohd Noor Razak (retired) DSP G/10958 Abd Razak Mohd Yusof DSP G/11188 M.V Srikumar s/o Madhavan Nair ASP G/12236 Abd. Rahim Saffiee C/Insp I/3427 Mohd Zabri Abdul Hamid (died in September 3, 1975) Sergeant Abdul Rahim Megat Sergeant 126456 As'ari Md Dahal Corporal Md. Nazri Kassim Corporal Jamaluddin Md. Isa Corporal Ismail Ibrahim (died in March 27, 2000) Corporal 110998 Idrus Johar (died in August 18, 2004) Corporal Zawawi Hassan Corporal 133562 Mazlinda Mohd Noor Corporal 138143 Merli Zaifa Abdul Sani

Weaponry/Equipment
As a special forces unit, the PGK is equipped with a wide array of high class weapons and support equipment commonly associated with counter-terrorism operations. Here is a list of firearms and support equipment used by PGK officers:[3]

Firearms

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Firearms Data Sidearms Colt M1911A1 Shotguns Benelli M3 Super 90 Franchi SPAS-12 Remington 870 Remington 1100 Submachineguns² HK MP5A5 Service Rifles Colt M4A1 SOPMOD Sniper Rifles Machineguns Grenade L. M79

AI-AWM (Magnum) FN Minimi

Glock 17 Glock 18C Glock 26 Glock 34 HK Mark 23 Mod 01 HK USP Compact HK USP Tactical Sig Sauer P2022 STI Grandmaster STI Tactical-5.0

HK MP5-N HK MP5K-A4 HK MP5SD6 HK MP7A1-PDW HK UMP 9²

HK 416 Commando HK G36C

AI-PM / L96A1 HK PSG-1A1

M60E2

Colt M203

Steyr AUG A2VAT69 only Remington M700

Notes
1

Heckler & Koch Mark 23 .45 pistols have been acquired as side arms for elite PGK to replace the Colt M1911A1, but only a minority of this unit uses it. The majority of the officers use various 9 mm pistols. However the Mark 23 is a good choice, especially when used in CQC scenarios as they have the very high stopping power needed for such operations. ² This lot of Heckler & Koch UMP9 submachineguns are used by the Crisis Response Team of all the branches of the RMP (other than PGK) in dealing with other crisis involving terrorism and serious crimes. The Heckler & Koch MP5 is a popular sub-machine gun used by special force teams include the PGKs.

Support Equipment
List of Support Equipment High Explosive Grenades Flashbang Tear Gas Grenades Ballistic Shields Night Vision Goggles Pepper Spray Trijicon's ACOG 4x

T - Baton

Police Flexi Cuffs Surefire

Taser X26

SF-10 Gas Mask

Telescopic Sight

Fiber Optic Camera

Battering Rams

Tactical Bulletproof Vest Thermal Weapon Sight

C-4 Explosives

Rangefinder Camera

Assault Ladders First Aid Kit

Binocular

SPECTRA Helmet

Aimpoint CompM2 EOD Tools

Aimpoint CompM4 AN/PEQ-6

Hiatts Speedcuffs EO Tech Holosights Bean Bag Shells1

Notes
1

The Bean Bag shell is typically fired from a shotgun, and is used by police and military forces, mainly in the United States to disperse the type of riot which is not able to be controlled with tear gas weapon. When fired, the bean bag (or BB) made from rubber and plastic is expelled at around 70-90 meters/second; it spreads out in flight and distributes its impact over about 6 centimeters² of the target. It is designed to deliver a blow that will cause minimum long-term trauma and no penetration but will result in a muscle spasm or other reaction to briefly render a violent

Pasukan Gerakan Khas suspect immobile.

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Tactical Vehicles
As a special operations unit, the PGK employs a number of specialized vehicles to accomplish its missions. These include the Commando V-150D and the GKN Sankey AT105 armored personnel carriers[3] equipped with M60s as assault vehicles in urban and jungle terrain as well as modified police MPV (Mobile Patrol Vehicles), vans, trucks, 4WD and buses for use as tactical vehicles. PGK also employs RHIB assault boats,[3] jet-skis and Marine Subskimmer (DPV) in maritime missions and amphibious insertions. For its airborne operations, PGK utilises the C-130 Hercules, Cessna 206G, Cessna 208 Caravan 1 and Pilatus Porter PC-6 aircraft as well as the E-Squirrel AS-355 F2/AS-355N helicopter.
PGK operators using a Ford Explorer Sport Trac type as a Rapid Intervention Vehicle for vehicular assault.

Developments and Acquisitions
In October 25, 2007, the US Joint Interagency Task Force (JIATF) West funded RM2 million state-of-the-art shooting house for the VAT 69 Commando battalion was opened.[4]

Specialized RMP divisions
To counter increasing threats to national security from both terrorist and criminal elements, the PGK was tasked with forming and training two specialized units of the Royal Malaysian Police (RMP);-

Marine Combat Unit
Formed in March 2006, Unit Gempur Marin (English: Marine Combat Unit, UNGERIN) is a specialized detachment of the marine police. Jointly trained by the PGK and the US Navy SEALs, UNGERIN operatives are highly-trained in maritime counter-terrorism. UNGERIN operatives are trained and equipped with specialized weapons and tactics similar to the UK Special Boat Service and falls under the command of the RMP's maritime directorate.

Pasukan Gerakan Khas

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Rapid Actions Unit
Rapid Actions Unit (Malay: Unit Tindakan Cepat) is a specialized → SWAT unit of the RMP. Based at the Contingent Police Headquarters in Peninsular Malaysia, the UTC falls under the direct control of the RMP's Criminal Investigation Department. The UTC conducts urban operations and functions as an initial response unit for the PGK.

List of Unit Commanders
Listed below are the unit commanders past & present.

List of Pasukan Gerakan Khas Commander
Name Superintendent G/640 M. Shanmugam Year 1975 1976 1976 1978 1978 1983 1983 1986 1986 1987 1987 1990 1990 1993 Remark First commanding officer of the PGK

Superintendent G/3158 Ramli Abd Kadir

Replaced Supt. Shanmugam

Assistant Commissioner of Police G/2827 Syed Mohd Munfaz Wafa Syed Subli Wafa Assistant Commissioner of Police G/3740 A Navaratnam

-

First commanding officer and head of VAT 69

Deputy Superintendent of Police G/5439 Meor Chek Hussein Mahayuddin Assistant Commissioner of Police G/3421 Mohd Yusof Harun Assistant Commissioner of Police G/3432 Haji Idris Haji Wahid

Assistant commanding officer of the PGK

-

-

Senior Assistant Commissioner I G/5439 Dato' Meor Chek 1993 Hussien Mahayuddin 2000 Senior Assistant Commissioner II G/5096 Mohd Anuar Mohd Zain Senior Assistant Commissioner II Roslan Mohd Yassin 2000 2002 2002-2004

1997 Merged VAT 69 and UTK to Pasukan Gerakan Khas

-

PGK Commander from 2002 and transferred to Pahang state as the Officer Chief of Police Contingent in 2004 led from Deputy Director of Internal and Public Security in Royal Malaysian Police

Senior Assistant Commissioner II Mohd Rani Abd Rashid

2004-2006

Senior Assistant Commissioner II Muhammad Sabtu Osman Senior Assistant Commissioner I Dato' Muhammad Fuad Abu Zarin

2006- 2008 Transferred to Kuala Lumpur as Kuala Lumpur Police State Chief

2008- Now Replaced SAC II Muhammad Sabtu Osman

Pasukan Gerakan Khas

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Areas of Responsibility (AOR)
The PGK command is located at the Bukit Aman Police Headquarters in Kuala Lumpur. Each of the two independent detachments of the PGK, i.e. the UTK and the VAT69, has responsibility for different geographical areas of Malaysia. Here is the list of the areas of responsibility for the UTK and VAT69 respectively:

List of PGK's Area of Responsibility
PGK Detachment A - Special Actions Unit (UTK) PGK Detachment B - Very Able Trooper - 69 (VAT 69) Perak Pahang Perlis Penang Kedah Kelantan Terengganu

Johor Melaka Negeri Sembilan Selangor Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur

Missions
Its first counter-terrorism mission, which is one of the most well-known and which established the unit's reputation as an elite unit, was an operation known as "Operasi Subuh" (Operations Dawn). It was carried out on 3 July 2000 against Al-Ma'unah terrorists who had stolen 94 M16 rifles, 2 Steyr AUG rifles, 4 General Purpose Machineguns (GPMG), 6 Light Machineguns (LMG), 5 M203 grenade launchers, 26 bayonet daggers and thousands of ammunition rounds from 2 control posts of the Rejimen Askar Wataniah (Territorial Army Regiment) camp in Kuala Rui, Perak and captured 2 police officers, one army special forces soldier and one villager as hostages and planned to commit treason against a democratically elected government.[5]

Two operatives of PGK including one female operator armed with MP5-N submachineguns during the CQC drill.

In the dawn of 5 July 2000, police and Malaysian Army units created a distraction, while members of the PGK, accompanied by the 22nd Grup Gerak Khas led by Malaysian armed forces senior officer Lt. Gen. (R) Zaini Mohamad Said and PGK leader ASP Abd Razak Mohd Yusof were sent to Sauk to negotiate with the Al-Ma'unah leader, Mohamed Amin Mohamed Razali. Amin, along with his comrades were persuaded to drop their arms and surrender to the military. Although most of the group initially surrendered, negotiations eventually broke down and a bloody gunfight ensued. In these incidents, 2 of the 4 hostages were killed before the group finally surrendered. The PGK team suffered two casualties - Special Branch officer Detective Corporal R. Sanghadevan and Trooper Matthew anak Medan were tortured before they were killed and buried by 2 more hostages, Sargeant (R) Mohd Shah Ahmad and civilian Jaafar Puteh in the jungle before they were both rescued by security forces. Abdul Halim Ali @ Ahmad, a member of the militant group, was shot dead in the gunfighting and five others were injured, including two seriously. The other 22 were taken into police custody. [6] Mohamed Amin, Zahit Muslim, Jemari Jusoh and Jamaludin Darus were later sentenced to death and the other 16 were sentenced to life imprisonment. 10 more comrades, Megat Mohamed Hanafi Ilias, Muhamad Nukhshah Bandi Che Mansor, Riduan Berahim, Azlan Abdul Ghani, Shahidi Ali and Khairul Anuar Mohamed

Pasukan Gerakan Khas Ariffin, were sentenced by the High Court to ten years in jail each after pleading guilty to an alternative charge under Section 122 for preparing to wage war against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong after they pleaded guilty to the lesser charge.[7] [8]

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Publicly known missions
• 1998: Pasukan Gerakan Khas and Grup Gerak Khas was deployed to provide security and was on standby for hostage rescue, close protection and counter-terrorism duties during the 1998 Commonwealth Games held at National Stadium, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur on September 11 to September 21, 1998.[9] • September 20, 1998: In the twilight hours, by orders from the then Prime Minister to the Inspector General of Police, Tan Sri Rahim Noor, PGK operatives led by Inspector Mazlan arrested the ex-Deputy Prime Minister Dato' Sri Anwar Ibrahim in his home 18 days after his ejection from the Cabinet, for inciting anti-Mahathir reforms in Kuala Lumpur. He was initially arrested under the Internal Security Act and was subsequently charged with, and convicted of, corruption and sodomy.[10] 6 years later in 2004, when he was serving his jail sentence for sodomy after completing his sentence for corruption, he was released when his sodomy conviction was overturned by the Federal Court in the case of Dato’ Seri Anwar b. Ibrahim & Sukma Darmawan Sasmitaat Madja Lwn. Pendakwa Raya.[11]
[12] PGK officers riding the Honda ST1300 escorted the VVIP vehicles out to the exit gate of Parliament Square after the 52nd Independence Day Parade on August 31, 2009.

• 5 July 2000: The crates of military firearms by Al-Ma'unah group planned to commit treason against a democratically elected government. PGK and 22nd GGK stormed the group camp at Sauk, Malaysia and rescued the 2 hostages while more of 2 hostages dead.

• January 18 2000: Involved in an operation to arrested Gang Steyr, the armed criminal which led by ex-special forces named Mohd Hizan Jaafar, along with 5 mens after robbed the bank in Sri Serdang Road, Selangor. During the operation, two criminals including Mohd Hizan and Abu Hasan killed at Melayu Majidee Village and two more killed in shoot-out with police at Tol Plaza Kempas, Johor Bahru and recovered 4 Steyr AUG rifles, Smith & Wesson .22 handgun, one Remington shotgun, 85 rounds of 5.56 mm bullets, 3 rounds .22 bullets, a few bullet shells and found RM291,000. The police also launched the operation to hunted more two the number of the gang.[13] • September 12, 2002: Ahmad Mohd Arshad or Mat Komando, 37, the leader of Gang 13, then No.1 on the Malaysian Most-Wanted-Criminal list for 52 armed robberies involving about RM2.5 million, armed assault and illegal possession of firearms (among others) was known to be hiding in a Kampung Hujung Keton, the village in the state of Kedah on the west coast of the Malay Peninsular. Armed with intelligence gathered from surveillance and villagers, 10 police officers from PGK anti-terror police, supported by the PGA paramilitary police, cordoned off the area and stormed a hut in the village for the take down. Sensing the presence of law enforcement officials in dawn September 12, 6.30 am, Mat Komando opened fire and in the ensuing shoot-out, was shot in the head and left ribs and was killed. The police seized a Colt .45 pistol with three rounds of ammunitions and a S&W Model 617 .22 revolver with two rounds of ammunitions, two bullet shells from the deceased criminal. The then Malaysian Inspector General of Police, Tan Sri Norian Mai (Retired), said that Mat Komando was the fourth

Pasukan Gerakan Khas member of the Gang 13 members to be killed in shoot-outs against police while the remaining nine members had been arrested.[14] • September 27, 2002: Hunted downed Gang M16, the then Most-Wanted-Criminals of Malaysia for armed robbery at the Bank of Tokyo in 1985, 16 other armed robberies in jewelery shops and pawn shops, carting away loot which amounted to RM21.28 million. It was reported that all the members of this group were Chinese and the mastermind of this group was one Elvis Keh Jiang Long a.k.a Ah Po, the ex-Singaporean National Service(the branch of Singaporean Army), was an expert in various firearms and he was responsible for training the group for the robberies. During the gunfighting with the PGK in Batu 5, Jalan Seremban-Mantin, near the Galla Recreational Park, Mantin, Negeri Sembilan, two of the Gang M16 members, identified as Sunny Chai @ Sum Wing Chang and his righthand man, known as Hew Yau, were shot dead. Another gang member, Chang Kew Yin, managed to escape. One PGK officer was wounded. Security forces recovered an M16 rifle with two rounds of ammunition, a Colt semi-automatic The model of 69 Commando PGK with the HALO/HAHO handgun with 16 rounds of ammunition, a Smith & equipment. Wesson revolver and three ski-masks from the suspects' vehicles. At December 28, 2 am, Chang was gunned down in the ensuing shootout at Jalan Keris, Taman Sri Tebrau, Johor Bahru and security forces recovered a China-made Norinco pistol with three rounds of ammunition from Chang's body. Federal CID Director, Datuk Salleh Mat Som (late), said the police was always hunting for the Gang M16 members who were still at large, including sending their officers to Singapore and Thailand to track Keh down and also requested the assistance of the Australian police to locate another gang member, Hew Soon Loong @ Hong Kong Chai, who was believed to have fled to the country.[15] [16] • Participated in hostage rescue operations against Abu Sayyaf in Sipadan Island (Pulau Sipadan) and Ligitan Island (Pulau Ligitan), Sabah with support from PGA, the Malaysian Armed Forces and Philippine Armed Forces. • October 16 2003/October 17 2003: Involved in VVIP protection of the Islamic leaders during the 10th Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) in Putrajaya. • December 16 2004: Participated in the search and rescue mission for the lost → Indonesian Brimob, in which 700 personnel from the POLRI special operations force units went missing in Acheh after the tsunami incident. • 2005: Undertook VVIP escort missions to protect ex-Prime Minister Tun Dr Mahathir Muhammad when he visited Johor. • 2006: Deployed as part of the United Nations (U.N.) INTERFET to support the Operation Astute. It consisted of Malaysian U.N. 10 Paratrooper Brigade, Grup Gerak Khas, Australian and New Zealand U.N Armed Forces in Timor Leste. [17] • July 2007: Deployed in a search and rescue operation after a Sikorsy S61 Nuri helicopter of the RMAF went down along with a crew of six near Genting Sempah, Genting Highlands. The SAR team, which consisted of 10

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Pasukan Gerakan Khas Paratrooper Brigade, 22nd GGK, PASKAU, United States Navy, police General Operations Force Senoi Praaq, Police Air Wing, Fire and Rescue Department, Forestry Department rangers, Civil Defense Department (JPA3) and villagers, located the wreckage of the chopper on July 17, 1324hrs with its rotor blades detached. The bodies of all crew members were found in the cabin of the stricken aircraft.[18] • July 16, 2008: Arrested the PKR de facto leader, Dato' Seri Anwar Ibrahim in front of his house at Bukit Segambut in the twillight hours, similar to what happened in 1998, for investigations under Section 377C of the Penal Code for alleged "carnal intercourse against the order of nature" with his former aide, Mohd Saiful Bukhari Azlan. However, CID director Commissioner Dato' Mohd Bakri Zinin said that the arrest was not carried out by the UTK, but by the Bukit Aman's Serious Crimes Division (possibly by the → Unit Tindakan Cepat, UTC).[19] • 2009: In February 2008, a Singaporean Jemaah Islamiah (JI) leader, Mas Selamat Kastari escaped from Whitley Detention Center, the tightest detention centre in Singapore. A few months later, he was found to be hiding at a village house in Kampung Tawakal, Skudai, 40 km from Johor Bahru. Following intelligence sharing with the police forces of Indonesia and Singapore and tidying of tactical planning, in the dawn of 1 April 2009 at 06:00, a team from PGK counter-terrorist unit was deployed to assist police Special Branch members recapture the militant leader in the village A PGK officer using a battering ram to break through a house. Both PGK and Special Branch members stormed each door while other members standby to rush into the kill the perimeter of that house while Mas Selamat was sound house during the CQC drill. asleep. However, according to a witness, Mohd Saat Marjo, 57, a villager who lived opposite the fugitive’s home, about 30 masked commandos armed with automatic weapons together with plainclothes Special Branch members broke through two doors and rushed into the house when he refuse to come out and surrender when ordered by the police. The raid and inclusion by PGK and Special Branch was very organised, giving Mas Selamat no chance at all to escape. He was handcuffed with his face covered in a dark blue checked cloth before he was swiftly bundled into a police vehicle and taken away.[20] Other JI members, Abdul Matin Anol Rahmat and Johar Hassan, were also arrested together and police also seized documents and other paraphernalia that allegedly revealed their planned operation as well as combing the area with bomb detectors to ensure that the house was free of explosives.[21] However, the PGK's involvement in that operation was not highlighted in the media due to the top secret nature of the operations. The arrest was attributed to the Special Branch.

207

In Popular Culture
Fictional television programs • In 1997, there was a fictional TV program called Gerak Khas. • In 2005, an ASTRO RIA television show directed by Senator Dato' Jins Shamsuddin entitled VAT 69 - Warisan Darah Perwira, documented the tactics and professional lives of VAT 69 officers of the Royal Malaysian Police Pasukan Gerakan Khas. Movies • In 1991, the movie Bayangan Maut (The Shadow of Death) starring Dato' Yusof Haslam, Sabree Fadzil and Noorkumalasari was released in theatres. In the movie, the featured PGK units were portrayed as plain-clothed and carrying the M16 rifles. • A PGK unit is featured at the end of the movie Maria Mariana (1996).

Pasukan Gerakan Khas • In the 2nd installment of Gerak Khas The Movie 2 (2002), Pasukan Gerakan Khas takes action to track down drug smugglers in maritime Penang states and militia terrorists in the jungle. • In the end scene of Gerak Khas the Movie 3 (GK3) (2004), VAT 69, the branch of Pasukan Gerakan Khas was featured in plainclothes carrying MP5A2 submachine guns, with the occasional member carrying a pistols to track down the crime syndicates in Langkawi Island, Kedah states. • In the movie Entrapment (1999), starring Sean Connery and Catherine Zeta Jones, real Pasukan Gerakan Khas police counter-terrorist operators together with PASKAU were used as the "SWAT Team" that pursued the 2 stars in and around Petronas Twin Towers. The helicopter at the end of the pursuit scene however was obviously not RMP's but clearly stated "RMAF", the air force.

208

Controversies
In October 2006, an officer and two members of Pasukan Gerakan Khas were detained for suspicion of abetting Abdul Razak Baginda in the murder of a Mongolian, Altantuya Shaariibuu, who was slain and her body blown up with C4 detonator in October 2006 at Shah Alam, Malaysia. The two officials suspected of involvement in this murder are Chief Inspector Azilah Hadri and Corporal Sirul Azhar Umar, while another member, woman Police Constable Fatimah Abdul Wahap and those on duty in the Pasukan Gerakan Khas's weaponry storage were released after they were found not to have been involved in the murder. Razak, Azilah and Sirul judge over this brutal murder. On the 9 April 2009, High Court Judge Zaki Yasin ruled that Sirul Azhar and Azilah statements were unbelievable as both of the accused only blamed each other. [22] . Both policemen were sentenced to death for the murder of Altantuya. Wrapping up the 159-day trial, Zaki said both of them failed to raise any reasonable doubt in the prosecution's case. [23] However, their lawyers will lodge an appeal. Both policemen showed no emotion upon hearing their death sentence. Their family members accepted the court's decision and denied any political elements in the verdict. [24]

References
[1] " In full force (http:/ / www. thestar. com. my/ lifestyle/ story. asp?file=/ 2007/ 9/ 22/ lifefocus/ 18884357& sec=lifefocus)". The Star. 2007-09-22. . Retrieved 2008-02-18. [2] " To protect with their lives - Fotoplay (http:/ / thestar. com. my/ news/ story. asp?file=/ 2007/ 12/ 29/ nation/ 19881348& sec=nation)". The Star. 2007-09-29. . Retrieved 2008-02-18. [3] " Unofficial Royal Malaysian Police Paramilitary Force Page (http:/ / kbmyaf. co. nr/ PDRM. htm)". . Retrieved 2009-02-23. [4] " VAT 69 gets RM2m shoot house (http:/ / thestar. com. my/ metro/ story. asp?file=/ 2007/ 10/ 26/ north/ 19256550& sec=north)". The Star. 2007-10-26. . Retrieved 2008-04-17. [5] " Malaysian arms gang take hostages (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ asia-pacific/ 818403. stm)". bbc.co.uk (BBC). 4 July 2000. . Retrieved 2008-06-08. [6] " Malaysian gunmen surrender (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ asia-pacific/ 821695. stm)". bbc.co.uk (BBC). 6 July 2000. . Retrieved 2008-08-18. [7] " Sauk incident (http:/ / www. utusan. com. my/ utusan/ archive. asp?y=2002& dt=0116& pub=utusan_express& sec=home_news& pg=hn_06. htm& arc=hive)". Utusan Malaysia. 2001-01-15. . Retrieved 2008-02-18. [8] " Malaysian arms raid cult charged (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ asia-pacific/ 870776. stm)". bbc.co.uk (BBC). 8 August 2000. . Retrieved 2008-06-08. [9] " Security for sale (http:/ / www. atimes. com/ atimes/ Front_Page/ EH14Aa01. html)". Asia Times. 2003-08-14. . Retrieved 2009-04-20. [10] " World: Asia-Pacific Anwar arrested amid Kuala Lumpur protests (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ asia-pacific/ 175896. stm)". bbc.co.uk (BBC). 2 September 2004. . Retrieved 2008-08-20. [11] " Malaysian Federal Court Judgment in Dato’ Seri Anwar b. Ibrahim & Sukma Darmawan Sasmitaat Madja Lwn. Pendakwa Raya (http:/ / www. kehakiman. gov. my/ judgment/ fc/ archive/ 05-6-2003(W)dato hamid. htm)". Federal Court of Malaysia. 2004-09-02. . Retrieved 2009-06-12. [12] " Malaysia's Anwar Ibrahim set free (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ asia-pacific/ 3619790. stm)". bbc.co.uk (BBC). 2 September 2004. . Retrieved 2008-08-20. [13] " 4 ahli Geng Steyr ditembak mati (Malay) (http:/ / www. utusan. com. my/ utusan/ archive. asp?y=2000& dt=0119& pub=utusan_malaysia& sec=muka_hadapan& pg=fp_01. htm& arc=hive)". Utusan Malaysia. 2000-01-19. . Retrieved 2008-02-18.

Pasukan Gerakan Khas
[14] " Mat Komando killed in shootout with police (http:/ / www. utusan. com. my/ utusan/ archive. asp?y=2002& dt=0913& pub=utusan_express& sec=front_page& pg=fp_01. htm& arc=hive)". Utusan Malaysia. 2002-09-12. . Retrieved 2008-02-18. [15] " Crime watch: December 27 (http:/ / www. utusan. com. my/ utusan/ archive. asp?y=2002& dt=1228& pub=utusan_express& sec=home_news& pg=hn_08. htm& arc=hive)". Utusan Malaysia. 2001-12-27. . Retrieved 2008-02-18. [16] " M16 Gang crippled, three members including mastermind shot dead (http:/ / www. utusan. com. my/ utusan/ archive. asp?y=2002& dt=1229& pub=utusan_express& sec=home_news& pg=hn_02. htm& arc=hive)". Utusan Malaysia. 2001-12-28. . Retrieved 2008-02-18. [17] " M'sian Police To Take Over From M'sian Troops In Timor Leste (http:/ / www. bernama. com. my/ bernama/ v3/ news. php?id=206042)". Bernama. 2006-06-30. . Retrieved 2008-02-18. [18] Villagers help in ground search (http:/ / thestar. com. my/ news/ story. asp?file=/ 2007/ 7/ 16/ nation/ 18316892& sec=nation) The Star, July 16, 2007 [19] " Anwar arrested, taken to HKL (Update 11) (http:/ / thestar. com. my/ news/ story. asp?file=/ 2008/ 7/ 16/ nation/ 20080716101744& sec=nation)". The Star. 2008-07-16. . Retrieved 2008-07-20. [20] " Fugitive militant finds rustic retreat away from prying eyes (http:/ / thestar. com. my/ news/ story. asp?file=/ 2009/ 5/ 11/ nation/ 3877066& sec=nation)". thestar.com.my (The Star (Malaysia)). 11 Mei 2009. . Retrieved 2009-05-11. [21] " Fugitive Mas Selamat nabbed (http:/ / thestar. com. my/ news/ story. asp?file=/ 2009/ 5/ 8/ nation/ 20090508084657& sec=nation)". thestar.com.my (The Star (Malaysia)). 08 May 2009. . Retrieved 2009-05-09. [22] " Policemen to die in Malaysian case (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ asia-pacific/ 7991132. stm)". BBC News. 2009-04-09. . Retrieved 2009-04-09. [23] " Malaysia sentences 2 police in Mongolian murder (http:/ / www. google. com/ hostednews/ ap/ article/ ALeqM5id75ogaP8tSKAMyl6HbA1qxRD60gD97ET1FO0)". The Associated Press (Sean Yoong). 2009-04-09. . Retrieved 2009-04-09. [24] " Altantuya murder: Calm despite death sentence (http:/ / thestar. com. my/ news/ story. asp?file=/ 2009/ 4/ 9/ nation/ 20090409143659& sec=nation)". M. Mageswari and Lester Kong. 2009-04-09. . Retrieved 2009-04-09.

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Police Contingent SWAT Unit (UTC, Malaysia)

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Police Contingent SWAT Unit (UTC, Malaysia)
Unit Tindakan Cepat Active Country Branch Type Role Size Part of Garrison/HQ Color of Beret Anniversaries Engagements 2000s - Present
 Malaysia

Royal Malaysian Police
→ Emergency management

Law Enforcement Classified Criminal Investigations Department Bukit Aman Police HQ, Kuala Lumpur, and all Police Contingents Blue beret March 25 (Police Days Anniversaries), August 31 (Independence Day Anniversaries) See the Recent Operations Commanders

Inspector General of Police Tan Sri Musa Haji Hassan

Unit Tindakan Cepat in Malay or Quick Actions Unit is a Police Contingent → SWAT Unit within Royal Malaysian Police under the Crimes Investigation Department (C.I.D).

History
Formed in the early 2000s, this unit arrived at the law enforcement scene and replaced roles with the → Pasukan Gerakan Khas (elite Counter-Terrorist unit) which was the main SWAT duty team throughout Malaysia. It has been formed also for enhancing the capabilities of Criminal Invesitgation Division (which the UTC is a division of) in facing and handling all dangerous criminal activities; from both individuals and groups. There has always been a rising requirement for a quick, always-ready unit in various city areas throughout Malaysia. This new unit's role is for handling medium crimes, such as dealing with bank/jewellery robberies, murder, kidnapping, prison escapes, and raiding the hideouts of armed criminals. This unit will aid the elite counter-terrorist force - the → Pasukan Gerakan Khas - in handling situations more suited to normal SWAT units. Before the formation of the UTC, the Pasukan Gerakan Khas handled all medium~dangerous situations from armed robberies to hostage rescue. Two states had recently set up UTC Headquarters of their respective areas - Terengganu and Johor. The UTC are trained by the experienced Pasukan Gerakan Khas, and are fully and equipped for all situations of urban combat or CQB. This unit's rapid responses and deployments have been effective in capturing many criminals since its formation in the 2000s.

Police Contingent SWAT Unit (UTC, Malaysia)

211

Role
UTC's special role enabled the Criminal Invesitgation Division to have its own professional and skilled unit in facing all dangerous threats when required. This unit has also been specially trained to secure samples of crime scene evidence safely to the forensic agencies for examinations. The unit's main HQ is located at the Police HQ at Bukit Aman in Kuala Lumpur. Orders and commands are controlled by the Director of Criminal Invesitgation Division and also assisted by the Deputy Director.

Training
As mentioned above, all UTC members get special training from the Pasukan Gerakan Khas unit to enable the unit UTC to engage missions effectively. Most of the training conducted are urban battle and CQB. Special Operations Forces' training are conducted to the UTC to increase the strength and endurance of unit members, maximizing mentality strength and exposure to critical and tactical operations. Also among the training absorbed into this unit are: 1. Operation planning 2. Quick and effective raids of buildings, road vehicles, and trains 3. Expertise use of firearms and explosives 4. Sharpshooting and sniper However, this unit does not just get training from PGK. The UTC men are regularly sent to take courses outside of the country to train with foreign units with similar roles.

Equipment
UTC uses all up-to-date equipments for maximum efficiency and effectiveness.

Specific clothing
Specific uniform for the UTC is very similar to the ones used by the → Pasukan Gerakan Khas.

Beret
Dark blue berets are used by the UTC. Berets of senior officers bear a cloth badge embroidery, while members of lower ranks bears badges on their berets, which are made from silver.

Combat boots
Combat Boots used by the UTC are the same as to those used by the Federal Reserve Unit operators.

Bulletproof vests
Bulletproof vests are the most important gear equipped to any personnel of security forces. Vests used by the UTC has a slight difference from the PGK's vest. The latter's vest also has pockets for small tools required in special operations. Vests for the UTC is also used by the members of CID, and has a simple design with no pockets. The standard UTC vests are made from Kevlar and are capable of stopping ammunition thrusts as powerful as the 5.56mm NATOs, and the ultimate UTK vests are capable to restrain 7.62 mm NATO bullets. The UTC vests have "POLICE" embedded to its front and back.

Police Contingent SWAT Unit (UTC, Malaysia)

212

Communication equipment
Communication equipment also required to make sure task carried out stated effective and fluent. Each stated equipment only will be used by operation officer officiate operation in the area determined. Communication equipment or walkie talkie of the type ASTRO Motorola measuring medium become choice this unit. There were also stated communication system equipped with headset to facilitate operator use him without the need hold him by stated operating times.

Firearm and explosive
UTC also furnished with weaponry suitable and light to carry any operation entrust. Commanding officer entrust to determine fire and ammunition kind of weapon which are used. Nor with explosive if needed in the operation. Explosive used is the same with special all teams police and military worldwide, viz from type of bomb C4's plastic and it obtainable from branch of bomb disposal each police contingents. Used to explode shaped any object obstacle while raid made, for example a locked doors. But only UTC's officers and men accredited only those allowed to use. Firearm that timber used are from version standard which are used by existing permanent members RMP. All weaponry is from the fully and semi-automatic types. Type some firearm series which used by UTC is semi-automatic handguns including Browning HP Mk.III, Glock 19, Heckler & Koch P9S, Sig Sauer P226, Steyr M9, Vektor SP1 and Yavuz 16 Compact. UTC also used the shotgun from the Winchester type for operation conducted and it use non-lethal ammunition, spreads and buck-shots supply to break down the door during conducted the raid. Submesingan that timber used are consisted of Heckler & Koch MP5A2 and A3's versions. Other than that, assault rifles use also encouraged, depend from the Commanding Officer decisions. The rifle from Colt M16A1 type is among rifles which used by UTC with role as riflemen or marksmen. And there is also HK G3/SG-1 precisions rifle which is used by UTC in certain contingents only supply officiate him as sniper persons.

Special vehicles
This unit also owns the medium and light special undercover vehicles, to enable to enable them to move more tactically. Each contingent and Bukit Aman have at least a special vehicle which furnished with equipment that is required, for example communication equipment who act as "Command Vehicles".

Recent Operations
• In August 13, 2004 - An UTC Selangor contingent successfully overcame five criminals who had just robbed jewellery worth RM500,000 from a jewellery store in a shopping centre at Endah Parade, Sri Petaling, Selangor. All the criminals, who were wearing baseball hat and armed with semi-automatic pistols and revolvers and self-made bomb were killed but UTC member, Corporal Amran Abd. Aziz, was wounded during the shoot-out incident outside shopping complex.[1]

References
[1] 5 criminals shot dead -- After robbing jewellery RM500,000 in Endah Parade (http:/ / www. utusan. com. my/ utusan/ arkib. asp?y=2004& dt=0814& pub=utusan_malaysia& sec=muka_hadapan& pg=mh_01. htm& arc=hive) Utusan Malaysia August 14, 2004

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Netherlands
Brigade Speciale Beveiligingsopdrachten
The Brigade Speciale Beveiligingsopdrachten (Special Protection Tasks Brigade) or BSB is a special unit of the Koninklijke Marechaussee, the Dutch gendarmerie corps. The unit has a number of tasks. It is used as the → SWAT team of the Marechaussee, it used to protect important persons, it is used to observe criminals and for observation of events with certain risks. The BSB is a bridge between the Dienst Speciale Interventies (DSI) and the Arrestatieteam of the Dutch → police. Observation of 'dangerous' activists are frequently carried out by the BSB after request of the AIVD, the Dutch intelligence service which itself is not armed.

External links
• Information about the BSB [1] (Dutch)

References
[1] http:/ / www. arrestatieteam. nl/ bsb/ index. php

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New Zealand
Armed Offenders Squad
Armed Offenders Squad

Armed Offenders Squad Patch Active Branch Role Size Part of Nickname Colors 1964 - Present New Zealand Police Resolution of situations where weapons are used or threatened against the police or the public 17 Squads, 270 part-time officers Under control of the New Zealand Police AOS charcoal
[1]

Engagements Aramoana massacre 2007 New Zealand anti-terror raids 2009 Napier shootings

The Armed Offenders Squad (AOS) is a specialist unit of the New Zealand Police designed to "cordon, contain and appeal to" armed and dangerous offenders. As the name explains, they are called upon when conflict with an armed offender has occurred or is considered imminent. The AOS draw upon a varied arsenal of weapons and are often seen in heavy body armour. By contrast, most front-line police officers in New Zealand are lightly protected and do not normally carry firearms. The establishment of the AOS is an attempt to retain this situation (lightly armed police officers being the standard) and yet retain the ability to deal with offenders too dangerous for measures like pepper spray or a baton.

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History
The AOS was formally started by New Zealand SAS soldier "Shocker Shaw" and Police Inspector Perry in 1964[1] , in response to the deaths of four police officers in two separate incidents - one in Lower Hutt, Wellington and one in Waitakere, Auckland - that involved firearms. One of the highest-profile AOS interventions is their action during the Aramoana massacre on 13–14 November 1990, which involved at least 150 police officers.[2] Officers from the → Special Tactics Group were also present at the crisis. Sergeant Stewart Guthrie, an NCO in the AOS,[3] was killed in the massacre, although he arrived alone with only a revolver, ahead of the fully-equipped team from Dunedin. On 15 October 2007, members of the New Zealand police, Armed Offenders Squad, and → Special Tactics Group conducted several raids across New Zealand in response to the uncovering of alleged paramilitary training camps deep in the Urewera mountain ranges. Roughly 300 police were involved in the raids.[4] Four guns and roughly 230 rounds of ammunition were seized and 17 people were arrested. According to the police the raids were a culmination of more than a year of surveillance that uncovered and monitored the training camps. The warrants were executed under the Summary Proceedings Act, the Terrorism Suppression Act, and the Arms Act. Raids were conducted in Wellington, Christchurch, Taupo and Tauranga. Allegations of New Zealand Police searching a school bus also surfaced.[5] The Armed Offenders Squad were also involved in a shooting on a motorway in Auckland on 23 January 2009.[6] A squad member accidentally shot and killed innocent teenager Halatau Naitoko as a gunman threatened a truck driver, and Naitoko was caught in the line of fire.[7] A former police inspector called for the squad member who shot Naitoko to be charged[8] while AOS training would be changed to avoid future incidents similar to the Naitoko case.[9] The AOS has been involved with the → Special Tactics Group in the 2009 Napier shootings.[10]

Structure
As of 2009, there are 17 squads throughout New Zealand, covering all major population centres. The mission of the AOS is to provide police with a means of effectively and safely responding to and resolving situations in which there is a risk of firearms or similarly dangerous weapons being involved, and when weapons are directed against either members of the public, or the police service. The AOS is comprised entirely of volunteers, who must have passed a national selection and training course, with further, localised training given on a district level. They are part time, come from all branches of the New Zealand Police, and operate on a call out basis. According to official figures, AOS units attended 533 incidents nationwide in the year 1998/99.[1] Members of the AOS are eligible for selection into the → Special Tactics Group (STG) the full time elite anti-terrorist unit of the New Zealand Police. This unit trains together with the New Zealand Special Air Service (NZSAS) however only limited information on it is released by the New Zealand Police. Members receive additional pay above the regular police wage, in one case around $9,000 per year in 2008.[11]

Supporting units
The AOS is supported by Police Negotiation Teams and canine units specifically trained for use in situations involving firearms. The PNT units are specially trained in psychology and crisis resolution techniques. A great majority of their callouts are to AOS incidents, of which the majority have been resolved peacefully. However, the PNT's may also be called out to several other situations that include, threatened suicides to high-risk hostage situations.[1] Nationwide, there are 17 Police Negotiation Teams, with each AOS having a dedicated team attached to it. Similar to the AOS units themselves, the negotiators are all part time volunteers. The Police Negotiation Teams responded to a total of 330 incidents in the 1998/99 year.[1]

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Requirements
All AOS members are volunteers drawn from the New Zealand Police. They must complete highly rigorous training, and applications are carefully screened.[1] Posting to the AOS is not a full-time duty, and members are officially members of other branches such as the Criminal Investigation Branch (CIB) or general duties. In the event of an incident requiring AOS attendance, the on-duty officers will be paged by the communications centre.[12] They then assemble at their base, to draw arms and get other equipment, before responding to the scene.[12]

Equipment
In keeping with the weapons available to front-line officers, the AOS are issued with Glock 17 pistols and Bushmaster M4A3 carbines.[12] [13] Other equipment includes: pump-action shotguns, namely the Remington 870, for both breaching and CS gas delivery; the HK 79 grenade launcher for delivery of CS gas; semi-automatic .223 rifles; ; and tactical vests. Extra gear such as drop-leg holsters and magazine pouches have been seen in use, but are optional to the officer. Ballistic vests, Kevlar helmets, and occasionally ballistic shields are also used.[14] The AOS snipers use a rifle made by Accuracy International known as the L96 When responding to incidents, or executing planned operations, AOS officers utilise both standard marked and unmarked cars, and large four-wheel drive vehicles, such as the Nissan Patrol. These are fitted with running boards and roof rails, to allow officers to stand on the side while the vehicle is in motion, as well as having enclosed boxes on the roof for carrying equipment.

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • United States Police - Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) New Zealand Police - → Special Tactics Group

AOS officer during a Police Open Day display.

South African Police Service - → South African Police Service Special Task Force Australian Federal Police - → Specialist Response and Security Team  New South Wales - → Tactical Operations Unit  Northern Territory - → Territory Response Group  Queensland - → Special Emergency Response Team  South Australia - → Special Tasks and Rescue Group  Tasmania - → Special Operations Group  Victoria - → Special Operations Group  Western Australia - → Tactical Response Group

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External links
• Official website [15] • Shocker Shaw [16]

References
[1] " Armed Offenders Squad (http:/ / www. police. govt. nz/ service/ aos/ )". New Zealand Police. . Retrieved 2009-02-07. [2] "Sobering sights as Banks, Jamieson visit". Otago Daily Times. 15 November 1990. pp. 2. [3] Forbes, Murray J. (1997). Confessions from the front line. Sandringham, Auckland: Howling at the Moon Productions. p. 203. ISBN 0958356858. [4] " Police foil paramilitary plot - napalm bomb tested (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5SkdEBKU8)". TV3. 15 October 2007. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. tv3. co. nz/ Policefoilparamilitaryplotnapalmbombtested/ tabid/ 209/ articleID/ 36974/ Default. aspx) on 21 October 2007. . Retrieved 2009-02-07. [5] " Siege leaves community in fear - Maori MP (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5SkeilbSW)". Stuff.co.nz. 2007-10-15. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. stuff. co. nz/ 4238597a10. html) on 21 October 2007. . [6] " Offender not the person killed - report (http:/ / www. nzherald. co. nz/ nz/ news/ article. cfm?c_id=1& objectid=10553274)". New Zealand Herald. 23 January 2009. . Retrieved 2009-02-06. [7] " Motorway shooting: How it happened (http:/ / www. nzherald. co. nz/ auckland-region/ news/ article. cfm?l_id=117& objectid=10553585)". New Zealand Herald. 26 January 2009. . Retrieved 2009-02-07. [8] " Former police inspector says officer should face court (http:/ / www. nzherald. co. nz/ nz/ news/ article. cfm?c_id=1& objectid=10553601)". 26 January 2009. . Retrieved 2009-02-07. [9] " Broad: AOS training may change (http:/ / www. stuff. co. nz/ national/ 811572)". Stuff. 2009-01-27. . Retrieved 2009-05-09. [10] " Police trained for 'ugly situation' (http:/ / www. stuff. co. nz/ the-press/ news/ national/ 2393521/ Police-trained-for-ugly-situation)". The Press. . Retrieved 2009-05-09. [11] " Man jailed for killing police dog (http:/ / www. nzherald. co. nz/ nz/ news/ article. cfm?c_id=1& objectid=10486959)". New Zealand Herald. 15 January 2008. . Retrieved 2009-02-07. [12] " Split second decisions: police rules of engagement (http:/ / www. stuff. co. nz/ national/ 1387878)". Stuff. 2009-02-01. . Retrieved 2009-05-09. [13] " Are combat rifles the best option for New Zealand Police in situations involving firearms? (http:/ / blogs. nzherald. co. nz/ blog/ your-views/ 2008/ 5/ 26/ are-combat-rifles-best-option-nz-police-situations-involving-firearms)". 26 May 2008. . Retrieved 2009-02-07. [14] Young, Warren. " World Factbook of Criminal Justice Systems - New Zealand (http:/ / www. ojp. usdoj. gov/ bjs/ pub/ ascii/ wfbcjnew. txt)". U.S. Department of Justice. . Retrieved 2009-02-08. [15] http:/ / www. police. govt. nz/ service/ aos/ [16] http:/ / www. fighttimes. com/ magazine/ magazine. asp?issue=7& article=301

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218

Special Tactics Group
Special Tactics Group

Special Tactics Group Patch Active Branch Role Part of Nickname 1964 - Present New Zealand Police Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement Under control of the New Zealand Police STG / "Super Tough Guys"

Engagements Aramoana massacre 2007 New Zealand anti-terror raids 2009 Napier shootings Commanders Current commander Superintendent Neville Matthews

Previously known as the Anti-Terrorist Squad, the Special Tactics Group is the full-time tactical and Counter-terrorism group of the New Zealand Police. The STG is civilian-police → SWAT type unit established to respond to high-risk situations which are beyond the scope or capacity of everyday policing. STG officers directly support operational police in incidents such as sieges with specialist tactical, negotiation, intelligence and command support services.

History
The Special Tactics Group, originally named the "Anti Terrorist Squad" until early 1990/1991,[1] [2] was a part-time unit raised in the 1960s to deal with high risk situations involving armed offenders and possible terrorism related events. Commissioner of Police John Jamieson sent the group in response to the Aramoana massacre in 1990,[3] they successfully located gunman David Gray and ended his spree. Group member Stephen Vaughan was shot in the ankle during the final shoot-out at Aramoana. The unit became a full-time group in 2002 due to a number of changes made by the New Zealand Police in response to world wide terrorism related events.[4] The STG has been involved in the 2009 Napier shootings alongside their colleagues in the → Armed Offenders Squad.[2]

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Role
The STG deals with armed incidents that are beyond the capability of the part-time Armed Offender Squad. The group also provides specialist protection to high risk persons and VIPs.[5] While the Police Armed Offender Squad is trained to cordon or contain high risk situations such as sieges, the Special Tactics Group is trained to resolve them.[6] However, STG members are also members of the Armed Offenders Squad. The group is known to train with the New Zealand Special Air Service Counter-Terrorist Tactical Assault Group,[7] of which little public information is released. The STG has also provided specialist armed officers for overseas operations such as the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI) working alongside officers from the Australian Federal Police.[2] The STG along with Police Tactical Groups from across Australia provided several officers on secondment to the NSW Police Force → Tactical Operations Unit to assist with security operations during the Sydney APEC meeting in 2007.[8] The STG is supported during its operations by the → Armed Offenders Squad, negotiation teams and canine units specifically trained for use in situations involving firearms. STG have been part of all major security operations in New Zealand including the 1990 Commonwealth Games, the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 1995, APEC meetings, royal and VIP tours.[5]

Principal roles
• Protecting endangered witnesses • Resolving siege and hostage situations, as well as armed offender situations • Providing a negotiation service in high risk and critical situations • Undertaking searches of premises in high risk situations • The arrest of armed and dangerous offenders • Escorting and securing dangerous prisoners in high risk situations • Providing support services for major operations • Escorting and protecting VIPs and other at risk or important persons

Special Tactics Group officers during a training exercise.

The STG also provides specialist assistance in performing tasks which are beyond the scope of operational police. Some of these tasks may require specialist equipment or expertise in certain areas.

See also
• • • • • • • • • New Zealand Police - → Armed Offenders Squad (AOS) Australian Federal Police - → Specialist Response and Security Team  New South Wales - → Tactical Operations Unit  Northern Territory - → Territory Response Group  Queensland - → Special Emergency Response Team  South Australia - → Special Tasks and Rescue Group  Tasmania - → Special Operations Group  Victoria - → Special Operations Group  Western Australia - → Tactical Response Group

Special Tactics Group •  United States - → SWAT • New Zealand Special Air Service • Counter-terrorism

220

References
[1] Forbes, Murray J. (1997). Confessions from the front line. Sandringham, Auckland: Howling at the Moon Productions. p. 178. ISBN 0958356858. [2] " Police trained for 'ugly situation' (http:/ / www. stuff. co. nz/ the-press/ news/ national/ 2393521/ Police-trained-for-ugly-situation)". The Press. 2009-05-08. . Retrieved 2009-05-09. [3] Forbes, Murray J. (1997). Confessions from the front line. Sandringham, Auckland: Howling at the Moon Productions. p. 199. ISBN 0958356858. [4] " Protecting New Zealand's Borders – the Government's Approach (http:/ / www. beehive. govt. nz/ speech/ protecting+ new+ zealand’s+ borders+ –+ government’s+ approach)". NZ Government. 30 August 2007. . Retrieved 2008-03-26. [5] " Responding to the threat of terrorism (http:/ / www. police. govt. nz/ service/ counterterrorism/ )". NZ Police. . Retrieved 2008-03-26. [6] " Police expand anti-terrorism unit (http:/ / www. nzherald. co. nz/ section/ 1/ story. cfm?c_id=1& objectid=2797126)". NZ Herald. September 13, 2002. . Retrieved 2008-03-26. [7] " New Zealand Special Air Service (http:/ / www. specialoperations. com/ Foreign/ New_Zealand/ NZSAS. htm)". Special Operations.Com. . Retrieved 2008-03-26. [8] " APEC Meeting (Police Powers) Bill 2007 (http:/ / www. parliament. nsw. gov. au/ prod/ parlment/ hansart. nsf/ 8bd91bc90780f150ca256e630010302c/ 6ef7084473afa23aca2572ff0019cb33!OpenDocument)". NSW Government. 7 June 2007. . Retrieved 2008-03-26.

221

Norway
Beredskapstroppen
Beredskapstroppen

Shoulder patch Active Country Type Role Size Nickname 1976 – Present
 Norway

Special Operations Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement 71 Delta, BT

Engagements Torp hostage crisis Kosovo crisis (Through Special Team Six) Commanders Current commander Anders Snortheimsmoen

Beredskapstroppen (English Contingency platoon), call sign Delta, is a specialized → police unit situated in Oslo, Norway. It is the main public force counter-terrorism unit in Norway, trained to perform dangerous operations such as high-risk arrests and hostage situations. The team members are recruited from the ordinary police force. Located in Oslo, the force has responsibility for the whole country, including oil installations in the North Sea. Beredskapstroppen took part in the dramatic hostage situation at Sandefjord Airport on September 29, 1994. Delta is similar to FBI Hostage Rescue Team in the United States. Unlike the rest of Norwegian Police, they are routinely armed, weapons including Glock 17 pistols and MP5 submachine guns. Beredskapstroppen spend 50 % of their time training and preparing for missions, and the rest of the time they normally work like ordinary law enforcement in Oslo. For training in close quarters combat they often use a specially built city inside Rena military camp close to Rena which originally was built for training the Telemark Battalion and other military special forces. Since October 2006, Beredskapstroppen has been more in the media because of the government's war on gang crime in Oslo.

