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Carl Sagan

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scientific
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Micheal Shermer


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Sagan Carl. The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a candle in the Dark.
Mitchigan: Random House
House 1995
1995 pp. 210.

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Dilworth C. The Metaphysics of science: An account of modern science in terms of
principles laws and theories
principles
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Shick Jr.
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internet URL: http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/theodore_schick/bigbang.
internet
html retrieved on June 3
html
3 2012.

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117

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Salmon H. M. (1992). Scientific Explanation. In Salmon et al. Introduction to the
Philosophy of Science. USA: Hackett Publishing company.



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152

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E. T. JAYNES. PROBABILITY THEORY AS LOGIC Ninth Annual Workshop


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162

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204


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206

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207

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208

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209


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213

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academic disciplines
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219

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220

Observational Verification



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279

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Reasoning
Blasting the Foundations of Atheism

highly

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!
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Epistemic contingceny

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316

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317

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319

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ba ` _ ^ ]\ [ Z Y X W V UT S RQ P O
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323


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324

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325

.
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Fallacies of relevance :

326

)( )( )(.

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!

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327

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328

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329

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Sagan
Sagan Carl. The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a candle in the Dark.
Mitchigan: Random House
House 1995
1995 pp. 214.

)(1

332



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333


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334

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335

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Paradoxes

336


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337


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338

339


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342

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343


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344

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345

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346



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347



!

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348


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349

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Consequentialism

350

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351

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352



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!

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353

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causation

correlation
)( )(

)( )(
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)(

!
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354

)

(

Helmuth Nyborg


)IQ(


IQ

)( Agnostics

! ) (.

:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religiosity_and_intelligence

(
) /

)(1

355

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356

Statistically Significant
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357




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358


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359


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360

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361

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362

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363


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364

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365


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366

....................................................................................
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Querry

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:
!

! )( )(

)(
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agnosticism

367

....................................................................................
=



!

-
!
!
Abiogenesis
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)
( Pseudoscience
Astrology !

:

!



!
naturism Scientism





368


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!


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369

: | } ~

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370


* ) Weasel Words :





)

Polica

Action Armed Incursion


Protective reaction Strikes Pacification

Safeguarding American Interests

Operation

.Just Cause Euphemisms



:

371

!(

( coginitive Process
!

Rationalization Self Justification


cognitive dissonance

372

!
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373

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374

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!


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375

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!
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376

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377



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Relativism



!


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378

] [ : :

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] [ :
!

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!




!

379


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) Plutocracy
(
-




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) (

380

:

) (
)

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!

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!

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=

381

) (

!
=

382

(

-

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: (.

)(

Deep Paradoxes

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/physics/Sagan-Time-Travel.html

(
-
) /

)(1

383

Granfather

Paradox :

* Apparent

inconsistency

Paradox

)
() (
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/paradox

(
-
) /

)(1

384

paradoxum Para : )

Doxum ) Doxus
( Doxum

) Logical

(paradox Chain of Argument

) ( )(

)(


) (

Self-Refering Statements:
: .

)(

! )(
)(

)( )(
)( !

)(
William Hughes
Hughes Jonathan Lavery
Lavery Katheryn Dora: Critical Thinking: An
Introduction to the Basic Skills
Skills Broadview Press
Press Canda
Canda 2010
2010 pp. 387

)(1

385



!
:
) (

:


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! .
:
-

)( .

- )( .
)(

)(

:


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: Liar Paradox Epimenides

Paradox : .

386

) (

) ( !
!

Semantics

-Grelling-Nelson Paradox .

Semantic fallacy .

) (

Autology Heterology

monosyllabic

Heterological : )(

)(

Long

Discrimination Individualization
Michael Clark: Paradoxes from A to Z
Z Second Edition
Edition Routledge
Routledge NY
NY USA
USA
2007 pp. 91.
2007

)(1

387

Heterological .

: Heterological

Autological Heterological Heterological

!Autological Autological

! .Paradox

monosyllabic -



!
)(

)(
) (!
!

Heterological

Predication Levels

388

) (



!
Currys Paradox
Self-referential

.Semantics :

: )( ).(
)(

! unknowable

) Barber Paradox

( .

)(

: :
)(

) ( ).( :
.(
.(
) ( ).( :
) (
Nave Set Theory
R :
Member of itself

R

=

389



!

False Rule False Factual Claim


!

!





!

!

R ! )

( = R
(

) /( !
) (


!

.

390

omnipotence


paradox :

.

! Paradox

..Irrationality Logical inconsistency Impossibility


!

