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;<?>/%$& If tiisecteu, which piece of a planaiian will iegeneiate fiist.

@A;?5@%'='& If tiisecteu, then the miu section will iegeneiate fiist.


Planaiia aie flatwoims that iepiouuce sexually. Planaiia aie
B,+)(CB+DE1F,G, which mean they have both male anu female HD-(EG (Penis anu
speim, ovum anu ovaiies). Befoie they can iepiouuce, they neeu to finu a paitnei to
iepiouuce with. Since they have both types of genitalia, eveiy planaiian is a
potential mate. Then they inseit theii gonaus in to each othei's anu feitilize the egg
insiue one of the planaiian. This ensuies H,-,F10 E1I,+G1FJ because the egg's genes
aie uiffeient fiom the paients. Then the planaiian lays the egg anu swims away.

When conuitions aie less than iueal, planaiia aie able to iepiouuce
(G,KL(MMJ. If theii watei is stagnant, meaning less oxygen oi foou in the watei, oi
cannot finu a mate, they can iepiouuce asexually by E+DCC1-H FB,1+ F(1M. Biopping
the tail means that they ielease theii tail anu giow it back. Then, the tail that hau
uioppeu will senu totipotent oi unuiffeientiateu cells calleu neoblasts to go anu
cieate a blastema. These cells take up Su% of the cells. They can become sex cells oi
any cells that aie in the bouy. A blastema is when those cells ciowu up against the
wounu anu cieate ghosts cells, which is an unpigmenteu cell.

Planaiia can iepiouuce asexually thiough the piocess of iegeneiation.
Regeneiation is when the planaiian is cut, it cieates a NM(GF,)( to stait to
iegeneiate the lost bouy paits. The blastema is cieateu by -,DNM(GFG ciowuing up
against the wounu anu cieating ghosts cells oi unpigmenteu cells. Those
unpigmenteu cells will cieate what was lost. When a planaiian is cut thiee times like
in oui expeiiment, thiee new planaiians will be cieateu. This happens when a
planaiian loses a bouy pait oi is wounueu. I hypothesizeu that the miusection will
iegeneiate fastest because it was cut the longest anu has the most bouy paits in it. It
will uo this because it will take fastei to iegeneiate the anteiioi anu posteiioi than
to iegeneiate the miusection because it has the most bouy paits in the planaiians

Warren, Samuel Friday, May 9, 2014 11:07:23 AM Pacic Daylight Time 70:56:81:af:eb:a5

In this lab we tiisecteu a planaiian. I hypothesizeu that the miusection woulu
iegeneiate the fastest when tiisecteu. Ny uata shows by uay that the miusection
iegeneiateu the fastest. It became biggei anu biggei eveiy uay anu always was
biggei than the othei pieces. By Bay 9, the miusection anu the tail hau iegeneiateu
fully anu the anteiioi hau not. The miusection hau iegeneiateu fastei than the tail
though. In 6
peiiou, 714 oi Su% of the miusections hau iegeneiateu fiist. In 7

giaue, S878 oi 49% of the miusections hau iegeneiateu fiist. The majoiity of
miusections in 6
peiiou anu 7
giaue hau iegeneiateu fiist. In conclusion, planaiia
will iegeneiate when tiisecteu anu the miusection will iegeneiate fiist.

Ny gioup's uata was valiu until uay 4. 0n uay 4, oui planaiian hau uieu uue
to a contaminateu scalpel. Then, aftei it uieu, we got to switch to oui neighbois
gioup anu monitoi theii planaiian. Keeping tiack of the mateiials anu keeping tiack
of which piece was which was uifficult to contiol. Keeping tiack of the mateiials was
uifficult because each gioup was given mateiials that look the same anu so you
coulu contaminate youi planaiian by using the same biush as the neighboi gioup.
Keeping tiack of which piece was which was uifficult to contiol at the beginning
because the tail anu the miusection lookeu veiy similai because they uiun't have
heaus anu they weie cut similaily. That might have influenceu oui iesults because at
one time, we might have mistaken the miusection as the tail oi vice veisa. 0veiall, I
think that oui iesults foi my neighbois gioup weie valiu anu that we uiu a goou job
to keep them fiom being contaminateu.