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222

Operations
According to Beredskapstroppen's web site, they conduct in average almost one armed operation every day. In 2004, for instance, they conducted 422 armed missions and only fired their weapons twice. Unlike rest of the Norwegian police, Beredskaptroppen is routinely armed. One of Beredskapstroppen's most dramatic missions was the Torp hostage crisis, where an elderly couple and two police officers were taken hostages by two criminals.In the end of the two day drama, Beredskapstroppen executed a rescue operation rescuing all of the hostages and killing one hostage taker and arresting the other. In the NOKAS robbery aftermath, Beredskapstroppen arrested many suspects involved with the robbery. During the robbery one policeman from Stavanger was shot dead by one of the robbers. Since October 2006, Delta has focused their operations against gang crime in the capital of Oslo and arrested many criminals and seized many weapons used by the gangs. Members of Beredskapstroppen has also been deployed in Special Team Six. (See below)

Deployment in Special Team Six
Members of the unit have been deployed in the multinational police unit, Special Team Six many times. Team Six has most notably served in Kosovo. One of the unit's most important task was to arrest war criminals. According to one of the Delta operators, during a rescue mission, grenades and bullets flew over their heads while Team Six rescued 50-60 persons from furious Albanians.[1]This incident was a rescue of UN personnel trapped in a building. Team Six was commanded by a Norwegian operator from Beredskapstroppen during this mission and during the period January-July 2004. Beredskapstroppen has had personnel deployed in Team Six ever since its foundation.[2]

Equipment
Weapons • • • • • • • Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine gun Glock 17 SIG-Sauer SSG 3000 Sig Sauer 226 Benelli M3 Super 90 Diemaco C8 ARWEN 37

Beredskapstroppen has two Rigid-hulled inflatable boats. The type has three engines with a total of 675 HP. For air transport Beredskapstroppen uses military Bell 412 SP from the RNoAF. The operators use a special type of visor on their helmets which can withstand 9mm bullets. The French → GIGN also reportedly use this visor. The unit uses a gas mask with a closed system (rebreather). They also use advanced equipment to determine the type of chemicals they are up against. They wear slightly different uniforms; instead of the normal black pants and blue shirts they wear black jumpsuits. The unit frequently drives unmarked Mercedes Geländewagen, marked and unmarked Chevrolet Suburbans and marked Volvo V70s.

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References
[1] http:/ / www. aftenposten. no/ nyheter/ iriks/ article1195438. ece [2] http:/ / www. phs. no/ bibliotek/ phsbibl/ prosjekt/ artikler/ fulltekst/ kosovo. pdf

Forsvarets Spesialkommando
Forsvarets Spesialkommando

Forsvarets Spesialkommando Insignia Active Country Branch Type Role 1982- current Norway Not assigned Special forces Special Surveillance and Reconnaissance (SR) Direct Action (DA) Military assistance (MA) Collateral Activities (CA) Combat Search And Rescue (CSAR) Classified

Size

Garrison/HQ Rena leir Engagements Bosnian war Kosovo war 2001 Macedonia conflict Operation Essential Harvest[1] Operation Enduring Freedom Operation Anaconda Operation Jacana Decorations
  Army Presidential Unit Citation

FSK (Forsvarets Spesialkommando) is a special forces unit of the Norwegian Ministry of Defence. The unit was established in 1981 due to the increased risk of terrorist activity against Norwegian interests, especially the oil platforms in the North Sea.

Norwegian special forces during a hijacking-exercise.

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224

History
FSK was first officially revealed to the media after the military's comments regarding the hijacking of an airplane at Fornebu in September 1993.

Outside of Norway
Kosovo FSK and Kosovo Liberation Army(KLA) cooperated in various manners, during the Kosovo conflict.[2]

FSK soldiers during Operation Anaconda

Claims have been made, that the FSK could not have avoided witnessing war crimes by KLA, given that the FSK were closely monitoring/cooperating with KLA.[3] Questions asked in connection with FSK's activities, include "How well informed was the Norwegian government about the cooperation between KLA and FSK? ... Did we help criminals get in to power?"[4] Afghanistan FSK supported U.S. Special Forces in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. That Norwegian special forces used newly developed and top secret methods and tools that gave the allied forces important information, has been alleged by Norwegian media.[5] . FSK has co-operated with other special forces such as the British SAS, Delta Force and DEVGRU of US Special Operations Command and KSK of Germany.

Organization
The unit was claimed to consist of about 100 commandos, as of 2003.[6] [7] (These individual commandos are referred to by various names in Norwegian media, including kommandosoldat, spesialsoldat and spesialjeger.)

Chain of command
Above the FSK's Commanding Officer, the chain of command includes the Ministry of Defence. The unit commander reports directly to GIH(generalinspektøren for hæren).[8] There is at least one reference claiming the existence of a Chief of special forces(sjefen for spesialstyrkene)[9] [10]

Relationship with HJK
HJK (Hærens Jegerkommando) and FSK have at times (if not today) had a Commanding Officer who officially lead both units at the same time.[11] [12] FSK and HJK share training facilities at the military base (Rena leir), where both units are headquartered.

The term "FSK/HJK"
The term "FSK/HJK" is in use.[13] FSK/HJK are claimed to be a special force(s)("en spesialstyrke").[14] FSK/HJK are also claimed to be responsible for preparing/training soldiers for service in spesialjegerkommandoen and fallskjermjegertroppen[15] HJK received its name in 1997, and records are lacking regarding any subsequent change of the unit's name. And records of FSK, being incorporated into another unit, are lacking. FSK/HJK is the name of any task force convened, consisting of the two different units, FSK and HJK.

Forsvarets Spesialkommando FSK and HJK, have the capabilities of sharing logistics, training facilities and other resources.

225

General tasks
In peacetime they are a support element to the Norwegian Police force and law enforcement agencies in allied nations, acting when requested in serious incidents like hostage situations and aircraft hijacking. During counter-terrorist operations, FSK operatives are trained to eliminate the threats rather than trying to arrest them. In wartime, their tasks are mainly: • • • • • to gather intelligence to localize and identify enemy supplies and activity to carry out offensive operations against very important targets to provide support to rescue missions involving important personnel to provide protection to personnel and departments.

Selection
Soldiers from any branch of the Norwegian military, can be selected to join FSK. Conscripts can not apply for FSK selection. Previously, the FSK only accepted applicants who had served as a conscript in either Marinejegerkommandoen or HJK.

Training
Candidates for FSK, will go through some of the toughest Norwegian military training. Only a handful finish the entire training period. FSK-officers are claimed to receive training at Long Range Reconnaissance School in Germany.[16]

Criticism of the training
Parachute landings on oil platforms in the North Sea Testimony in court and in the media, indicates that training previously included parachute landings on helicopter landing-pads related to oil platforms.[17] [18] (The S.A.S. (special forces from Britain) considered such as suicide missions.)[19] "Sitting duck" exercises In the past, the training has included "sitting duck" exercises, where a soldier had to sit still, while live rounds were fired, missing a soldier's head, by only a few centimeters.[20] Any stated purpose of the exercise, are lacking in records. Comments made about the exercise, include: "There probably is a reason why one does not conduct this exercise today.".[21] [22]

Forsvarets Spesialkommando Fact-Finding Commission At least one fact-finding commission has been constituted,regarding activities of FSK, specifically the causes as to why soldier Bjørn Sagvolden was seriously injured during a training mission, in 1983.[23] The conclusion of the commission, was that "It was found that due to the → group's [FSK] special functions, it was not advisable to further investigate its configuration, tasks, or general training procedures".[24]

226

Controversies
Claims have been made, that professional psychological help for traumatized FSK-soldiers, has not been adequate (and sometimes not reasonably available).[25]

Quotes
• "Trained to kill. Afterwards they were left by themselves."[26]

Former Commanding Officers
Former Commanding Officers of FSK,include: • Oberstløytnant Karl Egil Hanevik(2003)[27]

Weapons
Various types of weapons used by FSK: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Heckler & Koch G3 - Assault Rifle Colt Canada C8SFW - Assault rifle Heckler & Koch HK 417 - Battle rifle not approved by photos Heckler & Koch HK 416 - Assault rifle not approved by photos Heckler & Koch MP7 - Submachine gun not approved by photos Heckler & Koch MP5 - Submachine gun Heckler & Koch MSG-90 - Sniper rifle Accuracy International L115A1 - Sniper Rifle Barrett M82A1 - high-powered heavy Sniper Rifle Heckler & Koch USP - Pistol Glock 17 - Pistol AG-C/EGLM - Grenade launcher (fitted to C8SFW) Talley Defense Systems M72 LAW - light anti-armor weapon Carl Gustav recoilless rifle - anti-tank weapon Browning M2 - HMG Rheinmetall MG3 - GPMG FN MINIMI Para SPW - LMG HK GMG (automatic grenade launcher on Mercedes SF vehicles). M320 Grenade Launcher Module(on HK416). M249 SAW

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227

Vehicles
• Geländerwagen/MB270 CDI FAV vehicle armoured and EOD protected with 3 weaponstations (2 MG3 and 1 M2 or GMG). Developed in 2002 and later modernized. Used in operation Anaconda. Lot of space and mounts for equipment and communication.

See also
• Special Activities Division • Delta Force • SEAL Team Six

External links
• • • • • • • • • • • • «Hærens Jegerkommando – en prioritert avdeling» [28], from Milnytt.no [29], November 1, 2005 (Norwegian) ShadowSpear.com Special Operations Community Website [30] (Norwegian) «Åsta-helt døde under anti-terrortrening» [31], from Verdens Gang, October 6, 2005 (Norwegian) «Ødelegge og nøytralisere» [32] from Bergens Tidende, February 17, 2005 (Norwegian) «Norske styrker øver anti-terror» [33] from Forsvarsnett [34], December 30, 2002 (Norwegian) «Taushet om spesialstyrker» [1], from Ny Tid, November 16, 2001 (Norwegian) «Spesialkommandoen skulle befri Ostrø» [35] from Verdens Gang, September 23, 2001 (Norwegian) «Video of NORSOF» [36]from TVNORGE, January 21, 2007 (Norwegian) TV Commercial Video [37] (Norwegian) Forsvarets Spesialkommando promo video [38] (Norwegian) «The FSK official website» [39] Facsimile: «"Regjeringens drapsmaskiner",Dagens Næringsliv,DN Magasinet,16./21.April 2003,p.25 to p.29 »
[40]

(Norwegian)

• http://www.janes.com/defence/news/kosovo/jdw990420_01_n.shtml

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. nytid. no/ index. php?sk=8& id=444 http:/ / www. dagbladet. no/ kultur/ 2008/ 11/ 05/ 552810. html http:/ / www. dagbladet. no/ kultur/ 2008/ 11/ 05/ 552810. html http:/ / www. dagbladet. no/ kultur/ 2008/ 11/ 05/ 552810. html http:/ / www. vg. no/ nyheter/ innenriks/ artikkel. php?artid=5347112 Dagens Næringsliv,DN Magasinet,16./21. april 2003,p.1 ( Facsimile: http:/ / www. dykkersaken. no/ files/ dated/ 2008-11-13/ artikkel_sagvolden_dn_210403. pdf ) [7] A previous claim of 40 commandos, as of 2001, with a future increase of 50 % regarding the number of soldiers,was forecast (lacking a timeframe) in the enclosed reference: http:/ / www. vg. no/ nyheter/ innenriks/ artikkel. php?artid=9958374 [8] Glossary of Endgame by Knut Braa,p.270,ISBN:978-82-8143-198-0 [9] Colonel Torgeir Gråtrud was Chief of special forces as of October 17,2007 [10] http:/ / www. regjeringen. no/ nb/ dep/ fd/ aktuelt/ nyheter/ 2007/ arverdig-avslutning-for-lingeklubben. html?id=486257 [11] The Commanding Officer for FSK and HJK, was the same person, in year 2003, at least. Ref: Dagens Næringsliv,DN Magasinet,16./21. april 2003,p.29 ( Facsimile: http:/ / www. dykkersaken. no/ files/ dated/ 2008-11-13/ artikkel_sagvolden_dn_210403. pdf ) [12] Dagens Næringsliv,DN Magasinet,16./21. april 2003,p.29 ( Facsimile: http:/ / www. dykkersaken. no/ files/ dated/ 2008-11-13/ artikkel_sagvolden_dn_210403. pdf ) [13] http:/ / www. mil. no/ haren/ hjk/ start/ Fakta_FSK/ [14] http:/ / www. mil. no/ haren/ start/ org/ fskhjk/ [15] Glossary of Endgame,p.270,ISBN:978-82-8143-198-0 [16] http:/ / www. nytid. no/ arkiv/ artikler/ 20011116/ taushet_om_spesialstyrker/ [17] Dagens Næringsliv,DN Magasinet,16./21. april 2003,p.27 ( Facsimile: http:/ / www. dykkersaken. no/ files/ dated/ 2008-11-13/ artikkel_sagvolden_dn_210403. pdf ) [18] Verdens Gang, 14.11.2008 ( Facsimile: http:/ / www. dykkersaken. no/ files/ dated/ 2008-11-14/ faksimile_vg_fsk_141108. pdf )

Forsvarets Spesialkommando
[19] Verdens Gang, 14.11.2008 ( Facsimile: http:/ / www. dykkersaken. no/ files/ dated/ 2008-11-14/ faksimile_vg_fsk_141108. pdf ) [20] Dagens Næringsliv,DN Magasinet,16./21. april 2003,p.27 ( Facsimile: http:/ / www. dykkersaken. no/ files/ dated/ 2008-11-13/ artikkel_sagvolden_dn_210403. pdf ) [21] According to former "FSK-Sergeant"/ FSK-veteran of the Kosovo conflict, Knut Harald Hansen [22] Dagens Næringsliv,DN Magasinet,16./21. april 2003,p.28 ( Facsimile: http:/ / www. dykkersaken. no/ files/ dated/ 2008-11-13/ artikkel_sagvolden_dn_210403. pdf ) [23] "Regjeringens drapsmaskiner",Dagens Næringsliv,16./21.April 2003,p.27 [24] Facsimile: «The Fact-Finding Commission's report (Rapport fra undersøkelseskommisjon ...) » (http:/ / www. dykkersaken. no/ files/ pdf/ rapport_071283_sagvolden. pdf) (Norwegian) [25] "Regjeringens drapsmaskiner",Dagens Næringsliv,16./21.April 2003,p.29 ( Facsimile: http:/ / www. dykkersaken. no/ files/ dated/ 2008-11-13/ artikkel_sagvolden_dn_210403. pdf ) [26] Dagens Næringsliv,16./21. april 2003,front page ( Facsimile: http:/ / www. dykkersaken. no/ files/ dated/ 2008-11-13/ artikkel_sagvolden_dn_210403. pdf ) [27] "Regjeringens drapsmaskiner",Dagens Næringsliv,16./21.April 2003,p.29 [28] http:/ / www. milnytt. no/ Default. asp?layout=article& id=1034 [29] http:/ / www. milnytt. no/ [30] http:/ / shadowspear. com/ [31] http:/ / www. vg. no/ pub/ vgart. hbs?artid=108129 [32] http:/ / www. bt. no/ utenriks/ article342098 [33] http:/ / www. mil. no/ start/ article. jhtml?articleID=34057 [34] http:/ / www. mil. no/ [35] http:/ / www. vg. no/ pub/ vgart. hbs?artid=1588113 [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=79H7J0s-cFk http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=1AD-EHxDnQQ http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=EHPBFRlKd44 http:/ / www. mil. no/ haren/ hjk/ start/ spesialjeger/ http:/ / www. dykkersaken. no/ files/ dated/ 2008-11-13/ artikkel_sagvolden_dn_210403. pdf

228

229

Pakistan
Elite Police
Elite Police

Elite Police Insignia Active Country Branch Type Role Nickname 1998 - present Pakistan Punjab Police Special Forces/Light Infantry Special Operations Force, Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement Elite Force [1] Police Commandos EF PC Allahu Akbar 2009 attack on the Sri Lanka national cricket team, Lahore police academy attack Commanders Chief Minister Punjab Chief Minister Punjab

Motto Engagements

The Elite Punjab Police, also known as the "Elite Force" or "Police Commandos",[2] [3] [4] is a branch of the Punjab Police specializing in Counter-Terrorist operations and VIP security duties, as well as acting against serious crime and performing high-risk operations which can't be carried out by the regular police. It was formed in 1998 as a counterterrorism unit, but over time its duties expanded to VIP escort.

History
The Elite Force was created on the order of the then Punjab Chief Minister Shabaz Sarhif in 1997–1998.[5] In 2004, more funds were allocated for its expansion, and 5000 new personnel were inducted. New checkpoints for curbing street crime were created across Punjab and manned by the Elite Force.[6] Their work drew attention in the wake of the 2009 attack on the Sri Lankan cricket team in Lahore, when retired general Pervez Musharraf criticized security around the team. Musharraf remarked that If this was the elite force I would expect them to have shot down those people who attacked them. The reaction, their training should be on a level that if anyone shoots toward the company they are guarding, in less than three seconds they should shoot the man down.[7] [8] The Elite Police were also extensively involved in neutralizing enemy combatants who had laid siege to the Manawan Police Training School during the 2009 Lahore police academy attacks.

Elite Police

230

Organization
The Elite Force is headed by the Additional Inspector-General of Police, Elite Police, who is under the Additional IGP (Inspector General Police), CID (crime investigation department), Punjab. During operations, they are headed by an officer trained in a "Basic Elite" course.[9] The Elite Force is used in a range of special operations including "high-risk searches, raids and rescue operations".[10] Members of the Elite Force are trained for six months at the Elite Training Center in Badian, Lahore, by Pakistan's Special Service Group in personal combat, martial arts, crowd control, close quarters operations (CQO), and reconnaissance. They are trained in the use of a range of weapons, including the AK-47, MP-5, and grenades. Their arsenal also included flak jackets.[9] They are often seen in black and green track suits.[11]

Equipment
• • • • MP5SD3 AK-47 Ballistic Vest Shotgun

See also
• List of Special Response Units • Elite Police Academy

External links
• • • • Official website [12] Sargodha Elite force [13] Bahawalpur Police Official website [14] Rescue 15 Bahawalpur Non_Official website [15]

References
[1] " Suicide blasts at Islamabad’s Islamic university kill six (http:/ / www. dawn. com/ wps/ wcm/ connect/ dawn-content-library/ dawn/ news/ pakistan/ 04-blast1-in-islamabad-qs-07)". Dawn News. 2009-10-20. . Retrieved 2009-10-20. [2] " India condemns police academy attack (http:/ / www. dawn. com/ wps/ wcm/ connect/ dawn-content-library/ dawn/ news/ world/ india-condemns-police-academy-attack--bi)". Dawn.com. 2009-03-31. . Retrieved 2009-04-01. [3] " How Pakistan academy attack started (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 7971345. stm)". BBC. 2009-03-30. . Retrieved 2009-04-01. [4] " Sri Lanka cricket team attacked (http:/ / news. yahoo. com/ nphotos/ Sri-Lanka-cricket-team-attacked-Pakistani-police-commandos-carry-coffin-their-colleague-funeral-Lahore-Pakistan/ ss/ events/ sp/ 030309srilankacricke/ im:/ 090303/ 481/ 16a4ac87bba54873b7bf2c2602ca37ec/ )". Yahoo news. . Retrieved 2009-03-11. [5] " Elite Force (http:/ / www. sargodhapolice. gov. pk/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=52& Itemid=57)". . Retrieved 2009-03-07. [6] " Punjab earmarks more funds for Elite Force (http:/ / www. dailytimes. com. pk/ default. asp?page=story_13-3-2004_pg7_23)". 2004-03-13. . Retrieved 2009-03-08. [7] Pakistan Cricket Ambush Controversy Focuses on Security (http:/ / www. voanews. com/ english/ 2009-03-05-voa13. cfm), Voice of America, 2009-03-5 [8] Rehman Khan, Fasihur (2009-03-05). " 'Elite force should have killed terrorists' (http:/ / www. gulfnews. com/ world/ Pakistan/ 10292058. html)". Gulfnews. . Retrieved 2009-03-07. [9] " Gujrat Police official website, Standard Operating Procedures (http:/ / www. gujratpolice. gov. pk/ user_files/ File/ SOP_For_Employment_of_Elite_Force. pdf)". . Retrieved 2009-03-08. [10] Punjab Police, Elite Force Official website (http:/ / www. punjabpolice. gov. pk/ page. asp?id=389), retrieved 17 March 2009 [11] " Sri Lanka cricket team attacked (http:/ / news. yahoo. com/ nphotos/ Sri-Lanka-cricket-team-attacked-Pakistani-police-commandos-carry-coffin-their-colleague-funeral-Lahore-Pakistan/ ss/ events/ sp/

Elite Police
030309srilankacricke/ im:/ 090303/ 481/ 16a4ac87bba54873b7bf2c2602ca37ec/ #photoViewer=/ 090303/ 481/ 4a1c747baf0545278d2f2a86e0649b48)". . Retrieved 2009-03-11. [12] http:/ / www. punjabpolice. gov. pk/ page. asp?id=389 [13] http:/ / www. sargodhapolice. gov. pk/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=52& Itemid=57| [14] http:/ / www. bahawalpurpolice. gov. pk [15] http:/ / manazpk. com/ rescue

231

Airport security force
Airport Security Force (ASF) - Pakistan is part of the Ministry of Defence (MoD) and is responsible for protecting the airports and the facilities and the planes (on-ground or in-air). ASF safeguards the civil aviation industry against unlawful interferences, adopting counter terrorism measures, preventing crime and maintaining law and order within the limits of Airports in Pakistan.

ASF History
ASF was established in 1976 under the ASF Act LXXVII of 1975 initially as the Directorate of the Department of Civil Aviation. After the hijacking of a PIA aeroplane in March 1981, sensing the contradictory requirements of security and facilitation, ASF was separated and in December 1983, was placed under the folds of the Ministry of Defence.

232

Philippines
Special Action Force
Special Action Force

Special Action Force Official Insignia Active Country Branch Type Role Size Part of Garrison/HQ Nickname Motto Engagements May 12, 1983 - Present Philippines Philippine National Police Special Forces Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement, Raids, Unconventional Warfare Classified Directly under control of the Philippine National Police (Main) - Fort Sto. Domingo, Sta. Rosa, Laguna (Camp) - Camp Bagong Diwa, Taguig, Metro Manila SAF, Tagaligtas (Saviors) By virtue of skill, we triumph
[1]

Anti-guerilla operations against the New People's Army and formerly the Moro National Liberation Front before taking on the Moro Islamic Liberation Front Anti-terrorist operations against the Abu Sayyaf Commanders

Current commander Notable commanders

Police Chief Superintendent Leocadio Salcadeo SC Santiago Junior See Commanders Section Insignia

[2] [3]

Subdued PNP patch

SAF patch on black beret

Special Action Force

233

The Special Action Force is the primary special forces unit of the Philippine National Police. It is formed along the lines of the British (SAS) Special Air Service, but with different recruitment and selection procedures.[4] [5] The SAF, over the years, has received training from the → FBI's Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) and Critical Incident Response Group, → RAID and → YAMAM.[4] [5] The Anti-Terrorist Unit (ATU) of the PNP-SAF is responsible for nationwide Police Counter-terrorism (CT) operations nationwide. Meanwhile, the regions have specially-equipped and trained Regional Mobile Forces (RMF) which used to be the Light Reaction Unit (LRU) in Metro Manila and the Regional SAF (RSAF) in the provinces.[4] Members or Police trainees who undergo SAF training undergo several special military combat related training such as airborne forces training, urban warfare and internal security.[6] [7] [8] SAF members who are distributed either regionally or within Metro Manila are furthermore assigned to → SWAT units or SWAT training units. SAF operators are trained at their camp at Fort Sto. Domingo[9] with its Air Unit stationed at the PNP Hangar in Pasay City.[1] The SAF has an official magazine known as "Force and Valor".[10]

Special Action Force C.T. Unit undergo CQB training.

Special Action Force operators at attention during a ceremony in Taguig on October 2, 2006.

History
Created on May 12, 1983 by the former Philippine Constabulary as the Philippine Constabulary Special Action Force[11] as a requirement of General Order 323 of Philippine Constabulary Headquarters, Fidel Ramos and Renato de Villa were the founders of the unit. A training program, called the SAF Ranger Course, was used to train the 1st generation of SAF operators, which had a number of 149 operatives. Out of them, 26 were known commissioned officers. Later on, they changed the name of the course to the SAF Commando Course. Initially formed to battle against NPA and former MNLF guerillas in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their tasks have been expanded to battle against organized criminal groups, terrorists, guerrillas and common criminals. During the days of the EDSA Revolution, Fidel Ramos was involved in planning an operation called "Exercise Ligtas Isla" (Exercise Save Island) in case either Imelda Marcos or Armed Forces of the Philippines Chief of Staff General Fabian Ver would take over ruling from Ferdinand Marcos, who had been ill during the last few days of the Revolution.[12] Following recent changes, the SAF will move to a permanent camp at Barangay Pinugay, Baras, Rizal under Proclamation No. 1355 passed on August 2007[13] from their camp in Camp Bagong Diwa in Taguig.[14] For the first time, SAF operators are involved in the Balikatan exercises in 2009 since American and Filipino troops are usually involved.[15]

Special Action Force

234

Functions
As designated by the Philippine National Police, the missions of the Special Action Force are the following:[12] [16] • To develop, organise and train organic personnel in the furtherance of the assigned mission. • To conduct Counter-Terrorist operation in urban and rural areas. • To conduct commando type unconventional warfare (CUW) against lawless elements over extended periods of time with minimal direction and control. • To conduct search and rescue operations anywhere in the country during calamities and catastrophes. • To conduct civil disturbance management (CDM) operations and address the requirements of stability and security operations in times of civil disobedience on a national scale. • To operate as a rapid deployment force ready and capable to strike anytime and anywhere in the country in support of other units and other agencies as higher headquarters may direct. • To perform other tasks as the Chief PNP may direct. • To maintain a reasonable degree of law and order in the national highways and major thoroughfares

Weapons
Assault rifles
• • • • • • • • Colt M16 family (Some are outfitted with M203 grenade launchers) FERFRANS SSW (Squad Support Weapon) GIAT FAMAS G2 Heckler & Koch G36 IMI Galil M4 Carbine (Some with M203 grenade launchers) Special Operations Assault Rifle (SOAR) Springfield M14 rifle

Submachine guns
• FN P90[17] • Heckler & Koch MP5 series • IMI Uzi family

Shotguns
• Benelli M4 Super 90 • Mossberg 500 • Remington 870

Special Action Force

235

Sniper rifles
• • • • • Barrett M82A1 Heckler & Koch MSG-90 IMI Galil ARM Sniper Remington M700 Savage Model 10[18]

Machine guns
• • • • • FN Minimi LMG FN Minimi Para LMG ST Kinetics Ultimax 100 LMG US Ordnance M60 General purpose machine gun (GPMG) Vektor SS-77 GPMG (Mounted on Land Rover Defenders)

Known operations
• February 1986: EDSA Mutiny. • 1986-1989: Had conducted anti-coup operations against anti-government rebels from the Philippine military.[19] • Late 1980s/1990s: First deployed to battle against NPA and MNLF rebels. • July 27 2003: SAF EOD experts deployed during the Oakwood Mutiny.[20] • August 25, 2003: Several SAF units were deployed in Makati after heavily-armed bank robbers attacked the headquarters of Citibank Philippines.
SAF commandos in the 1980s.

• September 23, 2003: A joint raid by the SAF, the CIDG, the Intelligence Group (IG), the Traffic Management Group, the Intelligence Service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (ISAFP), the Army Intelligence and Security Group (AISG) and the Marines assaulted Palar Village in Taguig, netting a bank robbery gang made up of ex-AFP soldiers believed to be responsible for the Citibank Philippines robbery.[21] • September 28, 2003: Protection for US President George Bush during his visit to the Philippines. • October 2, 2003: Arrest of Jemaah Islamiyah terrorist, Taofek Refke.[11] • March 10, 2004: SAF teams engaged NPA guerrillas in a gunfight alongside soldiers of the Philippine Army's 24th Infantry Battalion Sitio Caarosipan, Barangay Apostol, San Felipe town. 8 NPA guerillas were confirmed killed. A single SAF officer was killed on the spot with 3 injured. • April 28, 2004: Arrest of Abu Sayyaf terrorists in the Muslim community in Culiat, Quezon City. • May 31, 2004: Protection of ballot boxes used in the May 10, 2004 presidential elections. • June 11, 2004: SAF teams deployed in a resettlement area in Taguig, Rizal province after reports of snipers were made to the Philippine National Police (PNP). • June 20, 2004: A SAF officer was killed when the SAF and the Provincial Mobile Group engaged an NPA squad in a gunfight in Zambales province. • July 17, 2004: A group of phone hackers, consisting of Filipino and foreign nationals, were arrested in a raid conducted by the SAF. • July 28, 2004: Provided security for ex-Abu Sayyaf hostage Gracia Burnham, who testified against the terrorist group in a local courthouse. • September 27 2004: SAF teams deployed in the Cordillera in order to disarm various Partisan Armed Group (PAG) gunmen in the employ of several local prominent politicians.

Special Action Force • January 30, 2005: Arrest of various kidnap-for-ransom gang members in Batangas City • February 10, 2005: A bank robbery gang was arrested during a raid in San Fernando City, Pampanga. • March 15, 2005: SAF and PNP SWAT teams raided the Metro Manila Rehabilitation Center of the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology in Camp Bagong Diwa, Taguig City after it was captured by Abu Sayyaf inmates. Among those killed were Alhamser Limbong alias Commander Kosovo, Ghalib Andang alias Commander Robot; Nadzmi Sabdullah alias Commander Global; and Sadit Abdul Ganit Husim alias Commander Lando.[22] For a short time, various human rights group in the Philippines and abroad have accused the SAF of police brutality and were convinced that the PNP really wanted to kill them at the start of the crisis. PNP officials have denied all charges.[23] Various foreign groups abroad (possibly other special ops units) have praised the SAF for bringing a quick end to the 30-hour crisis. This was one of the SAF's publicly known operations to be on the headlines on newspapers and on TV news reports worldwide, especially on CNN. PO1 (Police Officer 1) Abel P. Arreola was the only SAF operative killed during the attack.[24] • February 17, 2006: SAF units are deployed in Southern Leyte as part of a humanitarian contingent of the PNP. • February 21, 2006: SAF units patrol grounds of Malacañang Palace after an explosion occurred in the grounds of the Palace, said to be from a trash can. • February 24, 2006: SAF units on red alert after coup attempt was discovered. • October 9, 2006: SAF units deployed in Negros Occidental after New People's Army rebels attacked the Silay City airport.[25] • January 11-14, 2007: SAF units had been present in Cebu during the 12th ASEAN summit in Metro Cebu. • October 26, 2007: Senior Inspector Fermar Ordiz, a PNP SAF operative was shot and killed by robbers in Cubao, Quezon City during a shootout despite wearing a kevlar vest.[26] • November 29, 2007: SAF involved in the Manila Peninsula rebellion after several SAF officers had arrested renegade soldiers, including Brigadier General Danilo Lim.[27] Earlier, the SAF had been summoned in to barricade The Peninsula Manila.[28] • June 13, 2007: Police Officer 2 Marlon Buslig, a PNP SAF operative was shot and killed by Abu Sayyaf firces in Indanan, Sulu during a combat operation despite wearing a kevlar vest. • Various anti-insurgent operations against the NPA. • Various anti-terrorist operations against the Abu Sayyaf.

236

Special Action Force

237

Support
The SAF could call on the support of the PNP and its own Air Unit as its method of transportation via helicopter, as done under General Order 0405,[11] or via vehicles such as the M998 Humvee, mounted with a Browning M2 machine gun on top, modified Ford F-150s, and the V-150 Commando APC as a form of armed support. Land Rover Defender jeeps are also used by the SAF, modified to house a Browning M2 machine gun and a Vektor SS-77 machine gun on the passenger seat for the former. Various helicopters in service with the SAF's Air Unit are tasked with various duties, from transportation to surveillance and reconnaissance. New armored vehicles similar to those used by banks were introduced to the SAF as a primary means of armored transportation in urban areas, and some models are used as mobile command posts.

SAF operators protecting US Embassy as a high priority on protecting foreign buildings from terrorist attacks.

Commanders
The list are the directors who had commanded the SAF.[2]

Name Reynaldo Velasco Avelino I. Razon

Rank Lieutenant Colonel Major

Term May 16, 1983 - February 13, 1987 February 14, 1987 - August 1, 1989

Hermogenes E. Ebdane, Jr. Police Chief Superintendent August 2, 1989 - February 11, 1991 Enrique T. Bulan Dictador L. Alqueza Recaredo A. Sarmiento III Edgar B. Aglipay Ricardo S. Villarin Jose O. Dalumpines Rogelio B. Bathan Servando M. Hizon Silverio D. Alarcio Jr. Marcelino F. Franco Jr. Silverio D. Alarcio Jr. Felizardo M. Serapio Jr. Police Chief Superintendent February 12, 1991 - March 8, 1992 Police Chief Superintendent March 8, 1992 - June 5, 1992 Police Chief Superintendent June 6, 1992 - August 2, 1994 Police Chief Superintendent August 2, 1994 - June 6, 1996 Police Chief Superintendent June 16, 1996 - August 23, 1998 Police Chief Superintendent August 14, 1998 - February 14, 2001 Police Chief Superintendent February 14, 2001 - September 13, 2002 Police Chief Superintendent September 14, 2002 - December 27, 2003 Police Chief Superintendent December 27, 2003 - September 8, 2004 Police Chief Superintendent September 9, 2004 - February 26, 2006 Police Chief Superintendent February 26, 2006 - May 18, 2006 Police Chief Superintendent May 18, 2006 - March 2007

Special Action Force

238

External links
• Philippine National Police Special Action Force (SAF) official website [29]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] " SAF CELEBRATES ITS 24TH YEAR (http:/ / www. pnp. gov. ph/ SAF/ Story/ story6. pdf)". . Retrieved 2009-06-30. " SAF Directors (http:/ / www. pnp. gov. ph/ SAF/ Director. html)". Philippine National Police. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. " SAF Leaders (http:/ / www. pnp. gov. ph/ SAF/ leaders. html)". Philippine National Police. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. " Philippine SF Overview (http:/ / home. avvanta. com/ ~whitet/ ph_ovrview. htm)". . Retrieved 2009-06-30. " Six things you have to learn about Philippine Special Operations Forces (http:/ / home. earthlink. net/ ~upmrotc/ coc/ id78. html)". . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [6] Fernando R. Ortega. " THE NEW SPECIAL ACTION FORCE COMMANDO COURSE (http:/ / homepage. mac. com/ djphotographer/ podcasts/ forceandvalormagazine02. pdf)". Force and Valor. p. 7. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [7] Aligre Martinez. " THE URBAN COUNTER-REVOLUTIONARY WARFARE COURSE (http:/ / homepage. mac. com/ djphotographer/ podcasts/ forceandvalormagazine02. pdf)". Force and Valor. p. 8. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [8] Rhoderick Armamento. " THE BASIC AIRBORNE COURSE (http:/ / homepage. mac. com/ djphotographer/ podcasts/ forceandvalormagazine02. pdf)". Force and Valor. p. 8. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [9] Maryanne Moll. " Through Fire and Ice (http:/ / homepage. mac. com/ djphotographer/ podcasts/ forceandvalormagazine02. pdf)". Force and Valor. p. 5. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [10] " Force and Valor Table of Contents (http:/ / homepage. mac. com/ djphotographer/ podcasts/ forceandvalormagazine02. pdf)". Force and Valor. p. 2. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [11] " Performance Highlights (http:/ / www. pnp. gov. ph/ about/ content/ offices/ central/ saf/ info/ body. html)". Philippine National Police. 2007-03-02. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [12] " About Special Action Force (http:/ / www. pnp. gov. ph/ about/ content/ offices/ central/ saf/ info/ about/ about. html)". Philippine National Police. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [13] " Special Action Force camp to rise in Pinugay (http:/ / www. barasrizal. com/ places-to-visit/ special-action-force-camp-to-rise-in-pinugay/ )". . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [14] " MMDA help sought in demolition operations inside police camp (http:/ / www. gmanews. tv/ story/ 120281/ MMDA-help-sought-in-demolition-operations-inside-police-camp)". GMA Network. 2008-09-14. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [15] Cecille Suerte-Felipe (2009-01-05). " PNP, US troops to hold joint Balikatan exercises (http:/ / www. philstar. com/ Article. aspx?articleid=429289)". Philippine Star. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [16] " About SAF (http:/ / www. pnp. gov. ph/ SAF/ mv. html)". Philippine National Police. 2006. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [17] Lewis, Jack (2007). The Gun Digest Book of Assault Weapons. Gun Digest Books; 7 edition (September 26, 2007). ISBN 978-0896894983. [18] " Savage Model 10 Precision Rifles Used by Philippine National Police Counterterrorism Unit (http:/ / www. tactical-life. com/ online/ news/ savage-model-10-precision-rifles-used-by-philippine-national-police-counterterrorism-unit/ ?hp=news_title)". Tactical Life. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [19] " The Origin of Wildfire (http:/ / www. pnp. gov. ph/ SAF/ Story/ story4. pdf)". Force and Valor. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [20] " SAF Annual Report, SIGNIFICANT ACCOMPLISHMENTS May 2003-May 2004 (http:/ / www. pnp. gov. ph/ about/ content/ offices/ central/ saf/ info/ reports/ report. html)". Philippine National Police. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [21] Miko Santos (2003-09-23). " Police arrest 9 bank robbery suspects (http:/ / www. sunstar. com. ph/ static/ man/ 2003/ 09/ 23/ news/ police. arrest. 9. bank. robbery. suspects. html)". Sun.Star Manila. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [22] Oliver Teves (2005-03-16). " At least 23 die in Manila jail raid (http:/ / www. thestandard. com. hk/ stdn/ std/ World/ GC16Wd02. html)". The Standard. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [23] May Vargas. " Camp Bagong Diwa Likened to Auswichtz (http:/ / www. bulatlat. com/ news/ 5-36/ 5-36-muslim. htm)". Bulatlat. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [24] " Police, Muslims to thwart Sayyaf reprisals (http:/ / www. sunstar. com. ph/ static/ man/ 2005/ 03/ 18/ news/ police. muslims. to. thwart. sayyaf. reprisals. html)". Sun.Star Manila. 2005-03-18. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [25] Joel Guinto, Thea Alberto (2006-10-09). " Elite military, police units to go after NPA in airport raid (http:/ / newsinfo. inquirer. net/ breakingnews/ metroregions/ view_article. php?article_id=25679)". Philippine Daily Inquirer. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [26] Kenneth del Rosario (2007-10-26). " Police officer, 4 robbers killed in QC shootout (http:/ / newsinfo. inquirer. net/ breakingnews/ metro/ view_article. php?article_id=96968)". Philippine Daily Inquirer. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [27] " Brig Gen. Danilo Lim arrested (http:/ / www. gmanews. tv/ story/ 70723/ Brig-Gen-Danilo-Lim-arrested)". GMA Network. 2009-11-29. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [28] " (Update) National Police in full alert (http:/ / www. gmanews. tv/ story/ 70655/ (Update)-National-Police-in-full-alert)". GMA Network. 2007-11-29. . Retrieved 2009-06-30. [29] http:/ / www. pnp. gov. ph/ SAF/ Index. html

239

Portugal
Grupo de Operações Especiais (Portugal)
Grupo de Operações Especiais Active Country Branch Type Role Size Part of March 29, 1982 - Present
 Portugal

Polícia de Segurança Pública Special Operations Domestic counter-terrorism and law enforcement 210 Directly under control of the Polícia de Segurança Pública (police) and the Ministry of the Interior of Portugal

Garrison/HQ Lisbon Nickname GOE

Grupo de Operações Especiais - GOE (Special Operations Group) is the Portuguese PSP (Police) special operations unit, manned slightly over 200 elements. In 1978, Quinta das Águas Livres was acquired and the construction works of the infrastructures necessary to organise the instruction activities and to accommodate the distinct elements that would form a future operational group began. Alongside, also began studies regarding the creation of the GOE and, with the co-operation of the British government, thanks to the efforts of Mota Pinto's government, elements of the 22nd Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) came to Portugal to train and start the formation of a → police group able to conduct anti-terrorist missions. In March 29 1982, the first COE – Curso de Operações Especiais (Special Operations Course) began (not to be mistaken with CTOE's COE). The course ended on November 18 of the same year; the unit was considered to be totally operational and with an intervention capability since the end of 1982, although it was formally created in 1979. As a result of that approach between the British SAS and the Portuguese GOE, the pictures of the first agents are hard to distinguish between British and Portuguese since their uniforms, equipment and weaponry are identical. Later, GOE, still maintaining a strong relationship with the SAS, also began training with the US Delta Force, Germany's → GSG 9, Spain's Guardia Civil Anti-Terrorist units and Israeli Anti-Terrorist units. GOE's capabilities were put to the test in June, 1983, when Armenian commandos, using rented cars, invaded the residence of the Turkish ambassador and killed a PSP officer who was part of the embassy's security team, holding the rest of the people there hostage. The Prime-Minister, Mario Soares, gave the green light to GOE to storm the building. Before this could be attempted, the terrorists accidentally blew themselves up, resulting in 5 dead terrorists and 2 casualties (the chargé d'affaires' wife and a policeman).[1] Since that moment, the missions assigned to the unit became more diverse and demanding. After 1991, GOE operational elements, together with ex-operators, began missions of protection of diplomatic representatives and installations in foreign countries where there are unstable situations or armed conflicts. The level of operators deployed to those scenarios depends of the situation. GOE also intervenes if the evacuation of Portuguese citizens is needed: in 1992 in Luanda (Angola), in 1991 and 1997 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (former Zaire) and in other countries like Guinea-Bissau, Algeria, Macau and Bosnia. In those missions, they had to face attempts of

Grupo de Operações Especiais (Portugal) forced entry into the diplomatic delegations by armed militants; the most serious being the missions that happened in 1997 in Zaire and in 1998 in Guinea; in the latter a grenade was launched into the embassy building where the security team was. In 2005 they were sent to Saudi Arabia and Iraq to protect the Portuguese embassies and personnel in both countries. Some were also sent into Timor-Leste in 2006. Since 2006, the unit has the support of police elements from the famous CI (Corpo de Intervenção) in the security of the Portuguese Embassies in Iraq and East-Timor. In August 2008 they were also assigned to end a robbery taking place in a branch of the portuguese bank BES, involving two armed robbers and six hostages, successfully taking out one of the robbers with a sniper shot to the heart, and injuring the other with one shot through the jaw. All hostages were released, four of them shortly after the beginning of the negotiations, while the other two were held until the end. This intervention was generally considered very successful. GOE is also deployed on VIP protection missions for visiting dignitaries, co-operating with other PSP units in establishing security cordons and, specially, as select snipers in missions of observation, search and detection of terrorist snipers. Another activity for which GOE is required is in co-operation with the Anti-Crime Brigades, where they are employed in surveillance missions and in the entry of fortified installations related to weapons or drugs trafficking. The unit is organized as follows: • Command • Support Services • UEI (Unidade Especial de Intervenção) - Special Intervention Unit, consisting of: • Command • Three GOI (Grupos Operacionais de Intervenção) - Intervention Operational Group (1st, 2nd and 3rd), each commanded by an officer and includes 20 to 25 elements • One GOT (Grupo Operacional Técnico) - Technical Operational Group (4th) responsible for instruction, handling explosives, police dogs and other technical instruments, such as cameras and night vision devises.

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External links
• • • • Pictures of the GOE: [2] [3] GOE course badge [4] GOE unit badge [5] Video of the bank robbery and the GOE action: [6]

References
[1] The New York Times, July 31, 1983. A New Armenian Death Mission. (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1983/ 07/ 31/ weekinreview/ the-world-a-new-armenian-death-mission. html) [2] http:/ / img458. imageshack. us/ img458/ 4909/ 24dd0hc. jpg [3] http:/ / img458. imageshack. us/ img458/ 3510/ 15hg8as. jpg [4] http:/ / www. agbmorais. com/ images/ emblemas_braco-psp/ psp-asa_goe_br. jpg [5] http:/ / www. agbmorais. com/ images/ crachas-psp/ Geral/ psp-goe. jpg [6] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=x_IAnY-R2-o

241

Romania
OMON
OMON (Russian: Отряд милиции особого назначения; Otryad Militsii Osobogo Naznacheniya, Special Purpose Police Unit) (ОМОН) is a generic name for the system of special units of militsiya (police) within the Russian and earlier the Soviet MVD (Ministry of Internal Affairs). As of 2008, there is an OMON unit in every oblast of Russia, as well as in many major cities; for example, there is an OMON unit within the Moscow City police department, and a separate unit within Moscow Oblast police department. Their motto is "We know no mercy and do not ask for any."[1] OMON also continues to exist in Belarus and some other post-Soviet territories following the collapse of the Soviet Union.

History
OMON originated in 1979, when the first group was founded in preparation for the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, to ensure that there were no terrorist attacks like the Munich massacre during the 1972 Summer Olympics. Subsequently, the unit was utilized in emergencies such as high-risk arrests, hostage crises, as well as in response to acts of terrorism. The OMON detachments were often manned by former soldiers of the Soviet Army and veterans of the Soviet war in Afghanistan. The OMON system itself is the successor of that group and was founded in 1987, with the commando duties largely taken over by the SOBR (dangerous ciminals) and Vityaz (counter-terrorism) units of the MVD. The OMON units were initially used as the riot police used to control and stop demonstrations and hooliganism, as well as other emergency situations, but later became accustomed to a wider range of police operations, including cordon and street patrol actions, and even paramilitary and military-style operations.

The OMON insignia ("Tiger" unit)

High-profile operations

OMON in Saint Petersburg in 2008

• On January 20, 1991, the Soviet Riga OMON attacked Latvia's Interior Ministry, killing six people during the January 1991 events following the republic's declaration of independence.[2] Seven OMON members were subsequently found guilty by the Riga District Court and received suspended sentences. • A series of attacks on border outposts of the newly-independent Republic of Lithuania during the January-July 1991, resulting in several summary execution-style deaths of the unarmed customs officers and other people (including former members of Vilnius OMON), were attributed to Riga OMON; some sources say that the Soviet

OMON leader Mikhail Gorbachev had lost control of the unit. Lithuanian government continues to demand that the persons suspected in these incidents should be tried in Lithuania; one suspect was arrested in Latvia in November 2008.[3] • Violent and often armed clashes between the Georgian SSR's OMON and the opponents of the first Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia prior to the Georgian Civil War of 1991-1993. • The April-May 1991 Operation Ring by the Azerbaijan SSR OMON and the Soviet Army against the Armenian irregular units in the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, resulting in several dozen people killed and the forced displacement of thousands of ethnic Armenians. • Prior to the creation of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the bulk of the fighting in Nagorno-Karabakh on the Azeri side was conducted by the post-Soviet OMON units and irregular forces. This included the defence of the village of Khojaly by the force of Azeri OMON and volunteers against the Armenian insurgents and the Russian Army forces prior and during the Khojaly massacre on February 25 1992; most of the group involved died during the ensuing slaughter in which several hundred of Azeri civilians died. • The Moscow OMON and units brought from the other cities clashed with the anti-Yeltsin demonstrators order during the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis, reportedly even beating up some members of the Supreme Soviet of Russia (the Russian parliament at the time).[4] • Cordon duties during the Russia's mass hostage crises, including the 1995 Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis, the 2002 Moscow theater hostage crisis and the 2004 Beslan school hostage crisis. • Breaking up of several opposition rallies (including Dissenters' Marches since 2006), sparking reports of police brutality, including excessive use of force and arbitrary detention of participants.[5] In November 2007, the brutal actions of OMON against peaceful demonstrators and arrests of opposition figures were harshly criticised by the European Union institutions and governments.[6] • On March 24, 2006, Belarusian OMON stormed the democratic opposition's tent camp at the Minsk October Square without provocation, violently ending the peaceful Jeans Revolution against the regime of Alexander Lukashenko. Thousands of people were beaten and hundreds detained as the result of the attack, including the opposition's presidential candidate Alaksandr Kazulin.[7] • In June 2007, the Moscow OMON prevented the gay rights activists (including the European Parliament members) from demonstrating the parade by detaining the activists. This is because they were instructed to do so, as the mayor of Moscow Yury Luzhkov did not allow the parade to take place.[8] • In August 2008, the South Ossetian separatist OMON took part in the fighting with the Georgian national forces during the 2008 South Ossetia war and were accused of "special cruelty" in the ethnic Georgian villages.[9] Subsequently, South Ossetian OMON fighters were included into Russian regular forces in area as a contract soldiers and continued to be deployed in the highly-disputed Akhalgori zone.[10]

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In Chechnya
The force was active in the First Chechen War where the unit was used as light infantry and in the notorious "mopping-up" operations (zachistka).[11] In February 1996, a group of 37 officers of the Novosibirsk OMON were captured by the Chechen militants during the Kizlyar-Pervomayskoye hostage crisis;[12] 17 of them were later swapped for the Chechen fighters captured in the same incident. In August 1996, group of 30 Chechen OMON members answering to Said-Magomed Kakiyev were reportedly captured and executed in Grozny, the Chechen capital, during the battle for the city. OMON is active in the Second Chechen War. Almost every Russian city sends, on a regular basis, small units of police (often composed of OMON members) for tours of duty in Chechnya lasting several months, while the Chechen Republic also formed its own OMON detachment. The force sustained heavy losses in the second conflict as well, including from the March 2000 ambush which killed more than 30 OMON servicemen from Perm

OMON (including nine captured and executed),[13] the July 2000 suicide bombing which inflicted more than 100 casualties at the Chelyabinsk OMON base in Argun,[14] and the April 2002 attack which killed 21 Chechen OMON troops in central Grozny.[15] Control and discipline is questionable in Chechnya, where the members of the group were noted to engage in or fall victim of several deadly friendly fire and fratricide incidents. In the bloodiest incident, at least 24 Russian OMON officers were killed and more than 30 wounded when two units (from Podolsk and Sergiyev Posad) fired on each other in Grozny on March 2, 2000.[16] Among other incidents, several Chechen OMON servicemen were abducted and executed in Grozny by the Russian military servicemen in November 2000,[17] members of the Chechen OMON clashed with the Ingush police on the Chechen-Ingush border resulting in eight fatalities and about 20 injuries in September 2006,[18] and the Ramzan Kadyrov-controlled Chechen OMON clashed with a group of rival Chechens belonging to the Kakiyev's GRU commando unit in Grozny, resulting in five dead and several wounded in 2007. In the course of the Chechen conflict the OMON was accused of severe human rights abuses,[19] including abducting, torturing and killing civilians. As of 2000, the bulk of war crimes recorded by international organisations in Chechnya appeared to have been committed by the OMON.[20] An OMON detachment from Moscow region took part in the April 1995 rampage in the village of Samashki, during which up to 300 civilians were reportedly killed in the result of a "cleansing operation" conducted there by the MVD forces.[21] The OMON unit from Saint Petersburg[22] is also believed to be behind the Novye Aldi massacre in which at least 60 civilians were robbed and then killed by the Russian forces entering Grozny in February 2000;[23] one officer, Sergei Babin, was reported to be prosecuted in relation to the case in 2005 and then to disappear.[24] [25] In 1999 a group of unidentified OMON members shot dead around 40 refugees fleeing Grozny.[26] In April 2006, the European Court of Human Rights found Russia guilty of the forced disappearance of Shakhid Baysayev, a Chechen man who had gone missing after being detained in a March 2000 security sweep by the Russian OMON in Grozny.[27] In 2007, the Khanty-Mansi OMON officer Sergei Lapin was sentenced for kidnapping and torture of a Chechen man in Grozny in 2001,[28] with the Grozny court criticising the conduct of the OMON serving in Chechnya in broader terms.[29] In an event related to the conflict in Chechnya, several OMON officers were accused of starting the May 2007 wave of the ethnic violence in Stavropol by assisting in the racist murder of a local Chechen man.[30] Before and early during the Chechen wars, there were also OMON formations belonging the Interior Ministry of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Chechnya's separatist government.[31]

243

OMON in Russia
Information from different sources suggests that there were between 10,500 and 15,000 OMON members stationed at population centers and transportation hubs around the country in the 1990s, yet by 2007 this number officially rose to about 20,000 nationwide (as referenced to as Innner Armed Forces). Members receive a comparatively small salary of about $700 per month in Moscow (regional units offer less). Most members retire at the age of approximately 45 years, and receive practically no financial aid from the state afterwards. They are also sometimes not paid for their service (in 2001, for example, some 50 OMON members from Moscow filed the lawsuit claiming they

OMON personnel in Red Square, Moscow

OMON

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were not paid for one month of combat operations in Chechnya[32] ). Due to the use of OMON members in high risk situations, especially in Chechnya and elsewhere in North Caucasus, the group often loses members in combat. Members of OMON are supposed to be extremely fit and experts in small arms and hand-to-hand combat. Males between the ages of 22 and 30 who have completed their two-year military service can apply to join OMON (the application includes medical and psychological tests, and tests of speed and fitness). The initial training lasts for four months. The applicants are An OMON ZIL-130 truck bus and troops in Tambov extensively trained in the use of different weaponry and close combat, and are also trained to follow orders at any cost. Special emphasis is put on urban combat and the entering and clearing of buildings. The training also includes legal training. The application procedure closes with a final test, where the applicant has to fight three to five trained members of OMON by hand wearing boxing gloves. Fewer than one in five applicants pass and are selected to join. The OMON groups use a wide range of weapons, including but not limited to AK-74 assault rifle, AKS-74U carbine assault rifle, 9A-91 compact assault rifle, and PP-19 Bizon submachine gun. OMON units during a combat operations may also use other weaponry typical for the Russian light infantry (the OMON troops in Chechnya were sometimes called "OMON soldiers" in the reports,[33] especially in the so-called active phases of the conflict), such as the PK machine gun, the GP-25 underbarrel grenade launcher for AK-74 or the GM-94 pump-action grenade launcher, and the Dragunov and Vintorez sniper rifles. OMON vehicles include specially-equipped vans, buses and trucks of various types, as well as limited number of armoured personnel carriers (BTR-60, BTR-70 and BTR-80). OMON's headgear remains a black beret (they are thus sometimes called "Black Berets") although otherwise there were significant changes in uniform and insignia. The group members often use the blue urban camouflage uniforms and black face masks while on duty, and various Russian Army and Internal Troops uniforms while in Chechnya. OMON of the Chechen Republic also frequently wear American-made military uniforms similar to these often used by the separatist fighters.

