A NOTE ON

:
DRUGS ACTING ON HAEMATOPOIETIC
SYSTEM
DRUGS
►HAEMATINICS/ ANTIANAEMIC DRUGS
► ANBOLIC STEAROIDS
►HAEMOSTATICS/ COAGULANTS
►ANTICOAGULANTS
► ANTITHROMBOTICS
HAEMATINICS/ ANTIANAEMIC DRUGS:
►Minerals: Iron, Cobalt and Copper
►Vitamins:VitaminB
12
,Folicacid,Pyridoxine,
Ascorbic acid
► Anabolic steroids: Nandrolone
decanoate, stanozolol etc
IRON
► Oral preparations
► Ferrous ( - sulphate, fumarate, succinate, gluconate)
► Ferric (-ammonium citrate, hydroxide and
glycerophosphate).
► Ferrous sulphate and ferrous fumarate salts are preferred
as rapidly,better absorbed.
► adverse effects nausea, epigastric discomfort, abdominal
cramps, constipation, and diarrhea.
► These effects are usually dose-related and can often be
overcome by lowering the daily dose of iron or by taking
the tablets immediately after or with meals
IRON
Parenteral preparations
► Iron-carbohydrate complexes( Iron dextran and iron
sorbitol)
► Iron dextran, both IM and IV routes
► . Iron sorbitol is used clinically only by IM route,
► Iron-sucrose complex and iron sodium gluconate complex
are newer, alternative preparations, given deep
intramuscular injection or by intravenous infusion.
Adverse effects of parenteral iron therapy
►local pain,tissue staining (brown
discoloration of the tissues overlying the
injection site)
► fever, arthralgias
► flushing, urticaria, bronchospasm
► anaphylaxis and death.
Overdose
► necrotizing gastroenteritis, vomiting, abdominal pain
► bloody diarrhea, followed by shock, lethargy, and dyspnea.
► Activated charcoal, does not bind iron and thus is
ineffective.
► Deferoxamine, a potent iron-chelating compound
► Appropriate supportive therapy for gastrointestinal
bleeding, metabolic acidosis, and shock
VITAMIN B
12
► Def. rare in animals
► cyanocobalamin
► Hydroxocobalamin.
FOLIC ACID
drugs that interfere with folate absorption or
metabolism:
Phenytoin, other anticonvulsants, oral contraceptives ,methotrexate and
sulphonamides, trimethoprim and pyrimethamine
VITAMIN C (ASCORBIC ACID):
►antioxidant,
►in deficiency conditions
► bleeding, delayed wound healing, impaired
bone formation, anaemia, growth
retardation
► infertility in cattle
► as adjunct in poisoning of paracetamol,
copper, acidification of urine.
ANABOLIC STEROIDS
► synthetically produced variants of the
naturally occurring male hormone
testosterone
►promote the growth of skeletal muscle, and
the androgenic effects promote the
development of male sexual characteristics
► Nandrolone and Stanozolol.
Indications
► Convalescence:
► Following surgical operations and febrile diseases; Debilitating, wasting
diseases
► catabolic states, major acute illness, immunosuppressive
states,trauma
► osteoporosis in elderly, to remove tissue depleting processes in young
ones , in diseases like CD, heavy parasitism, hypoproteinaemia etc.
► To hasten the tissue repair (tendon, bone damage) after major
surgery and to promote the healing and reunion in fracters
► To counteract glucocorticoid induced catabolism and negative effects
► To stimulate erythropoiesis in hypolplastic, hemolytic anemia and
malignancy conditions
► Testosterone deficiency conditions – male hypogonadism, andropause
HAEMOSTATICS
Topical hemostatics
► Feracrylum : is another topical haemostatic solution
applied as spray/ gel for capillary bleeding, surface
bleeding.
► Adrenaline and Noradrenaline induce localized haemostasis
by virtue of their vasocconstrictive effects. They are
applied intranasally(1%) to decrease capillary bleeding,
epistaxis.
► Styptics (Astringents) that arrest bleeding by precipitation
of proteins of blood and soft tissues; should not be used in
high concentration as they irrite and can damage the
surrounding tissue.
Examples include: ferric sulphate,ferric chloride, silver
nitrate, tannic acid, alum, zinc chloride, zinc oxide
HAEMOSTATICS:
Topical haemostatics
► Thromboplastin, Thrombin, Fibrin foam and Fibrinogen
► in capillary bleeding , dental sockets, epistaxis, surgery of
nose , throat and glandular tissues.
► Gelatine sponge ( Absorbable) moistened with saline or
