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B. Maj r Rex Ap legate

Harri bur 194.

F: P BLJ.'HL\'(; CU.

Copyright, July, 1943

The. MilitaryService Puhli hing Companv Harrisbcrg, Pennsylvania

Portions of this material have appeared 111 Tbe l'I1ja1ltry [oumel; Washington, D. C., and are reprinted with permission of the editors.

PR[NTEO IN urn u: /'1'1':


TIJE TELEGIL\.PU PRF. S Harrisburg, Pennsvlvania

To my [riend


Sportsman expert shot and tl true exponent of the doctrine of offense

Publishers' Foreword

This book is the result of study and practical experiences of experts in the various fields of combat discussed herein.

The material is as practical as could be conceived. It is presented not as a compilation of all combat methods and techniques, but rather as a selection of the best and most practical methods now being used.

Although it was compiled by an army officer and the military aspect has been stressed throughout, the principles and methods shown here are easily applicable to all law enforcement agencies, civilian defense organizations and like units. Police and law enforcement agencies 'in particular would do well to pay heed to these methods, because after the present conflict, as after no other war, the world will be faced by criminals who will take advantage of their military training in offensive combat to run riot in a post war world ripe for trouble. Law enforcement agencies should include in their training programs offensive methods to cope effectively with such problems, in addition to the methods of restraint, and self defense now being practiced.



The importance of training the American soldier in techniques of close combat beyond the basic instruction. in rifle and bayonet fighting is recognized under the conditions of the present war as never before in our military history. I have tried to outline in this book a system of training in methods to fit the realities. of the case, including instruction

. in unarmed combat, disarming, knife fighting, and methods of fighting with unconventional weapons.

Throughout the book I have tried to make the instruction ..s.imple. specific, and practical. Indoctrination in the offensive is the basic idea on which all effective combat metho e

!milt, and I have kept this requ s ea y m mind.

. The enemy uniforms in many of the pictures were used for the sake of realism, but all the pictures were posed by . United States soldiers.

For my own education in close combat technique, I wish to acknowledge a special indebtedness to Mr. Gus Peret of the Peters Cartridge Company, Mr. J. H. Fitzgerald of the Colt Patent Firearms Company, and to Ma~r W. E. Fairbairn and_Captain E. A. Sykes of the British rmy, and also Eo t?ose men presently collaborating with me in giving instruction in this field whose names I am not at liberty to mention.



Chapter I

LT'IAR:\[EIJ OFFE=-- 'E •••..•....•.. , ...•.• , ..••..•.•.

Cbapter II

D: 'AIL\UC\G .•..•.••.•.•...•••...••••••.•.•.•••.••• 47

Cbapte» ill _o.\.TT.\CK ,nTH )\hSCFLLANEOL'S yVUPONS


Chapter ,LV


C!Japte1' V

Chnpte'J' VI

bepter V11

Chapter VUl

Cbapte« IX

.lAP CLOSE _O;\UAT Lc\CT1LS .....•..•..... ,........ r65

Chapter 1


Origin and Deveiop7'nem.

As .in the invention Clf gun powder and the compass, the Chinese are recorded in history as tile first to develop a technique of unarmed combat. Chinese monks arc repnted, to have developed such :1 sy~tem to protect themselves against robber bands and nomad tribes, Over a -period of centuries invol ving experiment, trial, error, and the loss of life, 3 systell I of unarmed combat has been developed which has remained basically unchanged.

The japanese $ODD after the twelfth ccutUlY, became interested in this rype of combat, and adoprillg Chinese ideas, began the development of (heir fa rnous jiu-jitsu tec!J:gj,Q.lJ&. They gave tu jiu-jiWl, a mymo.logical background and developed a form of religion based on the application of its principles, Before H)OO many variations of #~.iCSlL were caught. Then a professor named Kano established a school for the pU1:pose of studying find applying this method of unarmed combat. The new system was called .jndo, At preserrt.judo., which has been given an aura of rnvstici rn, is used in body building to develop an uflensive spirit. It is a parr of evelY jap soldier sbasic craining,

In the early 19W s a branch of :1 group te.<lching judo esmhli hed itself in New York City and later the teachings spread rhrcughour the l:lrger cities in the United States. Initially it was practiced principally by Orientals and did nor gain much popularirv among AIlleric:ms because, as in all things Oriental, it involved a tedious amount of practice