See also
• • • • • Rus - A counter-terrorist and emergency situations unit of the Russian MVD SOBR - A system of the Russian MVD special units specializing in combating dangerous criminals → SWAT - The American model for the initial OMON squads Vityaz - Another counter-terrorist unit of the Russian MVD ZOMO - Former special police units in the People's Republic of Poland

OMON

245

External links
• Unofficial OMON webpage [34] • The Kingdom of OMON [35], The eXile, May 18, 2007

References
[1] The Telegraph (UK), May 12, 2007: Russia's riot police show their fluffy side (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ main. jhtml?xml=/ news/ 2007/ 05/ 11/ wrussia11. xml) [2] BBC News, 27 March 2007: Timeline: Latvia (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ country_profiles/ 1108059. stm) [3] Novaya Gazeta, 29.11.2008: The unmasked face (http:/ / en. novayagazeta. ru/ data/ 2008/ 08/ 12. html) [4] Memorial, April 1994: HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS UNDER THE STATE OF EMERGENCY IN MOSCOW DURING THE PERIOD FROM NOON, OCTOBER 4 TO OCTOBER 18, 1993 (http:/ / www. memo. ru/ hr/ hotpoints/ moscow93/ oct93e. htm) [5] Amnesty International, 16 April 2007: Russian Federation: Attack on public dissent (http:/ / web. amnesty. org/ library/ Index/ ENGEUR460132007?open& of=ENG-RUS) [6] (Polish) Polska Agencja Prasowa, November 26, 2007: Milicja biła opozycję, Europa oburzona (http:/ / www. dziennik. pl/ swiat/ article87208/ Milicja_bila_opozycje_Europa_oburzona. html) (Dziennik Polska-Europa-Świat) [7] TIME, March 25, 2006: Belarus: 'They Knocked My Husband Down and Dragged Him Away' (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ world/ article/ 0,8599,1176933,00. html) [8] The Associated Press, May 27, 2007: Russian Police Detain Gay Activists (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 05/ 27/ AR2007052700426. html?tid=informbox) (The Washington Post) [9] The Georgian Times, September 15, 2008: “Resistance does not make any sense: they will kill us on the spot” (http:/ / www. geotimes. ge/ index. php?m=home& newsid=12473) [10] Imedi TV, October 16, 2008: Ossetian militiamen join Russian regular army (http:/ / halldor2. wordpress. com/ 2008/ 10/ 16/ ossetian-militiamen-join-russian-regular-army/ ) (trans. BBC Monitoring) [11] Human Rights Watch, February 1995: Russia: Three Months of War in Chechnya (http:/ / www. hrw. org/ reports/ 1995/ Russia1. htm) [12] The Independent, January 20, 1996: Fog of battle clouds Pervomayskoye's ugly truth (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qn4158/ is_/ ai_n9638659) [13] The Sunday Times (UK), 9 April 2000: Chechens wipe out Russia's top troops (http:/ / www. cdi. org/ russia/ johnson/ 4236. html##10) (Center for Defense Information) [14] People's Daily, July 03, 2000: Chechen Truck Bomb Kills at Least 25 Russians (http:/ / english. peopledaily. com. cn/ english/ 200007/ 03/ eng20000703_44550. html) [15] The St. Petersburg Times, April 19, 2002: Mine Leaves 21 OMON Troops Dead (http:/ / www. sptimes. ru/ index. php?action_id=2& story_id=7009) [16] The Independent, January 15, 2002: Russia invented ambush by Chechens to hide friendly-fire massacre (http:/ / www. findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qn4158/ is_20020115/ ai_n9668572) [17] European Court of Human Rights, 2007-11-15: CASE OF KUKAYEV v. RUSSIA (http:/ / cmiskp. echr. coe. int/ tkp197/ view. asp?action=html& documentId=825673& portal=hbkm& source=externalbydocnumber& table=F69A27FD8FB86142BF01C1166DEA398649) [18] The Moscow Times, September 14, 2006: 7 Dead in Police-OMON Battle (http:/ / www. themoscowtimes. com/ stories/ 2006/ 09/ 14/ 011. html) [19] The Washington Post, June 2, 2000: Civilian Massacre Fits Pattern Of Earlier Human Rights Abuse (http:/ / tech. mit. edu/ V120/ N27/ massacre_27. 27w. html) [20] Institute for War and Peace Reporting, April 5, 2000: Chechens Rub Salt in Old Wounds (http:/ / iwpr. net/ ?p=crs& s=f& o=161280& apc_state=henicrs2000) [21] Memorial, 1996: By All Available Means: The Russian Federation Ministry of Internal Affairs Operation in the village of Samashki: April 7-8, 1995 (http:/ / www. memo. ru/ hr/ hotpoints/ chechen/ samashki/ engl/ ) [22] >Institute for War and Peace Reporting, August 9, 2007: Chechen Massacre Survivors See Justice (http:/ / www. iwpr. net/ ?p=crs& s=f& o=337763& apc_state=henh) [23] Human Rights Watch, June 2000: FEBRUARY 5: A DAY OF SLAUGHTER IN NOVYE ALDI (http:/ / www. hrw. org/ reports/ 2000/ russia_chechnya3/ ) [24] Los Angeles Times, July 03, 2005: An Unlikely Antiwar Hero for Russians (http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 2005/ jul/ 03/ world/ fg-officer3) [25] Prague Watchdog, July 27th 2007: ECHR on Russian war crimes: responses from Moscow and Grozny (http:/ / www. watchdog. cz/ ?show=000000-000008-000001-000452& lang=1) [26] The Independent, December 6, 1999: Rebels inflict heavy losses as Russian forces close on Grozny (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qn4158/ is_19991206/ ai_n14275401) [27] Prima, April 11, 2005: European Court of Human Rights finds Russia guilty in disappearance of man in Chechnya (http:/ / www. prima-news. ru/ eng/ news/ news/ 2007/ 4/ 11/ 37974. html)

OMON
[28] The St. Petersburg Times, April 1, 2005: Chechen Court Sends OMON Officer to Jail (http:/ / www. sptimes. ru/ index. php?action_id=2& story_id=3119) [29] Amnesty International, 31 March 2005: Russian Federation: Russian police officer found guilty of crimes against the civilian population in the Chechen Republic (http:/ / web. amnesty. org/ library/ Index/ ENGEUR460112005) [30] Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, June 7, 2007: Russia: Ethnic Tensions Mounting In Restive Stavropol (http:/ / www. rferl. org/ featuresarticle/ 2007/ 06/ 567245cc-8614-4c9c-aeae-ddd6fddf8766. html) [31] Interview with the Chechen field commander Dalkhan Khozhaev (http:/ / smallwarsjournal. com/ documents/ khozhevinterview. pdf) [32] Gazeta.ru, 27 June 2003: Moscow policemen want Chechen money (http:/ / www. gazeta. ru/ 2003/ 07/ 04/ Moscowpolice. shtml) [33] Google: "OMON soldiers" search results (http:/ / www. google. com/ search?hl=en& q="OMON+ soldiers"+ & btnG=Google+ Search) [34] http:/ / www. specialoperations. com/ Foreign/ Russia/ MVD. htm [35] http:/ / www. exile. ru/ articles/ detail. php?ARTICLE_ID=8580& IBLOCK_ID=35

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Detaşamentul de Poliţie pentru Intervenţie Rapidă
Detaşamentul Poliţiei pentru Intervenţie Rapidă (DPIR, Police Rapid Intervention Squad) is the common name in Romania for county-level police rapid intervention units. Romania is divided into 41 counties (judeţe) plus Bucharest. Each county (judeţ) is centered around a municipality. Each one of the 41 municipalities has a main police headquarters for that county. Starting in the 1990s, the municipalities' police sections created Rapid Intervention detachments, to participate in operations that could pose a life-threatening risk to the officers involved in carrying them out. Detaşamentul de Intervenţii şi Acţiuni Speciale (DIAS, Special Actions and Interventions Detachment). DIAS groups were formed in all 41 municipalities, as well as in Bucharest. In 1999, however, Constantin Dudu Ionescu, who then headed the Ministry of Administration and Interior (MAI), signed the order for creating a much larger organization, called Serviciul de Poliţie pentru Intervenţie Rapidă (SPIR). SPIR was basically a much-enlarged DIAS, which was now composed of several teams, plus logistics and support structures. In November 2001, all 41 municipalities were obliged to change the names of their special detachments from DIAS; most were renamed to DPIR.

DPIR squad in action

DPIR soldier Although all municipalities have their own DPIR teams, in some of them the detachments have different names. In the city of Bistriţa for example, the combatants still wear uniforms marked with DIAS, while in Bacău the detachments are called DIR (not to

Detaşamentul de Poliţie pentru Intervenţie Rapidă

247

be confused with an elite unit from the Ministry of Defense, Detaşamentul de Intervenţie Rapidă). In Piatra Neamţ, the team acts under the designation SIR, and is an entire Service, similar to SPIR (Serviciul de Poliţie pentru Intervenţie Rapidă) in Bucharest. To avoid confusion, all detachments which are under the command of the municipalities are practically referred to as DPIR, while the service in the capital city of Bucharest is referred to as SPIR. In each municipality, DPIR is composed by the combatant detachment DIAS and the EOD (Explosive Ordnance Disposal) detachment DIR. In Bucharest, SPIR is composed by several detachments, which include the DIAS and DIR. Therefore, although Romanian newspapers and TV stations have unanimously adopted the names DPIR/SPIR for the action teams, the population and personal websites/blogs still use the nomination DIAS. Depending on point of view (DIAS being incorporated into DPIR/SPIR), they are both halfway correct. In the rest of the country, DPIR is composed by several units including EOD (Explosive Ordnance Disposal), dog unit, riot control and hostage rescue. The units train daily in unarmed/armed combat, rapid DPIR in action intervention shooting, building searches, aircraft, marine, railway firearms intervention skills. The unit members are selected individually and are tested thoroughly through-out their careers. Most of the unit team members are frequently cross trained with other similar detachments including visitors from overseas police forces. Romania joined the EU in 2007, the DPIR's have been better funded and supplied with the latest equipment. Selection for the DPIR is extremely vigorous and only the most determined are accepted for continuation training. Recently in 2008 there have been joint training exercises with the GSPI, in 2009 they have also been involved in close protection, internal security, hazardous warrant and counter terrorist operations.

DPIR squad

See also
• Romanian Police

External links
• (English) Unofficial site [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. geocities. com/ romanianspecialforces/ dias. html

248

Serbia
SAJ (Special Anti-terrorist Unit)
SAJ (Special Anti-terrorist Unit)

SAJ emblem and unit flag Active Country Size SAJ HQ Patron December 18, 1978 Serbia Classified Batajnica Saint Michael the Archangel Commanders Commander Lt. Col. Spasoje Vulević Insignia Badge of SAJ

SAJ The Special Anti-terrorist Unit (Serbian: Специјална Антитерористичка Јединица (САЈ)/Specijalna Antiteroristička Jedinica (SAJ)) is Serbia's prime counter-terrorist unit.

History
In the former SFR Yugoslavia security services decided to establish a special team, which would be able to respond to the increasing phenomenon of terrorism in Europe. The need to establish such unit in a time when in Europe occurred various terrorist groups such as IRA, ETA, the German Baader-Meinhof, the Italian Red Brigade and others. The first is founded on the federal level,13th May 1978[1] the detachment for special effects in the Federal Secretariat of Internal Affairs - SSUP, and was appointed the first commander Franz Kos. After seven months since the founding of the federal unit for special effects, a decision was taken to establish on republic and provincial levels a unit with the same purpose. The Unit for Anti-terrorist effects (Jedinica za antiteroristička dejstva - JATD)[2] in the Republic Secretariat of Internal Affairs - RSUP of SR Serbia was established at Novi Beograd Milicija station on December 18, 1978. The first commander of unit was Miloš Bujenović. Main tasks of new formed unit were classical fight against terrorists, to prevent aircraft hijacking, release of hostages, the fight against organized crime and similar action of the high-risk in urban areas. In 1983 units base was relocated to the Belgrade airport and renamed in to Units for special effects (Jedinica za specijalan dejstva RSUP). In 1991 unit was again renamed in to

SAJ (Special Anti-terrorist Unit) Special units (Specijalne jedinice), and it's new commander was Radovan Stojičić. On June 1, 1992, Command of Special Anti-terrorist units (Komanda SAJ) was established, with Živko Trajković as commander. It consisted from Belgrade SAJ, under command of Zoran Simović Novi Sad SAJ, under command of Branko Ćuričić, and Units for special effects from Priština, which was under command of Nuredin Ibishi, until he has defect from police to so-called Kosovo Liberation Army in 1999. He was replaced with Radoslav Stalević. Headquarters and Belgrade uint were relocated to Batajnica while maintaining other training centers at Paklenik, complete with a model town to practice Close Quarters Battle (CQB) and urban combat. On December 31, 1999, Belgrade, Novi Sad and Priština units were merged in to single unit under command of Živko Trajković The average SAJ member is between 20 and 35 years in age. Must be athletic and proficient in martial arts. Recruiting is conducted on May 13 every year.

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Structure
Special Anti-terrorist Unit has two assault teams, A and B,logistics team C (snipers,K-9,EOD) and D team for security and support.Medical group,Group for construction and searching weapons and ammunition,Logistic group. SAJ duties include combating terrorism, insurgency, organized crime, hostage situations and high risk warrant executions as well as VIP protection.

Equipment
Like most counter-terrorist units around the world, the SAJ have standard → SWAT equipment[3] with a substantial arsenal of weapons and vehicles at its disposal. Among some standard weapons used are Heckler & Koch MP5, Zastava M70, М4 rifle, SIG SG 552, H&K G3 SSG sniper rifles, CZ 99, riot control agents, stun grenades, and various other weapons. Sophisticated communications are standard issued along with other specialized equipment including heavy body armor, entry tools and night vision optics. Of course a unit is only as good as its ability to get where it has to be. For aerial insertion the main mode of transport are Jet Ranger and Bell 212 twin helicopters from Serbian Police helicopter unit. In operations that require traversing in difficult and off road terrain, the most popular and abundant means are Pinzgauer's, Land Rover Defender's,BOV (APC) and also one BVP M-80 ICV/IFV. In urban operations the SAJ use Audi's and BMW's for collection purposes with specialized support vehicles at their side. The SAJ employs several different BDU's for use in various environments. These being Urban, Temperate, Arid environments as well as night time operations.

Publicly known missions
• Action in 1989 at the miner's strikes in the Serbian province of Kosovo. It was here that they crushed the demonstrations, and became well-known. • 1997 action against hijacker in Smederevo. • Kosovo in the 1998 crackdown on Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA). One such operation was destroying the KLA concentration in Donji Prekaz. • Arresting the Zemun gang in "Operation Sword" 2003. • Arresting the mass murder in July 2007 Jabukovac killings.

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Gallery

SAJ BOV vehicle and anti-riot equipment.

SAJ weapons

SAJ Colt M4 A4<ref>http:/ / www. kalibar. rs/ code/ navigate. php?Id=108& editionId=6& articleId=24</ref> rifle

Guide dogs K-9

SAJ Land Rover

Ghillie suit

CT member

External links
• Ministry of Internal Affairs [4] • Unofficial SAJ site [5] • MUP special forces in joint drill [6] at YouTube (requires Adobe Flash)

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] 30 Anniversary (http:/ / www. novosti. rs/ code/ navigate. php?Id=10& status=jedna& vest=128927& datum=2008-11-08) http:/ / www. srbijazemljaheroja. com/ saj_in_english. html http:/ / www. tacticaloptions. com/ browse_depts. asp?Cat=1& Sub=494 http:/ / prezentacije. mup. gov. rs/ intersajt/ index-eng. html http:/ / www. srbijazemljaheroja. com/ caj. html http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=snxH8J8RE28

PTJ (Counter-terrorist Unit)

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PTJ (Counter-terrorist Unit)
PTJ (Counter-terrorist Unit)

PTJ emblem and flag Active Country Size HQ Since 07.May.2003 Serbia Classified Lipovica Commanders Commander Lt. Col. Goran Dragović

The PTJ (Counter-terrorist Unit) (Serbian: Против Tерористичка Jединица/Protiv Teroristička Jedinica) is a special police unit in Serbia. As its name states, the PTJ is oriented towards anti-terror operations as well as securing and maintaining the internal security of Serbia. Often only used in such circumstances deemed too dangerous and sensitive for other police units. Highly trained and equipped the PTJ is ideal for resolving hostage situations, fight against corruption, rescue, bomb disposal, prime security concerns (such as airport security) and many other situations where their skills are applicable. The units within the PTJ operate with extreme professionalism and devotion to their responsibilities of defending the public from all forms of harm and crisis. This has earned the PTJ great respect throughout the world as an elite police unit among other such units as well as earning a place as one of three such special police units in Serbia.

Organization
PTJ is organized in four teams, two are specialized in the action in urban, and two for action in rural conditions. Within each team there are attack groups, each with its own specific tasks, such as the official guide dogs, sniper team, divers, experts for explosives and parachutists.

Training
Members of these unit, to carry most tasks conducted constantly training for action in the urban, and the action in rural areas. PTJ for training has a teaching center in Petrovo Selo,Kula and Goč, with training ground and various training facilities, such as towers for climbing, training facilities for intrusion from the roof in the room through the window, the bus to training actions releasing hostages. Unit members regularly check their capabilities and physical readiness, practice shooting, all the tactical variations, under the supervision of the senior team. All results of testing knowledge and skills are evaluated and grades are an integral part of a year grades, and the highest annual score is a ticket for the first team, which are the best.

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Equipment
Units are equipped[1] with a vast array of specialized firearms including:Serbian-made 7.62 mm and 5.56 mm assault rifles, FAMAS, М4 rifle, submachine guns, shotguns, riot control agents, stun grenades, and high-powered rifles for marksmen (snipers). They often have specialized equipment including heavy body armor, entry tools, HMMWV vehicles and night vision optics.

Publicly known missions
In 13 actions in eight cities in Serbia,they arrest members of "Customs Mafia." Enforced criminals Sreten "Joca Amsterdam" Jocić in the Netherlands, Dejan "Bagzi" Milenković from Greece and Ridvan Rašitija (killer of BIA member) from Switzerland, and transfer Abdelmajid Bouchar,[2] a member of "Al-Qaeda" suspect for the terrorist attacks in Madrid. • 2007 arresting large group of wahhabi terrorists on Mount Ninaj.[3] • 2009 Hostage rescue in Jagodina.[4]

Unit insignia
Trademark of the PTJ unit is the mythical griffin, which has the body of a lion, head of a eagle head and wings of dragon. The Griffin is an integral part of Serbian tradition and can be found in the monasteries of Dečani,Ravanica and Studenica, and symbolizes the protector of these worlds. PTJ members use this powerful symbol and is worn on caps and sleeve of uniforms.

Gallery

PTJ flag

Counter-terrorist unit (PTJ) Hummer

DMDU-03 Digital Camouflage

Diving equipment

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Equipment for sniper team

PTJ Mercedes truck

PTJ bomb disposal equipment

Robot of PTJ bomb disposal team.

External links
• • • • • Official site [4] YouTube site Ministry of Internal Affairs [5] Police Directorate of the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Serbia [6] Training site [7] MUP special forces in joint drill [6] at YouTube (requires Adobe Flash)

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / www. novosti. rs/ code/ navigate. php?Id=9& status=jedna& vest=98333& datum=2007-01-05 http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2005/ WORLD/ europe/ 08/ 26/ spain. extradition/ index. html http:/ / www. blic. rs/ temadana. php?id=2042& pid=153& results=true http:/ / www. b92. net/ eng/ news/ crimes-article. php?mm=3& dd=29& yyyy=2009 http:/ / www. youtube. com/ policijasrbije http:/ / prezentacije. mup. sr. gov. yu/ upravapolicije/ index. htm http:/ / prezentacije. mup. sr. gov. yu/ upravazaobrazovanje/ engleskaver/ history. htm

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Singapore
Special Tactics and Rescue (Singapore)
Special Tactics and Rescue

Special Tactics and Rescue Insignia Active Country Branch Type Role Size Part of (PTT) 197? - 1 November 1993 (STAR) 1 November 1993 - Present Singapore Singapore Police Force Special Forces Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement Classified Special Operations Command

Garrison/HQ Queensway Base Nickname Motto Police Commandos, STAR Unit Vigilance, Valour, Victory

Engagements Arrest of Dave Teo Ming[1] Decorations 1994 Johore Shield Team, 1995 Johore Shield Team, 1995 SAPU & STAR Challenge Shield Team, 1996 Johore Shield Team, 1996 ISPSC Team, 1997 ISPC Team, 1997 SAF Invitation Team, 1997 World Police & Fire Games, 1998 ISPC Team, 1999 ISPC Team, 1999 SAF Invitation Team, 2000 ISPC Team, 2001 ISPC Team, 2002 Singapore Shooting Festival Team, 2002 CNB Invitation, 2002 Thailand Open National Championship Team Commanders Current commander Arthur Law Kok Leong

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Cyril V Gabriel (Pioneer OC, 1978) Patrick Tay Insignia

Notable commanders

Identification symbol

STAR Insignia

The Special Tactics and Rescue (STAR) is the → SWAT/HRT equivalent of the Singapore Police Force. Its official task is to provide the Singapore Police Force with a tactical armed-response capability, and its motto is "Vigilance, Valour, Victory".[2] [3]

Origins & History
STAR started off in the late 1970s as a part-time outfit called the Police Tactical Team (PTT), and was mainly used to contain civil disorder. During the early days, the Police Tactical Team was a motley crew of volunteer officers from the Police Task Force (PTF), who served even on their days off for a monthly allowance of $50. The PTT, although drawing expertise from the PTF, were still limited in their operational readiness, skills and capability. Resulting from the need to provide the Singapore Police Force with a dedicated armed response team, the PTT was re-organised into STAR under the Special Operations Command in 1 November, 1993. The unit is known for resolving cases assigned to them without being engaged in gunfights in Singapore.[4]

Duties
Pre-September 11
Prior to the September 11, 2001 attacks, the role of STAR was to engage in neutralising armed and dangerous criminals, to resolve urban sieges that may involve hostages or firearms, protection of VVIPs and escorting of particularly dangerous prisoners.[2]

Post-September 11
After the events of September 11, the unit was also to undertake anti-terrorism duties. In 2005, STAR acquired a new maritime assault capability to augment the Police Coast Guard and the Republic of Singapore Navy in dealing with sea-borne threats[5] . The STAR unit has been involved recently in arresting a National Serviceman named Dave Teo Ming at the Orchard Cineleisure Mall without firing a shot, as it has been since the unit had conducted operations back in January 1996.
[1] [4]

Selection and Training
Application to join the STAR unit is open only to serving police officers ( SPF , CNB ), senior officers and TRACOM trainees. To get the best people for the job, the unit holds an intensive and rigorous selection process. During this process, candidates have to undergo a full-day screening to evaluate both their physical and mental capabilities. After which, they are put through psychological assessments and an interview is conducted by an interview panel. Successful applicants will be notified to undergo a final medical review before starting their intensive two-week training and orientation. During the two weeks, the candidates will be put through another series of tests to evaluate their capabilities in given situations. Those who make it through the final selection will then embark on a six-month training course which includes doctrinal and practical sessions in related disciplines.

Special Tactics and Rescue (Singapore) The STAR team is known to have sent officers extensively for overseas training attachments and study visits with units such as Hong Kong's → Special Duties Unit (SDU), Israeli Border Guard's YAMAM unit, Germany's → GSG 9, and the Australian SASR. The officer exchange program with Hong Kong's SDU has been ongoing since 1998.

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Weapons and Equipment
STAR officers use weapons that include the M4A1 rifle, G36C and SAR-21 Assault Rifles, the MP5 submachine gun, various shotguns such as the Remington 870, and Sphinx 3000 pistols (these replaced the previously used Glock 17 and 19) as standard sidearms. They also employ a variegated arsenal of sniper rifles. Additionally, STAR deploys equipment for breaching and entering buildings, as well as a dedicated STAR Assault Vehicle, based on the Land Rover SUVs used by the British SAS, for entering normally inaccessible areas.

In popular culture
Fictional Television programs • The Dragons Five (飞龙五将), 1995 • Frontline

See also
• • • • • Special Task Squadron (STS) Singapore Prisons Emergency Action Response (SPEAR) Singapore Special Operations Force (SOF) Naval Diving Unit (NDU) List of special forces units

External links
• Official website [6] (English) • Keshvani, N. (May, 1997). Police Life Monthly - ASP Steven Koh - the classic "tough guy" cop [7]. Singapore: ©Singapore Police Force

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Who is Dave Teo Ming? (http:/ / alvinology. wordpress. com/ 2007/ 09/ 04/ who-is-dave-teo-ming/ ) Retrieved on September 9, 2007. Unofficial STAR Unit Page. (http:/ / www. specwarnet. net/ world/ singapore_star. htm) Retrieved on January 4, 2008. Unofficial STAR Page. (http:/ / www. angelfire. com/ wa/ cagiva2/ star. html) Retrieved on January 4, 2008. The Strait Times. September 9, 2007. Police Coast Guard/Special Operations Command (2 February 2005). " Speech By A/P Ho Peng Kee, Senior Minister of State for Law and Home Affairs, at Commissioning Ceremony of the STAR Unit Maritime Assault Capability, 2 February 2005, 10.00 AM at Police Coast Guard, Pulau Brani Base (http:/ / stars. nhb. gov. sg/ stars/ public/ viewHTML. jsp?pdfno=20050202998)". . [6] http:/ / www. spf. gov. sg/ sites/ star/ index. htm [7] http:/ / www. keshvani. com/ print/ policelife/ aspkoh. htm

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South Africa
South African Police Service Special Task Force
The South African Police Service Special Task Force (SAPS STF) is the special operations element of the South African Police Service (SAPS).The STF is considered to be among the best of such units in the world. The STF has a formidable reputation in counter terrorism and insurgency and hostage rescue. Unlike most civilian/police counter terrorist units around the world, the special task force is also trained to conduct military special operations and has done so on many occasions, operating with their military counter parts(Special Forces Brigade(www.recce.ac.za)), especially during the long 30 year border war. Indeed they are internationally regarded as deadly exponents in the art of bush warfare. A fact worth mentioning is that during the 70's and 80's, during the border war, many British SAS volunteered for selection, most past and consequently served in the South African Special forces. The Task Force falls under operational control of the Division: Operational Response Services and is responsible for dealing with all high-risk operations, such as hostage situations on land, sea and air, including rescue-related operations. All Task Force applicants are volunteers and have to comply with stringent physical requirements before being admitted to the basic training and selection course. The basic training course is twenty-six weeks long and includes weapons, rural and urban combat as well as basic parachute training courses. Compulsory advanced courses include special skills such as diving, VIP protection, explosives and medical training. The total initial training period is nine months, but completing all the requisite advanced courses to become a fully-fledged Special Task Force operational member may last up to three years. Membership of the Special Task Force open to all male and female SAPS members with the rank of constable, sergeant or inspector. In 2004 it was reported [1] that the SAPS STF may have lost nearly 60 percent of its active members to private companies recruiting security personnel to work in Iraq.

External links
• ShadowSpear Special Operations Community Website [2] • (English) Specialoperations.com report [3]

References
[1] http:/ / news. xinhuanet. com/ english/ 2004-10/ 26/ content_2141469. htm [2] http:/ / shadowspear. com [3] http:/ / www. specialoperations. com/ Foreign/ South_Africa/ Special_Task_Force/ Default2. htm

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Spain
Grupo Especial de Operaciones
Grupo Especial de Operaciones

Badge of the Grupo Especial de Operaciones Active Country Branch Type Role Size Part of Garrison/HQ Anniversaries Engagements 5 April, 1978 - Present Spain
→ Police

Special Forces Domestic counter-terrorism, Hostage crisis, Organized crime, Diplomatic protection service 200 operatives Cuerpo Nacional de Policía Guadalajara 1 April Rescue of Julio Iglesias, Sr., attempted arrest of Madrid train bombings suspects and many other operations Commanders

Current commander

Félix Antolín Insignia

Abbreviation

GEO

The Grupo Especial de Operaciones (English: Special Operations Group), commonly known as GEOs, are the Special Operations Forces of the Spanish Cuerpo Nacional de Policía. They are stationed in Guadalajara[1] near the capital, Madrid. The GEO has special response capabilities and is responsible for VIP protection duties, as well as countering and responding to terrorism. Designed, set up and organised along the lines of many other special counter-terrorism units throughout Europe, the GEO is specifically focused on dealing with terrorist attacks, including aircraft hijackings as well as maritime threats and hostage taking.[2] The GEO can also be utilised in a support role for Spanish Police operations outside the realm of terrorism, and is active in protecting visiting heads of state and providing security for high-profile events such as the 1992 Summer Olympics held in Barcelona.[3]

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History
With the intention of fighting against terrorism and several organized crime groups from Spain in the 1970s,[4] on November 1977 the third section of Spanish military staff announced for members of the Policía Nacional vacancies which could be accessed freely for the newly formed Grupo Especial de Operaciones. The first training course began on March 1978.[5] A select group who had been months before in the → GSG 9 base in San Agustín del Guadalix were selected to train this new unit. Colonel Ulrich Wegener, along with some members of his unit, took care of the equipment, the training and techniques which this new special unit in Spain would use.[5] The first access course of the GEO ended on 19 January 1979, with a ceremony attended by Juan Carlos I and Queen Sofía of Spain. It wasn't until 23 February of that year when the unit was announced to the press.[5] Its first planned operation took place at Madrid Barajas International Airport on August 1978 but they didn't have to enter into action because the conflict was solved before their arrival. The GEO's first action took place in Bilbao, the 7 February 1981, in which five hostages were freed from two armed criminals in a branch office of the bank then known as Banco Bilbao Vizcaya. None of criminals, hostages or police officers were hurt during the mission.[5]

Members of the GEO on a sham fight of what would be an assault on a building.

GEO has had some noteworthy successes over the last decade. It was responsible of rescuing Dr. Iglesias Puga, father of singer Julio Iglesias as well as foiling an attempt by ETA to attack the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona.[3] Aside from that, the GEO has unarmed several organized crime groups, arrested forty-one armed members of different terrorist groups, freed 424 persons who had been kidnapped or taken as hostages[6] and boarded twenty ships used to carry narcotics to seize their load and arrest their crew.[7] During the 27 years it has been active, five members of the GEO have died.[5] The unit has had only one casualty in combat, which occurred during the assault on the Leganés flat where the suspected perpetrators of the Madrid train bombings of 11 March, 2004 were hiding. Having realised that they were trapped, the terrorists detonated bombs in the flat killing themselves and GEO Subinspector Francisco Javier Torronteras Gadea.[8] This fatality was caused probably by the fact that the agents who entered the flat didn't know that the terrorists could have explosives.[9] As of 2005, the GEO was having problems with the number of members, which was below the necessary quantity. This meant that riot control units had to be sent to Iraq instead of GEO members, as originally intended.[10]

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Organization
The GEO reports officially to the General Operative Subdirector of the Policía Nacional and its commander is a police superintendent. Its 200 members are divided into an Operative Section and a Support one.[3] GEO's Operative Section is formed by two Operative Action teams, a group of Training and Specialities and a Techniques and Experiences team. The action teams are called 40 and 50 and are under the command of an inspector.[11] Each group, led by a subinspector, is split into two subgroups formed by three operative commandos of five men each. Every operative commando includes two snipers, a lock picking specialist, an explosives expert, a combat diver and a special environment technician.[11]

Members of the GEO during a police assault demonstration riding a VAMTAC vehicle.

The Training and Specialities operative team features the instructors of the training and refresher courses. The Techniques and Experiences team tests new equipment and looks for new possible terrorist objectives.[11] Administrative, medical and transport personnel act as members of the Support Section.[11] The vehicles of the GEO depend on this section.[3]

Access and training
Joining the GEO isn't easy and is only accomplished by approximately 8% of the candidates every year. To join the GEO it's necessary to have been a member of the Policía Nacional for two years,[12] and to have at least one of the following skills: expertise in a martial art, scuba diving, being a marksmanship instructor, being an explosives expert and having worked in one of the operative groups the Police has in some province capitals.[13] The trial features both physical fitness and psychological tests. Its physical fitness test includes arm flexions on a bar, vertical jump, an obstacle course, running three kilometres in eleven minutes and a half, fifty meters of freestyle swimming, a strength test, a speed race and a last challenge which tests the candidates' decision-taking capacity. On the psychological and intelligence test the mental capabilities of the candidates are checked.[13]

Specialization
After having passed the access trial, GEO potential members go have to go through a specialization course in Guadalajara which is not passed by all successful aspirants. It's hard, technical and very structured.[13] There are four areas which all candidates must master: instrumental, juridical, socio-professional and police sciences and techniques. Police science and technique features high-speed and off-road driving, lock picking techniques, abseiling and climbing techniques, maneuvers with helicopters, transmissions, explosives and knowledge about terrorist groups. Instrumental area is the one that deals with physical aptitudes such as marksmanship, obstacle courses, martial arts, physical fitness, swimming, sniping, diving and proficiency with motorcycles. The remaining areas are the ones that are focused on rights of terrorist groups and exchanging experience with members of similar groups of other countries.[13]

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Equipment
The basic uniform of the GEO includes: anorak, jacket, sweater, t-shirt, pants, boots and beret. Overalls are used as a complementary clothing piece. During summer, GEO members use a short-sleeved shirt instead of the sweater and the jacket.[14] Aside from their uniform, GEO members also use protective gear which features helmets, Bolle Commando protective goggles, balaclava, Draguër gas mask, ballistic vest, Safariland sheaths for SIG P226 and gloves.[15] They also use vision-enhancing devices. They employ MATIS thermographic cameras, daylight thermographic cameras, binoculars, PalMIr 250 night vision cameras, Philips BM8028A1 binocular night vision goggles, ITT AN/AVS-9 binocular night vision goggles, ITT Pocket F6010 night vision visor and laser rangefinders.[15] To communicate between them they use the Matra SIRDEE (Sistema Integral de Radiodifusión Encriptada del Estado),[16] Motorola MXR-1000 and MXR-2000 models and VHF/UHF portable repeaters.[15] For operations underwater they use other special gear. It includes: neoprene suits of different thicknesses, dry suits for dives in contaminated water, "twin-hose" and "single-hose" open-circuit scubas, dive computers, underwater robots for dives up to 200 meters and different dive support equipment.[15] The vehicles the GEO uses on its operations include different types of cars and bikes, special boats, Police helicopters and if necessary, CH-47 Chinook heavy helicopters of the Spanish Army.[3]

Weapons
GEOs utilize a wide range of firearms. The most common sniper rifles used by the group are the Mauser SP66, Heckler & Koch PSG1, AMP DSR-1, Sako TRG-41 and TRG-21, Sako A-II (silenced) and Heckler & Koch G3SG/1.[17] Their assault rifles are the SG 551 SWAT and SG 552, Heckler & Koch G41TGS and HK33.[18] They use Franchi, Remington and Heckler & Koch shotguns. MP5 and FN P90[19] [20] are the submachine guns of choice. Their pistols are the SIG P226 (9x19mm Parabellum) and the USP Compact.[15] GEO members also employ electroshock weapons, which caused some controversy when Amnesty International denounced the use of such weapons by the Policía Nacional.[21] To increase shooting accuracy they employ several shooting support devices. Currently, they make use of Holosight sights, AMT holographic sights, Schmidt & Bender 1.5 - 6 x 42 daylight sights, Simrad KN250F night vision sights, Zeiss Diavari daylight sights, Varo AN/PVS-4 night vision sights, EDS laser sights and Sure-Fire flashlights.[15]

Bibliography
• (in Spanish) Fuerzas Especiales del Mundo. Alcobendas, Madrid: Editorial LIBSA. 2004. ISBN 84-662-0891-7.

External links
• (Spanish) Official website [22] • (Spanish) Unofficial website [23]

References
[1] " Grupo Especial de Operaciones - Ubicación (http:/ / www. policia. es/ geo/ ubicacion. htm)" (in Spanish). www.policia.es. . Retrieved 2007-10-13. [2] " Grupo Especial de Operaciones - Operaciones (http:/ / www. policia. es/ geo/ operaciones. htm)" (in Spanish). www.policia.es. . Retrieved 2007-10-13. [3] Ryan, Mann and Stilwell, p. 110 [4] " Grupo Especial de Operaciones - Inicio (http:/ / www. policia. es/ geo/ cuerpo. htm)" (in Spanish). www.policia.es. . Retrieved 2007-10-13. [5] " Grupo Especial de Operaciones - Historia (http:/ / www. policia. es/ geo/ historia. htm)" (in Spanish). www.policia.es. . Retrieved 2007-10-13.

Grupo Especial de Operaciones
[6] " Grupo Especial de Operaciones - Operaciones en territorio nacional (http:/ / www. policia. es/ geo/ opera_nacional. htm)" (in Spanish). www.policia.es. . Retrieved 2007-10-14. [7] " Grupo Especial de Operaciones - Operaciones en el extranjero (http:/ / www. policia. es/ geo/ opera_extranj. htm)" (in Spanish). www.policia.es. . Retrieved 2007-10-14. [8] Roberto Bécares and Olalla Cernuda. " Cuatro terroristas islámicos se inmolan en un piso de Leganés y matan a un agente de policía (http:/ / www. elmundo. es/ elmundo/ 2004/ 04/ 03/ enespecial/ 1081016920. html)" (in Spanish). www.elmundo.es. . Retrieved 2007-10-13. [9] " Uno de los GEO heridos en el piso de Leganés explica que nunca supieron si los terroristas tenían explosivos (http:/ / www. elmundo. es/ elmundo/ 2005/ 03/ 09/ espana/ 1110365634. html)" (in Spanish). www.elmundo.es. . Retrieved 2007-10-13. [10] " La falta de GEOS (Grupo Especial de Operaciones) obliga a sustituir a parte de los destinados en Bagdad por antidisturbios (http:/ / www. belt. es/ noticias/ 2005/ marzo/ 14/ falta_geos. htm)" (in Spanish). www.belt.es. . Retrieved 2007-10-13. [11] " Grupo Especial de Operaciones - Organización (http:/ / www. policia. es/ geo/ organiza. htm)" (in Spanish). www.policia.es. . Retrieved 2007-10-13. [12] " Grupo Especial de Operaciones - Ingreso (http:/ / www. policia. es/ geo/ ingreso. htm)" (in Spanish). www.policia.es. . Retrieved 2007-10-14. [13] Ryan, Mann and Stilwell, p. 226 [14] " Confederación Española de Policía - Orden de 1 octubre de 1992 (http:/ / www. cepolicia. com/ tematico/ uniformidad_distintivos/ orden011092_uniformidad. pdf)" (in Spanish) (PDF). www.cepolicia.com. . Retrieved 2007-10-13. [15] " Grupo Especial de Operaciones - Material (http:/ / www. policia. es/ geo/ material. htm)" (in Spanish). www.policia.es. . Retrieved 2007-10-13. [16] " Sistemas digitales para la Guardia Civil, policía y otros servicios de emergencia en España (http:/ / web. madritel. es/ personales3/ tsgnet/ tetrapol. htm)" (in Spanish). web.madritel.es. . Retrieved 2007-10-13. [17] " Grupo Especial de Operaciones - Fusiles de precisión (http:/ / www. policia. es/ geo/ fusiles_preci. htm)" (in Spanish). www.policia.es. . Retrieved 2007-10-13. [18] " Grupo Especial de Operaciones - Fusiles de asalto (http:/ / www. policia. es/ geo/ fusiles_asalto. htm)" (in Spanish). www.policia.es. . Retrieved 2007-10-13. [19] " Web Del Grupo Especial De Operaciones (GEO) (http:/ / www. policia. es/ geo/ material. htm?reload_coolmenus)". Official Website of the Spanish National Police Corps. . Retrieved 2009-06-26. [20] " Grupo Especial de Operaciones 30 Aniversario (http:/ / www. lawebdelgeo. es/ especial-30-aniversario-geo. pdf)". April 2008. . Retrieved 2009-10-13. [21] " Amnistía Internacional denuncia el descontrol en el uso de armas paralizantes tipo Taser (http:/ / www. elmundo. es/ elmundo/ 2007/ 09/ 27/ solidaridad/ 1190893564. html)" (in Spanish). www.elmundo.es. . Retrieved 2007-10-14. [22] http:/ / www. policia. es/ geo/ cuerpo. htm [23] http:/ / www. lawebdelgeo. es

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Unidad Especial de Intervención

263

Unidad Especial de Intervención
Unidad Especial de Intervención

Active

February 3, 1982 -

Country Spain Branch Type Role Part of Motto Gendarmerie Special Forces Hostage crisis, Counter-terrorism Guardia Civil Celeritas et Subtilitas Patrio Speed and Precision for the Fatherland

The Unidad Especial de Intervención (English: Special Intervention Unit, UEI) is the emergency response unit of the Spanish Guardia Civil. Its motto is Celeritas et Subtilitas Patrio. The unit was created on February 3 1982. It comprises approximately fifty people, admitted after a rigorous selection procedure at the Special Training Centre (established on 6 August 1980), where candidates also receive intensive training in special tactics. The UEI's equipment is among the most modern and sophisticated in the Spanish security services, and includes: Ruger 44 revolvers, Glock pistols , Uzi and Heckler & Koch submachine guns, Accuracy International Arctic Warfare Sniper rifles, Heckler & Koch G41 Winchester sniper rifles with telescopic sights. On operations UEI personnel wear black uniforms; otherwise, for security reasons, they wear nothing that identifies them as unit members. The scope of UEI operations and total number of personnel are unknown. But it is known that the unit has participated in operations against terrorism. One of its first operations was an assault on a prison following the kidnapping of 6 prison workers by 5 inmates.

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Equipment
• • • • Glock-17 MP5 different versions G36K and G36C Franchi SPAS 12

See also
• Spanish special forces units • Counter-terrorism

265

Sri Lanka
Special Task Force
Special Task Force Active Country Branch Type Role Size Nickname Motto Engagements 1983 - present Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Police Special Forces/Light Infantry Special Operations Force, Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement Approx. 6000 personnel STF Niyatha Jaya(Certain Victory) Sri Lankan civil war Commanders Commandant Deputy Inspector General of Police K.M.L. Sarathchandra
[1]

Inspector General of Police Jayantha Wickramarathne

The Special Task Force (STF) (Sinhala: විෙශ්ෂ කාර්ය බළකාය Tamil: சிறப்பு அதிரடிப் படை) is an elite special forces unit of the Sri Lanka Police specializing in Counter-Terrorist and Counter-Insurgency operations. It was formed in 1983 not as a military force but rather as a highly-specialised → police unit. The STF heads Counter-Terrorist missions and – as the most highly trained police organisation in Sri Lanka – it would be the lead unit whenever law enforcement forces engaged the Tamil Tigers (LTTE). The STF is mostly stationed in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka where the LTTE was wiped out. Some small number of units have placed in Mannar District and Vavuniya District. Other units are based in Colombo and provide VIP security. The STF is internationally recognized for its expertise in these areas and it is often invited to assist foreign law enforcement agencies with planning major events such as the 2008 Beijing Olympics and in dealing with possible terrorist threats.[2] [3]

History
Following the insurrection in Sri Lanka in 1971, in which many Police Stations were targeted by JVP insurgents, there were suggestions to train and equip the Police for duties above normal Police functions. However, nothing was done until 1983 when the outbreak of violence convinced the government to form a special Counter Terrorist and Counter Insurgency police force called the Special Task Force.

Formation
When the Special Task Force (STF) was formed in 1983, it comprised mainly of existing policemen. Trained by the Sri Lankan Army in the handling of Infantry weapons and were given basic training in Jungle warfare, They deeply resemble a para-military organisation and later separate training facilities for the Special Task Force have been established in Kalutara, 96 kilometers south of Colombo. The first platoons formed were deployed in the North of Sri Lanka to provide additional support for Police Stations and to stem the LTTE separatists.[4]

Special Task Force The STF was enhanced considerably in 1983 when former British Special Air Service (SAS) crack teams were brought in to provide specialized training in all aspects of Counter Terrorism and Counter insurgency operations.[5] August 11 1984, that the Israel Internal Security Agency Shin Beth was involved in the training of the Sri Lankan armed forces. Many officers belonging to Israel were also involved in the training of the Sri Lankan soldiers in Colombo.[6] Recently, the STF has received from Indonesia P2 APCs made by Sentra Surya Ekajaya to help the unit conduct their counter insurgency operations against the LTTE.[7]

266

Operations
By 1987, heavily involved in the Sri Lankan civil war, the STF was in control of the area from Kiran to Potuvil in the Batticaloa Division. The STF was deployed in Company formation into 15 separate camps. When the Indian Peace Keeping Force was moved into the Batticaloa in 1987 as part of the ongoing peace process, the STF was in complete control of Batticoloa, and had restored a level of normalcy to the area. From 1983 to 1987 when the STF was in control over Batticoloa not a single STF camp had come under attack from the LTTE.[8]

Operation Niyathai Jaya (Definite Victory)
In its first major operation since the signing of the ceasefire agreement in 2002, Special Task Force troops launched a limited offensive named "Definite Victory" (In Sinhala: නියතයිි ජය) on January 4, 2007 against LTTE rebels in the Kanchikudichcharu and Thoppigala south regions of the Ampara District, as a reaction to the child abductions in Bakmitiyawa, Ampara and abduction of two teachers and 23 Tamil children in December 2006 while they were returning from extra classes to their homes.[9] [10] [11] As a result of this offensive, the elite police commandos were able to overrun more than fifteen (15) rebel camps[12] including the Stanly Base, which was the main LTTE camp in the Ampara District[13] and a regional intelligence and supply camp of the LTTE,[14] Bagayadi Base, where local and foreign foodstuffs and sanitary material was stored, Janak Base, which made clothing identical to Sri Lanka Army and Special Task Force uniforms,[15] Jeewan Base, which was another supply camp from which the STF was able to recover four vehicles and the Diana Base where LTTE leaders meet. This camp was furnished with luxury items which were denied to the ordinary LTTE cadres.[16] After the fall of Stanly Base, STF troops were able to find an explosive laden truck and a motor cycle that the rebels were planning to use to carry out suicide attacks in the capital of Colombo. And it is also reported that LTTE was housing a large number of child soldiers conscripted by them in this camp.[17] [18] Other than that, STF troops were able to recover a large quantity of arms and ammunition, coffins, large number of anti-personnel mines[14] , vehicles[19] , satellite and radio receivers, global positioning systems, power generators, boats with name and logo of the Non Governmental Organization "Save the Children", tents with the logo of "UNHCR" and a fully equipped hospital donated to the militants by a Dutch INGO named ZOA Refugee Care[20] This NGO donated hospital is named by the tigers as Thileepan memorial hospital. STF also said that they also found a water tanker truck donated by, the Tamil Rehabilitation Organization (TRO) which is a front organization of the LTTE, who collect funds especially in the United States and Canada purportedly for civilians, but actually for the terrorist group.[14] .[21] [22] However, aid workers argue that the supplies must have been taken after they evacuated their office due to heavy fighting. Jeevan Thiagarajah, the head of the Consortium for Humanitarian Agencies, has stated that the matter is simply a misunderstanding.[23] As a result of this mission STF troops able to kill four rebels and the STF commented that the militants were fleeing from the area without retaliating against their troops.[24] [25]

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Criticism
The Special Task Force has been accused of various human rights abuses including extrajudicial killings and involvement in the disappearance of individuals. According to a United Nations commissioned study conducted in 1997, the STF was the arresting agency in 5% of the 1219 reported cases of disappearances in the Batticaloa district in North Eastern Province between 1988 and 1996.[26] Additionally, after a visit to Sri Lanka from 24 August to 5 September in the same year, UN Special Rapporteur Bacre Waly Ndiaye reported the existence of allegations that individuals had died "while in the custody of the Special Task Force of Sri Lanka in Colombo"[27] At least two incidents of extrajudicial killings involving members of the STF have also been noted by the Sri Lankan government or outside observers. Following the newest round of fighting between the government and the LTTE starting in April 1994, the mutilated bodies of between 21 and 31 Tamil males were discovered in rivers and lakes near Colombo. On August 17, 10 STF officers (and 15 others) were charged with committing the murders, which allegedly took place at the STF headquarters in Colombo. In addition, at least 17 extrajudicial killings were carried out by Sri Lankan security forces (including the STF) in Eastern Province in retaliation for LTTE attacks. Human rights monitors "determined" the deceased to be "civilians", but security forces maintained that they were LTTE members.[28] [29]

Commandants of the Special Task Force
• • • • • • • SDIG Bodhi Liayange SDIG Zerney Wijesuriya SDIG Lionel Karunasena SDIG Dharmasiri Weerakoon DIG Nimal Gunatilleke DIG Nimal Lewke DIG K.M.L. Sarathchandra

Equipment
Land vehicles • Pindad APR - Armoured personnel carrier.[30] • Unibuffel - Mine-protected APC • Land Rover Defender Mortars • Type 84 (W84) 82 mm mortars • Type 89 60 mm mortars Small arms

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Handguns • • • • Glock 17 Beretta 92 Smith & Wesson M&P Webley Revolver Sub-Machine guns • • H&K MP5 Submachine Guns Uzi Submachine Guns

Sniper Rifles • Heckler & Koch PSG1 Sniper Rifles

Assault Rifles • • • Type 56 Assault rifles AK-47 Assault rifles M4 carbine

Grenade launchers • M203 Grenade launcher

Rocket launchers • Type 69 RPG Rocket launchers (Chinese version of RPG-7)

See also
• Sri Lankan Civil War

Further reading
• The Perfect Soldier: Special Operations, Commandos, and the Future of U.S. Warfare by James F. Dunnigan[31]

External links
• • • • • • • • • President of Sri Lanka [32] Government of Sri Lanka [33] Ministry of Defence Sri Lanka [34] Sri Lankan Police Official Website [35] Official History [36] SpecialOperations.com [37] 'You give us courage, fortitude to safeguard country's unity and territorial integrity' [38] Sri Lanka Police Official Website excerpt [39] 21st Commemoration of STF war heroes : 'You give us courage, fortitude to safeguard country's unity and territorial integrity' [38]

References
[1] " Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, Sri Lanka (http:/ / www. state. gov/ g/ drl/ rls/ hrrpt/ 2004/ 41744. htm)". U.S. State Department. 28 February, 2005. . [2] " The Deadly Mahasohon Brigade (http:/ / www. strategypage. com/ dls/ articles/ 200791921302. asp)". StrategyWorld.com. September 19, 2007. . [3] " Sri Lankan anti-terror police to advise on Beijing Olympics (http:/ / sports. espn. go. com/ espn/ wire?section=oly& id=2653935)". Associated Press. 8 November, 2006. . [4] "Strength, Sri Lanka". Photius Coutsoukis. 12 November, 2004. [5] " Military Balance, Sri Lanka (http:/ / www. ipcs. org/ Military_militaryBalance2. jsp?database=1002& country2=Sri Lanka)". Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies. 1 December, 2002. . [6] " Sri Lanka: The untold story (http:/ / www. atimes. com/ ind-pak/ DC09Df04. html)". Asia Times. 26 October, 2001. . [7] " Menhan Tinjau Panser Produksi Dalam Negeri (http:/ / www. dmcindonesia. web. id/ modules. php?name=News& file=article& sid=109)" (in Indonesian). 2008-05-12. . Retrieved 2009-01-08. [8] " Nuda Veritas on The Muslim Factor (http:/ / www. sangam. org/ PIRABAKARAN/ Part47. htm)". Ilankai Tamil Sangam. 15 November, 2002. . [9] " Commandos take eight Tiger bases in Sri Lanka (http:/ / www. zeenews. com/ znnew/ articles. asp?aid=347548& sid=SAS)". Zee News. 13 January, 2007. . [10] " Torture chambers used by Tamil LTTE found: Defense Ministry (http:/ / www. lankaeverything. com/ vinews/ srilanka/ 20070116005410. php?PHPSESSID=5b999d49f4ce70e551fcbe69a4f56026)". Lankaeverything. 16 January, 2007. .