thrombin is left in bleeding area, which is completely
absorbed within 4 weeks.
► Calcium alginate dressing may also be left at bleeding site
in the same manner
Systemic Haemostatics
Adrenochrome monosemicarbazone
(carbazochrome salicylate):
► is an oxidation product of adrenaline
►used for systemic control of capillary bleeding
associated with increased capillary permeability.
►both orally and parenterally , often given in
combination with vitamin K for variety of bleeding
disorders like: epistaxis, haematuria, secondary
haemorrhage from wounds etc.
Rutin:
►is a a plant glycoside that improves
capillary fragility
► used orally in combination with vitamin C
and vitamin K.
Protamine sulphate
► clinically (slow IV) as an antagonist for
heparin overdosage associated bleeding
only.
Ethamsylate
► reduces capillary bleeding by correcting
abnormal platelet adhesion leading to the
repair of capillary wall.
► capillary haemorrhage
► haematemesis
► epistaxis
► post partum haemorrhage etc.
► 250-500mg. IM, PO
► CI: pregnancy
Bothrops venom
►coagulant compound derived from the
venom of SouthAmerican pit vipers.
► Excellent haemostatic-coagulant
► It should not be used as a coagulant in
viper bites as it simply prolongs the
coagulation abnormality.
►10.0 ml in 500 ml of DNS/NSS, I.V. daily for
two days. (94.40% accuracy)
N-Butanol
► with Citric acid ( vit c)-REVICI- 5ml Amp
► Good margin of safety
► Ext , int haemorraghes- surg procedures
►capillary haemorrhage
► haematemesis
► epistaxis
► post partum haemorrhage etc.
► No contraindications
Desmopressin acetate (arginine vasopressin)
► is a synthetic analogue of vasopressin used
as haemostatic.
Cryoprecipitate
► a plasma protein fraction obtainable from
whole blood
► It is used to treat deficiencies or qualitative
abnormalities of fibrinogen, such as that
which occurs with disseminated
intravascular coagulation and liver disease
Fibrinolytic inhibitors
►Epsilon Aminocaproic Acid: (EACA),
Tranexamic acid and Aprotinin
► primarily used as therapy for bleeding
from fibrinolytic therapy
►as prophylaxis for rebleeding postsurgical
gastrointestinal bleeding and
►postprostatectomy bleeding and bladder
hemorrhage secondary to radiation
► Epsilon-amino caproic acid ( EACA) 20.0 gm in 500ml 0f
5.0% dextrose saline (DNS) or normal saline solution (
NSS ) , ( I.V.) daily for 2 to 3 days . (90.0% efficacy)
► EACA 10.0 gm + sodium acid phosphate 80.0 gm
dissolved in 500 ml of 5.0% DNS/NSS, I.V. twice daily, till
recovery (3 to 4 days) (86.6 % efficacy)
Vitamin K
► is used therapeutically in the prophylaxis and treatment of
bleeding disorders due to deficiency of vitamin K
dependent clotting factors as in warfarin rodenticide
poisoning.
► Used as haemostatic agent in the oral anticoagulant
rodenticide (Coumarin derivatives- warfarin, dicoumarol,
acenocoumarol)
► poisoning,indanedione derivatives rodenticide(phenindione,
diphenadione, anisindione)
►Available as:
►the natural plant form-Phytomenadione
(vitamin K
1
)
►Synthetic vitamin K compounds;
Menaquinones (vitamin K
2
)
►and Menadione (vitamin K
3
).
ANTICOAGULANTS
►drugs are much less frequently used in
veterinary medicine than in human patient
►because atherosclerotic disease and
prolonged postoperative recumbency are
not common veterinary problems.
Anticoagulants are part of the management
of disseminated intravascular coagulation,
but most commonly used to maintain
patency of vascular catheters.

►Oxalates( sodium potassium, ammonium,
lithium), Sodium fluoride, , ethylene
diamine tetra acetic acid, sodium citrate,
acid citrate dextrose
► invitro anticoagulants used for laboratory
blood diagnostic , analytical purposes and
blood transfusion.
►Heparin sulphate ( invivo an dinvitro
anticoagulant) and low molecular weight
heparinoids
Antithrombotics/Antiplatelet drugs
►like aspirin, dipyridamole, ticlopidine
►e useful in the prevention of arterial
thrombosis, thus inhibiting the growth/
reoccurrence of thrombus formation
►as in conditions of feline cardiomyopathy,
canine heart worm infection etc.
THANK YOU

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful