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Problem Set 9

650:342 Design of Mechanical Components, Fall 2012


Due: Monday, 12/10/12
Problems copied, selected, and/or modified from Juvinall and Marsheks Fundamentals of
Machine Component Design, 5th edition, 2012.

1. Determine the thickness of a spur gear tooth with a diametral pitch of 8, measured along the
pitch circle.

2. Two gears in a 3:1 ratio gearset and with a diametral pitch of 4 are mounted at a center
distance of 6 in. find the number of teeth in each gear.

3. A 17-tooth pinion meshes with an 84-tooth gear. The full-depth involute gear teeth have 20
o

pressure angle and a diametral pitch of 32. Determine the base pitch and the contact ratio. Also,
calculate the addendum, dedendum, circular pitch, tooth thickness, and the base diameter for the
pinion and gear. If the center distance is increased by 0.125 in., what are the new values for the
contact ratio and the pressure angle?



4. Juvinall Figure P15.23 shows a two-stage gear reducer. Identical pairs of gears are used.
(This enables input shaft a and output shact c to be colinear, which facilitates machining of the
housing.) Shaft b, called the countershaft, turns freely in bearings A and B, except for the gear-
tooth forces. (a) Determine the rpmm of shafts b and c, the pitch diameters of the pinion and
gear, and the circular pitch. (b) Determine the torque carried by each of the shafts a, b, and
c: (i) assuming 100% gear efficiency, and (ii) assuming 95% efficiency of each gear pair. (c)
For the 100% gear efficiency case, determine the radial loads applied to bearings A and B, and
sketch the countershaft as a free body in equilibrium. (Note: This problem illustrates a machine
designed using SI units except for the gear teeth, which are dimensioned in inches.)


5. Juvinall Figure P15.29 shows an electric motor driving a machine by means of three straight-
tooth spur gears having 16, 32, and 24 teeth. The gears have P=8, and a pressure angle of 20
o
.
The idler shaft is supported by bearings A and B. (a) For the direction of motor rotation shown,
determine the radial load carried by each bearing. (b) Determine the bearing loads for the
opposite direction of motor rotation. (c) Explain briefly why the answers to parts a and b are
different.

6. A simply supported steel shaft in Juvinall Figure P17.3 is connected to an electric motor with
a flexible coupling. Find the value of the critical speed of rotation for the shaft.

7. Determine the critical speed of rotation for the steel shaft shown in Figure P17.15 using a 3-
in.-diameter shaft instead of the 2-in.-diameter shaft shown.

8. A mass of 120 lb at location 1 and an 80-lb mass at location 2 are attached to the 2-n.-
diameter shaft as shown in Juvinall Figure P17.15. By means of a deflection analysis, the
influence of coefficients for the shaft were determined as a
11
=0.000308 in./lb, a
12
=0.000321
in./lb, a
21
=0.000321 in./lb, and a
22
=0.000510 in./lb. Note that a
11
is the deflection at location 1
caused by a 1-lb force at that location, etc. Determine the first critical speed, ignoring the mass
of the shaft, using both the Rayleigh equation and the Dunkerley equation.

9. The six shafts represented in Juvinall Figure P17.24 carry various combinations of static and
alternating bending, axial, and torsional loads. State the loading involved for each of the shafts,
and give a short one-sentence explanation for the cause of the loading.

Extra Problems (Do not turn in)
1. A pair of mating spur gears with 6-mm modules and 0.35-rad pressure angles have 30 and
60 teeth. (a) Make a full-size drawing of the tooth contact region, showing (and labeling) both
pitch circles, both base circles, both dedendums, both addendums, pressure angle, length of path
of contact, both angles of approach, and both angles of recess. (b) Using values scaled from
your drawing, state or calculate numerical values for (1) length of path of contact, (2) angles of
approach, (3) angles of recess, and (4) contact ratio.


2 A pair of standard 20
o
spur gears with 10-in. center distances has a velocity ratio of 4.0. The
pinion has 20 teeth. (a) Determine P, p, and P
b
. (b) Begin a full-size layout showing partial
pitch circles, partial base circles, pressure angle, addendum, and dedendum. Label each of these
on your drawing. (c) Show on your drawing the interference-limiting maximum addendum
radii, r
ag,max
, and r
ap,max
. Scale their numerical values from the drawing. Will interference be
encountered with teeth of standard proportions? (d) Measure on the drawing the length of the
path of contact for standard tooth proportions and, from this, compute the contact ratio.




3. Juvinall Figure P17.25 shows the load components acting on a helical gear mounted on a
simply supported shaft. Bearing B takes thrust. A flexible coupling for transmitting torque
attaches to the right end of the shaft. The left end is free. (a) Draw load, shear force, and bending
moment diagrams for the shaft, in both the horizontal and vertical planes. Also draw diagrams
showing the torsional loading and the axial force loading. (The desired diagrams include the
seven shown in Juvinall Figure 17.7c. Add a similar diagram showing axial load, with tension
plotted positive and compression negative.) (b) What radial and thrust loads are applied to
the bearings? (c) Identify the most critically loaded shaft cross section, and for this location
determine the diameter theoretically required for infinite life. Assume that the shaft will be
machined from steel having S
u
=150 ksi and S
y
=120 ksi, and that K
f
=2.0, 1.5, and 2.0 will apply
to bending, torsional, and axial loading, respectively, at the critical location.