Special Task Force
[11] " MCNS - PRESS BRIEFING (http:/ / www. nationalsecurity. lk/ fullnews. php?id=3547)". Media Center for National Security. 17 January, 2007. . [12] " Sri Lanka says captures Tiger lines, kills 30 rebels (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 01/ 16/ AR2007011600374. html)". The Washington Post. 16 January, 2007. . [13] " Sri Lankan military seizes more camps of rebel LTTE (http:/ / www. kuna. net. kw/ Home/ Story. aspx?Language=en& DSNO=942304)". Kuwait News Agency. 14 January, 2007. . [14] " Elite commando forces of the police over runs a large Tamil Tiger base in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka (http:/ / www. tothecenter. com/ news. php?readmore=637)". To The Center. 8 January, 2007. . [15] " Tamil Tigers in a death groan in the East of Sri Lanka, after the STF capture of Janak Camp in Amparai (http:/ / www. asiantribune. com/ index. php?q=node/ 4102)". Asian Tribune. 12 January, 2007. . [16] " Three LTTE camps tumble as STF advances in the East (http:/ / www. defence. lk/ new. asp?fname=20070113_09)". Ministry of Defence, Sri Lanka. 13 January, 2007. . [17] " Sri Lanka commandos capture truck packed with Tamil explosives (http:/ / www. chinapost. com. tw/ news/ archives/ asiapacific/ 2007110/ 99637. htm)". The China Post. 12 January, 2007. . [18] " Rebel base falls in east Sri Lanka (http:/ / www. sttammany. com/ news-detail/ article/ 780/ rebel-base-f. html)". United Press International. 12 January, 2007. . [19] " Rebel's camp captured in Sri Lanka's east (http:/ / english. people. com. cn/ 200701/ 11/ eng20070111_340346. html)". People's Daily Online. 11 January, 2007. . [20] " Sri Lanka probes aid groups for suspected rebel links (http:/ / www. alertnet. org/ thenews/ newsdesk/ COL227596. htm)". Reuters. 11 January, 2007. . [21] " INGO Tsunami Aid Found in Newly Captured LTTE's 'JANAK' Camp (http:/ / www. nationalsecurity. lk/ fullnews. php?id=3421)". Media Center for National Security. 11 January, 2007. . [22] " Colombo tightens transport security (http:/ / www. gulf-times. com/ site/ topics/ article. asp?cu_no=2& item_no=126642& version=1& template_id=44& parent_id=24)". Gulf Times Newspaper. 10 January, 2007. . [23] " Sri Lanka probes aid groups for suspected rebel links (http:/ / www. alertnet. org/ thenews/ newsdesk/ COL227596. htm)". Reuters. 11 January, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-02-10. [24] " MCNS - PRESS BRIEFING (http:/ / www. nationalsecurity. lk/ fullnews. php?id=3547)". Media Center for National Security. 17 January, 2007. . [25] " Elite police overrun top rebel base in east Sri Lanka, says military (http:/ / www. iht. com/ articles/ ap/ 2007/ 01/ 08/ asia/ AS-GEN-Sri-Lanka-Rebel-Base. php)". The International Herald Tribune. 8 January, 2007. . [26] " CHAPTER 3: BATTICALOA DISTRICT (http:/ / www. disappearances. org/ mainfile. php/ frep_sl_ne/ 78/ )". Final Report of the Commission of Inquiry into Involuntary Removal or Disappearance of Persons in the Northern and Eastern Provinces. September 1997. . Retrieved 2007-02-01. [27] " Sri Lanka: Thematic Reports - Mechanisms of the Commission on Human Rights (http:/ / www. hri. ca/ fortherecord1998/ vol3/ srilankatr. htm)". Human Right Internet. . Retrieved 2007-02-01. [28] U.S. Department of State (March 1996). " Sri Lanka Human Rights Practices, 1995 (http:/ / dosfan. lib. uic. edu/ erc/ democracy/ 1995_hrp_report/ 95hrp_report_sasia/ SriLanka. html)". . Retrieved 2007-02-01. [29] McDonald, James F. (November 1995). " AIUSA testimony - Sri Lanka (http:/ / www. infolanka. com/ org/ srilanka/ issues/ ai1. html)". InfoLanka. . Retrieved 2007-02-01. [30] Defence (http:/ / www. thesundayleader. lk/ 20090222/ Defence. HTM) [31] Publisher : Citadel, Year:(June 1, 2003), Language: English, ISBN 0806524154 / ISBN 978-0806524153 [32] http:/ / www. president. gov. lk/ [33] http:/ / www. priu. gov. lk/ [34] http:/ / www. defence. lk/ [35] http:/ / www. police. lk [36] http:/ / www. police. lk/ new_web/ divisions/ stf. asp [37] http:/ / www. specialoperations. com/ Foreign/ Sri_Lanka/ Default. htm [38] http:/ / www. dailynews. lk/ 2005/ 09/ 01/ sec03. htm [39] http:/ / www. police. lk/ divisions/ stf. asp

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270

Sweden
National Task Force
National Task Force Active Country Branch Type Role Size 1991 - Present
 Sweden

Swedish Police Service Special Forces Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement About 60

Engagements Various hostage operations Capture of Mijailo Mijailović and several suspect terrorists

The National Task Force (Swedish: Nationella insatsstyrkan, NI), formerly known as the National Task Force of the Swedish Civilian Police (Swedish: Ordningspolisens nationella insatsstyrka), is a paramilitary tactical unit within the National Criminal Investigation Department of the Swedish Police Service. It is meant to handle extraordinarily difficult or life-threatening criminal situations, such as terrorism, hostage situations, armed kidnapping and serving high risk arrest warrants in cities too remote for the SWAT-units in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö to handle. It also deals with emergency rescue situations that would be too dangerous for other teams to handle. NI's missions are identical to those of Germany's → GSG 9, French → GIGN and the FBI HRT in the United States. In 2006, NI-officers were deployed to Lebanon to help evacuate Swedish citizens during the war between Hezbollah and Israel.

Organization
NI has one head of the unit (currently Bertil Olofsson) with a number of subordinated coordinators, and a staff of older, distinguished police officers. Under this management group the force is divided into 8 groups: • • • • • • • • Alpha Bravo Charlie Delta Echo Fox (snipers) Golf (snipers) Hotel (divers)

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271

Selection
To be eligible for NI, the applicant is required to have five years of experience within the police force (of which at least 2 years in active duty), a clean criminal record, and be able to pass a series of tests: • • • • • • Physical stamina Marksmanship Predispositions for several types of phobias, such as fear of cramped spaces, heights or water Psychological fitness Deep interview 10 days in the field

Service
Members of the NI works full time in the force. They used to work two weeks and then have two weeks of regular police work but as the need for them increased they changed it to full time to cope with the demand and the need for more training. Part of their training is done with the armed forces. Several of the members are former members of elite military units, and the Nationella Insatsstyrkan is described by some as a military unit within the Swedish police force.

Armament
NI has access to a wide variety of weapons including submachine guns (MP5), assault rifles (G36, AK5) and shotguns. In addition, all operators use the SIG Sauer P 226 pistol as sidearm, which is the standard sidearm used by all Swedish police officers. Snipers are equipped with the L96A1 AW sniper rifle (Swedish military designation: PSG90). The special equipment of Nationella Insatsstyrkan is significantly different from that of the ordinary police. Their equipment, such as communication radios suitable for diving and special ceramic bullet resistant vests, is specific to the situations they would be called upon for.

See also
• → Piketen

Piketen

272

Piketen
Piketen (or Piketgruppen) is an emergency response asset of the Swedish Police Service, similar to the → SWAT in the United States. Piketen is called in when situations occur that are too dangerous for ordinary → police to handle, such as hostage situations, arresting armed suspects and arresting barricaded suspects. Piketen has one main task and four secondary tasks. The main task is dangerous situations in dangerous environments, i.e. hostage situations. Their other tasks are serving high-risk arrest warrants, riot control and escorting VIP's and other objects of value. This is Stockholm piketens emergency vehicles equipped with a ladder on the roof Piketen has been active since 1979, and its creation was an answer to the events of the Norrmalmstorg robbery in 1973 where robber Jan Erik "Janne" Olsson took four hostages at Kreditbanken at Norrmalmstorg ("Norrmalm's Square") in Stockholm. They are stationed in the three largest cities of Sweden: Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. Some counties that do not have a Piket-unit have local task forces trained by local police, which have almost the same training as Piketen. Piketen is the best trained → police unit of the Swedish police, next to Nationella Insatsstyrkan ("The National Task Force" in Swedish).

Weapons
The main weapon of both Piketen and Nationella Insatsstyrkan is the Heckler & Koch MP5, the Heckler & Koch G36C and they both use SIG Sauer 226 as sidearm. Piket officers are very well trained in many methods of entry, such as rapelling and door breaching.

See also
• Nationella Insatsstyrkan

273

Taiwan
Thunder Squad
Thunder Squad

Arm patch of Thunder Squad Active Country Branch Type Role Size Part of 1985 - Present Republic of China (Taiwan) National Police Agency, ROC (Taiwan) Special Forces Domestic Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement Varies Respective County/Municipality-level police departments

Thunder Squad(霹靂小組) is the nickname of Wei-An Special Services Unit (維安特勤隊) of Taiwan's National Police Agency, a highly trained → SWAT counter-terrorism Special Forces tactical unit established in 1985 to conduct high-risk arrests and other dangerous law enforcement duties. This 200 man group is organized into small, four-man elements, three of which make up an operating group. Thunder Squad is also the name given to the SWAT tactical units of the counties level police departments in the ROC (Taiwan).

External links
• [1] - Thunder Squad Training video

References
[1] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=YHlULT4Ibdw

274

Thailand
Naresuan 261 Counter-Terrorism Unit
Naraesuan 261 (Thai: นเรศวร 261) is Special Operations Unit of The Royal Thai Police.

History
Special Operations Unit "Naraesuan 261" was set up in 1983, Buddhist year 2526, by a Thai Cabinet Resolution. The Resolution, dated February 1, 2526 (1983), was a major policy decision designed to provide a force for counter-terrorism efforts. The Royal Thai Police were given orders to setup training for a special division to accomplish these goals. The unit was founded in 1984, Buddhist year 2527, and placed under the control and responsibility of the Thai Border Patrol Police's Aerial Reinforcement Unit or PARU. In late 1986, a Royal Decree, proclamation number 14, reorganized the Royal Thai Police and Naraesuan 261 was assigned as 4th company under the Border Patrol Police's Aerial Reinforcement Unit (PARU). Special Operations Unit "Naraesuan 261" has the responsibility of counter-terrorism and resulting criminal cases. The company also plays an important role as executive protection for His Majesty the King, Her Majesty the Queen and other members of the Royal Family when they travel around Thailand. Furthermore, the company acts as escorts for other foreign dignitaries and heads of state visiting Thailand.

Organization Management
4th Company, Border Patrol Police Aerial Reinforcement Unit, consists of a Company division with a raid platoon , ambush and patrol platoon , explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) platoon , training platoon , and supporting platoon.

Training
Initial training was performed by members of the Royal Thai Police Department. Teams are divided up into units of 5 people following the model set up by Germany's GSG-9. Teams are trained in military tactics, sniping, waterborne operations, martial arts, and operation of a variety of vehicles. After initial training, groups pass on their experiences to other members of the Special Operations Company. The Company will also assign members to train in foreign countries and bring the knowledge back to Thailand to further help train the Company. Standard training is broken up into five parts: 1. International counter-terrorism training consisting of 24 weeks of training for new Police privates. 2. International counter-terrorism training consisting of 6 weeks of training for Police who are now in active service as well as one week of anti-terrorism planning. 3. Explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) training consisting of 12 weeks of training. 4. Sniper/counter-sniper training consisting of 4 weeks of training for those assigned to sniper positions. 5. Electronics proficiency training consisting of 12 weeks of training for those assigned to the duty of Electronics Proficiency Officer. The Company also takes part in cross-training with Special Operations divisions of the Royal Thai Military as well as training with their counterparts in various units in the United States, Australia, South Africa, and Germany.

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Operations
Special Company 'Naresuan 261' has cooperant escort duty for His Majesty the King, Her Majesty the Queen, and other members of the Royal Family when they travel around Thailand. They also train female members as an executive escort for Her Royal Highness Princess Siridhorn when she visits Border Patrol Police schools around Thailand. The company has been involved in a number of high profile criminal cases including: 1. Burmese student takeover of the Myanmar embassy in Bangkok on October 1-2, 1999 (2542). 2. Takeover of the Ratchaburi Hospital in Ratchaburi Province on January 24-25, 2000 (2543). 3. Release of hostages from the Karen-Burmese rebellion at Samut Sakhon Province Prison on November 22-23, 2000 (2543). These three major successful operations were all under the control of Special Company 'Naresuan 261'. In all these situations, the mission was accomplished and the hostages were saved. At present the Special Operation 'Naresuan 261' company is now developing additional tactics and has the support of the Royal Thai Police to provide them with the weapons they need to perform their work with efficiency.

See also
• Border Patrol Police • List of Special Response Units • List of special forces units

References
• Unofficial Naresuan 261 site [1] (Thai) • English Information on the Royal Thai Police [2]

External links
• Official Royal Thai Police website [3] (Thai) • English Information on the Royal Thai Police [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. geocities. com/ thaipolairborne/ n261. htm [2] http:/ / www. nationreligionking. com [3] http:/ / www. police. go. th

276

Ukraine
Berkut (Ukraine)
Berkut (Ukrainian: Бе́ркут - golden eagle) is a special reaction force of Ukrainian militsiya (police) within the Internal Ministry (national → police authority). Berkut is the national successor of the Soviet → OMON, responsible for high-risk police operations including hostage crises and riots. Berkut teams participated in many actions of Leonid Kuchma's regime against the opposition. As of January 2008, the force consists of 2 regiments, 6 separate battalions, and 19 companies totaling 3,250 members.[1]

See also
• → OMON • UBK

References
[1] (Ukrainian) МВС України (http:/ / mvs. gov. ua/ mvs/ control/ main/ uk/ publish/ article/ 73799)

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United Kingdom
Specialist Firearms Officer
A Specialist Firearms Officer (SFO) is a British Police officer who has undergone training in the use of police firearms, and therefore is authorised to carry and when necessary use a firearm to prevent an immediate threat to life.[1] All SFOs first train as Authorised Firearms Officers (AFOs) which crew armed response vehicles. SFOs receive a higher level of training than AFOs, in areas such as building assault and specialist weapon usage. The common role of an SFO is to assault premises involved in a siege situation.[2]

Authorised Firearms Officers wearing body armour, both armed with Heckler & Koch MP5 Carbines and Glock 17 Pistols.

Firearms and the British police
The usage of firearms by the police is covered by statute (such as the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 and Human Rights Act 1998), policy (such as the Home Office Code of Practice on Police use of Firearms and Less Lethal Weapons and the ACPO Manual of Guidance on Police Use of Firearms) and common law. AFOs may only carry firearms when authorised by an "appropriate authorising officer".[3] The appropriate authorising officer must be of the rank of Inspector or higher.[4] When working at airports, nuclear sites, on Protection Duties and deployed in Armed Response Vehicles in certain areas, 'Standing Authority' is granted to carry personal sidearms.[5] All members of the Police Service of Northern Ireland have authority to carry a personal issue handgun as a matter of routine.[6] In all forces, usage of other weapons such as semi-automatic carbines requires further training and authorisation. Semi-automatic carbines are stored in a locked armoury which is situated in the boot of an Armed Response Vehicle. Equipping of semi-automatic carbines rests on a judgment of the AFO.[7]

CO19 officers cordoning an area of Mayfair

Specialist Firearms Officer

278

United Kingdom law allows the use of "reasonable force" in order to make an arrest or prevent a crime[8] [9] or to defend one's self.[10] However, if the force used is fatal, then the European Convention of Human Rights only allows "the use of force which is no more than absolutely necessary".[11] Firearms officers may therefore only discharge their weapons "to stop an imminent threat to life" [12] . ACPO policy states that "use" of a firearm includes both pointing it at a person and discharging it (whether accidentally, negligently or on purpose).[13] As with all use of force in England and Wales, the onus is on the individual officer to justify their actions in court.[14] The majority British Police forces do not routinely carry firearms, with the three exceptions being the Civil Nuclear Constabulary, Ministry of Defence Police and Police Service of Northern Ireland. To provide each police force with the capability to deal with armed crime, they each operate a firearms unit. The firearms unit is responsible for operating armed response vehicles crewed by AFOs, which respond to emergency calls believed to involve firearms.[15]

CO19 training

Training
Authorised Firearms Officers wishing to become Specialist Firearms Officers are required to attend an eight week training course at the National Police Firearms Training Centre in Gravesend, Kent. However, the potential recruit is only invited to attend the centre if they have successfully passed written psychological tests, and have been security cleared. Usually, the role of an SFO is to intervene in situations that are beyond the control of AFOs, who crew armed response vehicles. Potential SFOs are extensively trained on the safe use of specialist firearms, method of entry techniques to gain access to premises quickly, abseiling and 'fast rope' skills, scenario training such as being instructed to search a specially adapted training area of an aircraft, extensive use of tear gas and stun grenades, safe handling of rescued hostages and rescue techniques, computer simulated 'war games' of potential threats such as terrorist attacks, and training in the use of protective clothing against CBRN attack.

Legal use of police firearms
Both AFOs and SFOs are only authorised to discharge a firearm when an "immediate threat to life is present". They are trained to fire once at the central mass, which maximises the likelihood of the shot achieving immediate incapacitation. After they have incapacitated the subject they carry out a further risk assessment on the injured subject, to justify any further shots if they still present a threat.[16] Operation Kratos contingency plans stated that firearms officers could shoot to kill, aiming for the head, rather than the usual practice of the central mass. This due to the possibility of suspected terrorists wearing explosives around the torso.

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Common SFO specialisations
• • • • • • • • • Tactical Medic [7] Rifle Officer (Marksman) [7] Method of Entry Specialist [7] Advanced Driver [7] Trained Negotiator [7] Close Protection Officer (Bodyguard) [7] Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Specialist [7] Gold Silver Bronze command structure Coordinator [7] Tactical Advisor

See also
• Police use of firearms in the United Kingdom

External links
• Metropolitan Police Service, CO19 [17] • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • SFO, private site [18] Sussex Constabulary Firearms Unit [19] Devon & Cornwall Constabulary Firearms Unit [20] Thames Valley SFOs [21] Tayside Police Firearms Unit [22] "Limarcharlie" private website [23] Guardian article [24] Ministry of Defence official site [25] Police Service of Northern Ireland official site [26] Civil Nuclear Constabulary official site [27] Lancashire Police official site [28] Kent Constabulary firearms unit [29] Surrey Police, Firearms unit [30] Independent article [31] BBC article on police arming debate [32] Ministry of Defence Police Guarding Service [33] Gwent Constabulary, firearms unit [34]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ uk/ 2004/ nov/ 04/ ukguns. ukcrime http:/ / www. devon-cornwall. police. uk/ v3/ about/ departm/ codiv/ operdept/ ou. htm ACPO (2003), Manual of Guidance on Police Use of Firearms, 3.2.1 (http:/ / www. acpo. police. uk/ asp/ policies/ Data/ firearms. pdf) ACPO (2003), Manual of Guidance on Police Use of Firearms, 3.6.6 (http:/ / www. acpo. police. uk/ asp/ policies/ Data/ firearms. pdf) ACPO (2003), Manual of Guidance on Police Use of Firearms, 3.8 (http:/ / www. acpo. police. uk/ asp/ policies/ Data/ firearms. pdf) ACPO (2003), Manual of Guidance on Police Use of Firearms, 3.8.5 (http:/ / www. acpo. police. uk/ asp/ policies/ Data/ firearms. pdf) Waldren, Michael J. (2007). Armed Police, The Police Use of Firearms since 1945. England: Sutton. pp. 224. ISBN 978-0-7509-4637-7. Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984, Section 117 or Police and Criminal Evidence (Northern Ireland) Order 1989, Article 88 Criminal Law Act 1967, Section 3 or Criminal Law Act (Northern Ireland) 1967, Section 3

[10] Common Law, as cited in ACPO (2003), Manual of Guidance on Police Use of Firearms, 2.3.4 (http:/ / www. acpo. police. uk/ asp/ policies/ Data/ firearms. pdf) [11] ACPO (2003), Manual of Guidance on Police Use of Firearms, 2.3.7 (http:/ / www. acpo. police. uk/ asp/ policies/ Data/ firearms. pdf) [12] ACPO (2003), Manual of Guidance on Police Use of Firearms, 5.6.1 (http:/ / www. acpo. police. uk/ asp/ policies/ Data/ firearms. pdf)

Specialist Firearms Officer
[13] ACPO (2003), Manual of Guidance on Police Use of Firearms 3.2.4 (http:/ / www. acpo. police. uk/ asp/ policies/ Data/ firearms. pdf) [14] ACPO (2003), Manual of Guidance on Police Use of Firearms Chapter 3.3.1 (http:/ / www. acpo. police. uk/ asp/ policies/ Data/ firearms. pdf) [15] " Underzone - Police specialists - Firearms officers (http:/ / www. thamesvalley. police. uk/ UNDERZONE/ about-us/ specialist-firearms. htm)". . Retrieved 2008-02-20. [16] ACPO (2003), Manual of Guidance on Police Use of Firearms, 5.6.1 (http:/ / www. acpo. police. uk/ asp/ policies/ Data/ firearms. pdf) [17] http:/ / www. met. police. uk/ co19/ [18] http:/ / www. global-defence. com/ 2003/ police_03. htm [19] http:/ / www. sussex. police. uk/ features/ specialistUnits/ firearms. asp [20] http:/ / www. devon-cornwall. police. uk/ v3/ about/ departm/ codiv/ operdept/ fu. htm [21] http:/ / www. thamesvalley. police. uk/ UNDERZONE/ about-us/ specialist-firearms. htm [22] http:/ / www. tayside. police. uk/ firearms. php [23] http:/ / www. limacharlie. org/ index. php?id=1372 [24] http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ uk/ 2004/ nov/ 04/ ukguns. ukcrime [25] http:/ / www. modpoliceofficers. co. uk/ default. asp [26] http:/ / www. psni. police. uk/ [27] http:/ / www. cnc. police. uk/ [28] http:/ / www. lancashire. police. uk/ index. php?id=1212 [29] http:/ / www. kent. police. uk/ About%20Kent%20Police/ Policy/ m/ m12. html [30] http:/ / www. surrey. police. uk/ services_firearms. asp [31] http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ uk/ crime/ hundreds-more-armed-police-to-join-londons-terror-fight-501825. html [32] http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ hi/ english/ static/ in_depth/ uk/ 2001/ life_of_crime/ police. stm [33] http:/ / www. mod. uk/ DefenceInternet/ AboutDefence/ WhatWeDo/ SecurityandIntelligence/ MDPGA/ MinistryOfDefencePolice. htm [34] http:/ / www. gwent. police. uk/ careers/ armedresponse. htm

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Specialist Firearms Command

281

Specialist Firearms Command
Specialist Firearms Command Active Country Branch Role Nickname 1966
[1]

– Present

United Kingdom Central Operations Domestic counter-terrorism and → law enforcement SO19, CO19, blue berets Commanders

Current Chief Superintendent Bill Tillbrook[2] commander

Specialist Firearms Command (previously known as SO19) is a Central Operations branch within Greater London's Metropolitan Police Service.[2] The Command is responsible for providing a firearms-response capability, assisting the rest of the service which is routinely unarmed.[2] Within the media it is occasionally compared to the → SWAT units of the United States, being seen as London's equivalent. On occasion, they have been referred to as the "blue berets", as they used to wear these, today they are more likely to wear combat helmets (of PASGT type).

Historical use of firearms
At its formation in 1829 the service had a policy of not routinely carrying firearms, but Home Secretary Sir Robert Peel did authorise the Commissioner to purchase fifty flintlock pistols for use in emergencies—such as those that involved the use of firearms. As time progressed, the obsolete flintlocks were decommissioned from service, being superseded by early revolvers. At the time, burglary (or "house breaking" as it was then called) was a common problem for police, and "house breakers" were usually armed, due to it being legal for a member of the public to own a pistol. Due to deaths of officers by armed criminals in the outer districts of the metropolis, and after public calls debating whether Peel's service should be fully armed, the Commissioner applied to Peel for authorisation to supply officers on the outer districts with revolvers. The authorisation was issued on the condition that, revolvers could only be issued if, in the opinion of the senior officer, the officer could be trusted to use it safely, and with discretion. From that point, officers who felt the need to be armed, could be so. The practice lasted until 1936, although the vast majority of the system was phased out by the end of the 19th century. In the 1860s, the flintlock pistols that had been purchased in 1829 were decommissioned from service, being superseded by 622 Adams revolvers firing the .450 cartridge which were loaned from the army stores at the Tower of London following the Clerkenwell bombing. In 1883, a ballot was carried out to gather information on officers' views about arming, and 4,430 out of 6,325 officers serving on outer divisions wanted to be issued with revolvers. The now obsolete Adams revolver was returned to stores for emergencies, and the Bulldog 'Metropolitan Police' revolver was issued to officers on the outer districts who felt the need to be armed. On 18 February 1887, PC 52206 Henry Owen became the first officer to fire a revolver while on duty, after being unable to alert the inhabitants of a premises on a fire. Following the Siege of Sidney Street, one thousand self-loading Webley & Scott pistols were purchased. In 1914, the Bulldogs were withdrawn from service and returned to stores. Lord Trenchard standardised the issue of pistols among divisions with the size of the area depending on the amount of firearms; ten pistols with 320 rounds of ammunition were issued to divisional stations, six pistols with 192 rounds per sub-divisional station, and three pistols with 96 rounds to each section station. In 1936, the authorisation to carry revolvers on outer districts

Specialist Firearms Command was revoked, and at the same time Canadian Ross rifles were purchased in the prelude to the Second World War. A review in 1952 following the Derek Bentley case found 15% of firearms in service to be defective; leading to Special Branch and Royalty Protection Officers being re-armed with an early version of the Beretta automatic pistol.

282

Formation
The Firearms Wing, as it was originally named, was formed as part of the Civil Defence and Communications Branch or D6 by its designation, the wing was formed in response to the murder of three officers.[3] The Commissioner requested applications from officers within the service who had experience in the handling of firearms, such as ex members of the armed forces or those who attended shooting clubs. The officers who applied attended the Small Arms Wing of the School of Infantry to become permanent instructors for the services newly formed firearms wing. Upon the officers return to the service they trained firearms officers. After the unit had changed its name from D6 to D11, level 1 and level 2 officer roles were created. Level 1 officers were made up primarily of instructors, only being operationally deployed after a siege had been established to aid in the resolution of the incident. Level 1 officers qualified using the Webley & Scott .22 revolver, or more recently the Browning .22 High Power self-loading pistol, with some officers being trained and authorised to use the Enfield Enforcer 7.62 mm sniper rifle for counter-sniper roles. Throughout the 1970s, the branch increased in size, with more firearms instructors being recruited to keep up with the increase in the demand for firearms training. During the 1970s, D11 officers qualified in the Smith & Wesson Model 36 and the Model 10 revolvers. During the early 1980s, a demand for operational firearms support from the department was deemed necessary, owing to the creation of level 2 officers. The role of a level 2 officer was to deploy to pre-planned and response operations that neither involved the taking of hostages nor suspects with exceptional firepower. In 1987, D11 was renamed to PT17, due to it now being a part of Personnel and Training. Officers at that time were issued with Browning self-loading pistols, and Smith & Wesson Model 28 revolvers, along with training on the Heckler & Koch 93. In response to operational demands, the department underwent drastic restructuring in 1991. The roles of both level 1 & 2 officers were merged together to form → Specialist Firearms Officer, which continued to have much of the same role responding to pre-planned firearms operation, kidnaps, and sieges. At the same time a new title was created as Authorised Firearms Officer to crew the newly devised armed response vehicles (ARVs) to meet the increase in armed crime during 1991.[4] Using Rover 800 area cars adapted for specialist duties, ARV officers provided rapid response to spontaneous firearms incidents, such as armed robberies, being the first such organised system the capital had witnessed. Along with the restructuring of officer roles, for the first time the department came under control of the Specialist Operations Directorate, renaming the department to "SO19". Early ARV officers were issued with Smith & Wesson Model 10's, with others being trained in the use of the Heckler & Koch MP5 semi-automatic carbine. Following a further reorganisation in 2005, SO19 become CO19, due to the departments move to the Central Operations Directorate, at the same time the department was renamed from the Force Firearms Unit to Specialist Firearms Command. Whilst the core function of the branch to provide firearms training and support, remains unchanged since its creation, its role continually changes to meet the demands placed on it. The branch today fulfils very different roles to those which its original members carried out 30 years ago. All aspects of armed policing in the UK are covered by guidance issued by the Association of Chief Police Officers in their manual of guidance on the Police use of firearms [5]. This manual provides an overview of the basic principles such as rules of engagement and tactics involved in the use of firearms by police officers in different environments along with details of command structures that are in place in all pre-planned and spontaneous firearms operations.

Specialist Firearms Command

283

Current role
Training
As of 2007, the Command maintains its training role and is responsible for training the MPS's 2,594 AFOs. These include officers from Protection Command, Counter Terrorism Command, Diplomatic Protection Group, and the Aviation Security Operational Command Unit. Along with the Flying Squad (SCD7(5), Specialist and Royalty Protection Command and the Belmarsh High Security Court Team, as well as the armed officers from CO19 itself. Some Territorial Support Group (TSG) officers are also trained AFOs, as the Central London TSG carry out armed anti-terrorist patrols known as Legion Patrols. Authorised Firearms Officers (AFOs), who are known to crew ARVs are invited to attend the Training Centre, after they have undergone the written tests and interviews along with the successful completion of their probationary period, with a further two years in a core policing role. The potential AFOs undergo one week of intensive training on the Glock 17 Pistol, and the Heckler & Koch MP5 Semi-Automatic Carbine. This is followed by a further six weeks of training focused on ARVs, such as driving techniques, high speed pursuit methods and safely executing controlled crashes. AFOs wishing to become → Specialist Firearms Officers (SFOs) are required to attend an eight week training course at the Metropolitan Police Specialist Training Centre. However, the potential recruit is only invited to attend the centre if they have successfully passed written psychological tests, and have been security cleared. Usually, the role of an SFO is to intervene in situations that are beyond the control of AFOs, who crew armed response vehicles. Potential SFOs are extensively trained on the safe use of specialist firearms, method of entry techniques to gain access to premises quickly, abseiling and 'fast rope' skills, scenario training such as being instructed to search a specially adapted training area of an aircraft, extensive use of tear gas and stun grenades, safe handling of rescued hostages and rescue techniques, computer simulated 'war games' of potential threats such as terrorist attacks, and training in the use of protective clothing against chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear attack. Based at the purpose-built Metropolitan Police Specialist Training Centre (MPSTC), CO19 provides initial and continuation training for all firearms officers within the MPS. There are roughly 24 different courses that are provided by CO19 Instructors. Courses are based on the National Firearms Training Curriculum, to cover the variety of roles covered by AFOs in the MPS. The courses ranges from Firepower Demonstrations (to highlight the dangers of firearms to new MPS Recruits) and Initial Firearms Courses, to Firearms Incident Commander training and National Firearms Instructor courses. There were 683 courses run at MPSTC in the 2006-07 financial year.

Specialist Firearms Command

284

Operational firearms support
Armed response vehicles ARVs deployed for the first time in London, during 1991. Following their success, forces outside of the capital later formed them throughout the early to mid 1990s. The concept of an ARV was influenced by West Yorkshire Police's Instant Response Cars, as used in 1976. Early ARVs contained a secure safe between the seats containing a .38 Smith & Wesson Model 10 for each member, with two 9 mm Heckler & Koch MP5 semi-automatic carbines secured in the boot. After ARVs became established, and the practice was accepted for widespread use, the Model 10 revolvers were replaced by more recent self-loading Glock 17s, firing 9 mm rounds.

Officers of CO19 in an armed response vehicle (ARV)

Revolvers and pistols could be removed from the secure safe by ARV members, if an "immediate threat to life" was posed, in the opinion of the ARV member. Authorisation to remove carbines required authorisation from the control room once they had contacted an officer of ACPO rank. If a high ranking officer could not be sought to gain authorisation, in an emergency it could be given by a Chief Inspector. In recent years ARV members have carried their personal pistols on them as a matter of routine, and equipping of carbines rests on the judgement of the individual officer, although the control room must be informed of events. Each armed response vehicle is crewed by three uniformed AFOs. With each one fulfilling a specific role whilst responding to emergency calls believed to involve firearms, the driver is responsible for getting the crew to the scene in the fastest way possible, with regards to public safety. The navigator is responsible for deciding which route the ARV takes, with regards to road diversions and other factors. The observer is responsible for liaising with other services on the scene, and requesting more support if needed. Most ARVs are specially equipped and adapted BMW area cars, identified as an ARV by the circular yellow sticker the front and back windows, along with a star on the roof for helicopter identification. All officers operationally deployed are routinely armed with the 9 mm Glock 17 self-loading pistol, and in some cases the X26 Taser. Despite carrying firearms, officers still carry the standard issue personal protective equipment (PPE) such as the; ASP baton, Hiatts Speedcuffs and CS/PAVA Incapacitant spray. They also have access to 9 mm Heckler & Koch MP5 semi-automatic carbine, and L104A1 Baton gun. All ARV officers are trained to administer Ballistic First Aid and are Emergency Life Saver trained. In many instances, ARV crews can arrive at the scene of shooting before paramedics or ambulances, and are frequently required to provide life saving techniques on shooting victims. The workload of the ARVs has increased dramatically since their inception. In their first year, 1991, they were actively deployed on 132 occasions. In 2006, they deployed 2,232 times in response to 11,725 calls to spontaneous firearms incidents. The average response time of an ARV anywhere in London is just 4 minutes. In the Metropolitan Police Service the radio call sign for ARV's is "Trojan".

Specialist Firearms Command Tactical support teams In 2004, tactical support teams (TSTs) were introduced and provide covert and overt proactive support to other specialist units, such as the Flying Squad or the Specialist Crime Directorate and to Borough Operations. Most of their work is on authorised pre-planned operations and much of it involves supporting surveillance as well as arrest and search operations. The TST role was introduced to help meet the increased demands being placed on the unit and to sit directly in-between the ARV and SFO roles. In the 2006/07 financial year, the TST teams undertook over 280 deployments. Specialist Firearms Officers The CO19 → Specialist Firearms Officers (SFOs) are multi-skilled officers capable of delivering all elements of armed policing, including rapid intervention and hostage rescue. All of the SFOs have served on ARVs prior to applying to become an SFO. The 65 days of intensive initial training includes advanced weapons handling training on a wider range of weaponry, including the Heckler & Koch G36 and G3, abseiling techniques, maritime operations training, dynamic entry techniques and in the use of distraction devices. They also undergo training to conduct operations in CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear) environments and to provide a response to terrorist attacks in London as part of the MPS's Operation Kratos. The SFO teams focus almost entirely on supporting authorised firearms operations and providing a response to developed sieges and other operations of a highly specialised nature. Their level of training, exposure and experience in dealing with such a wide range of armed incidents lead many to consider the CO19 SFOs to be one of Europe's leading specialist armed police support units. The SFO teams undertook 407 deployments in the 2006/07 financial year.

285

CO19 officers cordoning an area of Mayfair

In popular culture
• As SO19, and now referred to as CO19, the unit often features in The Bill. • CO19 (formerly SO19) was heavily used in the PlayStation 2 video game CO19 officers on training exercise series The Getaway as backup for DC Frank Carter of the Flying Squad and Sgt Ben Mitchell of CO19, the operatives in the first game wore baseball caps, but the designers later reworked the model, with their headgear changed into PASGT helmets. • In the TV version of Hellsing, Seras Victoria was a former member of SO19 before she became a vampire and joined the Hellsing organisation. • In 2007 film Hot Fuzz, Nicholas Angel is described as a former member of SO19, and is shown in flashback armed with a G36 and full assault gear shooting an offender holding an AK-47. • The novel Soft Target by Stephen Leather, The main character infiltrates a SO19 unit. • The documentary In The Line Of Fire was focused on CO19 officers and debuted in February 2009.

Specialist Firearms Command • As SO19 (and later CO19), the unit is mentioned frequently in the espionage drama Spooks.

286

See also
• Police use of firearms in the United Kingdom

CO19 officers on house search training exercise

• Counter-terrorism

External links
• CO19 Homepage [17]

References
[1] " CO19 History (http:/ / www. met. police. uk/ co19/ history. htm)". Metropolitan Police Service. . Retrieved 2009-02-13. [2] " Main CO19 Page (http:/ / www. met. police. uk/ co19/ )". Metropolitan Police Service. . Retrieved 2009-02-13. [3] " Unofficial London Metropolitan Police Firearms Unit (http:/ / www. specialoperations. com/ Foreign/ United_Kingdom/ Firearms_Unit. htm)". Special Operations. . Retrieved 2009-02-13. [4] " Police Firepower (http:/ / www. global-defence. com/ 2003/ police_03. htm)". . Retrieved 2009-02-13. [5] http:/ / www. acpo. police. uk/ asp/ policies/ Data/ firearms. pdf

287

United States of America
Hostage Rescue Team (FBI)
FBI Hostage Rescue Team

Federal Bureau of Investigation Hostage Rescue Team Active Country Type Role Part of Motto 1983–Present United States of America Special Operations and → Tactical Law Enforcement Counter-terrorism and Hostage Rescue FBI, CIRG Servare Vitas (To Save Lives) Commanders Current Charles Pierce commander

The Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) is the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation's elite counter-terrorism tactical team.[1] The HRT is trained to rescue U.S. citizens or others who are held by a hostile force, either terrorist or criminal.[1] The Hostage Rescue Team was founded in 1982 by Danny Coulson and completed its final certification exercise in October 1983. The HRT's purpose was, and still is, to serve as a domestic counter-terrorism unit, offering a tactical resolution option in hostage and high-risk law enforcement situations. It originally comprised 50 operators; however, this number has increased since to well over 90 full-time operators, but easily fewer than 500. The HRT commonly functions as a national → SWAT team in highly sensitive or dangerous situations. Today it is part of the Tactical Support Branch of the FBI's Critical Incident Response Group (CIRG) and is based at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia.[2]

History
The idea for the HRT was originally conceived during the late 1970s but came to life when then FBI director William H. Webster witnessed a demonstration by the US Army Delta Force. When Webster reviewed the equipment used by the Delta Force and noticed there were no handcuffs, he inquired about it. An operator grimly replied, "We put two rounds in their forehead, the dead don't need handcuffs."[3] The idea of the HRT started out as an enhanced → SWAT and counter-terror team. The team would be capable of handling extraordinary hostage situations, large-scale counter-terrorist operations, situations involving nuclear or biological agents, or operations that local law enforcement or the regional FBI field office was not trained or equipped to handle. Final approval for

Hostage Rescue Team (FBI) the HRT was given in early 1982, and formal planning began in March 1982. The initial HRT selection course was held in June 1982 and consisted of three groups of thirty candidates each. Most candidates were experienced SWAT team members. Of this group, fifty candidates were selected to continue on to more advanced training. Upon completing its initial selection, the team began acquiring the equipment it believed it would need and upgrading training facilities at Quantico. One of its very first projects was the construction of a "shoot house". The building, which was built out of old tires, would allow the team to conduct live-fire training exercises to enhance their shooting skills. The final touches were added to their facilities just before Thanksgiving 1982, and, after a short holiday break, the team began its initial training program. After receiving tactical SWAT instruction, each individual was given an expertise to research, such as explosives and breaching tactics. Each person also served as a liaison to one of the existing elite counter-terrorism teams from around the world. In addition, nearly everyone was involved with the Delta Force. As part of their liaison duties, the men attended training and exercises held by their assigned counter-terrorism unit and shared experiences with the team. To bring all the newly acquired skills together, the team spent roughly the entire month of January 1983 honing their shooting and tactical skills at Quantico. Then, the team traveled to Fort Bragg, North Carolina, in February for a month of training with the US Army's Delta Force. The Delta Force provided the team with a wide-ranging block of instruction that covered a number of topics that would be useful during their future operations. The team returned to Quantico to further enhance their new abilities and maintain the skills they had acquired at Fort Bragg. The Hostage Rescue Team became operational in August.[4] The team's final certification exercise, codenamed Operation Equus Red, was held in October 1983 at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico. During the exercise, the HRT, a local → SWAT team, and a United States Department of Energy Nuclear Emergency Search Team (NEST) were tasked with assaulting a terrorist stronghold. The "terrorist" group was also believed to be in possession of a simulated nuclear device, which was at a separate location and had to be recovered or neutralized. After the NEST aircraft confirmed the location of the device, HRT operators assaulted the terrorist safe house, secured the device, and managed to "kill" the terrorist involved in approximately 30 seconds. The FBI's senior leadership viewed the exercise as a complete success and granted final approval for the team to become fully operational.[4] Upon completing its certification exercise, the team began to expand its capabilities by sending small teams of operators out for more specialized training courses. Approximately a dozen operators visited Naval Amphibious Base Coronado to receive combat diver, maritime operations, and tactics (such as Visit, Board, Search, and Seizure) training from the United States Navy SEALs. Other team members conducted helicopter operations and aerial insertion training with the US Army's Task Force 160. The United States Marine Corps provided the team with training in small unit tactics, night operations, and part of the HRT's sniper program training. Every operator also received 80 hours of medical training. The HRT even went to Camp Peary for counter-terrorism training and "smash and bang" courses in skills such as breaching barricades, running roadblocks, and defensive driving.[4] Over time, HRT operators went off to US military, local and federal tactical teams, international, and private courses to learn more about air assault tactics, rappelling, hand-to-hand combat, chemical agents, terrorist psychology, surveillance methods, sniping/counter-sniping, communications and more. Whatever tactics they learned from their training they shared with the team. Eventually, for CQB training, the HRT decided to make things more realistic on advice from SEAL Team Six (later known as United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group or DEVGRU) commander Richard Marcinko, and the HRT introduced blood bags and wax bullets. The wax bullets were used for team-versus-team drills.[3] The HRT became part of the Critical Incident Response Group upon its formation in 1994 because of the need to consolidate the assets necessary to respond to a critical incident in one group.

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Capabilities
The HRT's equipment and tactics are more advanced than any of the FBI's 56 field office SWAT teams or the 14 "enhanced" SWAT teams. The HRT's capabilities are more advanced because its operators (assault and sniper teams) serve full time and train daily. HRT operators are assigned to one of three teams, one of which is a designated maritime team. One of the chief capabilities that easily distinguish the HRT from the FBI's SWAT teams is its ability to fast-rope, a technique where the assault team rapidly descends a rope from the side of a helicopter. The HRT also possess the ability "to deploy within four hours, with part or all of its personnel and resources, to any location within the United States or its territories",[4] advanced tactics, night and low-light operation skills, the ability to operate in chemical, extreme cold, or rural environments, and maritime operation skills,[5] unlike the FBI Field Office SWAT teams.

Maritime operations
The HRT as a whole possesses enhanced capabilities in the maritime domain, including advanced “breaching” capabilities (the ability to circumvent locked doors aboard a ship), ship-boarding capabilities, and the ability to board and operate on oil platforms. The HRT has three boats outfitted for maritime assaults, most of which have been upgraded since 2004.[1] The HRT also has a maritime team, which has additional maritime capabilities including subsurface diving, closed-circuit diving (scuba gear that does not emit bubbles), and combat swimming. All operators on the maritime team are military trained in closed-circuit diving and combat swimming. In addition, the maritime team assault element has an operator who is qualified to pilot and operate a freighter.[1]

Aviation capabilities
The HRT operates a Tactical Aviation Unit, which is staffed by FBI special agents. The Tactical Helicopter Unit, a subunit of the aviation unit, contains a variety of helicopters specially modified for the HRT's use. These helicopters include eight military converted UH-60 Black Hawk tactical transport helicopters and several McDonnell Douglas 530 Little Bird light helicopters. Unlike the military, whose aircraft are not always in the same location as the tactical operators, the HRT’s Tactical Helicopter Unit is literally right out the front door on a low hilltop. Also, the HRT operates two C-5 Galaxy cargo planes for transportation purposes. All the HRT's Tactical Aviators fly daily.[6] [7]

Roles
The two chief roles of the HRT are: • Hostage rescue • Domestic and foreign counter-terrorism Secondary roles of the HRT are: • • • • • • Apprehending barricaded subjects Helicopter operations High-risk raids, searches, arrests, and warrants Mobile assaults Manhunt and rural operations Force protection for FBI personnel overseas

To a lesser extent the HRT may also deploy teams or individual operators to act as snipers or to provide protective service details to certain high-profile federal witnesses or dignitaries. Also, the teams of the HRT cycle out and provide support to missions overseas, such as Iraq and Afghanistan, supporting Joint Terrorism Task Forces and performing typical law enforcement activities such as making arrests, processing scenes for evidence recovery, and testifying in court, at home and abroad.[6]

Hostage Rescue Team (FBI) The HRT has performed traditional law enforcement roles during hurricane relief operations, tactical surveys, and, on occasion, pre-positions in support of special events such as the Olympic Games, presidential inaugurations, and political conventions.[8]

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Selection and training
Prospective HRT operators are selected based upon their background and experience, as well as their demonstrated performance during the HRT selection course, which is held once a year. The rigorous two-week selection process includes long-distance runs, forced marches, obstacle courses, and other tests of physical and mental stamina. Throughout the entire selection process, candidates are evaluated on their ability to think under pressure and to perform while physically exhausted.[2] After a four-month initial training period known as "New Operator Training School" or "NOTS", they are headquartered at the FBI Academy, Quantico. Experienced HRT operators assigned to observer/sniper teams are sent to the Marine Corps Scout Sniper Basic Course, and, after successfully completing the course, they receive further instruction by HRT snipers.[5] When not operationally deployed, HRT conducts full-time training for its members at various sites across the country. Two to three hours each day are set side for physical training, a defensive tactics session, and combatives training.[5] One day a week is devoted to maintaining perishable skills, such as fast roping, breaching, photography, or specialized skills such as mobile assaults, manhunt and rural operations, maritime operations, helicopter operations, weapons of mass destruction training (which is provided by the United States Department of Energy), and cold weather operations. Three days are spent honing sniping or CQB skills on the various training ranges available to the team. Every other week, there is one day allotted for gear maintenance, and discretionary time to be used by team leaders is built into the schedule. During a routine week of training, it is not unusual for HRT operators to fire 1,000 rounds of ammunition to keep their shooting skills honed. The HRT also participates in at least one major combined exercise every 12 to 18 months that involves a variety of governmental entities, such as the FBI and the departments of Defense, State, Energy, and Homeland Security. The three teams rotate through three 120-day cycles: training, operations, and support.[6] During the training cycle, the team refreshes its skills and takes part in exercises, attends other courses, or trains with foreign and domestic units. During the operations cycle, the team is available for deployment (domestic or foreign). During the support cycle, the team works on special projects, maintains the HRT's equipment, and conducts research.[1] The HRT is known to conduct joint training exercises and participate in exchange programs with US military units such as the US Army's Combat Applications Group (otherwise known as 1st SFOD-D Delta Force) or the U.S. Navy's DEVGRU. Also the HRT routinely trains with other federal tactical teams such as the United States Border Patrol's BORTAC unit or the United States Capitol Police's CERT. Occasionally, the HRT trains with France's GIGN, Britain's SAS, Australian SAS, Germany's → GSG 9, and other international units.[4] In addition to the HRT's own facilities, the HRT routinely uses private and 1st SFOD-D Delta Force shoot houses and ranges. The HRT has also been known to train at Camp Peary and Harvey Point.[9]

Operations
Since its inception, the HRT, or components of the team, has been involved in many of the FBI's most high-profile cases, executing numerous operations involving domestic militant groups, terrorists, and violent criminals. The first test of the team's capabilities came in the summer of 1984, when the team deployed to Los Angeles as part of the security buildup prior to the 1984 Summer Olympic Games. Some cases have brought the HRT a lot of unwanted, and possibility unwarranted, attention. The HRT came under increased public and Congressional scrutiny, along with federal law enforcement in general, due to what some saw as heavy-handed tactics used at Waco and Ruby Ridge. On the other hand, the HRT has been involved in over 200 successful missions, both in the US and abroad. Many of these low-key operations have received little or no attention form the world press. Some higher-profile cases include

Hostage Rescue Team (FBI) the Waco Siege, Ruby Ridge, the capture of the suspected masterminds of the 1998 bombings of the US embassies in Africa, and the hostage rescue operations of prison guards at Talladega, Alabama, and St. Martinville, Louisiana. All of these incidents led to changes in how and when the HRT is used by the FBI. The HRT arrived in New York in anticipation of the offensive to thwart a Denver-based terror cell with ties to Al-Qaeda on 17 September 2009. [10]

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Weapons
When the team was founded, HRT operators used the 9mm FN-Browning Hi-Power Mk 2 pistol, which was later supplemented by the 9mm SIG P226 pistol. In 1995, 250 .45 ACP Les Baer SRP Bureau pistols, built on a high-capacity Para-Ordnance frame, were acquired for use. After an official FBI "request for proposal" in 1997 the HRT demanded their duty pistol meet some grueling standards. Eight companies responded: Colt's Manufacturing Company, Kimber Of America, Springfield Armory, Inc., Wilson's Gun Shop, Les Baer Custom, Pro Gun, Cylinder & Slide Shop and C-More Systems. Each company submitted five pistols for testing. While all of the FBI's requirements were demanding, the most rigorous was accuracy. Chosen at random, two of the five guns had to shoot no more than 1.5 in (3.8 cm) at 25 yd (23 m) for three 10-shot groups from a Ransom Rest. Then the guns would be shot for 20,000 rounds in an endurance test, after which a second accuracy test would be conducted with no more than 15 percent degradation in accuracy being acceptable. The only pistol to meet the FBI's standards was Springfield Armory's 1911 pistol. Springfield's FBI contract pistol, known as "The Professional Model" is available to civilians at a cost close to $2595.00. As a form of quality control, the gunsmith building the pistol does not know if the firearm is going to be issued to an FBI agent or a private citizen.[4] HRT armories are also stocked with specially modified Heckler & Koch MP5 series submachine guns (primarily the MP5/10A3 10mm and MP5SD6 9mm models) that have been outfitted with laser aiming devices, SureFire tactical lights, and forward pistol grips. Several models have either an Aimpoint red dot scope or a holographic sight attached.[4] The rifles in use by the team are the Colt M-16A2, Colt CAR-15A2 Model 777, M-4/M-4A1 5.56mm carbines, M-14 7.62mm, and H&K HK-33E 5.56mm assault rifles. The sniper rifles are Remington M-40A1 .308 sniper rifles customized to HRT standards and generally outfitted with Unertl scopes. They also have access to Barrett M-82A1 .50 caliber anti-materiel rifles and 7.62×51mm Heckler & Koch PSG1 sniper rifles.[4] [5] The team also uses modified Remington 870 12-gauge shotguns.[5] Less-than-lethal munitions include single and multi-shot 37mm gas launchers, M-79 40mm grenade launchers, Tasers, and flashbang diversionary/distraction devices.[5] Additionally, the HRT has access to a wide variety of other weapons, such as the FN P90, Heckler & Koch UMP (generally .45 caliber), or the HK53, if the mission dictates so. In situations where heavy fire support is needed, the team has several M249 SAW, M-60, and M240 machine guns at its disposal.[4] [5]

Casualties
The HRT has suffered two known casualties, both training related. The first was James K. Mcallister[11] who died during a fast rope exercise in 1986. The second known causality was Gregory J. Rahoi, who died in a live fire exercise in 2006.[12] In May 2005, an FBI HRT McDonnell Douglas 530 "Little Bird" conducting a fast rope exercise crashed. Crewmembers received injuries, however none were life-threatening.[13]

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Notable operators
• Danny Coulson — FBI HRT Founder and former Commander. Later, Coulson was the deputy assistant director of the FBI. Prior to creating the HRT, Coulson served on one of the FBI’s SWAT teams, more specifically a sniper team, and he later commanded one of the most active SWAT teams in the FBI. As of July 2009, Danny Coulson is a successful security consultant, author, and guest speaker. • Lon Horiuchi — Former FBI HRT operator and sniper who was charged with manslaughter following the shootings during the Ruby Ridge standoff. The charge was dismissed and Horiuchi was later deployed during the Waco Siege. • Christopher Whitcomb — Former FBI HRT operator and sniper. Whitcomb spent 15 years with the FBI and was involved with the Waco Siege, Los Angeles riots of 1992, and Ruby Ridge. As of July 2009, Whitcomb is an American author and appeared as an "expert" on the NBC game show Identity. • James K. Mcallister — The first of the HRT's two known casualties. • Gregory J. Rahoi — The second casualty of the HRT. Rahoi was accidentally shot and fatally wounded at Fort A.P. Hill in Caroline County, Virginia, during a live-fire tactical training exercise designed to prepare him for his deployment to Iraq. Rahoi had been assigned to the HRT for six years during which he served three tours in Iraq. He worked as a firefighter, paramedic, police officer, and lawyer in Wisconsin prior to joining the FBI. He was posthumously awarded the FBI Medal of Valor for acts of heroism during his final Iraq tour, and his family was presented with the FBI Memorial Star.[14] • Thomas R. Norris — Original member of the HRT as an assault team leader. Former US Navy SEAL and a Medal of Honor recipient.

See also
• • • • • • FBI Special Weapons and Tactics Teams Counter-terrorism Critical Incident Response Group → SWAT 1st SFOD-D (Delta Force) Manhunt

Further reading
• Christopher Whitcomb, Cold Zero: Inside the FBI Hostage Rescue Team (2001) ISBN 0-316-60103-9 • Danny Coulson, No Heroes: Inside the FBI's Secret Counter-Terror Force (1999) ISBN 0-671-02061-7 • Thomas H. Ackerman, FBI Careers: The Ultimate Guide To Landing A Job As One Of America's Finest (2004) ISBN 1-56370-890-6

External links
• Official FBI Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) page [15] • SpecWarNet FBI HRT information page. [16]

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References

[1] The Federal Bureau of Investigation's Efforts to Protect the Nation's Seaports (http:/ / www. usdoj. gov/ oig/ reports/ FBI/ a0626/ findings2. htm) [2] Federal Bureau of Investigation (http:/ / www. fbijobs. gov/ 116. asp) [3] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=CtPxOn7FLR0C& pg=PA317& lpg=PA317& dq=hrt+ sniper+ school& source=bl& ots=EUm3u6HsP9& sig=TZnMjOopVri59Um1NKFTZgAIL38& hl=en& ei=FnkYSqG-IZS8M6um3ZEP& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=7#PPA302,M1 [4] TacLink - FBI HRT (http:/ / www. specwarnet. net/ taclink/ Federal/ FBI_HRT. htm) [5] (http:/ / www. swatdigest. com/ archives/ swmag_apr_hrtpart2. html) [6] [http://74.125.113.132/search?q=cache:O4U-BTp3PrkJ:www.fbijobs.gov/downloads/TSJQuietProfessionFinal.pdf+fbi+hrt+arsenal&cd=7&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=u [7] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Hk85OiXX_T0C& printsec=frontcover& dq=cold+ zero& client=firefox-a [8] Federal Bureau of Investigation - Investigative Programs - Critical Incident Response Group (http:/ / www. fbi. gov/ hq/ isd/ cirg/ tact. htm) [9] Bookreporter.com - Author Profile: Christopher Whitcomb (http:/ / www. bookreporter. com/ authors/ au-whitcomb-christopher. asp) [10] http:/ / www. nydailynews. com/ news/ ny_crime/ 2009/ 09/ 16/ 2009-09-16_fbi_unit_set_for_more_antiterror_raids_in_queens_sources_fears_of_madridstyle_su. html [11] Federal Bureau of Investigation - FBI History - Hall of Honor for FBI Agents killed in the line of duty (http:/ / www. fbi. gov/ libref/ hallhonor/ mcallister. htm) [12] FBI Agents Association for active duty FBI agents and former agents (http:/ / www. fbiaa. org/ memorial_duty. htm) [13] People's Daily Online - FBI helicopter crashes (http:/ / english. peopledaily. com. cn/ 200505/ 01/ eng20050501_183445. html) [14] http:/ / www. jsonline. com/ news/ 29219224. html [15] http:/ / www. fbijobs. gov/ 116. asp [16] http:/ / www. specwarnet. net/ taclink/ Federal/ FBI_HRT. htm

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
Abbreviation ATF

ATF Seal

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives

294

Badge of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives.

Agency overview Formed Preceding agency Employees Annual budget Legal personality July 1, 1972
[1]

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms 4,559 (2006) 1 billion USD Governmental: Government agency Jurisdictional structure

Federal agency General nature

United States
• •

Federal law enforcement Civilian agency Operational structure

Headquarters

Washington, D.C. Agency executives •

Kenneth E. Melson, Acting Director William J. Hoover, Acting Deputy Director

Parent agency

Department of Justice Website
http:/ / www. atf. gov

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U.S. Firearms Legal Topics

Assault weapons ban ATF (law enforcement) Brady Violence Prevention Act Federal Firearms License Firearm case law Firearm Owners Protection Act Gun Control Act of 1968 Gun laws in the U.S. — by state Gun laws in the U.S. — federal Gun politics in the U.S. National Firearms Act Second Amendment Straw purchase Sullivan Act (New York) Violent Crime Control Act

The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (abbreviated ATF) is a specialized federal law enforcement agency and regulatory organization within the United States Department of Justice.[2] Its responsibilities include the investigation and prevention of federal offenses involving the unlawful use, manufacture, and possession of firearms and explosives, acts of arson and bombings, and illegal trafficking of alcohol and tobacco products. The ATF also regulates via licensing the sale, possession, and transportation of firearms, ammunition, and explosives in interstate commerce. Many of ATF's activities are carried out in conjunction with task forces made up of state and local law enforcement officers, such as Project Safe Neighborhoods. ATF operates a unique fire research laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland, where full-scale mock-ups of criminal arsons can be reconstructed. The agency is led by Kenneth E. Melson [3], Acting Director[4] and William J. Hoover, Acting Deputy Director.[5] ATF has nearly 5,000 employees and an annual budget of $1 billion.[4]

Organizational history
The ATF was formerly part of the United States Department of the Treasury, having been formed in 1886 as the "Revenue Laboratory" within the Treasury Department's Bureau of Internal Revenue. The history of ATF can be subsequently traced to the time of the revenuers or "revenoors"[6] and the Bureau of Prohibition, which was formed as a unit of the Bureau of Internal Revenue in 1920, was made an independent agency within the Treasury Department in 1927, was transferred to the Justice Department in 1930, and became, briefly, a division of the FBI in 1933. When the Volstead Act was repealed in December 1933, the Unit was transferred from the Department of Justice back to the Department of the Treasury where it became the Alcohol Tax Unit of the Bureau of Internal Revenue. Special Agent Eliot Ness and several members of "Untouchables", who had worked for the Prohibition Bureau while the Volstead Act was still in force, were transferred to the ATU. In 1942, responsibility for enforcing federal

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives firearms laws was given to the ATU. In the early 1950s, the Bureau of Internal Revenue was renamed "Internal Revenue Service" (IRS),[7] and the ATU was given the additional responsibility of enforcing federal tobacco tax laws. At this time, the name of the ATU was changed to the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax Division (ATTD). In 1968, with the passage of the Gun Control Act, the agency changed its name again, this time to the Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Division of the IRS and first began to be referred to by the initials "ATF." In 1972, President Richard Nixon signed an Executive Order creating a separate Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms within the Treasury Department. Rex D. Davis oversaw the transition, becoming the bureau's first director, having headed the division since 1970. During his tenure, Davis shepherded the organization into an agency targeting political terrorists and organized crime.[8] However, taxation and other alcohol issues were not held to high importance standards during that time. In the wake of the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, President George W. Bush signed into law the Homeland Security Act of 2002. In addition to creating of the Department of Homeland Security, the law shifted ATF from the Department of the Treasury to the Department of Justice. The agency's name was changed to Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. However, the agency still was referred to as the "ATF" for all purposes. Additionally, the task of collection of federal tax revenue derived from the production of tobacco and alcohol products and the regulatory function related to protecting the public in issues related to the production of alcohol, previously handled by the Bureau of Internal Revenue as well as by ATF, was transferred to the newly established Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB), which remained within the Treasury Department. These changes took effect January 24, 2003.

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Personnel
ATF, as a bureau, consists of several different groups that each have their own respective role, commanded by a director. Special Agents are empowered to conduct criminal investigations, defend the United States against international and domestic terrorism, and work with state and local police officers to reduce violent crime on a national level. ATF Special Agents have some of the broadest authority of any federal agency; 18 U.S.C. § 3051 [9] empowers them to enforce any statute in the United States Code. Specifically, ATF special agents have lead investigative authority on any federal crime committed with a firearm or explosive, as well as investigative authority over regulatory referrals and Cigarette smuggling. ATF special agents also often ATF Investigators working at a fire scene. enforce violations of the Uniformed Controlled Substances Act, and have the statutory authority to conduct narcotics cases independently of the Drug Enforcement Administration or any other agency. ATF Special Agents consistently rank at the top or near the top of all federal agencies in cases referred for prosecution, arrests made, and average time per defendant on an annual basis.[10] Special Agents currently comprise around 2,400 of the Agency's approximately 5,000 personnel. ATF Inspectors and Investigators are charged with regulating the gun and explosive industry. These men and women are not armed law enforcement officers but have administrative authority to search and conduct inspections, as well as to recommend revocation and/or non-renewal of Federal Firearms Licenses to licensees who are in violation of

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Federal firearms laws and regulations. The remainder of the Bureau is personnel in various staff roles from office administrative assistants to intelligence analysts and electronic specialists. Additionally, ATF relies heavily on state and local task force officers to supplement the Special Agents and who are not officially part of the ATF roster.

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Hiring and training
ATF Special Agent hiring is fiercely competitive, comparable to the selection process of other Special Agent positions in sister agencies. Typically far less than 5% of qualified applicants- those possessing at minimum a four year bachelor degree and competitive work experience (which is usually four or more years at a local or state police department) are eventually hired. ATF's hiring process has a nondisclosure agreement so the specific details of the process are not completely revealed, however applicants must pass a rigorous background check in order to achieve, at minimum, a top secret clearance. In addition to the background check agents must pass written tests, multiple physical fitness tests, interviews and medical exams to even be considered to be selected for training. ATF Special Agents must complete a 27 week training program at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in Glynco, Georgia. It is one of the longest training programs in the United States, far longer than any other training program of Justice Department Special Agents (FBI, DEA, → USMS). This training program currently consists of a one week pre-Basic, the twelve week basic Criminal Investigator Training Program, and a fourteen week Special Agent Basic Training Course. Only then are Special Agents released to a field office to begin a three year probationary tour.

Regulation of firearms
ATF is responsible for regulating firearm commerce in the United States. The Bureau issues Federal Firearms Licenses (FFL) to sellers, and conducts firearms licensee inspections. The Bureau is also involved in programs aimed at reducing gun violence in the United States, by targeting and arresting, violent offenders who unlawfully possess firearms. ATF was also involved with the Youth Crime Gun Interdiction Initiative, which expanded tracing of firearms recovered by law enforcement, and the ongoing Comprehensive Crime Gun Tracing Initiative.[11] ATF also provides support to state and local investigators, through the National Integrated Ballistic Information Network (NIBIN) program.

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Regulation of explosives
With the passage of the Organized Crime Control Act (OCCA) in 1970, ATF took over the regulation of explosives in the United States, as well as prosecution of persons engaged in criminal acts involving explosives. One of the most notable investigations successfully conducted by ATF agents was the tracing of the car used in the World Trade Center 1993 bombings, which led to the arrest of persons involved in the conspiracy.

Criticism
ATF during the 1990s
Two incidents in the early 1990s involved both the ATF and Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) and brought criticism to both ATF and FBI. The Ruby Ridge Siege began in June 1990 when ATF filed gun charges against Randy Weaver after he refused an offer to become an informant. When Weaver missed a February 20, 1991 court date, the US Marshal Service was charged with bringing Weaver ATF headquarters in Washington, D.C. in. Weaver remained with his family in their mountain top cabin. On August 21, 1992 a USMS surveillance team was involved in a shootout that left US Marshal Bill Degan, Samuel Weaver (14), and his pet dog dead. FBI HRT laid siege to the cabin; the next day, Lon Horiuchi, a HRT sniper opened fire on the Weavers, wounding Weaver and a family friend and killing his wife, Vicki, and infant daughter. A subsequent Department of Justice review and a Congressional hearing raised several questions about the actions of ATF, USMS, USAO and FBI HRT and the mishandling of intelligence at the USMS and FBI headquarters.[12] The Ruby Ridge incident has become a lightning rod for legal activists within the gun rights community. The second incident was the Waco Siege of the Branch Davidian religious sect near Waco, Texas on February 28, 1993 when ATF agents attempted to execute a federal search warrant on the sect's compound, known as Mt. Carmel. The Branch Davidians were alerted to the upcoming warrant execution but ATF raid leaders pressed on, despite knowing the advantage of surprise was lost. The resulting exchange of gunfire left six Davidians and four ATF agents dead. FBI HRT took over the scene and a 51-day stand-off ensued, ending on April 19, 1993, after the HRT introduced tear gas into the main building. The followup investigation revealed the bodies of seventy-six people including twenty children inside the compound. Although a grand jury found that the deaths were suicides or otherwise caused by people inside the building, accusations of excessive force by law enforcement persist.[13]

Directors
A list of recent ATF directors:[14] • • • • • • • • 1970–1978 Rex D. Davis (b. 1924 - d. 2008)[8] 1979–1982 G.R. Dickerson 1982–1993 Stephen Higgins (b. 1938) 1993–1999 John Magaw (b. 1935) 1999–2004 Bradley A. Buckles (b. 1949) 2004–Edgar A. Domenech (1st time - acting) 2004–2006 Carl Truscott (b. 1957) 2006 Edgar A. Domenech (2nd time - acting)

• 2006–2009 Michael Sullivan (acting) • 2009 Ronald "Ronnie" A. Carter (acting)

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives • 2009–present Kenneth E. Melson (acting)

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See also
• • • • • • • Drug Enforcement Administration Federal Bureau of Investigation Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Jay Dobyns List of United States federal law enforcement agencies → United States Marshals Service → DSS - Diplomatic Security Service, U.S. Department of State

References
[1] " History of ATF (http:/ / www. atf. gov/ about/ atfhistory. htm)". Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. 2009. . Retrieved 2009-05-02. [2] ATF Online - Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (http:/ / www. atf. gov/ about/ mission. htm) [3] http:/ / www. law. gwu. edu/ faculty/ profile. aspx?id=3241 [4] Acting Director Kenneth E. Melson - Bio (http:/ / www. atf. gov/ press/ 2009press/ 040809doj_ag-names-acting_director. htm) [5] Deputy Director (http:/ / www. atf. gov/ about/ executive_staff/ depdirectorbio. htm) [6] ATF Online - Press Release - 30th Anniversary of ATF (http:/ / www. atf. gov/ about/ atf30anniv. htm) [7] As early as the year 1918, however, the Bureau of Internal Revenue had begun using the name "Internal Revenue Service" on at least one tax form. See Form 1040, Individual Income Tax Return for year 1918, as republished in historical documents section of Publication 1796 (Rev. Feb. 2007), Internal Revenue Service, U.S. Department of the Treasury. Form 1040s for years 1918, 1919, and 1920 bore the name "Internal Revenue Service". For the tax years 1921 through 1928 the name was dropped, then was re-added for the 1929 tax year. [8] Holley, Joe (January 11, 2008). " Rex Davis, 83; ATF Ex-Chief, Moonshiners' Foe (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2008/ 01/ 10/ AR2008011003831. html)". Washington Post: p. B07. . Retrieved 2009-05-04. [9] http:/ / www. law. cornell. edu/ uscode/ 18/ 3051. html [10] " Prison sentences which initially rose have now fallen (http:/ / trac. syr. edu/ tracatf/ trends/ v04/ agenmedtimeG. html)". Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse. Syracuse University. . Retrieved 2009-05-18. [11] " ATF Snapshot (2006) (http:/ / www. atf. gov/ about/ snap2006. htm)". Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. . [12] " D.O.J. Office of Professional Responsibility Ruby Ridge Task Force Report (http:/ / www. justice. gov/ opr/ readingroom/ rubyreportcover_39. pdf)". U.S. Department of Justice. June 10, 1994. . Retrieved 2009-04-30. [13] David Thibodeau. The Truth About Waco (http:/ / www. salon. com/ news/ feature/ 1999/ 09/ 09/ waco/ ). Salon.com [14] " United States Government (http:/ / www. worldstatesmen. org/ USA_govt. html#atf)". World Statesmen.org. Ben Cahoon. . Retrieved 2009-04-30.

• Moore, Jim (2001) [1997]. Very special agents: the inside story of America's most controversial law enforcement agency--the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (http://books.google.com/ books?id=b-UVWCzpD5YC&pg=PA306&lpg=PA306&dq=("John+Magaw"++OR+"John+W.+Magaw"+ OR+"J+W+Magaw"+OR+"Magaw,+John")+1935&source=bl&ots=aMUMhJ1X3a& sig=458yNpr9pbNmORjJ7R4ruagyveE&hl=en&ei=SFH7Sd2gN5LyMtX5oLUE&sa=X&oi=book_result& ct=result&resnum=4) (reprint, illustrated ed.). University of Illinois Press. ISBN 9780252070259 pages=306–307. Retrieved 2009-05-01.

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External links
• Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives website (http://www.atf.gov/) • ATF BADGE (http://www.insigniaspoliciales.com/index.php?main_page=product_info&products_id=1225/ ) • ATF Regulations (http://www.atf.gov/regulations/index.htm) (Search ATF Regulations) (http://www. access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/cfrassemble.cgi?title=200327) • Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, And Explosives Bureau Meeting Notices and Rule Changes (http:// thefederalregister.com/b.p/agency/Alcohol,_Tobacco,_Firearms,_and_Explosives_Bureau/) from The Federal Register RSS Feed (http://thefederalregister.com/rss/agency/ Alcohol,_Tobacco,_Firearms,_and_Explosives_Bureau/) • U.S. Department of State, Diplomatic Security Service (http://www.state.gov/m/ds/) (DSS) • Proposed and finalized federal regulations from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (http:/ /openregs.com/agencies/view/132/bureau_of_alcohol_tobacco_firearms_and_explosives)

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Diplomatic Security Service
Diplomatic Security Service
Abbreviation DSS

Seal of the Diplomatic Security Service

Special Agent Badge

Motto

Protecting Americans Around the World Agency overview

Formed Preceding agency Legal personality

1985 -Bureau of Secret Intelligence (1916) -Office of Security (SY) Governmental: Government agency Jurisdictional structure

Federal agency General nature Specialist jurisdiction

United States
• •

Federal law enforcement Civilian agency

Protection of internationally protected persons, other very important persons, and-or of state property of significance. Operational structure

Headquarters

Washington, D.C.

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1500 Jeffrey Culver, Director Bureau of Diplomatic Security 8 15 Facilities

Agents Agency executive Parent agency Field Offices Resident Agencies

Overseas Offices

195 Website
http:/ / www. state. gov/ m/ ds/

Footnotes Visa fraud, Passport fraud, Protection of the Secretary of State, visiting foreign dignitaries, U.S. Ambassadors overseas and U.S. embassies and consulates

The U.S. Diplomatic Security Service (DSS) is the federal law enforcement arm of the United States Department of State. The majority of its Special Agents are members of the Foreign Service and federal law enforcement agents at the same time, making them unique. The Bureau of Diplomatic Security (DS) is the parent organization of the Diplomatic Security Service. Both terms, DSS or DS, are used interchangeably within the State Department and other agencies to refer to the DSS. The DSS was structured as a federal law enforcement agency, primarily made up of U.S. Federal Agents mandated to serve overseas and domestically. Diplomatic Security Service is the most widely represented law enforcement organization in the world.

Overview
As federal agents, all DSS Special Agents have the power to arrest, carry firearms, and serve arrest warrants and other court processes. DSS Special Agents protect the U.S. Secretary of State and foreign dignitaries. The State Department's web site says that "The Bureau of Diplomatic Security (DS) is the security and law enforcement arm of the U.S. Department of State. DS is a world leader in international investigations, threat analysis, cyber security, counterterrorism, security technology, and protection of people, property, and information.".[1] When assigned to domestic field offices, DSS Special Agents are responsible for conducting investigations into passport and visa fraud as well as providing protection for the United States Secretary of State and others. Overseas, DSS Special Agents are called Regional Security Officers (RSOs), and are charged with the security and law enforcement duties at U.S. missions, embassies, and consular posts. The Diplomatic Security Service is the lead U.S. investigatory agency in cases of international terrorism, although this function may be detailed to the FBI. There are approximately 1,500 DS Special Agents. Special Agents are sometimes referred to as "DS Agents" or "DSS Agents." Both terms are used interchangeably within the agency and other organizations. Unlike all other civilian federal law enforcement officers, DSS agents must serve multiple-year tours overseas as a condition of employment. When not at an overseas assignment, they serve domestically, in field offices and HQ positions. A minority of DSS agents are members of the State Department's civil service (GS-1811) and do not serve tours overseas; they focus on criminal work and dignitary protection within the United States.

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Hiring process
DSS agents are hired after an intensive evaluation process that includes a Foreign Service Board of Examiners writing evaluation, knowledge-based test, panel interview and situational judgment exercises carried out by veteran DSS agents. Those selected undergo a comprehensive medical examination needed for worldwide availability, as well as an exhaustive background investigation for security clearance at the level of top secret/sensitive compartmentalized information (TS/SCI). A final suitability review and vote by a Foreign Service panel evaluates a candidate's overall ability to represent the interests of the United States as a diplomat abroad. All agents have at least a four year university degree. Agent candidates must be under the age of 37 at the time of commissioning.

Training
After a new agent candidate is hired, he or she begins a six month training program that includes the Criminal Investigator Training Program (CITP) at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) (pronounced flet-see) in Glynco, Georgia; a Basic Special Agent Course at the Diplomatic Security Training Center, and courses at the Foreign Service Institute (FSI) in Arlington, Virginia. A new agent is usually assigned to a domestic field office for two years before taking on an overseas assignment, although an agent can expect to be sent on frequent temporary duty assignments overseas even when assigned to a domestic post. However, agents may be called overseas much earlier depending on the needs of DSS. As members of the Foreign Service, agents are expected to spend most of their career living and working overseas, often in hazardous environments or less developed countries throughout the world. • • • • Basic Special Agent Course (BSAC) (including FLETC): 7 months Basic Regional Security Office Course (RSO School): 3 months High Threat Tactical Training (HTT): 2 months Language Training: 2-12 months per language

Protection work
DSS is the agency identified to accept high threat protection assignments around the globe. The largest permanent dignitary protection detail carried out by DSS agents is on the Secretary of State (currently Hillary Rodham Clinton). DSS also has an ongoing protection detail on the United States Ambassador to the United Nations (currently Susan Rice). Most all other 'details' are on visiting foreign dignitaries and diplomats, and are on a temporary basis for the duration of a dignitary's visit. Foreign Ministers from important nations, as well as those with threats, are typically covered by DSS. DSS has the authority to provide protection for Foreign Heads of State, and did so through the early 1970s. At that time there was an order signed by President Richard Nixon also giving this authority to the → U.S. Secret Service (USSS), which has protected heads of state ever since. The appointment of Hillary Clinton as Secretary of State raised the question of whether and when the Secret Service or DSS would provide protection. As former First Lady Clinton receives Secret Service protection, as does her husband, who would, presumably, occasionally accompany her on official trips. However, DSS has been named the lead agency to carry out the protection for Secretary Clinton. DSS agents have protected such people as Prince Charles, Princess Diana, Yasser Arafat, Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas[2] the Dalai Lama, Zalmay Khalilzad and Boris Yeltsin (in the days preceding the collapse of the Soviet Union).[3] The Bureau of Diplomatic Security's Office of Foreign Missions is responsible for the protection of foreign embassies and consulates on U.S. soil[4] . Since the DSS does not have a true uniformed force with police powers, other agencies or local police departments are reimbursed for providing this service. Two notable examples of this are the Secret Service Uniformed Division in Washington, DC and the New York City Police Department in New

Diplomatic Security Service York City. During the annual United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in September, DSS, as well as the USSS, protects many dozens of varied dignitaries, mostly in New York City. DSS may also provide protection to others as assigned, including foreign persons without any government status, but who might have a threat against them [5] . DSS also protects certain U.S. Ambassadors overseas. Currently, the protection detail for the U.S. Ambassador to Iraq, Christopher R. Hill, is one of the largest critical threat protection details in the history of DSS. DSS has also protected or does protect the Presidents of Afghanistan, Haiti and Liberia. What makes these 'details' unique is that the protection, done by U.S. federal agents - DSS, is carried out overseas, in the protected person's home country.[6] [7]

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Investigations: Passport fraud, visa fraud, counterintelligence, counterterrorism, and others
DSS investigations, carried out by numerous Field Offices and Resident Agent offices throughout the U.S, and by RSOs overseas, focus mainly on passport or visa fraud. DSS Special Agents also investigate such cases as international parental kidnapping, violations of the Protect Act, assaults on federally protected persons, fugitive arrests overseas (with host nation assistance), Counterterrorism and Counterintelligence (CI) investigations. If there is a nexus to diplomatic activities, the U.S. Foreign Service, or terrorism, DSS is typically involved.

Passport and visa fraud
It is a federal offense to apply or assist someone in applying for a U.S. Passport or Visa when they are not entitled to one. Usually this means an alien in the U.S. trying to establish a false U.S. identity, or stealing the identity from an American, often one who has died. Visa fraud can also include being part of or participating in sham marriages in order to allow an unentitled foreigner to become a U.S. citizen.[8] Sometimes Americans, including Foreign Service Officers (FSOs), are the target of DSS investigations, such as an FSO selling visas for personal gain. DSS also investigates other alleged improper or illegal behavior by Department of State personnel, to include incidents of espionage. Such cases would involve other agencies, such as the Department of Justice. Overseas DSS must take the role of local and state law enforcement when investigating issues such as spousal or child abuse by U.S. government personnel assigned to the embassy. This is because the host country will not investigate or prosecute diplomats, who are considered to have immunity from their laws. DSS also conducts tens of thousands of background investigations per year - not just for the Department of State, but for other federal agencies as well. In recent years, DSS has expanded its overseas investigations program with A/RSO-I's (Assistant Regional Security Officer-Investigators), also known as "Overseas Criminal Investigators." These agents are given special training in consular functions and are commissioned consular officers. However, they spend a large amount of their time working with the fraud units in consular sections, investigating visa and passport fraud, alien smuggling, and human trafficking, although they have responsibilities outside of their respective Consular assignments for mission security. They work closely with host-country law-enforcement agencies and have recently been instrumental in dismantling several large alien-smuggling rings.

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Counterintelligence
The Diplomatic Security Service Office of Investigations and Counterintelligence (DS/ICI/CI) conducts a robust counterintelligence program designed to deter, detect, and neutralize the efforts of foreign intelligence services targeting Department of State personnel, facilities, and diplomatic missions worldwide. The office's counterintelligence division conducts aggressive counterintelligence inquires and counterespionage investigations with other U.S. Government agencies. Counterespionage investigations are conducted in close coordination with the FBI in accordance with their legal mandates. The division conducts numerous counterintelligence and security awareness training programs for all U.S. Government personnel requesting or having access to sensitive Department of State facilities and information. All training programs enhance the understanding of both foreign intelligence and espionage threats and countermeasures, and educate employees on the foreign intelligence environment. In addition, the office relies on a cadre of security engineers to deter, detect, and neutralize attempts by foreign intelligence services to technically penetrate U.S. office buildings and residences. These efforts range from detecting a simple listening device in the wall to countering the most sophisticated electronic eavesdropping devices and systems.[9] On June 4, 2009 the DSS and the FBI arrested former Department of State employee Walter Kendall Myers on charges of serving as an illegal agent of the Cuban government for nearly 30 years and conspiring to provide classified U.S. information to the Cuban government. Mr. Myers’ arrest is the culmination of a three-year joint DSS/FBI investigation.[10][11] [12]

Counterterrorism
The Diplomatic Security Service maintains agents in dozens of Joint Terrorism Task Force operations around the country. The Office of Protective Intelligence and Investigations (PII) in the Threat Intelligence and Analysis division has DSS Special Agents who travel all over the world investigating threats to the Secretary of State and U.S. Embassies and Consulates. DSS Special Agents on the New York JTTF provided critical information in the immediate aftermath of 9/11 and DSS Agents assigned as Regional Security Officers around the world tracked down leads for the FBI and other federal agencies. Any time there is a threat or an attack against a U.S. Embassy or Consulate, DSS Special Agents are the first on the scene to investigate.

Other investigations
The Diplomatic Security Service investigates crimes against State Department personnel and other U.S. Government personnel and families assigned under Chief of Mission authority at a U.S. Embassy or Consulate abroad. DSS Special Agents have investigated thefts, assaults, rapes, and murders, among other charges, around the world. Unlike investigations conducted in the United States by other federal agencies, DSS Agents have to work jointly with their foreign counterparts in often hostile areas of the world. On January 28, 2009, a news story broke about a CIA station chief in Algiers, Algeria who was under investigation by DSS for having allegedly raped two Muslim women.[13] [14]

Diplomatic Security Service Fugitives Because the U.S. State Department’s Diplomatic Security Service is the most widely represented law enforcement organization in the world, DSS’s capability to track and capture fugitives who have fled U.S. jurisdiction to avoid prosecution is unmatched. During 2007, DSS assisted in the resolution of 113 international fugitive cases from over 30 different countries. DSS Special Agents located and returned Jared Ravin Yaffe from Brazil. Yaffe, wanted in California for multiple counts of alleged child sexual assault, kidnapping, and unlawful flight to avoid prosecution, was returned to the United States on May 12, 2009, to face trial. On February 11, 2009, the United States District Court, Southern District of California issued a federal arrest warrant for Yaffe for unlawful flight to avoid prosecution. Yaffe was profiled on the television show America’s Most Wanted on April 11, 2009.[15] On September 19, 2009, Special Agents from the U.S. Department of State's Diplomatic Security Service (DSS) located Derrick Yancey, a former Deputy Sheriff from DeKalb County Georgia, in Punta Gorda, Belize. Yancey was wanted in Georgia for double murder of his wife Linda Yancey and a day laborer. Upon arrival at a local bar, at 6:05 PM local time, a DSS agent tapped on Yancey's shoulder and told him "It is time to go." Belize authorities then arrested Yancey. Yancey was featured on America's Most Wanted.

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Computer investigations and forensics branch
The DSS Computer Investigations and Forensics Branch (CIF) was established in 2004 to help DSS investigators confront a rapid increase in crimes involving computers and other electronic technologies affecting the Department of State's operations and security. In 2005, DSS opened 218 investigations involving computer forensics, a 19 percent increase over 2004, and a 43 percent increase over 2003. DSS investigators have used computer forensics to uncover passport and visa fraud, counterintelligence matters, espionage and child pornography. To accomplish its mission, CIF has built a highly skilled staff of Special Agents and civilian forensic examiners, network analysts, and evidence technicians who are specially trained and equipped to execute search warrants worldwide on electronic devices and storage media. CIF personnel analyze those items utilizing the latest forensic technology and methods to extract relevant electronic evidence.

Overseas service
Regional Security Office (RSO)
The DSS presence overseas is led at each post (embassy) by a DSS Special Agent who is referred to as a Regional Security Officer, or more commonly as the RSO, who is the officer in charge of a Regional Security Office and who serves as the senior law enforcement advisor and security attaché/advisor to the U.S. Ambassador. Like all members of the Foreign Service, DSS agents cannot remain posted in the United States for more than five consecutive years and must eventually be assigned to an overseas post[16] . Once assigned overseas, a DSS agent will typically serve first as a Special Agent (formerly, and commonly still, called Assistant Regional Security Officer (ARSO)) in a Regional Security Office. Agents that enjoy the overseas lifestyle will try to get a second tour in a Special Agent slot at a large embassy or even possibly a Regional Security Officer (RSO) slot at a small post or a Deputy Regional Security Office (DRSO) at a medium-sized post. Usually after two back-to-back overseas tours agents will be encouraged to return to the U.S. and serve in a Headquarters position before returning overseas as a Regional Security Officer. DSS has been expanding its criminal role overseas and now has many overseas fraud investigator positions. These positions are referred to as “I” positions - as in “Investigator” - and they are commonly referred to as A/RSO-Is. These agents work out of the consular sections of embassies and consulates instead of the Regional Security Offices.

Diplomatic Security Service The performance of these agents is rated by the RSO or the Deputy RSO and is reviewed by the Consul General. There are several other overseas positions filled by DSS agents. At new building construction sites, agents will serve as the Site Security Manager where they will supervise the overall security of the new building including the Construction Security Technicians (CST) and Cleared American Guards (CAG). For construction at posts where there is a critical counterintelligence (CI) threat, agents will also serve as CI investigators dedicated to preventing compromise of the most sensitive spaces within the new embassy. It is common for domestically assigned DSS agents to serve temporary duty (TDY) at Embassies overseas. Such duty can range from various types of protection duties to RSO support or security training for an overseas post, and may last for as little as a few days to multiple months. Terrorist: Ramzi Yousef DSS agents have been involved in the investigations of most terrorist attacks on U.S. interests overseas in the past twenty years, including the 2000 bombing of the USS Cole, and bombings of two U.S. Embassies in East Africa in 1998. Perhaps most notably, in 1995 DSS Special Agents Jeff Riner and Bill Miller, the RSOs assigned to the U.S. embassy in Pakistan , along with Pakistani police and Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), arrested Ahmed Ramzi Yousef, who was wanted in connection with the 1993 World Trade Center bombing in New York City. Despite FBI press releases, it was not the FBI who captured Yousef but the ISI and DSS.[17] [18] [19] DSS agents have often found themselves in harm's way with four agents and 28-contract security specialists killed in the line of duty as of July 2006. The vast majority of DSS casualties had taken place within the five years in Iraq where DSS continued to conduct its most critical and dangerous protective missions.

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Special event security
In addition to being posted at US missions around the world, DSS agents also have the unusual role of securing large-scale special events where there is a significant US interest. In the past, DSS agents have worked closely with their foreign counterparts to secure such events as the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China, the 2007 Pan American Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, World Cup Soccer Matches, the 2006 Winter Olympic Games in Turin, Italy, and a host of other special events. While the Olympics are the most well-known events, DSS agents have worked with host country security on numerous other large-scale events around the world. For events with a large US presence, such as the Olympics, an Olympic Security Coordinator - always a DSS agent - will be named to manage all of the security and liaison with the host government. All other federal agencies, such as the FBI, ATF, and DoD components, will report to the DSS agent in charge.[20] [21] [22]

DSS history
The origins of the DSS go back to 1916 with a handful of agents assigned special duties directly by the Secretary of State, Robert Lansing. Headed by a Chief Special Agent, who was also called Special Assistant to the Secretary, these agents worked in Washington, D.C., and New York City. This group of agents would sometimes be referred to as the office of the Chief Special Agent. They were operated with private funds from the Secretary's office. Conducting sensitive investigations, they focused mainly on foreign agents and their activities in the United States (this in the days before the CIA; and before the FBI became the primary domestic intelligence organization for the U.S.).

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Bureau of Secret Intelligence
The U.S. Diplomatic Security Service was known as the Bureau of Secret Intelligence at its inception (1916).[23] The Department of State's Bureau of Secret Intelligence was also known as U-1, an off-the-books adjunct to the Division of Information[24] [25] . Before the United States entered World War I, German and Austrian spies were conducting operations in New York City. The spies were using forged or stolen identity papers. President Woodrow Wilson authorized the Secretary of State to establish a security arm of the Department of State. Three agents were recruited from the → United States Secret Service because of their experience with counterfeit currency. Since the United States Postal Inspection Service had the best laboratory, the director of the new agency was recruited there.
[26]

The assumption is that the name "Office of the Chief Special Agent," which was sometimes used in 1916, and to this day by various information portals to include the Department of State's website, to downplay the bureau's original mission. After 1918, when Congress passed laws requiring passports for Americans returning from overseas, and visas for aliens entering the United States, State Department agents began investigating passport and visa fraud. Around this same time State Department agents began protecting distinguished visitors to the United States. During World War I the Chief Special Agent's office had the responsibility for interning and exchanging diplomatic officials of enemy powers. By the 1920s the Chief Special Agent, no longer reporting his office's activities directly to the Secretary of State, began reporting to the Assistant Secretary of State for Administration. Within the next two decades major passport fraud activities were detected worldwide, often involving both Communists and Nazis. Many of these fraud rings were exposed and neutralized.

Office of Security (S.Y.)
During World War II, State Department agents were once again involved in interning and exchanging diplomatic officials of enemy powers. Around this time the Chief Special Agent's office became known as 'SY', which was short for the Office of Security, which in turn was under the Administration Bureau of the Management Undersecretary. After World War II, 'SY' began expanding its presence overseas, with numerous Regional Security Officer (RSO) positions created in overseas posts. In 1961, Otto Otepka, then a Deputy Director of 'SY', brought to the attention of the United States Senate Internal Security Subcommittee deficiencies in the State Department clearance process. The allegations were traced all the way up to then Secretary of State Dean Rusk. Despite multiple awards, appeals from multiple U.S. Senators, and not backing down, Secretary Rusk removed Otepka from his position and ultimately unceremoniously fired him.[27] Starting sometime after World War II 'SY' began regularly protecting visiting heads of state, but had done so sparodically since the 1930's. Before his departure in 1947 SY Director Bannerman began codifying procedures for overseas security. This process continued in the late 1940's with a number of RSO positions being created. From that time and through the early 1970's the number of agents remained relatively small, hovering around 300, with more than half of these serving overseas at any given time. The April 1983 US Embassy bombing was a catharsis for 'SY', which would transform 'SY' into the newly created Diplomatic Security Service, part of the Bureau of Diplomatic Security.

Bureau of Diplomatic Security & Diplomatic Security Service
Congress formed a commission headed by Admiral Inman to look into the bombings of U.S. Diplomatic facilities in Beirut. The resultant Inman Report recommended that security at the State Department needed to be elevated to a higher priority. Thus in 1985 Congress created the Bureau of Diplomatic Security (DS), headed by an Assistant Secretary of State, and the Diplomatic Security Service (DSS), headed by the Director of DSS, who is subordinate to the Assistant Secretary of State for DS.

Diplomatic Security Service The DSS, technically a sub unit of DS, had a director placed at its head. The Director of DSS is an active DSS agent, and is often referred to by a term more familiar: the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary (PDAS), as he/she is senior to the various Assistant Directors of Diplomatic Security who hold positions equivalent to Deputy Assistant Secretary (DAS). The PDAS designation signifies the DSS director's preeminence over the other DASs within DS, while at the same time signifying his/her position under the Assistant Secretary of State for Diplomatic Security. The first several Assistant Secretaries for DS were senior Foreign Service Officers, the last three have been senior law enforcement, brought in from other law enforcement agencies. With the creation of DS and the DSS, its ranks grew to well over 1,000 agents. However, by the mid 1990s budget cutbacks were foisted on the U.S. State Department by Congress and the Department in turn trimmed the budget of DSS to the point where it had dwindled to a little over 600 agents. At the time this seemed justified by Department hierarchy who thought DS was growing much too fast in over-reaction to the Beirut bombings. Although DS was by then a Bureau within the State Department, overseas the vast majority of RSOs continued to report to the Administration Officer. This changed in 1999, as fallout from the east Africa embassy bombings of 1998. The terse message from the then Undersecretary for Management announcing the immediate change made it clear that this action was against his best judgment and insinuated that it was done because then Secretary of State Madeleine Albright ordered it. This change stripped DS out from under Administration Officers and placed the RSO directly under the Deputy Chief of Mission (DCM) in the chain of command at an Embassy. In recent years DS, although not autonomous from the U.S. State Department, has been given more leeway in handling its own affairs. Budgetary approvals and allocations and hiring and promotion numbers for DS and DSS still must be cleared through the U.S. State Department. Traditionally DS, and more specifically the Diplomatic Security Service, has had a conflicted relationship with its parent agency, the U.S. State Department. The main mission of the U.S. State Department is not law enforcement, but is of course diplomacy. Having a law enforcement arm has not been an easy fact for the State Department culture to accept. In fact, for a number of years DS was told specifically by the State Department that it was not a law enforcement agency, and the title of Foreign Service Diplomatic Security officer was emphasized while the title of Special Agent was downplayed. The State Department now more readily accepts the 'special agent' terminology. Looking at its history it becomes apparent there is a pattern of forced changes in relation to security for the U.S. State Department and its facilities overseas (American embassies and consulates). Often this change is the result of a serious incident, such as a terrorist attack on a U.S. mission. Since 1999 and especially after the creation of the U.S. embassies in Kabul and Baghdad there seems to be an increasing acceptance and desire by State Department hierarchy to fully embrace and support the goals of the Diplomatic Security Service. Likewise, DS has been allowed a greater degree of independent action in administering itself and has been allowed to hire new agents at a rate that keeps overall numbers from slipping downward.

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DS vs. DSS
For people who do not work for the Department of State (DoS), there is much confusion about the relationship between the Bureau of Diplomatic Security (DS) and the Diplomatic Security Service (DSS). Even within Department of State there is still some confusion regarding the difference between DS and the DSS. DS oversees all security related matters of the U.S. Department of State, which includes security at U.S. embassies and consulates. DS has approximately 34,000 employees; 1,500 of whom are the U.S.

Bureau (DS) Organizational Chart

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federal agents within DSS. The DSS was structured as a law enforcement agency within DS. As such the DSS is the primary mechanism by which DS accomplishes its law enforcement (criminal investigative) and security missions. An Assistant Secretary of State is in charge of the Bureau of Diplomatic Security and the Office of Foreign Missions (OFM). Under the Assistant Secretary of State, Ambassador Eric Boswell, are several Deputy Assistant Secretaries (DAS). The Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary (PDAS) is the Director for the Diplomatic Security Service (DSS). The Director of DSS is an active DSS Special Agent.[28]

DSS Organizational Chart

Within DoS, all employees who work for DS (the bureau) are referred to as DS employees. Even within DSS, agents refer to themselves as DS Agents. This usage is also used in DoS press releases, although recently multi-agency press releases from the U.S. Attorney’s offices use the technically correct Diplomatic Security Service. Things get muddled even further when one looks at the assignments available to DSS agents. Agents are frequently assigned to positions within DS (the bureau) but outside of the DSS chain of command hierarchy. This may seem a little counterintuitive but is a common practice within the Department of State. For example while assigned overseas, DoS employees are evaluated by their superiors at the embassy or consulate to which they are assigned. In the case of DSS agents, the RSO (senior special agent at post) is rated by the Deputy Chief of Mission and reviewed by the Chief of Mission (Ambassador). The DSS hierarchy in Washington has no input on the agent’s evaluation. This is only a technicality however; as agents frequently receive instructions from HQ.

Bureau of Secret Intelligence (Office of the Chief Special Agent) directors
• Robert Lansing (1916–1917), Secretary of State exercising direct control over the Bureau of Secret Intelligence • Joseph Nye (1917-1920), first Chief Special Agent • Robert C. Bannerman (1920-1940), father of future SY Director

SY directors
• • • • • • Robert L. Bannerman (1945-1947) father of third generation SY/DS agent William O. Boswell (1958-1962) father of future DS Assistant Secretary Otto Otepka, Deputy Director (1959–1962)[29] [30] [31] John Francis Reilly (1962–?)[32] Marvin Gentile (1964-1974)[33] former FBI Special Agent and CIA Security Officer[34] [35] Viktor Dikeos (1974-1978)

DSS directors
• • • • • • • David C. Fields (-1986) Louis Schwartz, Jr. (1986-1988) Clark Ditmer (1988-1993) Mark Mulvey (1994–1996) Greg Bujac (1996–1999) Peter E. Bergin (1999–2003) Joe B. Morton (2003–2007) Son of former DSS Director

• Gregory B. Starr (2007–2009) • Patrick Donovan (2009) • Jeffrey Culver (2009-present)

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Weapons used by DSS Special Agents
Standard issue • SIG P228 in 9 mm (pistol) • SIG P229 in 9 mm (pistol) • Remington 870 (12 gauge shotgun) • Colt SMG (9 mm submachine gun) • Colt M4 (5.56 mm Carbine) Former weapons included the Uzi submachine gun and the Ruger Mini-14 carbine. Stockless or 'shorty' versions of the Remington 870 shotgun may still be found in some DSS offices. DSS agents used to carry the Smith & Wesson Model 19 revolver (357 cal.), but switched to 9 mm pistols around 1993.[36] Additional issue • M249 SAW machine gun • M240 machine gun • M203 grenade launcher These and other weapons systems may be employed by DSS Special Agents assigned to high-threat locations. The agents going to those locations attend additional training before they are deployed.
DSS Special Agent on the range with the M2 .50 caliber Machine Gun

DSS Special Agents with M4s at range

Fallen officers
Since the establishment of the Diplomatic Security Service, 4 Special Agents have died in the line of duty. [37]
Officer Special Agent Daniel Emmett O'Connor Special Agent Ronald Albert Lariviere Special Agent Edward J. Seitz [40] [41] Date of Death Details

[38] Wednesday, December 21, 1988 Terrorist attack on Pan Am flight 103 Wednesday, December 21, 1988 Terrorist attack on Pan Am flight 103 Sunday, October 24, 2004 Monday, September 19, 2005 rocket attack - Iraq car bomb - Iraq

[39]

Special Agent Stephen Eric Sullivan

Diplomatic Security Service

312

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • • List of United States federal law enforcement agencies Bureau of Diplomatic Security Mobile Security Deployment (MSD), Diplomatic Security Service's "Special Ops/SWAT unit" Office of the Inspector General of the Department of State U.S. Marshals (film) Robert Downey, Jr. plays a rogue DSS Agent U.S. Marshals FBI U.S. Secret Service NCIS OSI - U.S. Air Force INTERPOL / INTERPOL Wanted List [42]

Other references
• 1999 — Book - The New Jackals: Ramzi Yousef, Osama bin Laden and the Future of Terrorism, by Simon Reeve (UK Television Presenter) • 1999 — On the Inside (Discovery Channel TV show) - State Department Protectors (Knightscenes Productions) • 2000 — Investigative Reports (A&E TV show) - In the Line of Fire (44 Blue Productions) • 2001 — Badges Without Borders (TLC TV show) - Inside the Diplomatic Security Service (Red Apple Entertainment Productions) • 2002 — Book - Relentless Pursuit: The DSS and the Manhunt for the Al-Qaeda Terrorists [43], Samuel M. Katz • 2003 — Targeted: Volume 1, The Evil Genius (Ramzi Yousef) (Wild Eyes Productions for the History Channel; A&E Networks) • 2004 — Heroes Under Fire (History Channel TV Show) - Escape from Liberia (Wild Eyes Productions) • 2005 — Heroes Under Fire (History Channel TV Show) - Caught in the Middle (Wild Eyes Productions) DSS/MSD in Haiti • 2006 — Critical Threat — Life in the Bureau of Diplomatic Security (Wild Eyes Productions) • 2007 — A Mighty Heart (film) - DSS Special Agent Randall Bennett leads the team investigating Daniel Pearl's kidnapping and murder. • 2008 — Ghost: Confessions of a Counterterrorism Agent - A memoir by former DSS Special Agent Fred Burton in which he chronicles his service in the DSS counterterrorism branch.