:
! : !
!

391


()


)(

Quantum Model

.Relativistic Model

)(

) (

!


!
-


!
) (
(
! ))( =

)
( )-
!(Subatomic

392

....................................................................................
=


Improbable





Impossible )(


!Improbable

!

Epistemic Ambiguity

!Ontological Necessity
A-Posteriori A-priori
!
Causality

!Probability
Michael Heller Philosophy in Science: An Historical Introduction
:

unambiguous


)( =
Probability

393

) standard events

: (

=

Probabilistic laws
.:

Heller
Heller M.: Science as Philosophy: An Historical Introduction. Springer
Springer Poland
Poland
2011 pp. 142
2011




)(
)(



Sufficient Condition
.Necessary Condition

)(
)( !

:

!

394

)(

=
!


:
)

) ( )
( !


Time Dilation

) (
.

)(

)(

)( .

395

- !
!

-



!

)(

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!

! :
!

396

ontological facts Epistemical properties

.
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)(

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)(
) (


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!) ( -
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.

!

.

397

398

)( )

399

(!



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)) Time-Space Continuum (Spacetime (


) (

400

!) (
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. ) (

Worldline



!
singularities


!

interpretation

Rational contingency !
contingency



GR

) ( .

.Quantum Gravitation



)
(Closed Timelike Curve

Axioms
.

=

401

....................................................................................
=



) ( Paradoxes
-
Dialetheists

-



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A-priori
!


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:


402

: (
!




!




Paradoxical !

403


!

= :

Paradoxes
Weasel words

Paradox
Paradox Fallacy

.


) (
) (



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=

404

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=

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) (


!

405

!
!

!
!

)
(Butterfly Effect
!

) (
!

406

)(

!
!

!Alternate universes


)(

- Causal
-

) Determinism (
)Logical determinism
( .

.



Free will

.

407

)
(!

) (

) (

!Real Science

408

) (


!

Probabilistic Reasoning
)

(
Anthropic principle

!
-


) (

!


!

409

!) (
Multiverse

)( )( M. Tegmark

The Ultimate Ensemble

Primordial Pool / Soup

) Anthropic Principle (


Anthropic -

- ) (
) (
Sample Space Fallacy

) ( )(
!
)(


)(
.

410

:

.

) (

Fine-Tuning


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(
! )

)
(
) (!

!
!



) (

411

)
( Uncertainty Principle
) -(
!


) Empirical Observation
(

Verification by observation

412

! )
(!

):(

:
*



...

...



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) () http://www.ahewar.org/debat/show.art.asp?aid = 247468 :
(.

413


- )(
) (

) ( Indeterminism
)(

- Wavefunction Realism

)

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Wavefunction
) ( wavefunction Collapse





.


!Schrodingers Cat

414

Probability

!!()(
=


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!
!


)(

superimposed )

(

!
:

! .:

Erwin Schrdinger
Schrdinger Die gegenwrtige Situation in der Quantenmechanik (The
)present situation in quantum mechanics
mechanics) Naturwissenschaften (translated by
)John D. Trimmer in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society

:

!
:



) ( Probability Wave
=

415

....................................................................................
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)
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:
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2001

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Van Wezel
Wezel J. Quantum Mechanics &The Big World: Order
Order Broken Symmetry
And Coherence in Quantum Many-Body Systems. Leiden University Press
Press 2007.

)(1

442

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)(

443

!( !


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)(

Colin Bruce

Schrodingers Rabbits: The Many Worlds of

:Quantum

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Single Self
Colin B. Schrodingers Rabbits: The Many Worlds of Quantum. USA: Joseph
Henry Press. 2004
2004 pp. 185.

)(1

444

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)

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445

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446

Foundational impact
Entire

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!
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447


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.Anthropic Principle

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.

Brandon Carter

448

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)

!
Weak Anthropic Principle

)( :

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449


)Cognizable subset(

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Everett

doctrine

(
world ensemble

)(


Carter
Carter B. Large Number Coincidences and the Anthropic Principle in
Cosmology in: Longair
Cosmology
Longair M. S. (ed.)
(ed.) Confrontation of Cosmological Theories with
Observational Data
Data Dordrecht: Reidel
Reidel 1974
1974 pp. 291-298. Reprinted in: Modern
Cosmology & Philosophy
Philosophy J. Leslie ed.
ed. 2nd ed. (Amherst
(Amherst NY: Prometheus Books
Books
1998) pp. 137
)1998

.(
(.
) ( ) :

)(1

450

! -
-
!

!

)!(

) J. Barrow

( ):(

* )
(


.(
(.
) ( ) :

Barrow
Barrow J. D. The Constants of Nature. From Alpha to Omega: the Numbers That
Encode the Deepest Secrets of the Universe. New York: Vintage Books
Books 2002
2002 pp.
65.

)(2

451




) (


) -

!( ()

!
Super String Theory

(
(
))


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) ( ) (
.

452


!) (
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Reading the mind of God !



T. Kuhn
incommensurability




!


!
!




: !


) *( Quantum
) Gravity M-theory
=

453

) ( .

) (


Compactification !

)
:- / - / -(

Spatial Dimension :
=

(
Postmodern Physics !

!

*Nambu
*Nambu Y.
Y. Directions of Particle Physics in M. Bando
Bando R. Kawabe and N.
Nakanishi (eds.)
(eds.) The Jubilee of the Meson Theory. Proceedings of the Kyoto
International Symposium
Symposium Kyoto
Kyoto August 1517
1517 1985 (Progress of Theoretical
)Physics Supplement

454

) (

!

)(

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!

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455



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!

456

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457

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458


(!

459


falsification

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!

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.
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(

460

* ) Reaosnable theory

( dimensionless

numbers

)(

!

.

Letter by Albert Einstein to Ilse Rosenthal-Schneider


Rosenthal-Schneider Princeton
Princeton 13 October
1945 as quoted by Barrow
1945
Barrow The Constants of Nature
Nature pp. 40.

)(1

461

Quantum Gravity

!
!

) (


)
(!

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)(


(
)

Anthropic Coincidences

462

) (
.

B. J. Carr M.J. Rees

* ) Wheeler Everett


(
:

...

)(

)
(
Carr
Carr B. J. & Rees
Rees M. J.
J. The anthropic principle and the structure of the physical
world Nature
world
Nature vol. 278 (12 April 1979)
1979) pp. 605-612.

)(1

463




)(



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)(



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)

(
)

464

)(


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!


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465




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Necessity

466

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!


!
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467


! :
!


( )
)( )( (


:R. H. Dicke
T
* - -

)(

)
Dicke
Dicke R. H.
H. Diracs Cosmology and Machs Principle
Principle Nature
Nature vol. 192
192 No. 4801
4801
4 November 1961
1961 pp. 440-441. Reprinted in: Modern Cosmology & Philosophy
Philosophy
J. Leslie ed.
ed. 2nd ed. (Amherst
(Amherst NY: Prometheus Books
)Books 1998
1998) pp. 127-130.

)(1

468

( T
)(



)(

..

)(

!


-

( ) (

)(
)( !
)

(
) Consequences
!().(
Collins
Collins C. B. & Hawking
Hawking S. W.
W. Why is the universe isotropic?
isotropic? The Astrophysical
)Journal vol. 180 (1973
Journal
(1973) pp. 317-334

)(1

469

:G. Whitrow


*

contingent
Necessary

).(

!


-

- ..

) (


!
!

Whitrow
Whitrow Gerald. Why physical space has three dimensions
dimensions The British Journal
for the Philosophy of Science
Science Vol. 6
6 No. 21. (May
)(May 1955
1955) pp. 13-31

)(1

470




) Strong Nuclear Force

(
!

)
(
)

471


)
( .

Anthropic

) Principle (

!
!
:

*
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) (
Anthropic principle


.
:

*

Self-selection Principle

472

)(

Anthropocentrism !

!
!

Unjustifiable

) (!

: k j i

x w v u t sr q p on m l
zy ] [ : : ! " * ) ( ' & % $ #

; : 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 21 0 / . - , +

< = > ?@ ] [ :

!

(
Carter
Carter B. The anthropic principle and its implications for biological evolution
evolution
in: McCrea
McCrea W. H. & Rees
)Rees M. J. (eds
(eds) The Constants of Physics
Physics The Royal Society:
London 1983
London
1983 pp. 137

)(1

473

)(

Heliocentric


!(

!

) (

)
(

Doctrine of Naturalism !

:
)

(
!
)

(!



) ( Synthetic / Analytic


A-Priori
- .A-Posteriori

474

Selection Bias

) ( )


!Selection Bias

!) (

) (
.
) (
) (!
:

)
( ) ( :

!

! =

475

) (
! )
() (

(!

Spin

)(
.

Barrow
Barrow J. D. & Tipler
Tipler F. J. The Anthropic Cosmological Principle
Principle Oxford:
Clarendon Press
Press 1986.

)(1

476

) ( ) Pure Accident

(

!