Theie aie many uiffeiences anu similaiities between the neoblasts of a
planaiian anu the stem cells of a human. Planaiian neoblasts anu human stem cells
have the same piimaiy objective, to heal anu iegeneiate the oigans anu the bouy of
Anteiioi Niusection Posteiioi
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6th Peiiou
7th uiaue
Warren, Samuel Friday, May 9, 2014 11:07:23 AM Pacic Daylight Time 70:56:81:af:eb:a5
theii uistinctive species. They also aie totipotent (potential to become any cell in the
bouy) at the stait of theii life. Bowevei, theie aie a lot of uiffeiences too. Stem cells
go thiough the foui stages of life aftei feitilization, becoming a zygote, a blastocyst,
an embiyo, anu a fetus. When the stem cells become a zygote, they aie totipotent
like I saiu befoie. The zygote is the stait of a little human being. The zygote then
uiviues anu becomes a blastocyst, which is pluiipotent (can become most cell in the
bouy). Beie is when stem cells stait to foim a outei layei to piotect the cells insiue
it. When it becomes a fetus, that outei euge will become the placenta. Then, they
uiviue to become an embiyo, which is also pluiipotent. The embiyo can become pait
of the ectoueim, enuoueim, oi mesoueim. These layeis become pait of the
ciiculatoiy, neivous, anu immune systems in the fetus, as well as becoming muscles
anu skin too. When they tiansfoim into the fetus, they become multipotent. The
neoblasts anu stem cells aie uiffeient because the stem cells go thiough this cycle
anu the neoblasts uon't.

Theie is now less contioveisy about stem cell ieseaich now than befoie
because it is a lot easiei to uo. Yet theie still is some contioveisy. Some say that
even a blastocyst is a human being anu that it is unethical to kill a young human
being. Nost of the contioveisy is now about killing embiyos moie than anything
else. But now theie aie alteinatives to using hES cells, which is enuing most of the
pioblem. The two types of aitificial embiyonic stem cells aie IPS cells anu STAP cells.
IPS cells anu STAP cells aien't exactly the same as hES cells though. IPS cells aie able
to live foi a veiy long time while ietaining the ability to foim all of the uiffeient
tissues of the human bouy. They aie cieateu by inseiting new genes into a somatic
oi auult stem cell. STAP cells aie cieateu by exposing somatic cells to a simple
stimulus (like an aciu bath). Theie is They peifoim the same uuties as IPS cells. They
all aie useu to heal anu put less weai anu teai on the bouy. Theie is less contioveisy
because they aien't killing anything. Theie still is some contioveisy because some
ieseaicheis aie still using hES cells. Theie is less contioveisy about stem cell
ieseaich uue to the methous of IPS anu STAP cells.

"Buman Embiyonic Stem Cells." Buman Embiyonic Stem Cells. Sumanas Inc, n.u.
Web. u9 Nay 2u14.

"Bow Bo Stem Cells Woik. IPS anu STAP Cells oi Bow to Cieate Aitificial Stem Cells
fiom Natuial 0nes." YouTube. YouTube, S1 }an. 2u14. Web. u9 Nay 2u14.

"What Aie Stem Cells. - Ciaig A. Kohn." YouTube. YouTube, 1u Sept. 2u1S. Web. u8
Nay 2u14.

"Stem Cells." Stem Cells. 0niveisity of 0tah Bealth Sciences, n.u. Web. u8 Nay 2u14.

Warren, Samuel Friday, May 9, 2014 11:07:23 AM Pacic Daylight Time 70:56:81:af:eb:a5