External links
• • • • • • • • BBC article on DSS [44] Diplomatic Security Service Website [45] Washington Post article on DSS [46] Diplomatic Security Special Agents Association [47] Mobile Security Deployments [48] (MSD) Office of Foreign Missions [49] OTTO OTEPKA (SY Director 1959 - 1962) [50] CBS Evening News - DSS at the UN General Assembly 2009 [51]

Diplomatic Security Service

313

References
[1] Bureau of Diplomatic Security (http:/ / www. state. gov/ m/ ds/ ) [2] Protection of Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas (http:/ / www. cbsnews. com/ video/ watch/ ?id=5341322n& tag=contentMain;contentBody/ ) [3] information on protection work from State Department web site (http:/ / www. state. gov/ m/ ds/ protection/ c8756. htm) Retrieved on July 16, 2007 [4] [http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode22/usc_sec_22_00004802----000-.html U.S. CODE Title 22 Chapter 58 Subchater I section 4802(a)(1)(D) July 22 2008 [5] Protection of Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas (http:/ / www. cbsnews. com/ video/ watch/ ?id=5341322n& tag=contentMain;contentBody/ ) [6] State's Security Bureau Takes on Expanded Role (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ ac2/ wp-dyn/ A1157-2004Sep6?language=printer) [7] Afghan President Karzai Flanked by Diplomatic Security Special Agents (http:/ / www. state. gov/ m/ ds/ rls/ 44653. htm) [8] http:/ / media-newswire. com/ release_1084288. html [9] Counterintelligence Investigations, http:/ / www. state. gov/ m/ ds/ terrorism/ c8653. htm [10] http:/ / www. state. gov/ r/ pa/ prs/ ps/ 2009/ 06a/ 124404. htm [11] Cuban spies arrested, http:/ / www. state. gov/ r/ pa/ prs/ ps/ 2009/ 06a/ 124404. htm [12] Federal Indictment of Myers http:/ / i. cdn. turner. com/ cnn/ 2009/ images/ 06/ 05/ myers. indictment. pdf [13] Exclusive: CIA Station Chief in Algeria Accused of Rapes http:/ / abcnews. go. com/ Blotter/ Story?id=6750266& page=1 [14] Affidavit in Support of a Search Warrant http:/ / abcnews. go. com/ images/ Blotter/ searchwarrant1. pdf [15] Diplomatic Security Locates and Returns A Fugitive From Brazil (http:/ / www. state. gov/ m/ ds/ rls/ 123280. htm) [16] " Foreign Service Act of 1980 - Public Law 96-465 Sec.504 (http:/ / www. usaid. gov/ policy/ ads/ 400/ fsa. pdf)" (PDF). 13 October 2008. . Retrieved 2008. [17] " State's Security Bureau Takes on Expanded Role, Washington Post article by Robin Wright (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ articles/ A1157-2004Sep6. html)". 7 September 2004. . Retrieved 2007. [18] Book - The New Jackals: Ramzi Yousef, Osama bin Laden and the Future of Terrorism, by Simon Reeve [19] Targeted: Volume 1, The Evil Genius (Ramzi Yousef) (Wild Eyes Productions for the History Channel; A&E Networks) 2003 [20] China, United States Cooperate on Olympic Security http:/ / www. america. gov/ st/ sports-english/ 2008/ June/ 20080612145217gmnanahcub0. 9042475. html [21] Special Agents at the Olympics http:/ / features. csmonitor. com/ olympics08/ 2008/ 08/ 05/ special-agents-at-the-olympics/ [22] DS Protects http:/ / www. state. gov/ documents/ organization/ 114169. pdf [23] Sources: Washington Post, Sept 7, 2004, State's Security Bureau Takes on Expanded Role, Washington Post article by Robin Wright; (Book) 2002 Relentless Pursuit: The DSS and the Manhunt for the Al-Qaeda Terrorists, Samuel M. Katz. [24] Allen Dulles by James Srodes, Page 83 [25] Book: The Armies of Ignorance: The Rise of the American Intelligence Empire by William R. Corson, 1977; Page 74 [26] http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ dna/ h2g2/ A1021843 [27] What Did Otto Otepka Know About Oswald and the CIA? by Lisa Pease http:/ / www. ctka. net/ pr397-otepka. html [28] Bureau of Diplomatic Security official home page http:/ / www. state. gov/ m/ ds/ [29] http:/ / educationforum. ipbhost. com/ index. php?showtopic=10074& st=0& p=103740& #entry103740 [30] http:/ / www. ctka. net/ pr397-otepka. html [31] http:/ / www. amazon. com/ Ordeal-Otto-Otepka-William-Gill/ dp/ 0870000543 [32] http:/ / educationforum. ipbhost. com/ index. php?showtopic=10074& st=0& p=103740& #entry103740 [33] http:/ / www. encyclopedia. com/ doc/ 1P2-866897. html [34] http:/ / www. highbeam. com/ doc/ 1P2-866897. html [35] ref http:/ / www. itoday. ru/ 2067. html] [36] http:/ / www. specwarnet. net/ taclink/ Federal/ dos_msd. htm [37] The Officer Down Memorial Page (http:/ / www. odmp. org/ agency/ 3957-united-states-department-of-state---diplomatic-security-service-u. s. -government) [38] http:/ / www. odmp. org/ officer/ 10093-special-agent-daniel-emmett-oconnor [39] http:/ / www. odmp. org/ officer/ 7906-special-agent-ronald-albert-lariviere [40] http:/ / www. odmp. org/ officer/ 17480-special-agent-edward-j. -seitz [41] http:/ / www. odmp. org/ officer/ 17872-special-agent-stephen-eric-sullivan [42] http:/ / www. interpol. int/ Public/ Wanted/ Search/ Recent. asp [43] http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ 0765309106 [44] http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ dna/ h2g2/ A1021843 [45] http:/ / www. state. gov/ m/ ds/ [46] http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ articles/ A1157-2004Sep6. html/ [47] http:/ / www. dssaa. org/ [48] http:/ / www. specwarnet. com/ taclink/ Federal/ dos_msd. htm

Diplomatic Security Service
[49] http:/ / www. state. gov/ ofm/ [50] http:/ / educationforum. ipbhost. com/ index. php?showtopic=10074& st=0& p=103740& #entry103740 [51] http:/ / www. cbsnews. com/ video/ watch/ ?id=5341322n& tag=contentMain;contentBody/

314

Federal Protective Service
Federal Protective Service may refer to: • United States Federal Protective Service, responsible for the security of Federal buildings • Federal Protective Service (Russia), the successor of the KGB Ninth Chief Directorate, now an independent organization

Air Force Security Forces

315

Air Force Security Forces
United States Air Force Security Forces

Security Forces Badge Active Country Branch Part of Motto United States of America United States Air Force Department of Defense United States Department of the Air Force "Defensor Fortis" Insignia Beret Flash

United States Air Force Security Forces (AFSC Enlisted: 3P0X1, formerly 811X0 Security Specialist; 811X2 Law Enforcement Specialist, later 3P0X2; and 811X2A K-9 Specialist, later 3P0X2A, Officer: 31PX), formerly named Air Police (1948), then Security Police (August 1967) are the military police and the air base ground defense forces of the United States Air Force. Airmen in this field go through 13 weeks of initial technical training at Lackland Air Force Base with the 343rd Training Squadron, known as the Security Forces Academy.

Specialties

USAF policemen (Far left: Amn Marc Joel Berger) from Tan Son Nhut Air Base, watch for Viet Cong infiltration attempts along the base perimeter, during the Vietnam war

TASS Operators consist of Security Forces personnel who complete a course on operation and maintenance of thermal imagery, sensors, and their components. Operators set up and provide surveillance to built-up installations as well as mobile base camps. Operators use microwave, thermal, seismic, and 'trip-wire' sensors. Operators can also use a variety of camera systems such as CCTV systems, or the

Air Force Security Forces high tech military version, called the Wide-Area Infrared Surveillance Thermal Imager or WISTI. WISTI's can detect enemy movement by tracking body heat, or other heat resonances; or can be automatically routed to another sensor that goes off, in which the WISTI will automatically focus in and track the programmed sensor. Phoenix Raven is a United States military counter-terrorism organization program instituted in 1997 by Gen. Mills. The Phoenix Raven program, implemented by Air Mobility Command Commander Gen. Walter Kross in early 1997, consists of groups of specially trained security forces personnel dedicated to providing force protection for aircrews and resources that operate in areas with a high threat areas. Ravens act as force protection advisers to aircraft commanders, perform close-in aircraft security, airfield security assessments and assist with aircrew duties. Raven candidates undergo a two-week course at the Air Mobility Warfare Center, Fort Dix. They study topics such as international law, and they learn hand-to-hand defense techniques. The Air Force maintains Emergency Services Teams (EST) which are similar to → SWAT teams. Nuclear mission bases have have Tactical Response Force and Convoy Response Force (TRF/CRF) Units. These units are trained just like all other EST but go through training at Malmstrom for nuclear specific tasks. TRF/CRF units are on call with many other security forces units at nuclear bases and provide rapid response to emergency situations. Security Forces also deploy Close Precision Engagement (CPE) teams, also known as counter-snipers.

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Training
Additional training may be available to Security Forces such as the Close Precision Engagement Course (CPEC) at Camp Robinson. Security Forces members may also go through technical schools to help them as their careers develop. Some of these schools consist of, but are not limited to: Emergency Services Team (E.S.T.), Security Forces Dispatch Communications, Tactical Automated Sensor Systems Operator (TASS), Combat Arms Training and Maintenance (CATM), Military Police Investigator Course (MPI), or Military Working Dog Handler. Some Security Forces members attend the Army's Air Assault School, Airborne school and Ranger School. Security Forces members can also go through advanced training in investigations or advanced driving school training by the Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI). Air Force Specialty Code 3P0X1B (CATM) are personnel who train base personnel in the use of small arms weaponry, oversee and maintain and repair all small arms in the Air Force inventory. A second career direction Security Forces have is the Military Working Dog (MWD) program Air Force Specialty Code 3P0X1A. Military Working Dog teams deploy explosive detection and narcotics detection dogs throughout the base. Most Dog Handlers perform law enforcement duties at their duty station, and have opportunities to deploy, go Temporary Duty (TDY) for various reasons, including protection of the President of the United States. EST members undergo special tactics training (Special Reaction Team Course, Phase 1 and 2) at the Advanced Law Enforcement Training Division (ALETD) located at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. SRT Phase I is a SWAT entry-team course and Phase II covers sniper emplacement, marksmanship, and tactics. ALETD is run by the U.S. Army and provides the majority of specialty training for U.S. Army and Marine Corp Military Policemen as well as Air Force Security Forces and some civilian police departments.

Weapons
All Security Forces are required to maintain qualifications on the M-4 Carbine and M-9 pistol. Different weapons skills can be obtained, such as the M-203 Grenade Launcher, the M-249 light machine gun, M-240B general-purpose machine gun, the M-2 50 caliber machine gun, and the MK-19 grenade launcher. In the past Security police personnel could also qualify with the M29 mortar, M67 recoilless rifle, and M72 LAW. Obsolete weapons previously carried by S.P.s include the M-60, Smith & Wesson Model 15, XM148 grenade launcher, and M79 grenade launcher.

Air Force Security Forces

317

The Blue Beret
The roots of the Security Police beret are often traced back to the 1041st Security Police Squadron (Test) and "Operation Safeside" during 1965-67. The mission of the Air Police was changing, and this specially trained Task Force adopted a light blue beret with a Falcon patch as their symbol. It can only be speculated as to whether the idea came from the Army Ranger beret, since the initial cadre of the 1041st SPS received it's initial training at the Army Ranger School. The 1041st SPS evolved into the 82nd Combat Security Police Wing, but was deactivated in December 1968, thus bringing an end to the light blue beret with the falcon emblem. Although the beret was not an authorized uniform item for Security Police work, several local commanders authorized a dark blue beret for their units even though the official Security Police cover remained the white service cap. In the early 70's, Military Working Dog handlers assigned to the 6280th SPS, Takhli RTAFB, Thailand, wore a dark blue beret with no insignia. The other members of the unit wore fatigue caps and the "jungle booney" style hat. Again, the beret was distinguishing a specific group of specialized personnel. Other Units adopted a version of the beret to distinguish their elite guards. When Brigadier General (Major General select) Thomas Sadler was appointed Air Force Chief of Security Police and the two symbol AF/SP office was created in 1975, the Security Police had arrived. The General's task was to bring the Security Police into the mainstream of the Air Force and one of the tools for doing that was recognition of deeds as well as members of a distinctive and highly recognizable career field. The beret was one of the proposed uniform changes that had been being considered. Although there was significant opposition to the beret initially from senior colonels and MAJCOM Chiefs, the troops loved the idea, and that's what is was all about. Several months later the uniform board approved the proposal, and the beret was officially being worn world-wide in 1976. The dark blue beret of 1976 was worn with the MAJCOM crest of the appropriate major command the unit was assigned to. It continued this way for twenty years until the forming of the Security Forces in early 1997. In March 1997, the 82nd CSPW was reactivated and redesigned the 820th Security Forces Group. It provided worldwide "first in force protection" for Air Force contingencies.

History
The position of Air Provost Marshall came into being in March 1943 at the direction of General Henry H. Arnold, commander of the United States Army Air Forces. When the Air Force became a separate entity in January 1948, its military police became air police. The Air Provost Marshal came under the Air Force Inspector General. The organization title became Director of Security and Law Enforcement in 1960. The term air police became security police in 1967 and then in 1997 was changed to Security Forces.
A member of the USAF Security Police (173d Security Forces Squadron). The security police function left the inspector general umbrella in 1975 and began reporting to the Air Force Chief of Staff. The title of Chief of Security Police then replaced the title Directory. The security police headquarters moved from Washington DC to Kirtland AFB NM in 1978 and became the Air Force Office of Security Police (AFOSP), a separate operating agency, again under the Inspector General. In 1991, as part of an Air Staff reorganization, the Chief of Security Police was again aligned directly under the Air Force Chief of Staff. The Chief of Security Police and the staff needed to work security police policy issues was relocated to The Pentagon, Washington DC.

A little over half of the AF Security police staff remained at Kirtland AFB as a field operating agency, the Air Force Security Police Agency (AFSPA). AFSPA reported directly to the Air Force Chief of Security Police. AFSPA was comprised of four directorates: security; law enforcement and training; resources; and corrections. In January 1997, as a result of the Khobar Towers bombing,an Air Force Chief of Staff directed reorganization of Security Forces

Air Force Security Forces designed to improve Air Force force protection capabilities, the Air Force Chief of Security Police was re-designated the Air Force Director of Security Forces, and in October 1997, the Security Police career field became the Security Forces career field. AFSPA was reorganized in November 1997 and relocated to Lackland AFB Texas. The new organization, designated the Air Force Security Forces Center, consists of three units: Headquarters, the AF Force Protection Battle lab, and the 820th Security Forces Group. The Headquarters Air Force Security Forces Center (HQ AFSFC) is commanded by the duel-hatted Air Force Director of Security Forces. HQ AFSFC acts as an extension of the Pentagon staff, conducting staff studies dealing with a wide range of topics, including nuclear security, antiterrorism/force protection, base defense, police services, combat arms and Security Forces training, equipment management, and military working dogs. The Headquarters consists of three divisions: Force Protection, Operations, and Corrections, with three geographically separated units-Miramar, California; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; and Charleston, South Carolina. The Force Protection Battlelab's commander reports to the HQ AFSFC commander. Force Protection Battlelab's mission is to rapidly identify and prove the worth of innovative Force Protection ideas which improve the ability of the Air Force to execute it's core competencies and joint warfighting. The Battlelab rapidly measures the worth of new ideas and presents them to the Air Force senior leadership for consideration involving changes to the way the Air Force currently organizes, trains, equips, executes, plans and commands. The 820th Security Forces Group provides a highly-trained, rapidly-deployable "first-in" force protection capability to any operating location in support of the USAF Global Engagement mission. The 820th gives the Air Force a totally dedicated composite unit for force protection, drawing from many disciplines, not just Security Forces. The unit is composed of personnel from Security Forces, Office of Special Investigations, civil engineering, logistics and supply, communications, intelligence, administration, personnel, and medical career fields, providing the capability to assess each threat and act accordingly.[1]

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Recent Changes
Brig. Gen. Robert Holmes, director of security forces and force protection, calls these transformations a "refocus" on how his people train and fight. "We're not in the Cold War anymore; we have to alter our mentality and our practices for today's reality," the general said. "Because of the nature of the threat, our Airmen are fighting the global war on terror on the front lines, and we owe it to them to provide training, equipment and resources to be effective." Essentially, security forces will focus on preparing for their warfighting mission at forward locations, as well as security at a fixed installation, General Holmes said. As an example, he cited an Air Force task force that operated around Balad Air Base, Iraq, for two months last year. The unit patrolled the local towns and found weapons caches as well as individuals who posed a threat to the base. Security forces must learn counterinsurgency techniques to operate more effectively in joint operations, said Maj. Gen. Norman Seip, assistant deputy chief of staff for air and space operations. While security forces will focus more on their warfighting competencies, Air Force leaders are reviewing several options for installation protection duties, such as entry control, at home stations. Plans call for more DOD civilians, greater affiliation with Guard and Reserve and better use of technologies, General Holmes said. The changes to the security forces career field will present the opportunity for other Airmen to participate in installation security. While that doesn’t necessarily mean everyone will have a rotation checking identification cards at a gate, it does mean more comprehensive training, awareness and capability to respond and participate, he said. While definitive plans have not been finalized, General Holmes also said one of the transformation goals is bringing security forces back in step with standard Air Force 120-day deployments. Overall, General Holmes said the changes would make security forces more effective and relevant to Air Force needs in the face of the current changing nature of warfare.

Air Force Security Forces "We want to make our Airmen more proficient, and to do that, we need to adapt," General Holmes said. "We're going to change our training, our tactics and our procedures and the Air Force will be better for it" [2] . In November 2007, it was announced that the Air Force was going to triple the number of Security Forces personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan to back-fill Army and Marines Corps mission tasks.[3]

319

See also
• • • • • 732 ESFS/DET-3 United States Army Military Police Corps Royal Air Force Regiment Airfield Defence Guards Objektschutzregiment der Luftwaffe

External links
• Official Air Force Security Forces website [4] • Official Air Force Security Forces factsheet [5] • The Air Force Security Police Association [6] • • • • • • Unofficial Air Force Security Police website [7] Brief History of the USAF Security Forces [8] History of the blue beret [9] the Unofficial 81st SPS RAF Bentwaters/Woodbridge Site [10] Unofficial security history of Westover AFB (SAC) 1955 - 1974 [11] USAF Security Police/Forces Vietnam Veteran.... [12]

References
[1] http:/ / www. usafa. edu/ 10abw/ 10msg/ sfs/ history. cfm?catname=10SFS [2] Air Force Print News, 2006 [3] Stars and Stripes: Air Force to triple number of airmen helping Army, Marines in Iraq (http:/ / www. stripes. com/ article. asp?section=104& article=57744& archive=true) [4] http:/ / www. afsfc. af. mil/ [5] http:/ / www. af. mil/ information/ factsheets/ factsheet. asp?id=4556 [6] http:/ / afspaonline. org/ [7] http:/ / www. afsp. net/ [8] http:/ / www. defensorfortis. info/ [9] http:/ / www. safesideassociation. org/ blue_beret. html [10] http:/ / 81sps. homestead. com/ [11] http:/ / 814thcds. com/ [12] http:/ / billmorris1. fortunecity. com/ billmorrisvietnamveteran/

Special Reaction Teams

320

Special Reaction Teams
A Special Reaction Team (SRT) is a specialized team or element within a military police unit that has been tasked with a level response to a high risk situation within a military base or compound. SRT is found within law enforcement units of the United States Army, Navy, → Air Force and Marine Corps. The teams are military equivalents of civilian police department → SWAT teams. Commanders must provide an installation SRT capable of providing an enhanced response to developed threats in their area of responsibility within two hours of initial notification. This is in anticipation of possible terrorist attacks against Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Navy installations. The teams respond to situations as varied as hostage rescue, counter-sniper actions, VIP protection, and counter terrorism. Some situations requiring SRT employment may include, but are not limited to: • Barricaded subjects. • Hostage situations. • Sniper incidents. • Counter terrorist operations. • VIP protection (as a response force). • Threatened suicide incidents. • Apprehension assistance during joint operations. . During hostilities, SRTs may be required to perform similar missions in a combat environment. SRT priorities during an incident are: • Protecting lives, to include hostages, law enforcement personnel, bystanders, and suspects. • Securing the safe release of hostages. • Isolating/containing the incident. • Gathering information/intelligence. This is an ongoing responsibility from the beginning of an incident until its resolution. • Protecting property/equipment. Preventing escape. • Apprehending offenders.[1] • Conducting an assault (only if all other alternatives have been exhausted, no other assistance is expected, and a threat to human life exists). A Special Reaction Team (or Emergency Services Team in the USAF) is composed of seasoned Military Police (Army and Marine Corps) or Security Forces (Air Force) who have received training for high-risk situations (high risk warrants, hostage situations, barricaded suspects). They are a Department of Defense equivalent to a → SWAT and often attend the same schools for training.

Soldiers from the 42nd Military Police Detachment's Special Reaction Team pull security on a bus that was taken hostage by terrorists during the multi-agency Orbit Comet anti-terrorism exercise at Fort Bragg, August 2005.

Special Reaction Teams

321

Training
SRT candidates from all branches attend training at the US Army Military Police School at Fort Leonard Wood, MO. SRT training is divided into Phase 1 and Phase 2. SRT members are required to have a high degree of physical fitness, so candidates attending SRT training should be in excellent physical condition. Participants must be able to successfully negotiate an obstacle course, run, jump, and perform while wearing protective clothing (body armor, eye protection). Participants will also come in physical contact with other students or instructors during several sections of training. SRT Phase 1 and Phase 2 are designed to test student stamina by conducting training at all hours. Phase 1 provides training for personnel performing duties as a member of an installation Special Reaction Team entry team member and prepares them to respond to and resolve special threat situations. The SRT will provide the commander with an enhanced response capability above that provided by on-duty conventional law enforcement/security patrols. Instructional emphasis focuses on SRT tactics, marksmanship and special threat situations including response to a terrorist incident, barricaded incidents (with and without hostages), drug raids, and high risk warrant apprehensions. Students must complete Phase 1 training prior to progressing to Phase 2. Phase 2 provides training for personnel performing duties as a member of an installation Special Reaction Team marksman/observer. Training provides instruction in techniques required for inner perimeter security, intelligence gathering, and if necessary, highly accurate and effective neutralization of hostile targets in special threat situations. Training includes iron sighted and scoped weapon systems. In addition to marksmanship training, students must pass a written examination designed to evaluate the student's knowledge of tactics learned in Phase 2. No reference material is allowed while testing, and students must have 47 of 50 questions correct to achieve a passing grade. Note: SRT refers to both Special Reaction Team & Special Response and Tactics Depending on location.

External links
• • • • • • • • Sniper Paradise SRT [2] U.S. Army SRT information [3] U.S. Marine Corps SRT information [4] U.S. Air Force SRT information [5] U.S. Army Field Manual 19-10, Chapter 21 "Special Reaction Team" [6]. Special Operations information page [7] Stars and Stripes Article: Featuring SRT [8] SRT Training at Walter Reed [9]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] FM 19-10 Chptr 21 Special Reaction Team (http:/ / www. globalsecurity. org/ military/ library/ policy/ army/ fm/ 19-10/ Ch21. htm) http:/ / www. snipersparadise. com/ articles/ srt. htm http:/ / www. specwarnet. net/ taclink/ MPTeams/ usarmy_srt. htm http:/ / www. specwarnet. net/ taclink/ MPTeams/ usmc_srt. htm http:/ / www. specwarnet. net/ americas/ usaf_est. htm http:/ / www. globalsecurity. org/ military/ library/ policy/ army/ fm/ 19-10/ Ch21. htm http:/ / www. specialoperations. com/ USMC/ SRT/ Default. htm http:/ / www. stripes. com/ article. asp?section=104& article=34518& archive=true http:/ / www. dcmilitary. com/ stories/ 062608/ pentagram_28267. shtml

United States Marshals Service

322

United States Marshals Service
United States Marshals Service
Common name Abbreviation Marshal Service USMS

Official seal of the US Marshals Service

United States Marshal's star badge

Agency overview Formed Legal personality September 24th, 1789 Governmental: Government agency Jurisdictional structure Federal agency United States

Constituting instrument United States Code, Title 28, Chapter 37 [1] General nature
• •

Federal law enforcement Civilian agency

United States Marshals Service

323
Operational structure

Headquarters Sworn members Agency executives Parent agency

Arlington, Virginia 94 U.S. Marshals, 3,324 Deputy U.S. Marshals and Criminal Investigators
• • [2]

John F. Clark, Director Brian Beckwith, Deputy Director

Department of Justice Website
http:/ / www. usdoj. gov/ marshals

The United States Marshals Service (USMS) is a United States federal law enforcement agency within the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. § 561 [3]) and is the oldest federal law enforcement agency in the United States.[4] The USMS is the enforcement arm of the United States federal courts. U.S. Marshals protect court officers and buildings and ensure the effective operation of the judicial system.

History
The offices of U.S. Marshals and Deputy Marshals were created by the first Congress in the Judiciary Act of 1789, the same legislation that established the federal judicial system. In a letter to Edmund Randolph, the first United States Attorney General, President George Washington wrote, Impressed with a conviction that the due administration of justice is the firmest pillar of good Government, I have considered the first arrangement of the Judicial department as essential to the happiness of our Country, and to the stability of its political system; hence the selection of the fittest characters to expound the law, and dispense justice, has been an invariable object of my anxious concern. Many of the first U.S. Marshals had already proven themselves in military service during the American Revolution. Among the first marshals were John Adams's son-in-law Congressman William Stephens Smith for the district of New York, another New York district Marshal, Congressman Thomas Morris and Henry Dearborn for the district of Maine. From the earliest days of the nation, Marshals were permitted to recruit Special Deputies as local hires or as temporary transfers to the Marshals Service from other federal law enforcement agencies. Marshals were also authorized to swear in a posse to assist them in manhunts and other duties on an ad hoc basis. Marshals were given extensive authority to support the federal courts within their judicial districts, and to carry out all lawful orders issued by federal judges, Congress, or the President. The Marshals and their Deputies served subpoenas, summonses, writs, warrants, and other process issued by the courts, made all the arrests, and handled all federal prisoners. They also disbursed funds as ordered by the courts. Marshals paid the fees and expenses of the court clerks, U.S. Attorneys, jurors, and witnesses. They rented the courtrooms and jail space and hired the bailiffs, criers, and janitors. They made sure the prisoners were present, the jurors were available, and that the witnesses were on time. When Washington set up his first administration and the first Congress began passing laws, both quickly discovered an inconvenient gap in the constitutional design of the government: It had no provision for a regional administrative structure stretching throughout the country. Both the Congress and the executive branch were housed at the national capital; no agency was established or designated to represent the federal government's interests at the local level. The need for a regional organization quickly became apparent. Congress and the President solved part of the problem by creating specialized agencies, such as customs and revenue collectors, to levy tariffs and taxes, yet there were numerous other jobs that needed to be done. The only officers available to do them were the Marshals and their

United States Marshals Service Deputies. Thus, the Marshals also provided local representation for the federal government within their districts. They took the national census every decade through 1870. They distributed Presidential proclamations, collected a variety of statistical information on commerce and manufacturing, supplied the names of government employees for the national register, and performed other routine tasks needed for the central government to function effectively. Over the past 200 years, Congress, the President and Governors have also called on the Marshals to carry out unusual or extraordinary missions, such as registering enemy aliens in time of war, sealing the American border against armed expeditions from foreign countries, and at times during the Cold War, swapping spies with the Soviet Union, and also retrieving North Carolina's copy of the Bill of Rights.[5] Particularly in the American West, individual Deputy Marshals have been US Marshal Morgan Earp in a 1881 seen as legendary heroes in the face of rampant lawlessness (see Famous photograph Marshals, below). Marshals arrested the infamous Dalton Gang in 1893, helped suppress the Pullman Strike in 1894, enforced Prohibition during the 1920s, and have protected American athletes at recent Olympic Games. Marshals protected the refugee boy Elián González before his return to Cuba in 2000, and have protected abortion clinics as required by Federal law. Since 1989, the Marshals Service has been responsible for law enforcement among U.S. personnel in Antarctica, although they are not routinely assigned there.[6] One of the more onerous jobs the Marshals were tasked with was the recovery of fugitive slaves, as required by the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. They were also permitted to form a posse and to deputize any person in any community to aid in the recapture of fugitive slaves. Failure to cooperate with a Marshal resulted in a $5000 fine and imprisonment, a stiff penalty for those days. The Oberlin-Wellington Rescue was a celebrated fugitive-slave case involving U.S. marshals. James Batchelder was the second marshal killed in the line of duty. Batchelder, along with others, was preventing the rescue of fugitive slave Anthony Burns in Boston in 1854. In the 1960s the Marshals were on the front lines of the Civil Rights Movement, mainly providing protection to volunteers. In September 1962, President John F. Kennedy ordered 127 marshals to accompany James Meredith, an African American who wished to register at the segregated University of Mississippi. Their presence on campus provoked riots at the university, requiring President Kennedy to federalize the Mississippi National Guard to pacify the crowd, but the marshals stood their ground, and Meredith successfully registered. Marshals provided continuous U.S. Marshals accompanying James Meredith to class protection to Meredith during his first year at "Ole Miss," and Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy later proudly displayed a marshal's dented helmet in his office. U.S. Marshals also protected black schoolchildren integrating public schools in the South. Artist Norman Rockwell's famous painting "The Problem We All Live With" depicted a tiny Ruby Bridges being escorted by four towering U.S. marshals in 1964.

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325 Except for suits by incarcerated persons, non-prisoner litigants proceeding in forma pauperis, or (in some circumstances) by seamen, U.S. Marshals no longer serve process in private civil actions filed in the U.S. district courts. Under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, process may be served by any U.S. citizen over the age of 18 who is a not a party or an attorney involved in the case.

Four US Marshals protect a witness in a court hearing

Duties
The Marshals Service is responsible for apprehending wanted fugitives, providing protection for the federal judiciary, transporting federal prisoners (see JPATS), protecting endangered federal witnesses, and managing assets seized from criminal enterprises. The Marshals Service is responsible for 55.2 percent of arrests of federal fugitives. Between 1981 and 1985, the Marshals Service conducted Fugitive Investigative Strike Team operations to jump-start fugitive capture in specific districts. In 2007, U.S. Marshals captured over 36,000 federal fugitives and cleared over 38,900 fugitive warrants.[7]

A US Marshal on a JPATS flight.

The United States Marshals Service also executes all lawful writs, processes, and orders issued under the authority of the United States, and shall command all necessary assistance to execute its duties. U.S. Marshals also have the common law based power to enlist any willing civilians as deputies. In the Old West this was known as forming a posse, although under the Posse Comitatus Act, they cannot use soldiers for law enforcement duties. Lastly Title 28 USC Chapter 37 § 564. authorizes United States marshals, deputy marshals and such other officials of the Service as may be designated by the Director, in executing the laws of the United States within a State, may exercise the same powers which a sheriff of the State may exercise in executing the laws thereof.[8]

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Firearms
According to the US Marshal's website, "The U.S. Marshals Service's primary hand gun is the Glock 22 in .40 S&W caliber. Each deputy may carry a backup hand gun of their choice if it meets certain requirements." They also are equipped with AR-15s and 12 gauge shotguns.

Organization
The United States Marshals Service is based in Arlington, Virginia, and, under the authority and direction of the Attorney General, is headed by a Director, who is assisted by a Deputy Director. USMS Headquarters provides command, control and cooperation for the disparate elements of the service.

Executives
• Director of the U.S. Marshals Service: John F. Clark • Deputy Director of the U.S. Marshals Service: Brian Beckwith • Chief of Staff: Sean Fahey • Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO): Joann Grady • Office of Communications (OC) • Office of Public Affairs (OPA): Jeff Carter, Chief • Office of Congressional Affairs (OCA): Doug Disrud, Chief • Office of General Counsel (OGC): Gerald M. Auerbach • Office of Inspection (OI): Herman Brewer • Administration Directorate: Chris Dudley, Associate Director • • • • • • Training Division: Marc A. Farmer, Assistant Director Human Resources Division (HRD): Darla Callaghan, Assistant Director Information Technology Division (ITD): Lisa Davis, Assistant Director Management Support Division (MSD): Don Donovan, Assistant Director Financial Services Division (FSD): Edward Dolan, Assistant Director Asset Forfeiture Division (AFD): Michael A. Pearson, Assistant Director
Marshals are briefed for Operation Falcon 2008

• Operations Directorate: Robert J. Finan II, Associate Director • Judicial Security Division (JSD): Mike Prout, Assistant Director • • • • • Investigative Operations Division (IOD): Mike Earp, Assistant Director Witness Security Division (WSD): Sylvester E. Jones, Assistant Director Justice Prisoner and Alien Transportation System (JPATS): Scott C. Rolstad, Assistant Director Tactical Operations Division (TOD): William D. Snelson, Assistant Director Prisoner Operations Division (POD): Candra S. Symonds, Assistant Director

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Regional
The U.S. court system is divided into 94 Districts, each with a U.S. Marshal, a Chief Deputy U.S. Marshal (GS-15) (and an Assistant Chief Deputy U.S. Marshal (GS-14) in certain larger districts), Supervisory Deputy U.S. Marshals (GS-13) [9] , and as many Deputy U.S. Marshals (GS-5 and above) [9] and Special Deputy U.S. Marshals as needed. In the US federal budget for 2005, funds for 3,067 deputy marshals and criminal investigators were provided. The US Marshal of a US Circuit Court is the US Marshal in whose district that court is located.

The Director and each United States Marshal is appointed by the President of the United States and subject to confirmation by the United States Senate. The District U.S. Marshal is traditionally appointed from a list of qualified → law enforcement personnel for that district or state. Each state has at least one district, while several larger states have three or more.

A Deputy U.S. Marshal covers his fellow officers with an M-4 carbine during a "knock and announce" procedure

Deputy U.S. Marshals
OPM Classification
Deputy U.S. Marshals are classified General Schedule (GS) 1811 Criminal Investigators,[10] or a basic 082 Deputy Marshals.[9] New Deputies are hired under the Federal Career Internship Program (FCIP). Deputy U.S. Marshals start their careers as 082 series DUSM's at either a GL-5 or GL-7 pay grade. After 1 year in grade they are promoted to GL-7 or GL-9, then GS-11, and finally journeyman GS-12. All deputies will now receive there 1811 status at the GS-11 Tools of the trade pay grade. To be considered for a position as a Deputy, an individual must attend a information session, pass a oral board interview, pass an extensive background investigation, pass a medical examination, pass a drug test, pass a pre-hire fitness in total exam (FIT), and finally complete the 17 1/2 week CITP/BDUSM academy at Glynco, GA (FLETC). Criminal Investigators receive an additional 25% LEAP pay on top of their base pay. The progression system for a DUSM's pay scale is finally on par with other federal law enforcement agencies. Modification of this pay scale was implemented in September 2009. This modification is automatic progression to the next higher grade after 1 year in each grade, up to the GS-12 level. Automatic progression to the grade of GS-13 is in the works, and is hopeful for career Deputy U.S. Marshals in the near future. As of February 2007, all Deputy US Marshal new hires receive Criminal Investigator Training and Basic Deputy US Marshal training at the onset of employment. All previously hired 082 series DUSM's are expected to be converted to 1811 series Criminal Investigator DUSM's by early 2010.

United States Marshals Service

328 When DUSM's aren't out making street arrests, they can be found protecting government officials, seizing assets of major crime rings, relocating and providing new identities for witnesses in the federal witness protection program which is headed by the USMS. Through the Adam Walsh Act, the U.S. Marshals Service was chosen to head up the new federal sex offender tracking and prosecution hot team.

Marshals arrest a suspect

Titles[11]

• United States Marshal—for the top executive Marshal's Service position (political appointment) in a Federal judicial district. • Chief Deputy United States Marshal—the senior career manager for the Federal judicial district who is responsible for management of the Marshal's office and staff. • Supervisory Deputy United States Marshal—for positions in the Marshals Service responsible for the supervision of three or more deputy U.S. marshals and clerks. • Deputy United States Marshal—for all nonsupervisory positions classifiable to this series.

Special Deputy U.S. Marshals
The Director of the Marshals Service is authorized by 28 U.S.C. § 561(d) [12] (authorizing Director of Marshals Service to appoint "such employees as are necessary to carry out the powers and duties of the Service") to deputize the following individuals to perform the functions of Deputy Marshals: selected officers or employees of the Department of Justice; federal, state or local law enforcement officers; private security personnel to provide courtroom security for the Federal judiciary; and other persons designated by the Associate Attorney General". The first local law enforcement officer to be deputized was Officer William Shields of the Haverford Township Police department.

Court Security Officers
Court Security Officers,[13] are contracted former law enforcement officers who receive limited deputations as armed special deputy marshals and play a vital role in courthouse security. Using security screening systems, CSOs detect and intercept weapons and other prohibited items that individuals attempt to bring into federal courthouses. There are more than 4,700 CSOs with certified law enforcement experience deployed at more than 400 federal court facilities in the United States and its territories.

Detention Enforcement Officer
DEOs (1802s) are responsible for the care of prisoners in USMS custody. They also are tasked with the responsibility of conducting Administrative remedies for the US Marshal. DEOs can be seen transporting, booking and securing federal prisoners while in USMS custody. They also provide courtroom safety and cell block security. Detention Enforcement Officers are Deputized and fully Commissioned Federal Law Enforcement Officers by the US Marshal. They are authorized to carry firearms and conduct all official business on behalf of the agency. Not all districts employ Detention Enforcement Officers.

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Line of duty deaths
More than 200 U.S. marshals, deputy marshals, and special deputy marshals have been slain in the line of duty since Marshal Robert Forsyth was shot dead by an intended recipient of court papers in Augusta, Georgia on January 11, 1794.[14] He was the first US Government Law Officer killed in the line of duty and the third policeman killed since the 1789 founding of the American Republic—the first being Constable Darius Quimby in 1791.[15] The dead are remembered on an Honor Roll permanently displayed at Headquarters.

Other deaths
On March 26, 2009, the body of Deputy U.S. Marshal Vincent Bustamante was discovered in Juarez, Mexico, according to the U.S. Marshals Service. It is the latest discovery in a wave of violence related to the Mexican Drug War. Bustamante, who was accused of stealing and pawning government property, was a fugitive from the law at the time of his death. Chihuahua state police said the body had multiple wounds to the head—apparently consistent with an execution-style shooting. [16] [17]

Notable Marshals
Some famous or otherwise noteworthy U.S. Marshals include: • Seth Bullock (1849–1919), businessman, rancher, sheriff for Montana, sheriff of Deadwood, U.S. Marshal of South Dakota • Charles Francis Colcord (1859–1934), rancher, businessman and Marshal for Oklahoma • Henry Dearborn (1751–1829), Marshal for the District of Maine • Frederick Douglass (1818–1895), former slave and noted Abolitionist leader, appointed U.S. Marshal for the District of Columbia in 1877 • Virgil Earp (1843–1905), Deputy U.S. Marshal, Tombstone, Arizona • Wyatt Earp (1848–1929), Deputy U.S. Marshal (appointed to his brother Virgil Earp's place by the Arizona Territorial Governor) • Richard Griffith, Brigadier General in the Confederacy during the Civil War • Wild Bill Hickok (1837–1876), noted Western lawman, who served as a Deputy U.S. Marshal at Fort Riley, Kansas in 1867–1869 • Bass Reeves (July, 1838 – January, 1910) is thought by most to be one of the first African Americans to receive a commission as a U.S. Deputy Marshal west of the Mississippi River. Before he retired from federal service in 1907, Reeves had arrested over 3,000 felons. • Ward Hill Lamon (1826–1893), friend, law partner and frequent bodyguard of President Abraham Lincoln, who appointed him U.S. Marshal for the District of Columbia. • J. J. McAlester (1842-1920), U. S. Marshal for Indian Territory (1893-1897), Confederate Army captain, merchant in and founder of McAlester, Oklahoma as well as the developer of the coal mining industry in eastern Oklahoma, one of three members of the first Oklahoma Corporation Commission (1907-1911) and the second Lieutenant Governor of Oklahoma (1911-1915). • Benjamin McCulloch (1811–1862), U.S. Marshal for Eastern District of Texas; became a brigadier general in the army of the Confederate States during the American Civil War • Henry Eustace McCulloch (1816–1895), U.S. Marshal for Eastern District of Texas. Brother of Benjamin McCulloch; also a Confederate General • James J. P. McShane (1909-1968), Appointed U.S. Marshal for the District of Columbia by President John F. Kennedy then named Chief Marshal in 1962 • John W. Marshall, U.S. Marshal for the Eastern District of Virginia (1994–1999), first African-American to serve as Director of the U.S. Marshals Service (1999–2001)

United States Marshals Service • Bat Masterson (1853–1921), noted Western lawman-Deputy to US Marshal for Southern District of New York-appointed by Theodore Roosevelt • Joseph Meek (1810–1875) Territorial Marshal for Oregon • Robert F. Morey, Marshal for Massachusetts, designed the USMS Seal. The Marshals Service is the only agency to have its seal created by one of its own. • Thomas Morris (New York) (1771–1849), Marshal for New York District. • James F. Reilly (born 1954), NASA Astronaut • Henry Massey Rector (1816–1899), Marshal for Arkansas, later governor of that state • Porter Rockwell (c.1813–1878), deputy marshal for Utah • William Stephens Smith (1755–1816), 1789 U.S. Marshal for New York district and son-in-law of President John Adams • Dallas Stoudenmire (1845–1882), successful City Marshal who tamed and controlled a remote, wild and violent town of El Paso, Texas; became U.S. Marshal serving West Texas and New Mexico Territory just before his death • Heck Thomas (1850–1912), Bill Tilghman (1854–1924), and Chris Madsen (1851–1944), the legendarily fearless "Three Guardsmen" of the Oklahoma Territory • William F. Wheeler (1824–1894), Marshal for the Montana Territory • James E. Williams (1930–1999), Marshal for South Carolina, Medal Of Honor recipient. • Sharon Lubinski , was an assistant chief in the Minneapolis Police Department, and was nominated as the first openly gay U.S. Marshal[18]

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Fictional U.S. Marshals
This list is incomplete. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Anderson, James: voice acted by Jeff Osterhage in the PC game Outlaws (1997). Beck, Steven: played by Forest Whitaker in the film Witness Protection (1999) Benjamin, Samuel: from 2009 book A Cowboy in Time, by S. D. Brook Best, Sam: played by Joel Higgins in the TV series Best of the West (1981–1982). Biggs, Bobby: played by Daniel Roebuck in the films The Fugitive (1993) and U.S. Marshals (1998). Blake, Anita: from the series Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter Bonnet, Eli: from the 1996 novel, Whispers of the River, by Tom Hron. Buckhart,Sam: Native American Marshall played by Michael Ansara in the NBC series Law of the Plainsman (1959–1960). Burch, Elias: played by Willie Nelson in the TV series Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman (1996-1998). Cahill, J. D.: played by John Wayne in the film Cahill U.S. Marshal (1973). Cain, Sam: played by Brett Cullen in the TV series The Young Riders (1989–1990). Deputy Marshal: played by Craig Reay (Cain's deputy). Carter, Jack: played by Colin Ferguson in the TV series Eureka (2006–). Carter, Ray: played by Robert Patrick, as the head of the U. S. Marshal Service in the film Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle (2003). Cogburn, Reuben J. "Rooster": played by John Wayne in the films True Grit (1969) and Rooster Cogburn (1975), and by Warren Oates in a 1978 TV sequel Cooper, Jed: played by Clint Eastwood in the film Hang 'Em High (1968). Cooper, Savannah: played by Latanya Richardson in the film U.S. Marshals (1998). County, Brisco: played by R. Lee Ermey in the TV series The Adventures of Brisco County, Jr. (1993).

• Craddock, Jack: played by Richard Comar in the TV series Bordertown (1989). • Crown, Jim: played by Stuart Whitman in the TV series Cimarron Strip (1967-68). • David: A minor character at the same a Marshal played by David U. Hodges in the film The Fugitive (1993)

United States Marshals Service • Deguerin, Robert: played by James Caan in the film Eraser (1996). • Dillon, Matt: played by William Conrad in the radio series (1952–1961) and by James Arness in the TV series (1955–1975) Gunsmoke. • Dixon, Wildhorse: from the novel, Topaz, by Beverly Jenkins. • Drake, Eddie: played by Lee Tergesen in the TV series Wanted (2005). • Elam, Cord: Federal Marshal and cowboy from the musical Oklahoma! • Goode, Chester B.: played by Dennis Weaver (Dillon’s deputy). • Haggen, Festus: played by Ken Curtis (Dillon’s deputy). • Eckerson, Andy: played by Craig Bierko in the Law & Order: Special Victims Unit episode "Escape" (2003). • Edward, AKA Ted (Theodore) Forrester: from the series Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter • Gerard, Samuel: played by Tommy Lee Jones in the films The Fugitive (1993) and U.S. Marshals (1998). • Gordon, Artemus: played by Ross Martin in the T.V. series The Wild Wild West (1965) and by Kevin Kline in the film Wild Wild West (1999). (Artemus Gordon was a Special Agent of the US Secret Service) • Hamilton, Barnett: played by Monty Stuart (Hunter’s deputy). • Henry: played by Johnny Lee Davenport in the films The Fugitive (1993) and U.S. Marshals (1998). • “the Highwayman”: played by Sam J. Jones in the TV series The Highwayman (1987, 1988). • Hunter, Teaspoon: played by Anthony Zerbe in the TV series The Young Riders (1990–1992). • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Kane, Morgan: from the Morgan Kane Book series by Louis Masterson. Kane, Will: played by Gary Cooper in the film High Noon (1952). Kirkland, Lawrence: from the series Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter Kruger, John: played by Arnold Schwarzenegger in the film Eraser (1996). Larkin, Vince: played by John Cusack in the film Con Air (1997). La Roca, Jack: played by Lou Diamond Phillips in the film Route 666 (2001). Long, Custis: fictional character in the Longarm western series MacBride, Winston: played by Jeff Fahey in the TV series The Marshal (1995). Maddox, Jared: played by Burt Lancaster in the film Lawman (1970). Mann, Marshall: played by Frederick Weller in the TV Series In Plain Sight Mars, Edward: played by Fredric Lehne in the TV series Lost (2004–2005). McCloud, Sam: played by Dennis Weaver in the TV series McCloud (1970–1977). McQueen, Stan: played by Paul Ben-Victor in the TV series In Plain Sight Merrick, Len: played by Kirk Douglas in the film Along the Great Divide (1951). Morgan, Frank: played by John Bromfield in the TV series Sheriff of Cochise (1956–1958) and U.S. Marshal (1958–1960). Morgan, Matt: played by Kirk Douglas in the film Last Train from Gun Hill (1959). Nessip, Pete: played by Wesley Snipes in the film Drop Zone Newman, Noah: played by Tom Wood in the films The Fugitive (1993) and U.S. Marshals (1998). Nightingale, Howard: played by Kirk Douglas in the film Posse (1975). O'Niel, W. T.: played by Sean Connery in the film Outland (1981). (Note his badge at the end of U.S. Marshals Badges [19]). Poole: played by L. Scott Caldwell in the film The Fugitive (1993). Renfro, Cosmo: played by Joe Pantoliano in the films The Fugitive (1993) and U.S. Marshals (1998). Scanlon, Ike: played by Lee Van Cleef in the TV Movie Nowhere to Hide (1977). Sisco, Karen: from the 1996 novel, Out of Sight, by Elmore Leonard. Played by Jennifer Lopez in the film Out of Sight (1998), and by Carla Gugino in the TV series Karen Sisco (2003–2004). Shannon, Mary: played by Mary McCormack in the TV series In Plain Sight (2008)

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• Stetko, Carrie: from the 1998 comic series Whiteout by Greg Rucka and Steve Lieber, and its 2000 sequel. Played by Kate Beckinsale in the 2009 film adaptation.

United States Marshals Service • Stevens: played by Steve Baracella in the film The Fugitive (1993) • West, James: played by Robert Conrad on the T.V. series The Wild Wild West (1965) and by Will Smith in the film Wild Wild West (1999). (James West was a Special Agent of the US Secret Service) • White, Colton 'Cole': from the PlayStation 2, Xbox, and Xbox 360 game GUN. • Zachary, Ed: from the Morgan Kane Book series by Louis Masterson.

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Fugitive programs
15 Most Wanted
The Marshals Service publicizes the names of wanted persons it places on the list of U.S. Marshals 15 Most Wanted Fugitives[20] , which is similar to and sometimes overlapping the FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list or the → Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Most Wanted List, depending on jurisdiction.[21] (15 Most wanted website [22]) The 15 Most Wanted Fugitive Program was established in 1983 in an effort to prioritize the investigation and apprehension of high-profile offenders who are considered to be some of the country’s most dangerous fugitives. These offenders tend to be career criminals with histories of violence or whose instant offense(s) pose a significant threat to public safety. Current and past fugitives in this program include murderers, sex offenders, major drug kingpins, organized crime figures, and individuals wanted for high-profile financial crimes.