)(

) (
!
)

(Neo-atheists

!Climbing Mount Improbable
.

477

!(

Scientific American

*

.

..
).(


A-priori
Tegmark
Tegmark M. Parallel Universes
Universes Scientific American
American volume 288
288 number 5
5 pp.
42

)(1

478

!
=


!

)(
! !

)
(! :

* )(
).(

!
!

Andre Linde
Inflation
:

Inflationary Theory


Fractal

) ( .

479

Elementary

Particles ).(
: Fractal


) ..( ()
) ( .
http://www.stanford.edu/~alinde/ )) (
) ( Fractal mathematics
/ B. Mandelbrot
Fractal shape Iteration

) (


.
- Chaos Mathematics
)

(


Chaos Mathematics

!

480


!
reproduces

!
:




!





E. Tryon :Nature

*
).(

) (
Tryon
Tryon E. P. Is the universe a Vacuum Fluctuation?
Fluctuation? Nature
Nature vol. 246
246 No. 5433
(14 December 1973)
1973) pp. 396-397. Quoted by: Leslie
Leslie J. (ed.)
(ed.) Modern Cosmology
& Philosophy
Philosophy NY: Prometheus Books
Books 1998
1998 pp. 224

)(1

481

Fluctuations
)!(

Observational

) Selection Bias(
)

!(
!


!
) (

! !


) ( .

Bostrom
Bostrom N. Observational Selection Effects and Probability
Probability doctoral dissertation
dissertation
London School of Economics
Economics Department of Philosophy
Philosophy 3 July 2000.

)(2

482

)(

!

!

Probabilistic Explanation

Fallacy Arguments for Design

Explaining Away

) Theists

( )(

)( !Multiverse Scenario

)(

!
!
Natural Theology

Inductive argumentation

) (

Chandler J. & Harrison V. Probability in the Philosophy of Religion U.K: Oxford


University Press. 2012.

)(1

483

!
!

!
.

: f e

srqponmlkjihg

zy x w v u t ] [ :




: )( )(!


)(
!

Teleological A-Posteriori

484

!
-

) (



) (
-
)
(.

! !
:

485

Fine-Tuning
Initial Conditions ) (

).Inductively more Probable(

)
(
!

) (

!
)(

Chandler J. & Harrison V. Probability in the Philosophy of Religion U.K: Oxford


University Press. 2012. Pp. 103

)(1

486

)(
(!


( !

) ( !

!

:

) (

487

!
!

!
)

!(


) (


!

488



!
.

Probabilistic Fallacy
:

! )

- !

489


) (

Divine Intervention /

Provision
!


) (

490

autonomy


(
!
:
! :


: !

!
)


( ) (


)
(!

491

A-posteriori

( !

) (

492

) (

- -
) (










!

!







(
)

493

....................................................................................
=

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!

!
)
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.
) (

)(
.

! !










=

494

! ) (



.. :

][ :

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].[ :

- -

495


: !

*
chronology protection conjecture
) () (

:


http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/physics/Sagan-Time-Travel.html

.(
(.
-
) /

)(1

496

.
:
*

:

*

:

* :

* :

) (

497

conjecture
Protective Agency

498

wormholes

!



.

):(

*


Causality violations finite
.Curvature Singularities

Hawking
Hawking S. W.: Chronology Protection Conjecture
Conjecture In: F. L & Ruffini
Ruffini R. (Ed.s):
Hawking on the Big Bang and Black Holes
Holes Advanced Series in Astrophysics and
Cosmology Vol. 8
Cosmology
8 World Scientific press
press Singapore
Singapore 1993
1993 pp. 304.

)(1

499



hypothetical

entities

!Logically inconsistent

) (

500

!Logical coherence

The question of Origins

Observational Prediction !

501

conjecture !

: 8 7 6 54 3 2 1 0/ . - , +

=< ; : 9 ].[ :



) (
) ( ) (


!
!




!
!


!
) (
t

c

t
=

502

(
!
=


-

!

-

!

!

)

(

!

!


:
!




!
!

503

) (
.


)
( )

substance


(relations

) substantivalists
:

Earman Stachel (Norton


) ( ) (

504


! -

) (
!





) Geodesic

( ) (

) (!
) (

!

505

Paradox


) (


) (

) (
)(

506

)(

) (

) (




) (
.


)
(
!


=

507

....................................................................................
=



)

)
(



(

) (
!

) (

!
!

.

Time
Dilation




=



) (
!

508

)
(

!

!
!



)(

=
!

509

! ! :

!Disciplinary Authority
!

!
)(
!

510

..!

Backward Causation
!

)( )( )(

! - Postmodernistic

Relativistic

Causation
moral relativism
!

Time Dilation

) ((
)
) (
) (

) (
) ( ) (
) (

!

511

)(
) !(
) (!
. )(
) ((

)

)(
!

) (
)( ) (

)

(

) ( !

)( )(

)( )( !
!


) (!

512

) (

= !
!




)(


= ! -

) ( ) (

)(

( !

513

Determinism
)
( ) (

514


Arrow of time
)

( Entropy
-
) (

Order ) Disorder

(!

)( )(

(Consistency

515

A-priori
priori
))= +

(!

( !


Mathematical convenience

516

)
(

) (
)

Mathematical Formalism



!

!

517


) (

) (
) (

! )

)(

518

Falsification

!Undecidable


Purpose

:
)(

)( !
!

- -

CTC )

(

!

519

Chronology protection/

censorship )
(

)
!(
!
)

!(

conjectures

Probabilistic position

):(

*
.Cosmic Censorship Conjecture

.

- -

Hawking
Hawking S. W.: Introduction
Introduction in: Zhi
Zhi F. L & Ruffini
Ruffini R. (Ed.s): Hawking on the
Big Bang and Black Holes
Holes Advanced Series in Astrophysics and Cosmology
Cosmology Vol.
8 World Scientific press
press Singapore
Singapore 1993
1993 pp. 1.

)(1

520


!
)(
)(
contingent low )(

situational

)( )(

) (
!self-contradiction

)
(

) (

.

*
.

521

)(

arumentum ad
! :
ignorantiam

.

!

CTC

):(

Chronology Protection

:Conjecture

.Closed Timelike Curves



*
Hawking
Hawking S. W.: Chronology Protection Conjecture
Conjecture In: F. L & Ruffini
Ruffini R. (Ed.s):
Hawking on the Big Bang and Black Holes
Holes Advanced Series in Astrophysics and
Cosmology Vol. 8
Cosmology
8 World Scientific press
press Singapore
Singapore 1993
1993 pp. 311.

)(1

522

!
:

) (

Interpretations

*

.

523

) (

Reductio ad Absurdum :

)(
)(

.reduction

!(
)

524

.Novikov self-consistency principle/conjecture



!P = 0

!Self-consistent


!

!

!

.


!Polchinski Paradox

!

!
Travesrable wormhole

525

) (

Earlier Self

)(


)(

! :

* )
(

)( )( )(.


)( Younger Self

)( Self-consistent

Novikov
Novikov I. D.: 2001: A relativistic Spacetime odyssey
odyssey World Scientific Publishing
Ltd. Singapore
Ltd.
Singapore 2003
2003 pp. 95-96.

)(1

526


!
!

- )
( .

)!!(

:
) (


)
(

!
Indeterminism
.(
(.
) ( ) :

527

inherent property


!

!


Justified

!
Determinism
!

Appeal to debate

: )
( )(

528

) (


)( )(
Collision courses
)( )(!

)(
)( ! )

Younger Self

Older Self

) ( Impossibility

The limits of science and the science of limits J. Barrow():


Barrow
Barrow J. D.: Impossibility: The limits of Science and the science of limits. Oxford
University Press
Press UK
UK 1998
1998 pp. 137

)(1

529

Probability

) (

Levitation


) (
.

)
(Extremely low Probability

!
) ( Levitation

530

)( )

(:

(Rationally possible (Consistent

) .Physically possible

(Significant Probability

) .


Logically Inconsistent

)(

)
(

) (.

- -


!
) (

.

531

) (

!

) =
(
)(

)( )(
.


) (

C ) :(

!

!

.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/10/991005114024.htm

) (.

)(1

532

)(

contingent


)
(

A-Priori Deduction

533

Probabilistic Reasoning

Logical Consistency Knowledge claim


) (
.




Inductive Reasoning



) (

) (

!
!


) (
=

534

! Probability





!
)
( basic belief !

-
!

contingency

) (

) ( !
!

a-priori !


! .

535

... :Levitation

) (

)( ! =


! )

(Cherry Picking

)
(

536



Michael Shermer

Baloney Detection )(


Scientific

Pseudoscientific

Human Discource

)(
.

)
!( Skeptic Magazine

.

!
Astrology

540

)
( !



!
.

541

Rationality !

) (

)(

) Science Popularizers(
) (


!



Naturalism

!


!


!
=

542

Scientific Method !

Outrageous Reductionism

! -

Null-

) Hypothesis
=


spiritual element


) -(


) (

) ( .


)
(

:
= !

543

(Scientific method

)!(

) (

Verification of Hypothesis

Scrutinization
!
A-Posteriori / inductive processes
A-Priori / Deductive processes
!


Innate
knowledge .



-
)

(!



: =

544

Knowledge Claims

A-Priori

(A-Posteriori )
.(A-Priori
=

!


!




Sensual input


)
(

545


) (

)(



% :
) = %
(
% (.
))
=




!
)
(
!A-Priori
! Priori

) (


.

!


: )
: ( =

546

( )
(

)
:

( ...

Physical dimensions


. :


.. .




!



.

547


!
):(
* science Pseudoscience


:

: !


Baloney Detection

Baloney Detection Kit


-
http://www.michaelshermer.com/2001/11/baloney-detection/

.(
(.
-
) /

)(1

548

Absolute

receiver
receiver

! !

549

)
(

(
!

! :

550

Scientifically Warranted .

Source Reliability

Pseudoscientists
*

Daniel Kevles

Scientific

.Process :

551

In-Discipline Frauds Out-Discipline Frauds .

552


quantum world
!

553

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) (



!
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mechanism

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!



!



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=

554

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ID

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555

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-
:










!

556


)
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.

Piltdown man

557

.mainstream academic thought

558

559


Reliable Refutation

.Scholarly Authorities

Flood Geologists

)

(


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( .

560

)
(

561

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Skepticism
Temporary consensus

.Final Consensus

562

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Verification Falsification



) (


) (





.

563


Convention .

564

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) ( W. Quine


.

!
Circularity





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(
!
: Philosophy of Science

!


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565

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Rational Semantic

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) (


=
- -

!
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Pop culture
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sciences

.

566

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Hypothesization / Postulation

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entity

Relation


-

.

567




: > ? @ G F E D C B A

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568

569

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570


!




.

571

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572

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573

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574

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)
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) (




.

575


Flood Geology
.. .

) ( ).(

) ( .


- )

=

576

)(

)
(

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)(


)(

=

!

577

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) (

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).(



anomalous



)(


)(

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(

578

] [ :



..

. )

(

)(
-

579

)( )(

. Agnosticism

Baloney
!



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!

580

Rationalization
.

Pop mythology
=

Fallacy /

Myth Plausible knowledge claim


Justifiable belief

(!

581

Catastrophies
Uniformitarianism

) (

)(

Uniformitarioanism



) (

582

catastrophists

(
Archaeological dating

Presupposing

Uniformitarianism

) (
)

583


)
(




Epistemically inaccessible

584

likelihood

) (
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)
(
!


) (



.

Catastrophic Anomaly

585



.




!
)
(
.



Scientific

!
:
Scientific

:

Scientific Method

) (
.

586

!
!



- Naturalism
Positivism ) Scientism

(

) (



Theory of Science !

Science

587

)

(

Irreducible complexity


A-priori

)
(
) ( )

(


.

588

)( )(

)( )(
.

) (
A-posteriori
Irreducibly complex system
ID

!
)

589

( ) !(


subsystem

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) (





)(
)(
)(


590

Species
.

) (

!
:

!

ID


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creationist

Science

) (
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Blasting the Foundations of

591

!
Pseudoscience

) (
Neo-Atheists


][ :




Pseudoscientists

Science



ID IC

592

Abiogenesis
Cosmogeny


* Psedoscientists
unverified
:

Cold Fusion


) (
outside verification .

593



) (



) (

) (


) (

594

)

( .


)(
.
.





) (

- -
)(
Fundamental
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595

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!
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596

....................................................................................
=





.

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Interdisciplinary Research

!
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597

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)(
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! ) (

)( .

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=







Naturalism Scientism
Interdisciplinarity / Cross-disciplinary Research
!
Discipline

!

598


)(



)(
)( )

.
Pseudoscientists

Structure Altered

Water

599


..!
! Water Cluster

)!(

!

!


)(


)(


)
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http://www.chem1.com/CQ/clusqk.html

.(
(.
-
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)(1

600

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.

601

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.

602

603

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604

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.

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(

:

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605

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) (

Megalithic
)(!

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)(
=

.

606


Methods of Science

Confirmation Bias

Cognitive Psychology
).(


) ( !Confirmation Bias

) (



Evans
Evans J. & Over
Over D. (1996): Rationality and Reasoning
Reasoning U.K.: Psychology Press.

)(1

607

..

Bias !


) (

608

Confirmation

Bias .

- :
!

609



!