K I r t 11 II l. r I j, , I r 'T1

nn 1 :I gn::lt deal "i p,lticncc, III larcr -' c irs, ~lIllu,: 1I11Sl.'I'llp"- 11111" irhrr Ili'lr~ !.Ci Up "1.'1101'1. uml '>"ll!!ilr weulrhv ~nlll1g rucn ,IS j1\l P rI~, 1'111: 11L1 pd 11.1" tl' I II ~ h.1 r he \\ a~ being mtrudw.:cd til ;11\ :l"c-Il!d ",cl'rel 1111.:111111.1 IIi c.uuhat, \I hiclr hall

eo •

\,'11 111 c I'm n thl'l/ugh Cl'I1tIJl'ICt> f)t japan '~1. hisrory , :1I1d he

\\ as [hen uuriurcd mro some IJ( irs ll.l<;ic fundamentals. As rime wont on nnd he QTe\\' more intcrcsred, he 1\ ,IS tnld that fill' (III :Iddillunnl xum ~hc l'oliid learn more holds flild 1 riC'k~. Ir \\;1~ .1 lucrnrivc racket. '\:ltur.lI1y rill rnnjnnrv of the s chnuls \If judo arc sincere and rim im ;1 kgitim:m: basis,

Bcrwecn the hl:l \\ ,11' and the pn ~elllf .~ number !If \lol)ks were ,I linen h\ C\ll£.rt~ il! j~ld(), ,ilil l!!:....1n..ll unarmed comb.1 r tt:ch1)i(IUf:. \ lust IIf rhein han slrc~scd defense :l~ I hell'

'stIle pWI'0sr. InJ(,I~ lhl)] , . \1 ~

tl')C uf (,'on I, , nter lim: u. 10 !, III CJI 1..'1 l'n,tulled De-

0, Iblt .t:/llh,n,'O/l • () ( n~tr[lC nun j:{1\'cn III tT1C

p.l·\ ~rll pn Ice Ul! nr er LI\\ enforcem or l~ ... n hnve ~111 srrc ~l:U self-defense :mJ re rrnint ,L" the h,lckgrtJlln~1 !If IUl<1I'IIIed cnmhat.

\, nh the ndvenr of "'nrld \,y,11' II, public.' interest. ns Ill\\ J\ 1> in rime IIf , ';U-, 11:1). been directed HI'\ :lTd ligh[in~ .md Il1litl1'ldl, uf erunbar. The J .. in: !If the vnrerican ~nldier and tilL :\1111.:,'11.::111 (,'(\1111111111 111:'111 ilil' kllllwh:dgc fir ti~i1lin!! It:l'Ilniques h:1~ gl'c:.Hl~ In ... .rcascd.

Present 1)".1' "til f II!!'

Thrnllghnllt 1 IT(' l.'Oll!ltl'~ tlldu\ 11l111lCI'nu~ nnlclcs III'C !Il!ijlg written for puhhcannn III nul' l1I:lg;IZIIlC'; ,lIlll n 1\ "p<lpcrs. .uul illu: rr.uions are b<:lI1g printed ill rhc wcogr.l\' lire seer inn\ IIi lCUWllg- d::llliC5 nr so-ca lied "rough scurf" :tnd underharul rnerics, T1ll'll1lghullr unr armed fnrccs \ arrous ~t:hll(11s uf instruction and 1,.(1111"'eS lire being- gi"\'cn b,\T indrviduals \\ ho are tlll;tlifico along ql"filndrl:\ lines and in cases han: had a gn::lc denl (If police nr ruher restrainina rrpc'o uf 1T1.1I1 h:1ndllng. [:;111 1111 one Im:- ~ ct outlined u uniform svstern Ilf rn~t.rHI rill1l "I ~ constructive tr.lining course for unarrncd nglmllg \I ith rill gl'lInd~ral1d mil nunpracr h-al IllC[hud~ clim inured. \lurLo\'ll' th~ -\ nu \ lll:cLi., it manual on " nsnncd

11 \1t"IFf) u r r r x s n

(}Jrtn~t.:" ;I~ \\ ell .1!-' line- Oil unormeil ucfel1~l!.. .411 iii/drilled l'ollllMf sl) 11/11/1 "to tl1l1l!,br Of! ls: / "11(1 n' 11m' 1/ ;;-";/"t'llIl to IT 1!lIm fllllJ IlrtC~ /.'1' b'l,~ 1m" l is 'i.!·t'oJ 'I)~/.\.