Major cases
The Major Case Fugitive Program was established in 1985 in an effort to supplement the successful 15 Most Wanted Fugitive Program. Much like the 15 Most Wanted Fugitive Program, the Major Case Fugitive Program prioritizes the investigation and apprehension of high-profile offenders who are considered to be some of the country’s most dangerous individuals. All escapes from custody are automatically elevated to Major Case status.[23]

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • → Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) Constable Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) → DSS - Diplomatic Security Service, U.S. Department of State Federal Air Marshal Service Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Bureau of Prisons Federal law enforcement in the United States Fugitive Going Snake Massacre Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Informant Justice Prisoner and Alien Transportation System → Law enforcement agency Marshal Sheriff Sting operation

• Telephone tapping • Turn state's evidence • Undercover

United States Marshals Service • • • • • United States Border Patrol United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP) United States District Court United States Federal Witness Protection Program → United States Secret Service

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External links
• U.S. Marshals Service [24] • Court Security Program [25]—includes role in CSO's • AUTHORITY OF FBI AGENTS, SERVING AS SPECIAL DEPUTY UNITED STATES MARSHALS, TO PURSUE NON-FEDERAL FUGITIVES [26] • DEPUTIZATION OF MEMBERS OF CONGRESS AS SPECIAL DEPUTY U.S. MARSHALS [27] • USC on the US Marshals Service [28] • Retired US Marshals Association [29] • U.S. Department of State, Diplomatic Security Service [45] (DSS)

References
[1] http:/ / www. law. cornell. edu/ uscode/ 28/ ch37. html [2] " Fact Sheet: United States Marshals Service (http:/ / www. usmarshals. gov/ duties/ factsheets/ 2009/ facts_figures_0409. pdf)" (PDF). usmarshals.gov. . Retrieved 2009-08-29. [3] http:/ / www. law. cornell. edu/ uscode/ 28/ 561. html [4] " Fact Sheet: United States Marshals Service (http:/ / www. usmarshals. gov/ duties/ factsheets/ general. pdf)" (PDF). usmarshals.gov. . Retrieved 2007-01-08. While the first colonial postal service Surveyors were appointed in 1772, they were not deemed Special Agents until 1801, and were organized as the United States Postal Inspection Service in 1830. ( A Chronology of the United States Postal Inspection Service (https:/ / postalinspectors. uspis. gov/ aboutus/ History. aspx)) [5] " History in Custody: The U.S. Marshals Service Takes Possession of North Carolina’s Copy of the Bill of Rights (http:/ / www. usmarshals. gov/ history/ north_carolina_bill_of_rights. htm)". United States Marshals Service: Historical Perspective. usmarshals.gov. . Retrieved 2007-01-08. [6] " U.S. Marshals make legal presence in Antarctica (http:/ / www. usmarshals. gov/ history/ antarctica/ )". United States Marshals Service: Historical Perspective. usmarshals.gov. . Retrieved 2007-01-08. [7] http:/ / www. usmarshals. gov/ duties/ factsheets/ facts. pdf [8] http:/ / www. law. cornell. edu/ uscode/ uscode28/ usc_sec_28_00000564----000-. htm [9] POSITION CLASSIFICATION STANDARD FOR UNITED STATES MARSHAL SERIES, GS-0082 (http:/ / www. opm. gov/ fedclass/ gs0082. pdf) [10] Position Classification Standard for General Investigating/Criminal Investigating Series, GS-1810/1811 (http:/ / www. opm. gov/ fedclass/ gs181011. pdf) [11] U.S. Office of Personnel Management 2 United States Marshal Series, GS-0082 TS-14 June 1973 [12] http:/ / www. law. cornell. edu/ uscode/ 28/ 561. html#d [13] DOL WHD: SCA Occupation Directory - 27010 COURT SECURITY OFFICER (http:/ / www. dol. gov/ esa/ regs/ compliance/ whd/ wage/ p27010. htm) [14] Marshal Robert Forsyth, United States Department of Justice - Marshals Service (http:/ / www. odmp. org/ officer. php?oid=5016) [15] http:/ / www. odmp. org/ officer. php?oid=16907 Constable Darius Quimby [16] Edgar Roman, a reporter with XHIJ television in Juarez [17] http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2009/ US/ 03/ 26/ marshal. killed/ index. html [18] http:/ / www. huffingtonpost. com/ 2009/ 10/ 14/ sharon-lubinski-first-ope_n_321194. html [19] http:/ / www. usmarshals. gov/ history/ badges/ index. html [20] Current U.S. Marshals 15 Most Wanted Fugitives (http:/ / www. usmarshals. gov/ investigations/ most_wanted/ index. html) [21] ATF Online - Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (http:/ / www. atf. gov/ wanted/ index. htm) [22] http:/ / www. usdoj. gov/ marshals/ investigations/ most_wanted/ index. html [23] Current U.S. Marshals Service Major Case Fugitives (http:/ / www. usmarshals. gov/ investigations/ major_cases/ index. html) [24] http:/ / www. usdoj. gov/ marshals [25] http:/ / www. usmarshals. gov/ judicial/ [26] http:/ / www. usdoj. gov/ olc/ fistopcc. htm

United States Marshals Service
[27] http:/ / www. usdoj. gov/ olc/ depmar. htm [28] http:/ / uscode. house. gov/ download/ pls/ 28C37. txt [29] http:/ / rusma. com/

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United States Secret Service
United States Secret Service
Common name Abbreviation Secret Service USSS

USSS star logo

Mission statement

The mission of the United States Secret Service is to safeguard the nation's financial infrastructure and payment systems to preserve the integrity of the economy, and to protect national leaders, visiting heads of state and government, designated sites and National Special Security Events. Agency overview

Legal personality

Governmental: Government agency Jurisdictional structure

Federal agency General nature Specialist jurisdiction

USA
• •

Federal law enforcement Civilian agency

Operational structure Sworn members Agency executive Parent agency Field Offices 4,400 Mark J. Sullivan, Director United States Department of Homeland Security 136 Facilities Resident Agent Offices Overseas Offices 68 19 Website

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http:/ / www. SecretService. gov

The United States Secret Service is a United States federal law enforcement agency that falls under the United States Department of Homeland Security.[1] The sworn members are divided among the Special Agents and the Uniformed Division. Until March 1, 2003, the Service was part of the United States Department of Treasury.[2] The U.S. Secret Service has two distinct areas of responsibility: • Treasury roles, covering missions such as prevention and investigation of counterfeiting of U.S. currency and U.S. treasury bonds notes and investigation of major fraud. • Protective roles, ensuring the safety of national VIPs such as the President, past presidents, vice presidents, presidential candidates, their families, foreign embassies (per an agreement with the U.S. State Department's Bureau of Diplomatic Security (DS) Office of Foreign Missions (OFM)), etc.[3] The Secret Service began as an agency for the investigation of crimes related to the Treasury, and then evolved into the United States' first domestic intelligence and counterintelligence agency. Many of the previous missions of the Secret Service were later taken over by subsequent agencies such as the FBI, ATF, and IRS and Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS)

Roles
The Secret Service has primary jurisdiction over the prevention and investigation of counterfeiting of U.S. currency and U.S. treasury bonds notes. However, this agency is best known for their work protecting the President. Today, the Secret Service is authorized by law to protect: • The president, the vice president, secretary of state (or other individuals next in order of succession to the Office of the President), the president-elect and vice president-elect. Secret Service Special Agents (foreground) • The immediate families of the above individuals. protecting the President of the United States in 2007. • Former presidents and their spouses for their lifetimes, except when the spouse remarries. In 1997, Congressional legislation became effective limiting Secret Service protection to former presidents for a period of not more than 10 years from the date the former president leaves office. Children of former presidents until age 16. Former Vice Presidents six months after their term ends (the Secretary of Homeland Security can extend the protection time). Families of former Vice Presidents six months after term ends. Visiting heads of foreign states or governments and their spouses traveling with them, other distinguished foreign visitors to the United States, and official representatives of the United States performing special missions abroad. Major presidential and vice presidential candidates, and their spouses within 120 days of a general presidential election. Other individuals as designated per Executive Order of the President. National Special Security Events, when designated as such by the Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security.

• • • • • • •

The Secret Service also investigates a wide variety of financial fraud crimes and identity theft and provides forensics assistance for some local crimes. The United States Secret Service Uniformed Division (UD) assists in the protection of foreign embassies, the United States Naval Observatory and the White House within Washington, D.C. Due to the discretion of this organization, many details about the Secret Service are currently classified.

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Appearance
Special Agents of the Secret Service wear attire that is appropriate for the surroundings. In many circumstances, the attire is a conservative business suit, but attire can range from a dinner jacket to blue jeans. Photographs often show them wearing sunglasses and a communication earpiece. They also wear lapel pins of a color and shape that, for security purposes, varies regularly, but each design prominently features the service's star emblem in the center. These lapel pins are usually changed hourly when agents travel with the President. The attire for Uniformed Division Officers includes standard police uniforms, or utility uniforms and ballistic/identification vests for members of the countersniper team, Emergency Response Team (ERT), and canine officers. The shoulder patch of the USSS Uniformed Division consists of the presidential seal on white or black depending on the garment to which it is attached. While there is no official patch indicating "Secret Service", Special Agents have occasionally designed and purchased unofficial patches to trade in their extensive collaborations with uniformed law enforcement officers.[4]
Secret Service agents provide security for Pope Benedict XVI in Washington, D.C. Agents are identified by their lapel pins.

History
With a reported one third of the currency in circulation being counterfeit, the Secret Service was commissioned on July 5, 1865 in Washington, D.C. as the "Secret Service Division" of the Department of the Treasury and was originally tasked with the suppression of counterfeiting. Ironically, the legislation creating the agency was on Abraham Lincoln's desk the night he was assassinated.[5] At the time, the only other federal law enforcement agencies were the United States Park Police, U.S. Post Office Department, Office of Instructions and Mail Depredations, now known as the United States Postal Inspection Service, and the → United States Marshals Service. The Marshals did not have the manpower to investigate all crime under federal Secret Service Uniformed Division vehicle in jurisdiction, so the Secret Service was used to investigate everything Washington D.C. from murder to bank robbery to illegal gambling. After the assassination of President William McKinley in 1901, Congress informally requested that the Secret Service begin to provide presidential protection. A year later, the Secret Service assumed full-time responsibility for protection of the President. In 1902, William Craig became the first Secret Service agent to be killed while riding in the presidential carriage, in a road accident. Secret Service was the first U.S. domestic intelligence and counterintelligence agency, hence its name, "Secret Service". Domestic intelligence collection and counterintelligence responsibilities were vested in the Federal Bureau of Investigation after the FBI's creation in

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1908. The U.S. Secret Service is not part of the U.S. Intelligence Community.[6] In 1950, President Harry S. Truman was residing in the Blair House, across the street from the White House, while the executive mansion was undergoing renovations. Two Puerto Rican nationalists, Oscar Collazo and Griselio Torresola, approached the Blair House with the intent to assassinate President Truman. Collazo and Torresola opened fire on Private Leslie Coffelt and other White House Police officers. Though mortally wounded by three shots from a 9 mm Luger to his chest and abdomen, Private Coffelt returned fire, killing Torresola with a single shot to his head. To this day, Coffelt is the only member of the Secret Service to be killed while protecting a U.S. President against an assassination attempt. Collazo was also shot, but survived his injuries and served 29 years in prison before returning to Puerto Rico in 1979. Special Agent Tim McCarthy stepped in front of President Ronald Reagan during the assassination attempt of March 30, 1981 and took a bullet to the abdomen, but made a full recovery.

Secret Service Uniformed Division

The Secret Service Presidential Protective Detail safeguards the President of the United States and his immediate family. They are heavily armed and work with other federal, state and local law enforcement agencies and the military to safeguard the President when he travels, in Air Force One, Marine One, and by limousine in motorcades. Although the most visible role of the Secret Service today, personal protection is an anomaly in the responsibilities of an agency focused on fraud and counterfeiting. The reason for this combination of duties is that when the need for presidential protection became apparent in the early 20th century, there were a limited quantity of federal services with the necessary abilities and resources. The FBI, IRS, ATF, ICE, and DEA did not yet exist. The United States Marshals Service was the only other logical choice, and in fact the U.S. Marshals did provide protection for the President on a number of occasions. In the end, however, the job went to the Secret Service. The Secret Service has over 6,500 employees: 3,200 Special Agents, 1,300 Uniformed Division Officers, and 2,000 technical and administrative employees.[7] Special agents serve on protective details, special teams or sometimes investigate certain financial and homeland security-related crimes. The United States Secret Service Uniformed Division is similar to the United States Capitol Police and is in charge of protecting the physical White House grounds and foreign diplomatic missions in the Secret Service Uniformed Division cruiser in Washington, D.C. area. The Uniformed Division was originally a Washington D.C. at the White House separate organization known as the White House Police Force, but was placed under the command of the Chief of the Secret Service in 1930. In 1970, the role of the force, then called the Executive Protective Service (EPS), was expanded. The name United States Secret Service Uniformed Division was adopted in 1977. In 1968, as a result of presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy's assassination, Congress authorized protection of major presidential and vice presidential candidates and nominees (Pub.L. 90-331). Congress also authorized protection of the spouses of deceased presidents unless they remarry and of the children of former presidents until age 16.[2]

United States Secret Service Congress passed legislation in 1994 stating that presidents who enter office after January 1, 1997 will receive Secret Service protection for 10 years after leaving office. Presidents who entered office prior to January 1, 1997 will continue to receive lifetime protection (Treasury Department Appropriations Act, 1995: Pub.L. 103-329 [8]). While primarily responsible for presidential protection, the Secret Service may also investigate forgery of government checks, forgery of currency equivalents (such as travelers' or cashiers' checks), and certain instances of wire fraud (such as the so called Nigerian scam) and credit card fraud. The Secret Service also has concurrent jurisdiction with the FBI over certain violations of federal computer crime laws. They have created a network of 24 Electronic Crimes Task Forces (ECTFs) across the United States. These task forces create partnerships between the Service, federal/state and local law enforcement, the private sector and academia aimed at combating technology based crimes. In 1998, President Bill Clinton signed Presidential Decision Directive 62, which established National Special Security Events (NSSE). In that directive, it made the Secret Service the federal agency responsible for security at events given such a designation. Effective March 1, 2003, the Secret Service was transferred from the Department of the Treasury to the newly established Department of Homeland Security.

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Attacks on Presidents
Since the 1960s, Presidents John F. Kennedy, Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, and George W. Bush have been attacked while appearing in public. President Ford was not injured, despite being attacked twice. President Reagan was seriously injured but survived, and President Kennedy died from the attack. President Bush was also not injured, when a hand grenade thrown towards the podium where he was speaking failed to detonate.[9] [10] Others who have been on scene though not injured during attacks on Presidents include Clint Hill, James Rowley, William Greer, and Roy Kellerman. One of the more distinguished Secret Service agents was Robert DeProspero, the Special Secret Service agent Clint Hill on the back of the presidential Agent In Charge (SAIC) of Reagan's Presidential limousine moments after John F. Kennedy was shot Protective Division (PPD) from January 1982 to April 1985. DeProspero was the deputy to Jerry S. Parr, the SAIC of PPD during the Reagan assassination attempt on March 30, 1981. [11] [12] The Kennedy assassination spotlighted the bravery of two Secret Service agents. First, an agent protecting Mrs. Kennedy, Clint Hill, was riding in the car directly behind the Presidential Limousine when the attack began. While the shooting was taking place, Hill leapt from the running board of the car he was riding on and sprinted up to the car carrying the President and the First Lady. He jumped on to the back of the moving car and guided Mrs. Kennedy off the trunk she had climbed on and back into the rear seat of the car. He then shielded the President and the First Lady with his body until the car arrived at the hospital.

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339 The other agent whose bravery was spotlighted during the assassination was Rufus Youngblood, who was riding in the vice presidential car. When the shots were fired, he vaulted over the back of the front seat, threw his body over Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, who would become president, and sprawled over him to minimize chances he might be injured. Youngblood would later recall some of this in his memoir, Twenty Years in the Secret Service. That evening, Johnson called Secret Service Chief James J. Rowley and cited Youngblood's bravery.[13]

The period following the Kennedy assassination was probably the most difficult in the modern history of the agency. Press reports indicated that morale among the agents was "low" for months following the [14] assassination. Nevertheless, the agency overhauled its procedures in the wake of the Kennedy killing. Training, which until that time had been confined largely to "on-the-job" efforts, was systematized and regularized.
Secret Service agents protect President Ronald Reagan during the assassination attempt by John Hinckley, Jr. on March 30, 1981

The Reagan assassination attempt also highlighted the bravery of several Secret Service agents, particularly agent Tim McCarthy, who spread his stance to protect Reagan as six bullets were being fired by the would-be assassin, John Hinckley, Jr.[15] McCarthy took one .22-caliber round in the abdomen, which was successfully removed by surgeons at George Washington University Hospital (also where Reagan was taken and recovered). For his bravery, McCarthy received the NCAA Award of Valor in 1982. After the near-successful assassination of Ronald Reagan, it was very clear that the Secret Service needed to increase its efficiency to protect the President.

Protection of former Presidents and First Ladies
In 1965, Congress authorized the Secret Service (Public Law 89-186)[16] to protect a former president and his spouse during their lifetime, unless they decline protection. In 1997, Congress enacted legislation that limits Secret Service protection for former presidents to ten years after leaving office. Under this new law, individuals who were in office before January 1, 1997 will continue to receive Secret Service protection for their lifetime. Individuals entering office after that time will receive protection for ten years after leaving office. Therefore, former President Bill Clinton will be the last president to receive lifetime protection, and former President George W. Bush is the first to receive protection for only ten years (until 2019). Barbara Bush, Rosalynn Carter, Betty Ford, Hillary Clinton, and Nancy Reagan will continue to receive full-time protection for life, as former First Ladies. Laura Bush will be the first to receive protection for only ten years (until 2019). The Secret Service uses code names for U.S. Presidents, First Ladies, Vice Presidents, their spouses, children, and other prominent persons and locations.

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Protective operations, protective-function training and weaponry
Due to the importance of the Secret Service's protective function, the personnel of the agency receive the latest weapons and training. The agents of the Protective Operations Division receive the latest military technology (See: the Presidential Protection Assistance Act of 1976, codified in the notes of Title 18, Section 3056 of the U.S. Code Annotated). Due to specific legislation and directives, the United States military must fully comply with requests for assistance with providing protection for the president and all other people under protection, providing equipment, and even military personnel at no cost to the Secret Service.

Secret Service agents (foreground, right) guard President George W. Bush in 2008

The Uniformed Division has three branches: the White House Branch, Foreign Missions, and the Naval Observatory Branch. Together they provide protection for the following: The President and Vice President of the United States and their immediate families, presidential candidates, the White House Complex, the Vice President’s Residence, the Main Treasury Department building and its annex facility, and foreign diplomatic missions in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area.[17] Special Agents and Uniformed Division Officers carry either the SIG Sauer P229 pistol chambered for the .357 SIG cartridge or the FN Five-seven pistol chambered for the 5.7x28mm cartridge. In addition to their sidearms, they are also trained on several close-combat weapons such as the Remington Model 870 shotgun, the M4 carbine, the IMI Uzi, FN P90, and the HK MP5 (including the MP5KA4) submachine guns among others. They are also issued radios and surveillance kits in order to maintain communication with a central command post and other personnel.[18]

Rescue attempts during September 11, 2001 attacks
The Secret Service New York City Field office was located at 7 World Trade Center. Immediately after the attacks, Special Agents and other Secret Service employees stationed at the New York Field office were among the first to respond with first aid trauma kits. Sixty-seven Special Agents in New York City, at and near the New York Field Office, assisted local fire and Police rescue teams by helping to set up triage areas and evacuating people from the towers. One Secret Service employee, Master Special Officer Craig Miller,[19] died during the rescue efforts. On August 20, 2002, Director Brian L. Stafford recognized the bravery and heroism of 67 Secret Service employees in the New York Field Office, by awarding the Director's Valor Award to employees who assisted in the rescue attempts in the World Trade Center during the September 11, 2001, attacks.

Directors

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• • • • • • • • • • •

1. William P. Wood (1865 – 1869) 3. Elmer Washburn (1874 – 1876) 4. James Brooks (1876 – 1888) 5. John S. Bell (1888 – 1890) 6. A.L. Drummond (1891 – 1894) 7. William P. Hazen (1894 – 1898) 8. John E. Wilkie (1898 – 1911) 9. William J. Flynn (1912 – 1917) 11. Frank J. Wilson (1937 – 1946)

• • • • • • • • •

12. James J. Maloney (1946 – 1948) 13. U.E. Baughman (1948 – 1961) 14. James J. Rowley (1961 – 1973) 15. H. Stuart Knight (1973 – 1981) 16. John R. Simpson (1981 – 1992) 17. John Magaw (1992 – 1993) 18. Eljay B. Bowron (1993 – 1997) 19. Lewis C. Merletti (1997 – 1999) 20. Brian L. Stafford (1999 – 2003) 21. W. Ralph Basham (2003 – 2006) 22. Mark J. Sullivan (2006 – present)

2. Herman C. Whitley (1869 – 1874) •

10. William H. Moran (1917 – 1936) •

Field offices
The Secret Service has agents assigned to 136 field offices and the headquarters in Washington, D.C. while the field offices are located in cities throughout the United States and in Brazil (Brasilia), Bulgaria (Sofia), Canada (Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Vancouver), Colombia (Bogota [de Francisco]), China (Hong Kong), France (Paris), INTERPOL, Germany (Frankfurt), Italy (Rome), Mexico (Mexico City), EUROPOL (Netherlands/The Hague), Romania (Bucharest), Russia (Moscow), South Africa (Pretoria), Spain (Madrid), Thailand (Bangkok), and the United Kingdom (London).

Similar organizations
• • • • → U.S. Diplomatic Security Service (DSS), Department of State United States Federal Protective Service Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) List of protective service agencies

See also
• Organized crime • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Armour Ballistic vest Bodyguard Secret Service codename Commander-in-Chief's Guard—The American Revolutionary War unit that also had the dual responsibilities of protecting the Commander-in-Chief and the Continental Army's money. Air Force One Cadillac One List of United States federal law enforcement agencies Marine One Presidential State Car (United States) Private Military Company White House Communications Agency William Craig, the first Secret Service agent killed on duty Praetorian Guard Security Guard VIP Protection Unit

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External links
• • • • United States Secret Service website [20] Protecting the US President abroad [21] USSS and Italian law enforcement agencies protecting President George W. Bush in Rome (April 7, 2005) [22] Press release concerning rescue Efforts of USSS NY Field Office immediately after the World Trade Center Attacks [23]

References
[1] " The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions (http:/ / www. fas. org/ sgp/ crs/ homesec/ RL34603. pdf)". Congressional Research Service. 2008-07-31. . Retrieved 2008-09-08. [2] " Secret Service History (http:/ / www. secretservice. gov/ history. shtml)". United States Secret Service. . Retrieved 2008-03-09. [3] (http:/ / www. secretservice. gov/ opportunities_ud. shtml) [4] The American Presidency (http:/ / americanhistory. si. edu/ presidency/ 2b4_b. html) [5] Petro, Joeseph; Jeffery Robinson (2005). Standing Next to History, An Agent's Life Inside the Secret Service. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 16. ISBN 0312332211. [6] http:/ / www. intelligence. gov/ 1-members. shtml [7] http:/ / www. secretservice. gov/ faq. shtml#faq8 [8] http:/ / assembler. law. cornell. edu/ usc-cgi/ get_external. cgi?type=pubL& target=103-329 [9] Secret Service told grenade landed near Bush (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2005/ WORLD/ europe/ 05/ 10/ bush. georgia/ ) [10] " Bush grenade attacker gets life (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2006/ WORLD/ europe/ 01/ 11/ georgia. grenade/ index. html)". CNN. 2006-01-11. . Retrieved 2007-01-03. [11] Petro, Joeseph; Jeffery Robinson (2005). Standing Next to History, An Agent's Life Inside the Secret Service. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 140–141 & 202–204. ISBN 0312332211. [12] WVU Alumni | Robert L. DeProspero (http:/ / alumni. wvu. edu/ awards/ academy/ 1995/ robert_deprospero/ ) [13] "The Transfer of Power" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,875362-2,00. html), Time magazine, November 29, 1963. [14] Twenty Years in the Secret Service by Rufus Youngblood, pages 147–149. Vince Palamara interviews with former agent Rufus Youngblood on 10/22/92 and 2/8/94—please see: Survivor's Guilt: The Secret Service and the Failure to Protect the President (http:/ / www. assassinationresearch. com/ v4n1. html). [15] He Took A Bullet For Reagan (http:/ / www. cbsnews. com/ stories/ 2004/ 06/ 11/ earlyshow/ main622527. shtml) "'In the Secret Service,' [McCarthy] continued, 'we're trained to cover and evacuate the president. And to cover the president, you have to get as large as you can, rather than hitting the deck.'" [16] Secret Service Frequently Asked Questions. (http:/ / www. ustreas. gov/ usss/ faq. shtml#faq9) [17] United States Secret Service (http:/ / www. theblueline. com/ feature/ ILUSSS1. html) [18] Eyeballing the US Secret Service Technical Security Division (http:/ / cryptome. org/ sstsd-eyeball. htm) [19] Master Special Officer Craig J. Miller, United States Department of the Treasury - Secret Service Special Services Division (http:/ / www. odmp. org/ officer. php?oid=15843) [20] http:/ / www. secretservice. gov/ [21] http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ americas/ 4535911. stm [22] http:/ / corpidelite. altervista. org/ NOCSgw01. html [23] http:/ / www. secretservice. gov/ press/ pub1602. pdf

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Pentagon Force Protection Agency
Pentagon Force Protection Agency
Abbreviation PFPA

PFPA Seal

Motto

"Protecting those Who Protect the Nation" Agency overview

Formed Preceding agency Legal personality

May 3, 2002 Defense Protective Service Governmental: Government agency Jurisdictional structure

Federal agency(Operations jurisdiction) Legal jurisdiction General nature

United States The Pentagon and National Capital Region
• •

Federal law enforcement Civilian agency Operational structure

Headquarters Agency executive Parent agency Child agency

The Pentagon Steven E. Calvery-Director, Richard S. Keevill, Chief of the U.S. Pentagon Police Department of Defense United States Pentagon Police Website
http:/ / www. pfpa. mil/

The Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA) is a United States Government agency staffed by sworn federal police officers (United States Pentagon Police), civilian criminal investigators and CBRN technicians, as well as non-sworn civilian anti-terrorism physical security personnel, and is responsible for the protection of The Pentagon, headquarters of the United States Department of Defense (DoD). In response to the terrorist attack against the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, the DoD established the new agency, which absorbed the Defense Protective Service (DPS), and assumed its role of providing basic law enforcement and security for The Pentagon and DoD interests in the National Capitol Region (NCR). PFPA expanded that mission to provide force protection against the full spectrum of potential threats through robust prevention, preparedness, detection, and response measures. The agency provides those services to the 280 acre (1.1 km²) "Pentagon Reservation" as well as numerous other Department of Defense activities and facilities within the NCR.

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United States Pentagon Police
The mission of the Pentagon Police Department (PPD) is to promote high quality law enforcement and security services, in order to provide a safe and orderly work environment for the Department of Defense community in the National Capital Region. Formerly The Defense Protective Service (DPS), The U.S. Pentagon Police have exclusive jurisdiction within the Pentagon Reservation and have concurrent jurisdiction with other police agencies in an area of approximately 275 acres around the complex. Through a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Arlington County, U.S. Pentagon Police also possess conditional police authority throughout Arlington County. United States Pentagon Police are also charged with the protection of certain Department of Defense executive officers. Pentagon Police officers are Federal officers, appointed under Title 10 Section 2674 of the United States Code. They are sworn officers with full federal authority, and receive their initial training at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in Glynco, Georgia.

Personnel
Careers
The United States Pentagon Police has an assortment of career opportunities. The motorized, bicycle, and motorcycle patrols, Emergency Response Team, K-9, Protective Service Unit, Criminal Investigations, Threat Management, Training Branch, Evidence and Court Liaison, and Recruiting Branch are units that exist for career enhancement. U.S. Pentagon Police Officers/Special Agents are sworn federal law enforcement officers, appointed under Title 10 Section 2674 of the United States Code. The officers possess full Federal authority, as authorized by Section 2674, and receive initial training at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in Glynco, Georgia. Police Officers (0083) attend the Basic Police Training Program Criminal Investigators/Special Agents(1811) attend the Criminal Investigator Training Program Special Agents attend Protective Services Training at Fort Leonard Wood, MO and the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center.

Anti-Terrorism Force Protection Directorate (ATFP)
The mission of the PFPA Antiterrorism Force/Protection Directorate (AT/FP) is to provide PFPA and DoD interests throughout the National Capital Region with a total AT/FP program designed to protect lives, facilities, information and equipment. The AT/FP Division advises Pentagon leaders on AT/FP matters; conducts antiterrorism training for all Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) personnel; gathers, analyzes and disseminates threat information as it relates to AT/FP; develops AT/FP plans and programs; and conducts vulnerability assessments. The AT/FP Directorate is composed of highly trained and motivated security specialists responsible for deterring, detecting, and responding against terrorist attacks to DoD assets within the National Capital Region (NCR). Additionally, the security specialists serve as AT subject matter experts for the Designated Officials throughout the National Capital Region (NCR). The AT/FP Directorate also provides AT Level I Training at the Pentagon twice a week, and provides DoD personnel with a direct link for reporting suspicious activity.

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Criminal Investigations & Protective Directorate (CIPD)
The mission of the Criminal Investigations & Protective Directorate is to investigate violations of the United States Code within the jurisdiction of PFPA and provide executive protection to DoD High Risk Personnel (HRP) in the NCR (National Capital Region). PFPA Special Agent's (1811) investigate violations of the United States Code and provide protection for CONUS missions for visiting Ministers of Defense and other OCONUS missions designated by the Office of the Secretary of Defense. CIPD's Operations Section is responsible for coordinating protection missions and providing 24/7 support for field agents. The Protective Services Unit (PSU) is responsible for providing protective support for the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff at the Pentagon Building. They handle visits to the Pentagon by foreign and domestic dignitaries, as well as cover protection for special events on the Pentagon Reservation, most recently noted the dedication of the 9/11 memorial. The police officers assigned to PSU provide residence security in hotel room hallways during the midnight shift while traveling with HRP's both inside and outside of the United States. They are provided the same DoD approved Protective Service Training as the Criminal Investigators with the directorate, however do not complete criminal investigator training. The mission of the Criminal Investigations & Protective Directorate is to investigate violations of the United States Code within the jurisdiction of PFPA and provide executive protection to DoD High Risk Personnel (HRP) in the NCR (National Capital Region). PFPA Special Agent's (1811) investigate criminal activity under the jurisdiction of the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, violations of the United States Code and provide protection for CONUS missions for visiting High Risk Personnel and other OCONUS missions designated by the Office of the Secretary of Defense. CIPD's Operations Section is responsible for coordinating protection missions and providing 24/7 support for field agents.

See also
• U.S. Defense Department firefighters

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Correctional Emergency Response Team
A Correctional Emergency Response Team (CERT), Special Emergency Response Team for Correction (SERT), or Special Operation Response Team (SORT) is a team of highly trained corrections officers in the United States tasked with responding to incidents, riots, cell extractions, mass searches, or disturbances in prisons, possibly involving uncooperative or violent inmates. CERT team members are required to be contactable and available to respond at all times. CERT is founded upon a team concept and is made up of highly motivated and experienced Correction Officers.
Prison Tactical Team (riot control)

Duties
Possible duties of a CERT team include transport of high risk inmates, extracting uncooperative prisoners from their cells, searches and high profile security, barricaded persons, Riots, mass arrest, high risk/high profile transport and hostages situations. While, in the United States various details regarding CERT organization and training requirements differ from state to state, a standard CERT team organization is similar to that employed by the Monroe County Police Department, as shown below: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Team Leader "Leads". Spoken communication skills, anger de-escalation techniques. The Equipment/Video Member "EQV" To capture the entire response on video. CERT Member "1" Lead member, first in to deal with the inmate. CERT Member "2" Second team member in. CERT Member "3" Minimal protective gear on to allow for maximum speed CERT Member "4" Same as CERT-3.[1]

CERT team members are outfitted with extensive gear, including body armour, helmet, tactical gloves, Batons, Handcuffs, riot shield and firearms.

Requirements
While requirements also differ from state to state, the Monroe County Police Department lists the following physical requirements for CERT team members: • • • • • Aerobic capacity - 1.5 mile run in less than 16mins. and 28sec. Anaerobic power - 300 meter run in less than 71sec. Muscular endurance - 25 push-ups 1-min. 29 sit ups 1-min. Power - vertical jump of at least 16 inches high. Muscular strength - 1 RM. bench press- (.64 ratio of 1b. pushed to body weight).[1]

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Notable uses
In 1998, the Multnomah County CERT team was dispatched to the county's Juvenile Corrections Facility where, after a six-hour stand off, the CERT team was used to restrain four armed suspects that had barricaded themselves inside one of the prison office spaces. No inmates, CERT members or bystanders were harmed.

References
[1] Monroe County Sheriffs Office What is a CERT Team (http:/ / www. keysso. net/ jail/ emergency_response_team. htm#What is the CERT Team) retrieved on February 02 2009

Boston Police Special Operations Unit
The Boston Police Special Operations Unit is a specialized unit within the Boston Police Department responsible for combined duties involving traffic enforcement, crowd control, and special weapons and tactics (→ SWAT) services within the city. One unique feature of the unit is that the Special Operations Unit primarily relies on the use of Harley-Davidsons in their daily patrols. The use of motorcycles allows the unit to perform routine traffic enforcement; accompany parades, crowds, and visiting dignitaries; and to quickly travel to situations wherein the unit's SWAT skills are requested. Specialized trucks and support vehicles are also used to transport equipment and officers when needed.

A member of the Boston Police Special Operations Unit

See also
Similar municipal units: • NYPD Highway Patrol • Philadelphia Highway Patrol

Emergency Service Unit

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Emergency Service Unit
The Emergency Service Unit is the name of the → police tactical unit which provides specialized equipment, expertise and support to the various units within the Police departments of several states in the United States. From auto accidents to building collapses to hostage situations, "ESU" officers are called on when the situation requires advanced equipment and expertise. The Canine Unit provides assistance during searches for missing persons, perpetrators and evidence such as drugs and contraband[1] . These police forces do not have a traditional S.W.A.T. units as most law enforcement agencies in the United States have. The Emergency Service Unit qualifies in the role of a S.W.A.T. unit and much more. The "ESU" is the multifaceted and multitalented element of their respective police departments. Members of "ESU" are some of the most highly trained experts of their NYPD ESU officers during a tactical Departments, with abilities that include handling heavy weapons to securing deployment. dangerous animals such as full grown tigers kept in public housing apartments. They are also trained in ROCO high angle rope rescue as well as tactical rappelling and fast rope use. They are all also hazmat technicians, emergency medical technicians, and PADI certified open water divers.

NYPD
The New York City Police Department Emergency Service Unit is the largest ESU with over 300 personnel. ESU and the Canine Unit provide specialized equipment, expertise and support to the various units within the NYPD. From auto accidents to building collapses to hostage situations, "ESU" officers are called on when the situation requires advanced equipment and expertise. The Canine Unit provides assistance during searches for missing persons, perpetrators and evidence. Fourteen of the twenty-three NYPD officers who died on September 11th, 2001 were from ESU.

NYPD ESU at the site of the World Trade Center as part of Rescue and recovery effort after the September 11, 2001 attacks.

References
E-Man: Life in the NYPD Emergency Services Unit (Paperback) by Jerry Schmetterer and Al Sheppard [Out of print]

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Movies
• IMDB article on NYPD Emergency Service Unit [2] (2000) A TV documentary.

External links
• • • • • • • • NYPD ESU Official Site [3] Unofficial NYPD ESU site [4] City of New York Department of Correction's Emergency Services Unit [5] Yonkers Police ESU [6] Port Authority Of New York and New Jersey Police Emergency Services Unit [7] Michigan State Police ESU [8] Madison Borough NJ ESU [9] Seymour Police Emergency Service Unit, Connecticut [10]

References
[1] About the Department of Correction (http:/ / www. nyc. gov/ html/ doc/ html/ about/ esu. shtml) [2] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0471830/ [3] http:/ / www. nyc. gov/ html/ nypd/ html/ pct/ esu. html [4] http:/ / www. extrication. com/ nypdesu. htm [5] http:/ / www. nyc. gov/ html/ doc/ html/ about/ esu. shtml [6] http:/ / yonkersny. gov/ Index. aspx?page=460 [7] http:/ / www. panynj. gov/ AboutthePortAuthority/ PortAuthorityPolice/ EmergencyServicesUnit/ [8] http:/ / www. michigan. gov/ msp/ 0,1607,7-123-1589_3493_4602-79671--,00. html [9] http:/ / www. rosenet. org/ gov/ police/ esu. htm [10] http:/ / www. seymourpoliceesu. com

Article Sources and Contributors

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Emergency management  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=324192859  Contributors: .:Ajvol:., A.thinus, Acebrock, Adamheien, Afluent Rider, Alanraywiki, Anirudhrocking, Arabjohn, Arcayne, Arjuno3, Arthur Rubin, AstareGod, Atlanta06, Backburner001, Badger151, Baeksu, Bantamus, Beetstra, Billoneil, Blowdart, Bmaycock, Bobblewik, Breno, Bt999uk, CJLL Wright, Cahk, CambridgeBayWeather, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Capricorn42, Ces0007, Chakdeprashant, Cherubino, Chowbok, Chris Capoccia, ChrisCork, Ckatz, Corpx, Cybercobra, D12dimensions, D820, Dancter, Danjres, Dekisugi, Deminimis, Discospinster, Divemd, Dragomiloff, DragonHawk, DreamGuy, Drewpup99, Dycedarg, EdBever, Elekhh, Emanz, Empman, Emrgmgmtca, Erxnmedia, Esanchez7587, Exit2DOS2000, Fair Deal, Flowanda, FlyHigh, Foresightsupply, Fred Bradstadt, Fredrick day, Ft93110, Fuwiaj, Gaius Cornelius, Galoubet, Garberino, Glogger, Goodshoped35110s, Goodwin-Brent, Gpinder, Graham87, Guidepostservices, Hamaryns, Harburgm, Harryboyles, Haunti, HazardsUS, Hebster, Homestepsafety, Hs4pratt, Hu12, HybridBoy, Iain99, Ingolfson, J. 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Trevor Marron, Tronno, Twilight, Tychocat, Ukrained, Ulric1313, UnfriendlyFire, Until It Sleeps, Urhixidur, User2004, Valermos, Vechs, Vectro, Veemonkamiya, Vegaswikian, Versageek, Versus22, Verybigfish86, Viking6, ViperBite, Virus-X, Voldemore, Vonhess, Vulture19, Wallie, Waqas.usman, Welsh, Welsh wizard 92, WhisperToMe, White Cat, Wik, Wiki Raja, Wiki Wikardo, Wiki-Chris, WikiLaurent, Wikiwan365, William Avery, WilliamH, Windscar77, Witan, Wladius, WolfenSilva, Wolfrock, Xanzzibar, Xness, Xonrick, YEPPOON, Yamaguchi先生, Yamamoto Ichiro, Yhinz17, Yosy, ZH Evers, Zamphuor, Zappa123123, Zatoichi1564, Zazou, Zeerak88, ZeroOne, Zoganes, Zomic13, ‫ 1351 ,יסוי‬anonymous edits Reparti i Neutralizimit te Elementit te Armatosur  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=66853021  Contributors: AlbHawk, Alvestrand, Apokrif, Betacommand, Bobo192, Bongomatic, CALR, CLW, Colonies Chris, Commander Keane, Cuqi, D-Rock, DocWatson42, FieldMarine, Finavon, Fisherjs, Gaius Cornelius, Gene 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http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=311399198  Contributors: Aa Luther, Aleenf1, Bjenks, Breno, Brossow, Closedmouth, Cmdrjameson, DXRAW, ExtraDry, Gilliam, Htra0497, Ken Gallager, Ladida, LtNOWIS, Mifter, MrAngy, Ninetyone, Nkcs, Ominae, Pee Tern, Redline84, Rjwilmsi, Sblackmore, Shadower75, Tatrgel, Tesscass, Thernlund, YEPPOON, Zvar, 33 anonymous edits Hostage Response Group  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=197680394  Contributors: JesseGarrett, Mild Bill Hiccup, Ninetyone, RN, Shoeofdeath, Skysmith, VirtualSteve, YEPPOON, 7 anonymous edits Territory Response Group  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=288804693  Contributors: Brianhe, Htra0497, Ninetyone, Ominae, Rettetast, YEPPOON, 2 anonymous edits Special Emergency Response Team (Queensland)  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=288772940  Contributors: Brossow, Cmdrjameson, ESkog, Gimboid13, Htra0497, Maxim, Mild Bill Hiccup, Ninetyone, Nkcs, Oliver202, Ominae, Quaeler, Robert 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Anderson, Thernlund, Trevor MacInnis, Xafifah, YEPPOON, Z80, 35 anonymous edits EKO Cobra  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=322231962  Contributors: 97198, Ajpralston1, Aldis90, Austronaut, Axeman, Axeman89, Britans, BrokenSphere, Bwiki, Closedmouth, ColdCase, Darklegions, Exxolon, Hizkiel, Htra0497, J04n, Jurpel, Karada, Kenb215, Koalorka, MegX, Mostergr, Nabokov, Ninetyone, Nkcs, OS2Warp, Ominae, OneEuropeanHeart, Pagrashtak, RedWolf, Rjwilmsi, RobNS, Robert Fraser, RottweilerCS, Scott197827, Sus scrofa, Thernlund, Zahid Abdassabur, 48 anonymous edits SWAT (Bangladesh)  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=313603527  Contributors: HamatoKameko, Maksud3, Michal Nebyla, NAHID, Ominae, 5 anonymous edits Federal Police Special Units  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=303598710  Contributors: Beetstra, Bluezy, Brandmeister, Darklegions, Endlezz, Francis Flinch, Htra0497, Intangible, Necrothesp, Ninetyone, Petergee1, Rjwilmsi, Robbie69, ShiningEyes, WilliamMostmans, 11 anonymous edits BOPE  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=271824699  Contributors: Aaronbrick, Anakay, Archangel1, Ayack, Britans, Closedmouth, CommonsDelinker, Cyberlords, Dalillama, Darz Mol, Diogotnd, Discospinster, EDomingos, Exper Aguiar, Francisco Seixas, Hsantacruz, Jeffrey.Kleykamp, Kanadi86, MercAce, Neoreich, Nick Cooper, Ninetyone, Nonno88, Notwist, Ominae, Pinnecco, Rjwilmsi, Rodrigogomespaixao, S, Stormwatch, Swatjester, TDogg310, Tomtom9041, Yamakiri on Firefox, Yosy, ^demon, 132 anonymous edits Grupo de Ações Táticas Especiais  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=317370699  Contributors: BrownHairedGirl, Jumentodonordeste Correctional Service Canada  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=163562609  Contributors: Aleeproject, AlexRampaul, Aude, Biruitorul, BrentS, Bryan Derksen, Cahk, Canuckle, Chris the speller, Dawn Bard, Drumguy8800, Dsmdgold, Euchiasmus, Ground Zero, Hackah, Handcuff, JD554, JamesofMaine, Jasonp, Jmh123, Lambiam, Mboverload, Mimithebrain, Necrothesp, Oatmeal batman, Outriggr, Plasma east, SD6-Agent, Shoman93, Supercoop, Walton One, 36 anonymous edits

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Arctic-Editor, Blankku, Bobo192, Britans, C12H22O11, Espoo, Francis Flinch, Hsarkka, JIP, Jouk, Kizor, Laisak, Lockley, Malhonen, Matt314, Mikko Paananen, Muad, Necrothesp, Ninetyone, Pudeo, Timppis, ZeroOne, 31 anonymous edits GIPN  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=244596716  Contributors: Closedmouth, Mockingbus, Ninetyone, Rhadamante, RyanCross, SVTCobra, Tomtom9041, WikHead Recherche Assistance Intervention Dissuasion  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=322451397  Contributors: Ashes to ashes, Benny 919, ChanceTheGardener, Closedmouth, Coat of Arms, Consciousnessbliss, DXRAW, David.Monniaux, Erc, Fuzlyssa, GraemeL, Gryffon, Herix, Meiktila, Miq, Necrothesp, Ninetyone, Nkcs, Ominae, OneEuropeanHeart, Ornil, ROG5728, Rama, Reedo, Rob1bureau, Thermaland, Tomtom9041, Unschool, 36 anonymous edits Service de Protection des Hautes Personnalités  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=306884958  Contributors: Benny 919, Canterbury Tail, Galoubet, Rama, SGGH, TCY, Ze miguel, 5 anonymous edits Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=322610262  Contributors: 007spyguy7, 790, Acceptable, Ahunt, Alexfoley, Anakay, Apokrif, Aranel, Ashley Pomeroy, Axeman89, Ayack, BadSeed, Baldeadly, Beeblebrox5000, Benny 919, Boblegrand, Boffob, Bruguiea, Carl Logan, ChDV, Chnzwh, Cjrother, Closedmouth, Cmdrjameson, Coat of Arms, Consciousnessbliss, DMCer, Darryl Revok, David.Monniaux, Deon Steyn, Deville, Duffman, EggyNL, FCYTravis, Foxpry, Francis Flinch, Gabbe, Gaius Cornelius, Glen Dillon, Grant65, GregorB, Grievous Angel, Haryo, Idokuchaeva, Interiot, Intovert2438, Jade Knight, Jazzydee, Kineox, Koalorka, Kraftlos, Legend, Lightmouse, LilHelpa, Lincolnite, Marasmusine, MathieuMa, Miq, Mosca, Muenda, N328KF, Necrothesp, Ninetyone, Nkcs, Ominae, Pol098, Puddhe, Ragingscythe, Rama, Randy121, Raveled, Red Denim, Res08hao, Rjwilmsi, Rob1bureau, RoyBoy, Rubber soul, SDC, Sandra CG, Sertrel, Sieurfill, Sirgregmac, Sophitus, Stymphal, Tatrgel, Tellairai, Thiseye, Tomtom9041, Vic Fontaine, Wasted Sapience, WhisperToMe, Witan, Ynhockey, ZH Evers, Zc Abc, 216 anonymous edits GSG 9  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=323750194  Contributors: AKMask, Adashiel, After Midnight, Ajstampy, Aldis90, Amfivezerozero, Anakay, Anthony Appleyard, Antientropic, Avocado, BLueFiSH.as, Batmanand, Bendallf, Benny 919, BigrTex, Boksi, BonesBrigade, Borgx, Britans, Bubba1994, C8to, CSWarren, Cameron Dewe, Casperwo, ChDV, Chris 73, Conquerist, Corbynz, Cyde, Cyve, Dakart, Dan100, Darklegions, DocWatson42, DocendoDiscimus, Dorftrottel, Epp, Fastily, Fdedio, Ferkelparade, Fogeltje, Francis Flinch, Gabbe, Gabriel-Royce, Gaius Cornelius, Garryq, Gary King, Gauss, Gitty-CA, Greenshed, GregorB, Guilmann, Guppie, Hbdragon88, Hetar, Horst.Burkhardt, Hydraton31, II MusLiM HyBRiD II, Imasleepviking, InTeGeR13, Ingolfson, J-boogie, J04n, JHunterJ, JanSuchy, Jaro7788, Jason M, John Lunney, 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Wik, Witan, Wrightaway, Xezbeth, YEPPOON, Zerak-Tul, ZoneSeek, 359 anonymous edits Spezialeinsatzkommando  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=320707296  Contributors: Astat, BLueFiSH.as, Blackangel25, David.Mestel, DocWatson42, Fogeltje, Fuzz2, Guthrie, Ingolfson, Jared Preston, Koalorka, LilHelpa, Mitch818, Necrothesp, Ninetyone, Niteshift36, Ominae, Play150, Robbie69, SaadMuhammad, SithiR, Sophus Bie, Wutzofant, 31 anonymous edits Zentrale Unterstützungsgruppe Zoll  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=319714911  Contributors: 790, Amalas, BLueFiSH.as, Darklegions, Fogeltje, Iridescent, Leibniz, Necrothesp, Ninetyone, Qutezuce, Robbie69, Sebastian scha., Vegaswikian, Waacstats, 14 anonymous edits Special Anti- Terrorist Unit  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=322533890  Contributors: 212eta, Anon117, Archangel1, Closedmouth, CommonsDelinker, DStoykov, Damac, Dragases, Ferengi, Giraffedata, Necrothesp, NeroDrusus, Ominae, Oscarthecat, Peeperman, ROG5728, SDJ, 8 anonymous edits Police Tactical Unit (Hong Kong)  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=311499122  Contributors: Benefactordyr, Capricorn42, Da Vynci, HenryLi, Htra0497, Hydrogen Iodide, Iantnm, Iridescent, Java17, KTC, KTo288, Leeyc0, Red dragon200, RockfangAWB, 26 anonymous edits Special Duties Unit  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=318568937  Contributors: Amuroplus, Bjso, Britans, CalJW, Closedmouth, Colonies Chris, Creol, Da Vynci, Darkranger-red, Dave1185, Edwardguy, Eyethumper, Fat pig73, Furballpeople, Hellfire83, HongQiGong, Instantnood, Itake, J2 me, JamesAM, Jeff3000, Jun Kayama, KTC, KTo288, Klemen Kocjancic, La goutte de pluie, Ling.Nut, Montemonte, Ninetyone, Nono64, Novacatz, OhanaUnited, Ominae, OneEuropeanHeart, Robertvan1, Sceptre, Seng Yew, U7890, Willirennen, Wnjr, Woclo, Wwt2112, Zoicon5, Zywxn, 106 anonymous edits Airport Security Unit (Hong Kong)  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=321872673  Contributors: Andrewpn, Angusmclellan, CalJW, Hellfire83, Huaiwei, Instantnood, KTC, OneEuropeanHeart, SCN2003, Synchronism, Vegaswikian, Waacstats, Woclo, 24 anonymous edits Víkingasveitin  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=320476241  Contributors: After Midnight, Aggiman, Axeman89, BL Lacertae, BiT, Brian0918, Colonies Chris, DMG413, Dar-Ape, Earthman123, Eirikurr, Follgramm3006, FrostyBytes, Gdh, Hmains, Icelandic power, Icelandicpolice, Introgressive, Kelly Martin, Kjallakr, Koavf, Lomis, Max Naylor, Mhstebbi, Michkalas, Mmoslo1, Necrothesp, Ninetyone, Ominae, Petri Krohn, Puddhe, Rjwilmsi, S.Örvarr.S, Sardanaphalus, Schmiteye, Some guy, Stemonitis, Thernlund, Thomas Blomberg, Tryggvia, WegianWarrior, Wikimike, Zvar, 69 anonymous edits National Security Guards  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=324337717  Contributors: Adrian 1001, Aldis90, AlexanderWinston, AreJay, Arjunkul, Arjunsugumar, Blah blah+3, Bobbie501, Bobblewik, Bravo009, Brewcrewer, 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Watters, Deepak, Dj thegreat, DuKot, Ekabhishek, Fark97, Frazzydee, Gaius Cornelius, Gogo Dodo, Green Giant, Guptadeepak, Harsh9517, Hazardasd, Hroðulf, Htra0497, Iceflamephoenix, ImpuMozhi, Incidious, Indexed daneger23, Jackol, Jezhotwells, Jovianeye, Kesav76, Kontractkilla, Kryptops, Legoktm, Lightmouse, Linuparayil, Lordeaswar, LrdChaos, Lvf1dipu, Matsumoto1500, Matuag, Natrajdr, Ninetyone, Nkcs, Ominae, OneEuropeanHeart, Pee Tern, Prasanth.mig27, Rama's Arrow, Redmanfred, Rfcom, Rich Farmbrough, Ricky81682, Rueben lys, S3000, SB2296, Saga City, Samar60, Sardanaphalus, Scope creep, Shujoy Mazumdar, Shyam karunakaran, SithiR, Sniperz11, Sree santh8050, Srinivasasha, Steed Asprey - 171, Sujay85, Sunny singh9128, Sus scrofa, Swapnils2106, TGGP, Tri400, Tu160m, TubularWorld, Utcursch, Vaiddauji, Vary, Vishnava, Vjdchauhan, WWGB, Xeteli, Yousaf465, 180 anonymous edits MARCOS  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60429692  Contributors: A.Nath, ABadami, ADAonW, Aj.arya, Aldis90, Altzinn, Anetode, Anthony Appleyard, Asen y2k, Avadheshmalik, BD2412, BilCat, Bobblehead, Bobblewik, Chanakyathegreat, Chaosprophet, CommonsDelinker, DanMS, Deathbunny, Deavenger, Debresser, Dj thegreat, DoubleBlue, EZ1234, Easwarno1, Eggman64, Footage, GeneralChan, GreyCat, Grsz11, Guy M, Guy0307, Idleguy, Kaosd, LilHelpa, Matsumoto1500, MilborneOne, Mkamat, Moriori, Muruga86, Nichalp, Nkcs, Nobunaga24, Nv8200p, Ominae, Ownedthird39, Parijatgaur, PubliusFL, Ragnord, Remember the dot, Rjwilmsi, SaadMuhammad, Sidpanda, Skcpublic, Skier Dude, Slothy s, Sniperz11, Spencer, Spyder2010, Srinivasasha, Steed Asprey - 171, Stevecalloway, Suyogaerospace, Tirkfl, Ultrastealth, Versus22, Vishnava, Vparkash, 147 anonymous edits Central Bureau of Investigation  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=324330019  Contributors: Amplitude101, Anoopkn, Anuragshekhar, Appraiser, Avinesh, Belasd, Bobblewik, BrownyCat, Bryan Derksen, Captainbrahmin, CarTick, Chancemill, Contributor777, Cromwellt, Docu, Flatfish, Fratrep, Fundamental metric tensor, Gadfium, Gaius Cornelius, Gene