-


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10 / . - , + * )( ' & % $ # ].[ :






)
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610

:

.


Epistemic Dependence

) (
(

!
)
) ( )(
J. Hardwig
:

)( )( )(

)( )( )(
)(
)(
.

Hardwig
Hardwig J. (1985): Epistemic Dependence
Dependence The Journal of Philosophy
Philosophy Vol. 82
82 No.
)7 (Jul. 1985
1985) pp. 335-349. .

611

)
(
) (

.

(Positivity
) (Positivity

)(

612


) (


confirming


!
Bias


Bias

613

! mythological claim

Ancestry Tree

Abiogenesis


-

) (
) (
) (
) (

-


=

614


) (



)

(!

!

!

615

!

!


scrutinization

Disciplinary Bias
!
):(
*

http://www.michaelshermer.com/2001/12/more-baloney-detection/

)(1

616

)(


baloney


)(

legitimate disciplines

617

) (

Squatter settlements



)

(.

618

!


) (!


NOMA
Non-Overlapping Magesteria


!
Ultimate Meaning Moral Values)!(

! ) :(

)
( )

:(

) (
Gould
Gould S. J. Rocks of Ages: Science and Religion in the Fullness of Life. New York:
Ballantine Books
Books 2002.

)(1

619

) ( )

(

Naturalism



Discilpinary

620

inductive reasoning


) (

-
(


:




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a-posteriori a-priori

621

)(

:
!



a-priori

622

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)

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!

623



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) (!

624

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(
!


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: !

625

Prima Facie

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) !(

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untinuitive


Blasting the foundations of Atheism: Its Pseudoscience and Pseudo-reason
) ( .

626

)
( :

) SETI
*

UFOlogists
)( SETI Null

Hypothesis

hypnotic

) regression (
) anecdotal reasoning

( )
(

) ( )
(.

627


) !(

) (

The Believing Brain


) (
:



.
.Science
.
.
:

Shermer
Shermer M.
M. The Believing Brain: From Ghosts and Gods to Politics and
Conspiracies How we construct Beliefs and Reinforce them as truths
truths USA: St.
Martins Press. 2012


!
Fallacies of Relevance Bandwagon Fallacy


!! -
! !

628

(!

SETI

. Null

hypothesis
.
)( )

( .

629


Null hypothesis

alternative hypothesis





!
-



Improbable

630


!
!(

!

) Personal

(Epistemological position

) Ad Ignorantiam
(.

631

SETI




) - ( !

) ( Contact
SETI

radio
radio telescope
Radio Static

!



!

Pareidolia




!SETI



!
=

632

)
(

) (
=

:




SETI







Pulsar

Natural Artificiality


) (
Parsimony Ockham Razor

SETI
-
wishful thinking
confirmation bias
SETI
! SETI
Pseudoscience !

633

SETI )

( Probabilisitc fallacy

Mediocrity principle
-
ETI
Contact !


: ) * ((

) ((--

).(

)(

Hanslmeier
)Hanslmeier A. (2009
(2009) Habitability and Cosmic Catastrophes
Catastrophes Berlin: Springer
Springer

)(1

pp. 204.


)(


)
(



!

! Palaeocontact
!
=

634

SETI

Null hypothesis

! Null hypothesis

Probabilsitic argument

null


)
(.

635

presupposed


fact SETI

!Fermi Paradox
:

SETI

Paradox

! Argument

counter-argument !

) (


.. !


Drake F.

636

.Radio Telescopes



: Fraction
) !( :


habitable

SETI )(


Hanslmeier
Hanslmeier A. (2009)
(2009) Habitability and Cosmic Catastrophes
Catastrophes Berlin: Springer.

)(1


) (
!

637

Argument from scale

( statistical

inference )
(

!


!uniqueness

!

) Mediocrity

(Principle )!(

- -


) (

principle

Mediocrity

) (
!Anthropocentrism

638



circularity

rational
- -

contingency
) !(

Paradox

leap of faith .

A-priori

Paradox


!


) (



!SETI

639

ad-hoc hypothesis

SETI Cosmic biology

640

! -

- -

: Faith

) Belief that is not based on proof(


)
(

) (

(Dictionary.com):
confidence or trust in a person or thingany set of firmly held principles or :
beliefs
beliefs


trust :





: LK J I H G F E ] :
[
: !

641







UFOlogy enthusiasts

-
scientific scrutinization

Scientific method

) (

belief system




642

- Epistemic dependence

) (

Biases

) research

query (hypothesis

643

- -

Sub-disciplines

Astrobiology


!


-

) !(

!Academic Discipline / Subdiscipline

SETI
!


) (
Confirmation Bias

!

644

!

.

: (

) (

645




) (

)(

) (

Nikoli Kardashev

) ( ) (
.Kardashev Scale
) (
( ( ) :
) (

) (( !
)

) ( =

646

....................................................................................
=



) (
!


.
!

Multiverse
)
God-
(
like sentients

Will power
!


!
K
!
K = 0.7
) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kardashev_scale :
(.
--


:
scientific method :




=

647

....................................................................................
=

!Comic books ..

!

!

-


-
) ..(!
Michio Kaku
: : Star Trek:
The next Generation God-like


! ) ( !!
:



:


necessary being contingent being





648

....................................................................................
=

:contingency









)
(
universal
control !



-





causal dependence
!
.
!

: y x w v u t s r q
[
~ }| { z ] :

!

!



=

649

-

indisputable evidence

(
) Heliocentric

) Geocentric


!
:


) ( ... .

650


) (

) ( !


651

Cosmology

) Cosmocentric
(

-
!

652

Popperians

)

(


-


.

!

-

653

scientific method
! !

Academic

Disciplines

SETI.

!

.

654




) (

)
) (
(




.



!


-


)

(!
:

.

655

) (


UFO







)!(

) (

:
-
:
-
:
z y x w v u t s r q p ] [ :




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=

656

....................................................................................
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:
.


: [ \ ]
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!




!

.


:





:
TS R Q P ] [ : :



=

657

SETI


- .

658


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!

.

!

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!

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659

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660


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661

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(
)

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.

662

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663


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(
)

664

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.

( . ID


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Theoretical postulates

665

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.


HIV
HIV



Hemophiliacs HIV
.Blood Supply


Causal Agent

666

HIV

) (


Scientific Skepticism


)
(

-
-

Funding capitals




) ( :

Culshaw
Culshaw R. Science sold out: Does HIV really cause Aids? USA: North Atlantic
Books 2007.
Books

667

) (
:


*


Peer
Peer-review
review

!!

668

Peer
Peer-review
review


Personal Knowledge

)(

Dissonance
rationalizations

669




confirmation Bias
Prevailing World View

!

:


*
Baloney
Pseudoscience :
fuzzy fractions

..

:

670


Cryonics

: -


Probabilistic Reasoning


Epistemology

Justified Beliefs !

circularity

( Fuzziness

671

:
- -


Truth



Inductive reasoning

Baloney



)

( !
:

672



(!
)

!



a-priori deductive argumentation

! !

!
!

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!
.

!
!

674

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!

675


!

:

!


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676

! :

:

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677



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-

678



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!



!

- !

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)
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:
!!!
-

679

! :
:
- !


:

- ! !
!


chaos
. :

far less remarkable


)(
As cited in: Gabbat
Gabbat A. Stephen Hawking says universe not created by God
God The
Guardian online article 2 september 2010
Guardian
2010
http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2010/sep/02/stephen-hawking-big-

URL:

)bang-creator (retrieved on August 55 2012

)(1

680

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.

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681

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682

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683

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684

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685

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686

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689

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690

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691





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692

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693

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Gravity Probe B

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694


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!

!



Dark Energy


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695

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696


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) (

697

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Brian Greene

) The Fabric of the Cosmos (

*
.. .




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! Space
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) (.

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698

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Uniformity

.

700




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701


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702

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704

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. Catastrophists
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.


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...............................................................................
...............................................................................

...................................................

.......................

) .............................................................. (...

! .......................

.....................................................................
.................................................
.......................................................
! .............................................................
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) ( ................
...................................................
................................................. Ad Ignorantiam
...........................................................
..............................................................
......................................................................
...................................
................................................

708

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.............................................
: ........
..........................
..................
...
! ..................
..
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.
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: .....
...........................
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............................................
.............................................
)
( ........................................
...........................................
.............................................
.....................................
...............................
.....................................................
..........................................................
........................................................
..............
) (
Statements
Self-Refering Statements ................................... :
- ................ Grelling-Nelson Paradox .

709

....................................... Currys Paradox


) Barber Paradox
( ............................................................... .
! ...........
! ...
: .......
: ! ................
............................
...........................

! ........................................
:
Reliability
................................................... Source Reliability
:
.................................................................
.......................................
..
..................

!
! ............................................................

! ............................................ Pseudoscience
.....
:
:
..................................................
:
...................
:

710

.........................................................
:

...........


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.............................

:

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..

...........................................................................
..........
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.
: .

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712
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.

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