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Published by: samal1237855 on Nov 16, 2009
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Breast cancer is cancer that forms in the cells of the breasts. Breast cancer can occur in both men and women, but it's far more common in women. After skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States. But breast cancer rates have fallen in recent years, though doctors aren't certain why. Still, for many women, breast cancer is the disease they fear most. Public support for breast cancer awareness and research funding has helped improve the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Breast cancer survival rates have increased and the number of deaths has been declining, thanks to earlier detection, new treatments and a better understanding of the disease

• Signs and symptoms of breast cancer may
include: 1.A breast lump or thickening that feels different from the surrounding tissue 2.Bloody discharge from the nipple 3.Change in the size or shape of a breast 4.Changes to the skin over the breast, such as dimpling 5.Inverted nipple 6.Peeling or flaking of the nipple skin 7.Redness or pitting of the skin over your breast, like the skin of an orange

Cancer begins as a cluster of abnormal cells. Over time, the abnormal cells continue to change in appearance and multiply, evolving into noninvasive (in situ) cancer or, eventually, invasive cancer. Invasive cancer can spread to other areas of the body through the bloodstream . or the lymphatic system


A Risk Factors
1. Being female. Women are much more likely than 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
men are to develop breast cancer Increasing age. A personal history of breast cancer. A family history of breast cancer. Inherited genes that increase cancer risk. Radiation exposure. Obesity. Being overweight or obese increases your risk of breast cancer. Drinking alcohol. Drinking alcohol may increase the risk of breast cancer.

Tests and Diagnosis
Tests and procedures used to diagnose breast cancer include: 1. Mammogram. 2. Breast ultrasound. 3. MRI.

Tests and procedures used to stage breast cancer may include: 1. Blood tests, such as a complete blood count 2. Mammogram of the other breast to look for signs of cancer 3. Chest X-ray 4. Breast MRI 5. Bone scan 6. Computerized tomography (CT) scan 7. Positron emission tomography (PET) scan

Calcifications are small calcium deposits in the breast that show up as white spots on a mammogram. Large, round, welldefined calcifications (left column) are more likely to be noncancerous (benign). Tight clusters of tiny, irregularly shaped calcifications (right column) may indicate cancer.

A core needle biopsy uses a long, hollow tube to extract a core of tissue. Here, a biopsy of a suspicious breast lump is being done. The core is sent to a laboratory for testing.

Treatment and Drugs
Breast cancer surgery Operations used to treat breast cancer include: 1. Removing the breast cancer (lumpectomy). 2. Removing the entire breast (mastectomy). 3. Removing one lymph node 4. Removing several lymph nodes

During a lumpectomy, your surgeon makes an incision large enough to remove the tumor and a margin of healthy tissue surrounding the tumor. The rest of your breast remains intact.

One type of mastectomy is a modified radical mastectomy, which involves removing the entire breast, including the breast tissue, skin, areola and nipple, and most of the underarm (axillary) lymph nodes (see the shaded area).

Targeted drugs Targeted drug treatments attack specific abnormalities within cancer cells. Targeted drugs approved to treat breast cancer include: 1. Trastuzumab (Herceptin). 2. Bevacizumab (Avastin). 3. Lapatinib (Tykerb).

External beam radiation uses high-powered beams to kill cancer cells. Beams of radiation are precisely aimed at the breast cancer using a machine that moves around your body.

During external beam radiation therapy, you're positioned on a table and a large machine moves around you sending beams of radiation into precise points in your body.

• Breast cancer prevention for women
with an average risk Making changes in your daily life may help reduce your risk of breast cancer. Try to • Ask your doctor about breast cancer screening. • Become familiar with your breasts through breast self-exams. • Exercise most days of the week. • Maintain a healthy weight.

This way to prevent breast cancer

To perform a breast self-exam, use a circling, massaging motion with your fingers. A breast self-exam can help you become familiar with the normal changes in your breasts.

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