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Nygaard, Gnusbiz, Googlean, Green Giant, Grutness, Gsingh, Harikw, Hemanshu, Hornplease, Hu12, IndianRam, Jakenelson, Joginder, Jovianeye, Kaiba, Kaysov, Legaleagle86, Maelnuneb, Magioladitis, MarkGallagher, Master Of Ninja, Mbxp, Mereda, MuZemike, Mukerjee, NatusRoma, Necrothesp, Ninetyone, Nishkid64, Nv8200p, OceanMash, PTSE, Pee Tern, RJFerret, Rajahbalaji, Rama's Arrow, Rjwilmsi, Robth, Shell Kinney, Siddhant, SkerHawx, Sreejith Kumar, Sumanch, Thesmarttechie, Tinucherian, Tri400, UkPaolo, Woohookitty, 104 anonymous edits Brigade Mobil SOF  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=255385597  Contributors: Caniago, Closedmouth, Djoehana, Dmi2, Iridescent, Ominae, Rjwilmsi, Saintrain, SatuSuro, Seng Yew, Ynhockey, 6 anonymous edits Emergency Response Unit (Garda)  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=315561436  Contributors: Alison, AnLaoch, ArdScoil, Bobblewik, Brendan.mcauliffehickey, Britans, Conor, El Gringo, Fitz1994, Garion96, Guliolopez, HJ Mitchell, Killedbymanbearpig, Mblumber, Mough, Necrothesp, Ninetyone, Ominae, Police,Mad,Jack, Rhadamante, Rjwilmsi, Rubensni, Sulmac, Tabletop, 29 anonymous edits YAMAM  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=178715597  Contributors: 217shaduv, Abnn, Altmany, ArmadilloFromHell, Benny 919, Benwing, Boris Barowski, Britans, Calair, Chris 73, Comatose51, DeadEyeArrow, Deodar, El C, Eranb, Erebus555, Fredrik, Htra0497, IZAK, IdoZi, Itai, Jamesday, Joshbaumgartner, Kahkonen, Lexo, MARK S., MathKnight, Modster, Msikma, Necrothesp, Ninetyone, Nkcs, Ornil, OwenX, PaulCG712, Paxsimius, Sharkman74, Shuki, Simon12, Smajie, Stephennt, Swatjester, Túrelio, Uptelevator, WereSpielChequers, Wik, Ynhockey, ZacharyS, Zlatko, 63 anonymous edits Yasam  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=321739681  Contributors: Benyah, Doit613, Dovzwer, Editorofthewiki, LeaHazel, Ninetyone, Talmage, Tewfik, Waacstats, Ynhockey, 2 anonymous edits Nucleo Operativo Centrale di Sicurezza  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=315728947  Contributors: Alecapocc, Batsu, Britans, Canterbury Tail, Chochopk, Darklegions, Dual Freq, Fratrep, Haza-w, JamesBurns, Jthotshot, Keycard, Leonidas15andihack, Necrothesp, Ninetyone, Nkcs, Nobunaga24, Noclador, Ominae, OneEuropeanHeart, Robbie69, Simon12, 23 anonymous edits Gruppo di Intervento Speciale  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=313575790  Contributors: Alai, Alecapocc, Britans, Caerwine, Calton, Canterbury Tail, Commander Keane, D. 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Leivick, Descendall, Encyclopedist, Fnlayson, Grutness, Hörrnörr, Ian Spackman, Itaguy, Keycard, Klemen Kocjancic, Los688, Ninetyone, Nkcs, Ominae, OneEuropeanHeart, Piccolo Modificatore Laborioso, Tomtom9041, 39 anonymous edits Special Assault Team  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=318528438  Contributors: ACSE, Andycjp, Ashish20, Chris the speller, Cliché Online, Closedmouth, Davlor, Deathbunny, Dekimasu, Follgramm3006, Fratrep, Gaius Cornelius, Irish Pearl, John Lunney, KTo288, Kazu-kun, Kidotai, Mark Kim, Mkhcan487, Nkcs, Nricardo, Ominae, Peripitus, RadioActive, Rcog, Revth, SGGH, Seann, Teh Elfen Lied, TheFarix, ZH Evers, Zahid Abdassabur, ZayZayEM, 158 anonymous edits Latvian Special Tasks Unit  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=299087182  Contributors: Bakilas, Charles Matthews, Coat of Arms, Dzoniiits, Finavon, Hugo999, Jigsawpuzzleman, KasparsK, Kurlandlegionar, Nkcs, OneEuropeanHeart, Philaweb, Ruudy, Thomas.macmillan, Ulric1313, 3 anonymous edits OMEGA  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=308141067  Contributors: Alai, Coat of Arms, CommonsDelinker, Dzinja, Khoikhoi, Kilo-Lima, Neutrality, Nkcs, Nv8200p, OneEuropeanHeart, RSido, Ruudy, Srl, 7 anonymous edits Pasukan Gerakan Khas  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=322886223  Contributors: Beetstra, BostonRed, Britans, Caniago, Carpet9, Ccwaters, Clicketyclack, Closedmouth, CommonsDelinker, Darklilac, Deathbunny, Dmi2, Docboat, Earth, Flatscan, Friedfish, Gab.popp, Giraffedata, Iridescent, J Milburn, J04n, JForget, James086, Johnpacklambert, Kjetil r, Mal12, Mhching, Mhpoon, Mild Bill Hiccup, Millstream3, Ninetyone, Ominae, Pagrashtak, Pearle, Qmal, Riduan, Rizuan, Rjwilmsi, Seng Yew, Skier Dude, Slan2, Spt6, Tabletop, TimBentley, Tkynerd, Tomtheman5, Two hundred percent, Yachtsman1, Zahid Abdassabur, 1067 anonymous edits Police Contingent SWAT Unit (UTC, Malaysia)  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=267403491  Contributors: Brigade Speciale Beveiligingsopdrachten  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=319217619  Contributors: Btsas, Degen Earthfast, Grioghair, Ron Ritzman, UkPaolo, 3 anonymous edits Armed Offenders Squad  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=305971617  Contributors: Avenue, Chelubai, Chrismartin1, Closedmouth, Coat of Arms, CommonsDelinker, Epbr123, FirstPrinciples, FlieGerFaUstMe262, Gadfium, GrahamBould, Ingolfson, Necrothesp, Nkcs, Ominae, OneEuropeanHeart, PalmyPete, Pip2andahalf, R'n'B, Rich Farmbrough, SGGH, SamB135, Smoth 007, Sn00kie, TEB728, Thomas H. Larsen, Wikidooman, XLerate, Xiaan77, Xtine-nixon, YEPPOON, 33 anonymous edits Special Tactics Group  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=321005209  Contributors: Bastin, Chelubai, Closedmouth, Free Weights, Ninetyone, Ominae, R'n'B, SamB135, Smoth 007, XLerate, YEPPOON, 9 anonymous edits Beredskapstroppen  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=312608824  Contributors: Anskas, Brenont, Britans, Choess, Closedmouth, CommonsDelinker, Daland, Dybdal, Earthman123, Htra0497, J04n, Kjeserud, Manxruler, Martpol, Meco, Mitchberg, Ninetyone, Nochmehr, Oscarsen, Rjwilmsi, Tkynerd, 18 anonymous edits Forsvarets Spesialkommando  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=132672492  Contributors: ArglebargleIV, Babaroga, Bryan Derksen, Clicketyclack, Dybdal, E rik, Gurch, Inge, Joffeloff, Manxruler, Nkcs, One Night In Hackney, Pagrashtak, ProveIt, Sirocco, Toreau, Zvar, 21 anonymous edits Elite Police  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=321726680  Contributors: Art LaPella, Axeman89, Bezerk86, Chanakal, Hamiltonstone, Mach101, Mattisse, Mrskooboo, MuffledThud, Ominae, Razzsic, Rescue 15 Pakistan, Rjanag, Roaring Siren, Tabletop, Wikireader41, Yousaf465, 14 anonymous edits Airport security force  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=263711759  Contributors: Alvin Seville, Devilinapepsican, DragonflySixtyseven, Fabrictramp, I dream of horses, M alichanna, Malcolma Special Action Force  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=320479569  Contributors: Achilles spy, B, Batas535, Caniago, ChrisCork, Colonies Chris, DXRAW, Discospinster, Dragonhart, Franck Drake, Galoubet, Howcheng, Jpogi, Koalorka, Mailer diablo, Nick-D, Ninetyone, NorsemanII, Ominae, Pathbinder, Pinoyrap, Rich257, Rjwilmsi, Rockstar915, SGGH, Sandstig, Some Guy421, Spartan-James, Thu, Tronno, Wanch, XLerate, Zahid Abdassabur, 72 anonymous edits Grupo de Operações Especiais (Portugal)  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=308473774  Contributors: AgentPeppermint, Britans, Cipsp, Closedmouth, Darklegions, Grandmaster, Instantnood, Jeff3000, Kelly Martin, Ninetyone, Nkcs, Nuno Tavares, Pedrojoper, PigFlu Oink, Pularoid, Rjwilmsi, Simon12, Tashtastic, Velho, Yosy, 21 anonymous edits OMON  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=318885418  Contributors: 77RUS, A bit iffy, Alex Bakharev, AlexPU, Anandks007, AndrzejCC, Ashley Pomeroy, Asstrafficcontroller, Atabəy, AyeBraine, Baltikatroika, Belanalysis, Biophys, Captain Obvious and his crime-fighting dog, Chris 73, Colchicum, Crimmer, Crocodealer, Dante320, Darz Mol, Degen Earthfast, Dezidor, Digwuren, Domino theory, Emigrant123, Fisenko, Grafikm fr, Gregalton, Hadžija, HanzoHattori, Harald Hansen, Hellfire83, Iliank, JamesLite, Jmozena, Joseph Dwayne, Kaihsu, KittensAreTheBestest, Koavf, Kocoum, Kralizec!, Lokyz, Luk, Makwy2, Manxruler, MarkV, Martynas Patasius, Mbrandall, Mercenario97, Mfhulskemper, Miacek, Mieciu K, Mikko Paananen, MisfitToys, Mixer, Mjb1981, MoogleDan, N328KF, Necrothesp, Nedrutland, Neutrality, Ninetyone, Nixer, Numerousfalx, Nutmegger, Olegwiki, Onodera, Pasi, Pauly04, Pearle, QZXA2, RG2, RJ CG, RamboKadyrov, Renata3, Rjwilmsi, Romanm, Samuell, Sandstein, Sardanaphalus, Seabhcan, Segaba, Serkul, Skokian, Sluzzelin, Superzohar, Tanvir Ahmmed, Texboy, Thinking of England, Tombombadil, Varitek, Vgranucci, Wst, Ynhockey, Zvar, 130 anonymous edits Detaşamentul de Poliţie pentru Intervenţie Rapidă  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=306836534  Contributors: Arundhati bakshi, Eurocopter, Jmabel, Mentatus, Orioane, Pearle, WikiRaptor, Zatoichi1564, 13 anonymous edits SAJ (Special Anti- terrorist Unit)  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=321724792  Contributors: Boki13, Boksi, Boleyn2, Brankko, Buttons, CommonsDelinker, Debresser, Forsena, Gb8, Jerzy, KTo288, Kos93, Malinaccier, Miq, Muprs, Ninetyone, Ntsimp, Ominae, Patrick Rogel, Rheo1905, Rjwilmsi, Siałababamak, User1389, Yousaf465, 15 anonymous edits PTJ (Counter- terrorist Unit)  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=320315817  Contributors: Boksi, Buttons, Malcolmxl5, Ominae, 2 anonymous edits Special Tactics and Rescue (Singapore)  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=320343876  Contributors: Alai, Closedmouth, Coat of Arms, Darklegions, Dave1185, Fonggf, Gnj, Huaiwei, JDX, Ninetyone, Ominae, OneEuropeanHeart, Rettetast, Rjwilmsi, Seng Yew, SpaceFlight89, Susvolans, TheParanoidOne, Vsion, Whkoh, 56 anonymous edits South African Police Service Special Task Force  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=315061828  Contributors: Cossde, Deon Steyn, Elf-friend, Impi, Mifter, Nkcs, Rjwilmsi, Simon12, TimVickers, Waacstats, Yosy, 17 anonymous edits

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Grupo Especial de Operaciones  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=320705042  Contributors: Aldis90, Anthony Appleyard, Closedmouth, Davecrosby uk, David kitson, Dwbird2, Error, Gothbag, Grafen, Gunsfornuns, Ingolfson, JeffJ, Koalorka, Necrothesp, Ninetyone, Nkcs, Ominae, Ordago, ROG5728, Technopat, Welsh, Wiki alf, Zeno Gantner, 30 anonymous edits Unidad Especial de Intervención  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=320769839  Contributors: 219.106の者, Aldis90, Cander0000, Coat of Arms, D.E. Watters, EDomingos, Lbunker, Necrothesp, Nkcs, Technopat, 16 anonymous edits Special Task Force  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=317457936  Contributors: Aldis90, Apokrif, Appraiser, Arunantamil, Askari Mark, Bigdottawa, Black Falcon, Blackknight12, BlueLankan, Britans, Carabinieri, Chamal N, Chanakal, Chidis, Chimerical05, Cimon Avaro, Claw787, Closedmouth, Cometstyles, CommonsDelinker, D6, DanMS, Defenderline, Elalan, Firefoxman, Firewater101, Gaius Cornelius, Geniac, Gira2be, HeartofaDog, Iwazaki, Jeff3000, Jilansville, Jj137, Kerr avon, Lahiru k, Lightmouse, LightningMQ, Lostintherush, Mboverload, Memilanka, Merbabu, Mfouwaaz, NavodEranda, Necrothesp, Netmonger, Night Gyr, Ninetyone, Nishkid64, Nitraven, Noisy, Ominae, Paddu, Punsisinet, Ricky81682, Rjwilmsi, RobinrDay, Rossumcapek, SebastianHelm, Simon12, Simonkoldyk, Sinhala freedom, Snowolfd4, Taprobanus, Tchild, Tobias Conradi, Trincomanb, Uthum876, Watchdogb, Woohookitty, Yucatann, 63 anonymous edits National Task Force  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=320275876  Contributors: Adimovk5, Bronks, Dfct, Follgramm3006, Insane99, Killerman2, Kissekatt, Liftarn, MER-C, Necrothesp, Ninetyone, Paul Barlow, Pearle, RJFJR, Robert Weemeyer, Shisha, Skrivbok, Slarre, TexMurphy, Thonil, 29 anonymous edits Piketen  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=317652164  Contributors: Adimovk5, Demesne of Misery, Liftarn, NawlinWiki, Ninetyone, Ojan, Skrivbok, Ynhockey, 21 anonymous edits Thunder Squad  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=303266970  Contributors: Aldis90, Alvestrand, BigHaz, Britans, Closedmouth, Htra0497, IForce, J04n, K kc chan, Nat, Ninetyone, Satti1, Taiwan2111, 8 anonymous edits Naresuan 261 Counter- Terrorism Unit  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=321975075  Contributors: Blah28948, Farahato, Gend07000, LilHelpa, Ulric1313, 1 anonymous edits Berkut (Ukraine)  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=324162875 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Fish, UnitedStatesian, VSTiger, Vegaswikian, Vikiçizer, Web2jordan, WereSpielChequers, Wikidenizen, Wtstoffs, XWEHRMACHTx, Y, Ysangkok, 244 anonymous edits Diplomatic Security Service  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=322807094  Contributors: Ahoerstemeier, Alynna Kasmira, Andy Marchbanks, Astral, Bapho, Bedtelyon, Bevinbell, Bobmack89x, Bobo6969, Callthe-equalizer, CapitalR, Danthemankhan, Davehi1, DeadEyeArrow, Deathbunny, Dh2, Donfbreed, DragonHawk, Dsslizard, Dynaflow, Eastlaw, Elonka, Evans1982, Extraordinary, Falcon8765, Fram, Gaius Cornelius, Gogo Dodo, Ground Zero, Happyme22, Infohelp, Jeff Muscato, Joffeloff, John Nevard, Koavf, Lawdog396, Lawman2001, Lifgard, Lightmouse, LilHelpa, Malcolmxl5, Mauls, Mbisgaier, Mikebar, Natural Cut, Niayre, Noneforall, Obrienmf, Pee Tern, Ridge Runner, Rjwilmsi, Rockford1963, Rockford63, RookZERO, Rsoandrew, SGT141, Satre21, Schaeferkr, SchuminWeb, Scriberius, Shovonma17, Shyam, Skier Dude, Taco325i, Thewinchester, ThreeBlindMice, Walton One, Welsh, Wfinger601, Willking1979, Wizzard2k, Woohookitty, Yerpo, 286 anonymous edits Federal Protective Service  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=252130418  Contributors: Altenmann, Docu, JerryFriedman, Koavf, Necrothesp, Numerousfalx, Postdlf, Russavia, Sanguinity, Seabhcan, Sietse Snel, Superzohar, Template namespace initialisation script, Xinoph, 5 anonymous edits Air Force Security Forces  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=276514919  Contributors: AFABN, Adambro, AequitasEquitas, Alai, Alansohn, Alexius08, B4Ctom1, BTine, Beltfedweapon99, Berean Hunter, Boydenw, Brandnew1786, Btball, Calculatoronfire, CanisRufus, Cjrother, Closedmouth, Cobratom, Code36, Copysan, Crosstalk33801, David Underdown, De728631, DeadEyeArrow, Deathbyronin 13, Descendall, Dkv8505, DocWatson42, Dumaka, EagleWSO, Eagleamn, Firsfron, Fitchhollister, Foofbun, Franksed, Freemarket, Gaius Cornelius, Gingkoboy, Grant65, Grumblepunk, Hardnfast, Heisenbergthechemist, HopeSeekr of xMule, Huaiwei, Hydraton31, ImperatorExercitus, Irishguy, J.delanoy, JJSan, Jackfork, Jinian, Jpoelma13, JustAGal, Justin Herbert, KTo288, Kbmag, Kevin23, Kross, Landon1980, Ld50sec8, Lkinkade, Los688, LtNOWIS, Matt von Furrie, Mboverload, MikeJ9919, Mjf3719, Nathanm mn, Necrothesp, Nehrams2020, New Hampshirite, Ninetyone, Nobunaga24, Nono64, Oliphaunt, PaulHanson, Pearle, Philip1488, Plrk, Pmsyyz, Ranger4108, Razzaqnz, Rcawsey, Ricky81682, Rjwilmsi, Rmt2m, Robbie69, Rogerd, Rror, SFKittelson, SGT141, Sagelink, Scriberius, Sf46, Sfof1, Signaleer, SimonP, Sizlack9, Soundguy99, Speedy123, Synchronism, TGC55, Tabletop, Tatrgel, TheParanoidOne, Thisglad, Tommycane, Trooper 629, Tux4g63, Undead warrior, Vegaswikian, VoxLuna, W811x0, Warut, Wiki Mateo, WikiUserPedia, Xbushidox, 344 anonymous edits Special Reaction Teams  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=282552100  Contributors: Brad101AWB, Carom, Chairman S., Defiant15E, Espoo, Gurch, Mp wife, Mushin, Ninetyone, Niteshift36, RekonDog, Richard D. LeCour, Rjwilmsi, Rmrfstar, Scriberius, Starwars1791, TDogg310, TabooTikiGod, 12 anonymous edits United States Marshals Service  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=323826762  Contributors: 0Bammer, 2112 rush, 55Hanson, Aboutmovies, AdrianLozano, Alex43223, AlistairMcMillan, Almightyuk, Andy Curtiss, Applebags, Ariedartin, Austin Hair, Azrael6519, Backpackadam, Barkeep49, Bchaosf, Bearyz, Benwildeboer, Biruitorul, Bluedisk, Bobet, Bobmack89x, Bumm13, BusterD, Caltas, CapitalR, Carrt81, Casito, Cburnett, CharlotteWebb, Chasingsol, Chester polarbear, Chris the speller, Chutz, Clariosophic, Cleared as filed, Colenso, Comp25, Cooter285, Creidieki, CrypticBacon, Cubs Fan, DH85868993, DLJessup, DRUM57IX, Dachannien, Darkwind, Davepape, David.Monniaux, Davidkevin, Deathphoenix, DocWatson42, Dreish, Duffman, Dynaflow, EMUkid, Eastlaw, Ed g2s, Eddieuny, Ejosse1, El C, Elendil's Heir, Ellsworth, Epolk, Eric, Esc861, Evil Monkey, Evil saltine, F-451, Famspear, Favonian, Flockmeal, FreplySpang, Gaius Cornelius, Ground Zero, HamburgerRadio, Hammer1980, Henry Flower, Ihaveafordv8, In shin, JFrawley032759, JLaTondre, Jacketman03, Jeffrey O. 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ShelfSkewed, Shenme, Shentino, Shovonma17, SidP, Sketchmoose, Slshow, Spot87, Sretsuc, Stature791, Steven Russell, Stevensdadfederalmarshall, SummertimeRain, TXLonghorn, Ta bu shi da yu, Tabletop, Taejo, Tassedethe, Tbrittreid, TedE, The Epopt, Theansaname, Thewinchester, Thiseye, Thorswitch, Tide rolls, TinyMark, Tombombadil, TommyBoy, Trident13, Twikiedit1, TylerDavid, UESPArules, Ustye, Val42, Vegaswikian, WebHamster, Welsh, Whkoh, Willgee, Wisekwai, Wl219, Woogums, Work permit, Xinoph, Yaf, Ynhockey, Yst, ZephyrAnycon, 484 anonymous edits United States Secret Service  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=323213828  Contributors: -- April, 12firemage, ABC101090, ABF, AEMoreira042281, Acps110, Alex756, AmeriCan, Anaxial, Andy Marchbanks, Antwonw, Apokrif, Arbayer2, Arryc, Ary29, Astuishin, Avitya, Banghi, Barnej, BaronLarf, Batman2005, Bbullard30568, Bcartolo, Bearyz, Beland, Bettia, Biruitorul, Blurble, Bob1234321, Bobblewik, Bobmack89x, Bobo10512, Bogey97, Bondegezou, Brad101, BrainOverfloW, Briaboru, Broadbeer, Builderman, CINCABF, Calvin 1998, CambridgeBayWeather, Camopro, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CapitalR, Capricorn42, Carrt81, Centrx, Chaddonaldson84, Chanlyn, Chewygum, ChrisO, Chrism, Clemwang, Cliffb, Clindberg, Clubmemphis, Comp25, Consequentially, CowboyDon, Cpunk7, Crabula, Creidieki, Ctjf83, Cubs Fan, Cuiusquemodi, DCB4W, DXRAW, Damërung, Daniel C. 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Image:Em cycle.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Em_cycle.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Neum Image:Defesa Civil 003.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Defesa_Civil_003.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Lsales at pt.wikipedia File:Airport Trapnsportation Emergency Preparedness Program Exercise.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Airport_Trapnsportation_Emergency_Preparedness_Program_Exercise.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: DOE Image:Europol-members-map.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Europol-members-map.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Ilse@, Petri Krohn, Ronline, W!B: Image:EnglandPoliceNumbered.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:EnglandPoliceNumbered.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Cnyborg Image:HH Polizeihauptmeister MZ.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:HH_Polizeihauptmeister_MZ.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Dschwen Image:Police Poland 1 AB.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Police_Poland_1_AB.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Chepry Image:NYPDBrooklynBridge.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NYPDBrooklynBridge.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Nikki88, 1 anonymous edits Image:Mounted.police.buckingham.palace.arp.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mounted.police.buckingham.palace.arp.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Arpingstone, Arriva436, Cgoodwin, Edward, Kersti Nebelsiek, MB-one, Man vyi, Mattes, Una Smith, Yarl Image:Christian Krogh-Albertine i politilægens venteværelse.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Christian_Krogh-Albertine_i_politilægens_venteværelse.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: TheEditrix2, Vegaswikian Image:Brazilian Federal Highway Police.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Brazilian_Federal_Highway_Police.jpg  License: Agência Brasil  Contributors: Fabio Pozzebom / ABr. Image:vehicle drug search australia.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vehicle_drug_search_australia.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Conollyb at en.wikipedia Image:Rakshak.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rakshak.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Suyogaerospace Image:RUC PSNI Dungiven.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:RUC_PSNI_Dungiven.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Canterbury Tail, GiollaUidir Image:Brazil Rio de Janeiro Police in North Zone Vista Alegre.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Brazil_Rio_de_Janeiro_Police_in_North_Zone_Vista_Alegre.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Alex Rio Brazil Image:LAPD Police Car.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:LAPD_Police_Car.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Cliff from I now live in Arlington, VA (Outside Washington DC), USA Image:NZHighway patrol.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NZHighway_patrol.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Pepith at en.wikipedia Image:TPS ETF SUV.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:TPS_ETF_SUV.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Eja2k Image:That's how we roll.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:That's_how_we_roll.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Squid Vicious Image:Nash Bearcat.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Nash_Bearcat.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Dino246, Ominae, Sdlewis, 1 anonymous edits Image:Police-antiemeute-p1000485.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Police-antiemeute-p1000485.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: User:Rama Image:BT truck-AFP.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BT_truck-AFP.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Angelo Tsirekas Original uploader was ATS 500 at en.wikipedia Image:carabinieri.motorcycle.in.rome.arp.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Carabinieri.motorcycle.in.rome.arp.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Arpingstone, TimTay, 1 anonymous edits Image:Lamborghini Polizia.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lamborghini_Polizia.JPG  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Adriano Image:Mounted policeman in Oslo (Norway).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mounted_policeman_in_Oslo_(Norway).jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Grzegorz Wysocki Image:Alig police camel 455.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Alig_police_camel_455.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Aligatorek, BomBom, T L Miles, 4 anonymous edits Image:SWAT team.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SWAT_team.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Tim McAteer Image:LosAngelesSWAT.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:LosAngelesSWAT.jpg  License: logo  Contributors: Coat of Arms, Melesse, Tom Image:Members of the 60th Security Police Squadron's Base Swat Team.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Members_of_the_60th_Security_Police_Squadron's_Base_Swat_Team.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: SSGT. RENEE SITLER Image:Members of the 37th Training Wing's Emergency Services Team at Lackland AFB.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Members_of_the_37th_Training_Wing's_Emergency_Services_Team_at_Lackland_AFB.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: U.S. Air Force photo by Robbin Cresswell Image:US Mint Police Special Response Team.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:US_Mint_Police_Special_Response_Team.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: United States Federal Government Image:Counterterrorismwiki.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Counterterrorismwiki.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Original uploader was Cyrillic at en.wikipedia Image:DallasLencoBearcat.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DallasLencoBearcat.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: YEPPOON (talk) Original uploader was YEPPOON at en.wikipedia Image:691233375.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:691233375.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Yeppoon File:Flag of Australia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Australia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ian Fieggen File:Flag of New South Wales.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_New_South_Wales.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Denelson83, User:Greentubing File:Flag of the Northern Territory.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Northern_Territory.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Froztbyte File:Flag of Queensland.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Queensland.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Denelson83 File:Flag of South Australia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_South_Australia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Denelson83 File:Flag of Tasmania.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Tasmania.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Denelson83 File:Flag of Victoria (Australia).svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Victoria_(Australia).svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Denelson83, User:Greentubing File:Flag of Western Australia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Western_Australia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Denelson83 File:Flag of New Zealand.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Adambro, Arria Belli, Bawolff, Bjankuloski06en, ButterStick, Denelson83, Donk, EugeneZelenko, Fred J, Fry1989, Hugh Jass, Ibagli, Jusjih, Klemen Kocjancic, Mattes, Nightstallion, O, Peeperman, Poromiami, Reisio, Rfc1394, Shizhao, Tabasco, Transparent Blue, Väsk, Xufanc, Zscout370, 34 anonymous edits Image:NSW Police SPG shoulder patch.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NSW_Police_SPG_shoulder_patch.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Nkcs, YEPPOON Image:TOU siege 2007.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:TOU_siege_2007.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Yeppoon Image:SPSUORANGESIEGE.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SPSUORANGESIEGE.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: YEPPOON Image:SPGnegotiators.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SPGnegotiators.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: YEPPOON Image:Rescue and bomb disposal.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rescue_and_bomb_disposal.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Melesse, YEPPOON

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Police_Rescue_Squad_trucks.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Police_Rescue_Squad_trucks.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:YEPPOON Image:Spg dog unit.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Spg_dog_unit.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: YEPPOON Image:Nsw75.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Nsw75.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: YEPPOON Image:Cap716.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cap716.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: Coldplay Expert, YEPPOON, 1 anonymous edits Image:Queensland_Police_subdued.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Queensland_Police_subdued.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Nkcs, Tom, YEPPOON Image:Sa44.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sa44.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: YEPPOON Image:Stargroupnews.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stargroupnews.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: YEPPOON Image:Tas8.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tas8.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: YEPPOON Image:Sog111.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sog111.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: YEPPOON Image:Australia2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Australia2.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: YEPPOON Image:Vicpolsogresis.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vicpolsogresis.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: YEPPOON Image:Special op wideweb 430278.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Special_op_wideweb_430278.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: YEPPOON Image:Police01.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Police01.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Yeppoon Image:Wa-police-shield.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wa-police-shield.png  License: unknown  Contributors: DirectEdge, 1 anonymous edits Image:Western Australia locator-MJC.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Western_Australia_locator-MJC.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Bill da Flute, Cflm001, Snowdog Image:Police com tower gnangarra.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Police_com_tower_gnangarra.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Gnangarra Image:Leachprang.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leachprang.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Bjenks Image:wa-police-constable.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wa-police-constable.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: DirectEdge, 1 anonymous edits Image:wa-police-first-class-constable.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wa-police-first-class-constable.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: DirectEdge, 1 anonymous edits Image:wa-police-senior-constable.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wa-police-senior-constable.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: DirectEdge, 1 anonymous edits Image:wa-police-sergeant.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wa-police-sergeant.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: DirectEdge, 1 anonymous edits Image:wa-police-senior-sergeant.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wa-police-senior-sergeant.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: DirectEdge, 1 anonymous edits Image:wa-police-inspector.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wa-police-inspector.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: DirectEdge, 1 anonymous edits Image:wa-police-superintendent.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wa-police-superintendent.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: DirectEdge, 1 anonymous edits Image:wa-police-commander.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wa-police-commander.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SMC89 Image:wa-police-assistant-commissioner.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wa-police-assistant-commissioner.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: DirectEdge, 1 anonymous edits Image:wa-police-deputy-commissioner.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wa-police-deputy-commissioner.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: DirectEdge, 1 anonymous edits Image:wa-police-commissioner.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wa-police-commissioner.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: DirectEdge, 1 anonymous edits Image:WA Police Polair-61.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:WA_Police_Polair-61.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Nachoman-au Image:Vh-njl.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vh-njl.jpg  License: Attribution  Contributors: Kimchi.sg, Nachoman-au, 1 anonymous edits Image:Raffairshow.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Raffairshow.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Yeppoon Image:WA Police Headquarters East Perth.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:WA_Police_Headquarters_East_Perth.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Nachoman-au Image:Curtin House, Perth Police Station.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Curtin_House,_Perth_Police_Station.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Nachoman-au Image:WA_Police_Booze_Bus.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:WA_Police_Booze_Bus.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Nachoman-au Image:WA Police MIG sedan.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:WA_Police_MIG_sedan.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Nachoman-au Image:Cobra01.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cobra01.png  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Cydebot, User:Ominae Image:Sie12.PNG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sie12.PNG  License: unknown  Contributors: Brandmeister File:Caveira bope.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Caveira_bope.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5  Contributors: Ciao 90 File:BOPE2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BOPE2.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5  Contributors: Ciao 90 File:BOPE1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BOPE1.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5  Contributors: Ciao 90 Image:Gate sp.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gate_sp.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Captalizew File:Flag of Brazil.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Brazil.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Brazilian Government File:Flag of Germany.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Germany.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Pumbaa80 File:Flag of the United States.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_States.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Dbenbenn, User:Indolences, User:Jacobolus, User:Technion, User:Zscout370 File:Flag of Italy.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Italy.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: see below Image:cscpatch.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cscpatch.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Shoman93 Image:Csc badge1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Csc_badge1.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Shoman93 Image:CSC Patch.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:CSC_Patch.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Kinou Image:Csc-Cx1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Csc-Cx1.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Shoman93 Image:Csc-Cx2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Csc-Cx2.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Shoman93 Image:Csc-Cx3.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Csc-Cx3.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Shoman93 Image:Csc-Cx4.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Csc-Cx4.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Shoman93 Image:Csc-Rec.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Csc-Rec.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Shoman93 File:Flag of Switzerland.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Switzerland.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:-xfi-, User:Marc Mongenet, User:Zscout370 File:Flag of Canada.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Canada.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:E Pluribus Anthony, User:Mzajac File:Flag of Ontario.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Ontario.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bosonic dressing, Dancingwombatsrule, David Newton, Dbenbenn, Denelson83, E Pluribus Anthony, Homo lupus, Io Katai, Jkelly, Kooma, Mindmatrix, Mpdimitroff, RTCNCA, Telim tor, UpstateNYer, Zscout370, 6 anonymous edits Image:Toronto ETF3.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Toronto_ETF3.jpg  License: Attribution  Contributors: Original uploader was Sherurcij at en.wikipedia Image:Toronto ETF1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Toronto_ETF1.jpg  License: Attribution  Contributors: Sherurcij Image:Toronto ETF2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Toronto_ETF2.jpg  License: Attribution  Contributors: Sherurcij Image:SWCU patch.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SWCU_patch.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Seng Yew

357

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Croatian Police Agusta AB-212 with ATJ Lucko members.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Croatian_Police_Agusta_AB-212_with_ATJ_Lucko_members.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Suradnik13 Image:Suomen poliisin miekkatunnus.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Suomen_poliisin_miekkatunnus.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Antti Salmenlinna Image:Insigne GIGN.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Insigne_GIGN.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Ministère de la défense (France) Image:Pascal paoli.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pascal_paoli.jpg  License: GNU General Public License  Contributors: User Altagna on fr.wikipedia File:Flag of Austria.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Austria.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Croatia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Croatia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ante Perkovic, AnyFile, Denelson83, Denniss, Dijxtra, Klemen Kocjancic, Kseferovic, Minestrone, Multichill, Neoneo13, Nightstallion, O, PatríciaR, Platonides, R-41, Rainman, Reisio, Rocket000, Suradnik13, Zicera, Zscout370, 5 anonymous edits File:Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: special commission (of code): SVG version by cs:-xfi-. Colors according to Appendix No. 3 of czech legal Act 3/1993. cs:Zirland. File:Flag of Denmark.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Denmark.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Madden File:Flag of Egypt.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Egypt.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: 16@r, Alnokta, ArséniureDeGallium, BomBom, Denelson83, Dinsdagskind, Duesentrieb, F l a n k e r, Flad, Foroa, Herbythyme, Homo lupus, Iamunknown, Klemen Kocjancic, Kookaburra, Ludger1961, Lumijaguaari, Mattes, Moroboshi, Neq00, Nightstallion, OsamaK, Reisio, Rimshot, ThomasPusch, Thyes, Vonvon, Wikiborg, Wikimedia is Communism, Überraschungsbilder, 26 anonymous edits File:Flag of Finland.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Finland.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Greece.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Greece.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: (of code) (talk) File:Flag of Iceland.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Iceland.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason File:Flag of India.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_India.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Indonesia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Indonesia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Gabbe, User:SKopp File:Flag of Ireland.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Ireland.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Israel.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Israel.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: AnonMoos, Bastique, Bobika, Brown spite, Cerveaugenie, Drork, Etams, Fred J, Himasaram, Homo lupus, Humus sapiens, Klemen Kocjancic, Kookaburra, Madden, Neq00, NielsF, Nightstallion, Oren neu dag, Patstuart, Pumbaa80, Ramiy, Reisio, SKopp, Technion, Valentinian, Yellow up, 31 anonymous edits File:Flag of Japan.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Japan.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Various File:Flag of Malaysia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Malaysia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anarkangel, Bawolff, Dbenbenn, Fibonacci, Klemen Kocjancic, Madden, Ms2ger, Odder, Pumbaa80, RaakaArska87, Reisio, Rfc1394, SB Johnny, Upquark, Urhixidur, Wisg, Zscout370, 21 anonymous edits File:Flag of Norway.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Norway.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Dbenbenn File:Flag of the Philippines.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Homo lupus, Icqgirl, Kallerna, Klemen Kocjancic, Ludger1961, Mattes, Pumbaa80, Slomox, Srtxg, ThomasPusch, Wikiborg, Zscout370, 24 anonymous edits File:Flag of Portugal.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Portugal.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: AFBorchert, ALE!, Afonso Silva, Anime Addict AA, Broadbeer, Conscious, Denniss, Er Komandante, Flad, FoeNyx, Herbythyme, Jelte, Kam Solusar, Klemen Kocjancic, Kookaburra, Mattes, Nick, Nightstallion, Reisio, Rkt2312, Skatefreak, Stunteltje, Tuvalkin, 27 anonymous edits File:Flag of Romania.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Romania.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: AdiJapan File:Flag of Russia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Russia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: AndriusG, Davepape, Dmitry Strotsev, Enbéká, Fred J, Gleb Borisov, Herbythyme, Homo lupus, Kiensvay, Klemen Kocjancic, Kwj2772, Mattes, Maximaximax, Miyokan, Nightstallion, Ondřej Žváček, Pianist, Pumbaa80, Putnik, R-41, Radziun, Rainman, Reisio, Rfc1394, Rkt2312, Sasa Stefanovic, SeNeKa, SkyBon, Srtxg, Stianbh, Westermarck, Wikiborg, Winterheart, Zscout370, Zyido, ОйЛ, 34 anonymous edits File:Flag of Serbia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Serbia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: ABF, Avala, B1mbo, Denelson83, EDUCA33E, Herbythyme, Imbris, Nightstallion, Nikola Smolenski, Nuno Gabriel Cabral, R-41, Rainman, Rokerismoravee, Sasa Stefanovic, Siebrand, ThomasPusch, Zscout370, 7 anonymous edits File:Flag of Slovakia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Slovakia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of South Korea.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_South_Korea.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Various File:Flag of Spain.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Spain.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Pedro A. Gracia Fajardo, escudo de Manual de Imagen Institucional de la Administración General del Estado File:Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: 555, Bestalex, Bigmorr, Denelson83, Ed veg, Gzdavidwong, Herbythyme, Isletakee, Kakoui, Kallerna, Kibinsky, Mattes, Mizunoryu, Neq00, Nickpo, Nightstallion, Odder, Pymouss, R.O.C, Reisio, Reuvenk, Rkt2312, Rocket000, Runningfridgesrule, Samwingkit, Shizhao, Sk, Tabasco, Vzb83, Wrightbus, Zscout370, 72 anonymous edits File:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Zscout370 Image:David degelin.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:David_degelin.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: English:  Original uploader was Daviddegelin at nl.wikipedia File:Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Bangladesh.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of France.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_France.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Lithuania.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Lithuania.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Poland.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Poland.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Mareklug, User:Wanted File:Flag of Slovenia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Slovenia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp, User:Vzb83, User:Zscout370 File:Flag of Sweden.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Sweden.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Hejsa, Herbythyme, J budissin, Jon Harald Søby, Klemen Kocjancic, Lefna, Mattes, Meno25, Odder, Peeperman, Quilbert, Reisio, Sir Iain, Str4nd, Tabasco, Tene, Thomas Blomberg, Thuresson, Wiklas, 31 anonymous edits File:Flag of Turkey.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Turkey.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Dbenbenn File:PTU on guard.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PTU_on_guard.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: fuzheado File:Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Hong_Kong.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: ButterStick, Dbenbenn, Jackl, Kibinsky, Kookaburra, Ludger1961, Mattes, Neq00, Nightstallion, Runningfridgesrule, Shinjiman, SkyBon, ThomasPusch, VAIO HK, Vzb83, Zscout370, 6 anonymous edits Image:SDU Patch.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SDU_Patch.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Ominae Image:SDU patch pre97.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SDU_patch_pre97.jpg  License: logo  Contributors: MBisanz, Seng Yew Image:SDU-ASU selection 2005.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SDU-ASU_selection_2005.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Wwt2112 Image:ASU.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ASU.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Wwt2112 at en.wikipedia Image:ASU armed with MP5.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ASU_armed_with_MP5.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Original uploader was Hamedog at en.wikipedia Image:Logreglustjarna.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Logreglustjarna.jpg  License: Copyrighted free use  Contributors: Eirikurr, Ö Image:Icelandic Army 1940-2.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Icelandic_Army_1940-2.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Kjallakr, Manxruler Image:National Security Guards.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:National_Security_Guards.jpg  License: logo  Contributors: Legoktm, Natrajdr File:Indian Navy MARCOS.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Indian_Navy_MARCOS.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class John L. Beeman, U.S. Navy File:headkoh.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Headkoh.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Legaleagle86 Image:BRIMOB vehicle.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BRIMOB_vehicle.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:MichaelJLowe

358

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Garda EMU.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Garda_EMU.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ingolfson, Jamesnp Image:Garda eru1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Garda_eru1.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Mough at en.wikipedia Image:Semel 3D Yamam.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Semel_3D_Yamam.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Calliopejen1, El C, Sherool Image:IMG_2797.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:IMG_2797.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Dovzwer Image:Italian NOCS 01.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Italian_NOCS_01.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Nkcs Image:2june2006 309.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:2june2006_309.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Utente:Jollyroger Image:2june 2007 498.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:2june_2007_498.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Utente:Jollyroger Image:Italian GIS 01.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Italian_GIS_01.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Nkcs Image:SAT patch.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SAT_patch.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: Ominae, 1 anonymous edits Image:NAF STF.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NAF_STF.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Latvian Ministry of Defence Image:NAF Special Tasks Force 05.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NAF_Special_Tasks_Force_05.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Latvian Ministry of Defense Image:Latvian OMEGA 01.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Latvian_OMEGA_01.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Coat of Arms Image:RMP PGK pennant.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:RMP_PGK_pennant.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Rizuan File:PDRM-Ensign.PNG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PDRM-Ensign.PNG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Rizuan File:RMP PGK Chief Instructor Airborne Wing.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:RMP_PGK_Chief_Instructor_Airborne_Wing.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Rizuan File:UTK PGK on standby.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:UTK_PGK_on_standby.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Rizuan File:LatihanSerbuanPGK.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:LatihanSerbuanPGK.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: uploaded to wikipedia by myself at File:UTK PGK CQC drill.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:UTK_PGK_CQC_drill.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Rizuan File:UTK PGK fastroping drill.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:UTK_PGK_fastroping_drill.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Rizuan File:UTK PGK RIV Storm.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:UTK_PGK_RIV_Storm.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Rizuan File:UTK PGK with MP5-N.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:UTK_PGK_with_MP5-N.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Rizuan File:UTK PGK Motorsquad01.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:UTK_PGK_Motorsquad01.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Rizuan File:VAT69 PGKHaloEquipment.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:VAT69_PGKHaloEquipment.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Rizuan File:UTK PGK broke the door.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:UTK_PGK_broke_the_door.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Rizuan Image:AOSshoulder.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AOSshoulder.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: YEPPOON Image:NZAOSopenday.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NZAOSopenday.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: YEPPOON (talk) Original uploader was YEPPOON at en.wikipedia File:Flag of South Africa.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_South_Africa.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp Image:STGshoulder.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:STGshoulder.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: YEPPOON Image:NZSTGtraining.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NZSTGtraining.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:YEPPOON Image:Deltawiki2.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Deltawiki2.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Norwegian government Image:FSK-HJK-logo.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:FSK-HJK-logo.gif  License: unknown  Contributors: Czupirek, Pieter Kuiper, Yosh3000, 1 anonymous edits Image:Presidential Unit Citation ribbon.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Presidential_Unit_Citation_ribbon.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: user:Ipankonin Image:Fly37 13458a.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fly37_13458a.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Dybdal Image:Spesialjegere.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Spesialjegere.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Grautbakken at en.Wikipedia File:Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Belgium_(civil).svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: David Descamps, Dbenbenn, Denelson83, Howcome, Ms2ger, Nightstallion, Oreo Priest, Rocket000, Sir Iain, ThomasPusch, Warddr, 3 anonymous edits File:Eliat.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Eliat.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Rescue 15 Bahawalpur File:Flag of Pakistan.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Pakistan.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Abaezriv, AnonMoos, Badseed, Dbenbenn, Gabbe, Himasaram, Homo lupus, Juiced lemon, Klemen Kocjancic, Mattes, Neq00, Pumbaa80, Rfc1394, Srtxg, ThomasPusch, Túrelio, Zscout370, 7 anonymous edits Image:Saf Patch.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Saf_Patch.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Bluemask, Cmdrjameson, Lenticel, Ominae, Sherool, 2 anonymous edits Image:Saf.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Saf.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: Pinoyrap, Wanch Image:Special Action Force Operators.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Special_Action_Force_Operators.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ominae Image:SAF commandos.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SAF_commandos.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ominae Image:Special Action Force US Embassy guards.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Special_Action_Force_US_Embassy_guards.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ominae Image:Omon-logo.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Omon-logo.jpg  License: logo  Contributors: BrokenSegue, Chris 73, Project FMF, Roninbk Image:OMON.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:OMON.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Dezidor Image:OMON soldiers in Red Square, Moscow.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:OMON_soldiers_in_Red_Square,_Moscow.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Flickr.com user "lazyoldsun" Image:Tambov OMON in Nizhny Novogord.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tambov_OMON_in_Nizhny_Novogord.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Lzhl Image:dpir.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dpir.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Zatoichi1564 Image:DPIR 2 092.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DPIR_2_092.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Zatoichi1564 Image:dpir1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dpir1.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Zatoichi1564 Image:Image-Swat_133.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Image-Swat_133.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Zatoichi1564 File:SAJ emblem.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SAJ_emblem.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: MUP Srbije File:SAJ Zastava MUP RS.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SAJ_Zastava_MUP_RS.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: author of drawing Milan Jovanović File:SAJ badge.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SAJ_badge.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Boksi, KTo288 File:SAJ anti-riot equipment.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SAJ_anti-riot_equipment.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Boksi File:SAJ weapons.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SAJ_weapons.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Boksi File:SAJ M4 rifle.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SAJ_M4_rifle.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Boksi File:SAJ members.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SAJ_members.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Boksi File:Guide dogs K-9.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Guide_dogs_K-9.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Boksi File:SAJ Land Rover.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SAJ_Land_Rover.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Boksi File:SAJ ghillie suit.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SAJ_ghillie_suit.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Boksi File:SAJ CT member.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SAJ_CT_member.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Boksi File:PTJ emblem.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PTJ_emblem.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: MUP Srbije File:PTJ unit flag.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PTJ_unit_flag.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: MUP Srbije

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:PTJ flag.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PTJ_flag.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Boksi File:DMDU-03 Digital Camouflage.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DMDU-03_Digital_Camouflage.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Boksi File:PTJ Hummer.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PTJ_Hummer.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Kos93 File:PTJ diving equipment 2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PTJ_diving_equipment_2.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Boksi File:PTJ weapons.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PTJ_weapons.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Boksi File:PTJ Mercedes truck.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PTJ_Mercedes_truck.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Boksi File:PTJ bomb disposal.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PTJ_bomb_disposal.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Boksi Image:PTJ Robot.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PTJ_Robot.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Boki13, Boksi, Yousaf465 Image:STAR insignia.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:STAR_insignia.png  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Dave1185 File:Flag of Singapore.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Singapore.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Various Image:Spanish GEO 01.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Spanish_GEO_01.gif  License: unknown  Contributors: Nkcs Image:GEO in assault demonstration 2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:GEO_in_assault_demonstration_2.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Darz Mol, FlickreviewR, Ingolfson Image:GEO in assault demonstration 1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:GEO_in_assault_demonstration_1.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Darz Mol, FlickreviewR, Ingolfson Image:Spanish UEI 01.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Spanish_UEI_01.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Nkcs Image:Stockholmspiketen.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stockholmspiketen.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Peter Isotalo Image:Taiwan Thunder Squad Patch.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Taiwan_Thunder_Squad_Patch.JPG  License: logo  Contributors: K kc chan Image:Police armed uk.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Police_armed_uk.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Cnyborg, Man vyi, Mattes, Nachcommonsverschieber Image:British Armed Police.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:British_Armed_Police.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ominae Image:So19trg.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:So19trg.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Zatoichi1564 Image:co19.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Co19.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Ronaldccwong Image:so19assault.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:So19assault.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Zatoichi1564 Image:so19trg.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:So19trg.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Zatoichi1564 Image:Hrtold.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hrtold.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Aaron mcd Image:US-AlcoholTobaccoFirearmsAndExplosives-Seal.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:US-AlcoholTobaccoFirearmsAndExplosives-Seal.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: U.S. Government Image:USA - ATF Badge.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USA_-_ATF_Badge.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: US Government File:ATF HQ by Matthew Bisanz.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ATF_HQ_by_Matthew_Bisanz.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:MBisanz Image:ATF Investigators.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ATF_Investigators.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. Original uploader was Bluedisk at en.wikipedia Image:ATF headquarters.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ATF_headquarters.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: dbking Image:Diplomatic Security Service - Seal.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Diplomatic_Security_Service_-_Seal.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: U.S. Federal Government Image:State SpAgt.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:State_SpAgt.gif  License: unknown  Contributors: Rsoandrew, 1 anonymous edits Image:DS Org Chart.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DS_Org_Chart.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Rsoandrew Image:DSS Org Chart.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DSS_Org_Chart.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Rsoandrew Image:DSS M4 Practice.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DSS_M4_Practice.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5  Contributors: Rsoandrew Image:M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:M2_.50_Caliber_Machine_Gun.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Lawdog396, 2 anonymous edits File:USAF Security Forces badge (black and white art).png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USAF_Security_Forces_badge_(black_and_white_art).png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: United States Air Force File:DefensorFortis.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DefensorFortis.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Lajes Field Image:AirForceSecurityPoliceTanSoNnhut.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AirForceSecurityPoliceTanSoNnhut.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: U.S. Air Force photo Image:USAF Security Police - 173d Security Forces Squadron.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USAF_Security_Police_-_173d_Security_Forces_Squadron.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: United States Air Force Image:42nd Military Police Detachment's Special Reaction Team pull security on a bus 2005.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:42nd_Military_Police_Detachment's_Special_Reaction_Team_pull_security_on_a_bus_2005.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Spc. Jonathan J. Springer, U.S. Army Image:Usms-seal.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Usms-seal.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: USMS Publishing & Multimedia Services Image:US Marshal Badge.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:US_Marshal_Badge.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: USMS Publishing & Multimedia Services File:MorganEarp.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MorganEarp.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Sbharris at en.wikipedia Image:James Meredith OleMiss.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:James_Meredith_OleMiss.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Marion S. Trikosko, U.S. News & World Report File:Zeugenschutz bei Verhandlung.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Zeugenschutz_bei_Verhandlung.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: United States Marshals Service Image:Conair-Marshal.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Conair-Marshal.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: U.S. Federal Government Image:USMS_Brief.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USMS_Brief.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: United States Marshall Service File:U.S. Marshals knock and announce.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:U.S._Marshals_knock_and_announce.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: United States Marshals Service Image:United States Marshals Service Tools.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:United_States_Marshals_Service_Tools.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: United States Federal Government Image:USMS_Arrest.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USMS_Arrest.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: United States Marshall Service Image:US-SecretService-StarLogo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:US-SecretService-StarLogo.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: U.S. Government Image:US Secret Service Agent.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:US_Secret_Service_Agent.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: United States Federal Government Image:Secretservice Pope Benedict.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Secretservice_Pope_Benedict.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Jcs27 Image:US Secrect Service Uniformed Division crop.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:US_Secrect_Service_Uniformed_Division_crop.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5  Contributors: Original uploader was Ed Fitzgerald at en.wikipedia Image:US Secret Service officers.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:US_Secret_Service_officers.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bapho, Duffman, Mattes, Rmhermen Image:Secret service cruiser.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Secret_service_cruiser.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Dschwen

360

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Altgens2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Altgens2.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:RadioKirk Image:Reagan assassination attempt 4 crop.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Reagan_assassination_attempt_4_crop.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ed Fitzgerald, Eusebius Image:President George W. Bush greets troops guarded by Secret Service.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:President_George_W._Bush_greets_troops_guarded_by_Secret_Service.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: White House photo by Eric Draper Image:PFPA_Seal.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PFPA_Seal.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Pentagon Force Protection Agency Image:Prison Tactical Team.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Prison_Tactical_Team.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Busterrr Image:Boston Police Special Operations Unit.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Boston_Police_Special_Operations_Unit.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Paul Keleher from Mass, US Image:NYPD2008.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NYPD2008.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:YEPPOON Image:NYPD ESU at WTC.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NYPD_ESU_at_WTC.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Andrea Booher/ FEMA News Photo

361

License

362

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/