• 15' I, .. 11 J"r do~t' \1 or),. It'> use

<;hllilld he CllCClllf:1gcd nllJ ;1 dll [11 l"ll 11\ ~ LUHtS /I Ill! r armed jlllTCS IJCCllllllC..-!1f it~ deadl). llJ1J sih.'llt efTel.:ril C11~, the 1:.ILlltidcnce T gil eo .. 1 1l1~n skillc{i in It II c, .tnd !Jtc P'" t:!\(lIlIl.!,ical effect ,I! :1 IH'!ght lll:llk llplJ/1 all ~!~

'\ II)~r Ilr rhc unnrmed t'P1l11).11 1\ hicl: i~ Clllghl 111 nur :1I"I11cll '~lIIpS today IS ineffective nnd nOT pracci 'Ill (null the np~r;Hl(Jnal ·r:mdpoillt., '11m. is ~1t' \l~'\e \\ e II)~( )i~l~t of the i"ow r thn r \\ hat ;l .inan U. [.tug hi Ifl rhis t\ pt lit traunn ~ 111 list [Je Simple. nble til lJe cxecnrcd wirh !c.!:I'Clll spccJ arul pntt:1 icet!. IIlI nsivelv un t il he m"rincf i n:ll reacts \\ if h rltL few Llo\\]i, "Il·k~. 1I1d r e lt::l~C~ milt are nccessar fill' hiS tighrlll cducanon. rill 1 Illan., or rh~ I rit:k ... mughr til uur men .ITe nm Jll'actical I>C\';lll~C du.'), are !lOI (JlliL'" enough. Ill' bCc!lllM ... they do nnr pcrll1:lllc"rI~ ,hs,lhle an nppollcm. "l her are useful ol1.1y as,1 III(!"an~ I)) restraint. .~ g'tlod 1l1.UT\ insrrucrnrs rclv !CIO rrearlv on lite :lS~L!lIIP[iOIl th£r au IJPP0i1CIlt \I'jlJ Sl;1I1(f .lo·rilf, :lllowing the studenr tfl Ill:'pJ~ a. holrl.

\11" Olll: mdul rin • ~

mall~ people un t! been given rhe impression t vnt Slit methods of corul-at pwndc a magic a ' means (,I' subduing ~1T1 opponent, \~ it /10111

pcrmn.t1 risk ..

, Illlok~, 1111 thi, ~lIltjc('[ IlJII'tI'nc 1\1, In cfl'c(.·t\ ~ l'dC:N!\ I rpm gl'lp~ around lite \\ :1.1~I, IInd~1' I he ·U'lll~. .nul oelll'l' en-

lUllIH.ring hulJ\. Bur their propllntl1b hale <111 11I~[ ~1!:hL ~Jt the ~a\·t rhar although rhcsc hlllll~ .\1111 releases are crlccriv (; III the !sol.l[cd cases uf I Iew Ilig<hl\ trained and experienced I11cn, nn IIIlC hu: an shsnhne (ull' \H1UlJ I:VCI' allow a JllllJl ro apr \' rhem .... , hiJe. his arms "Crt; Ircc an his 11\111 animal

lIghting II1stlm:ts wen' aroused. -

\n\ mc.!h·idunl ill curnbar in \Illiclt hi~ life is at stake vcrv (lliiCfJ., rc\cns ro the IS a fc\\ "et'ond~ nf lucid

(hml~m-!! \'nr\'ing, \ rth individuals I, :md. if h is ",,:11::

I ra: llL'd. he \\ ~I t hen alIrr)I1I~l1i;::nlr)' pl:m his 11 JTc 11lIC. frc,';1





At the

,=~"",,!-e~l~n._-._,~ s . an lL~g:.:;nQ...~~~....:.l.~ __ .

'not achieve m any oilier way. ~

To piCkUp a book on unarmed, combat, no matter how well illustrated or dearly explained, is not sufficient to develop a fighter of this type. Actual demonstration by an instructor and supervised practice with other students is supremely necessary.

It is best to pair off smaller men with larger men in practice.

That is the only way in which a man of small stature can gain confidence in his fighting ability, because no matter how many times he sees these offensive techniques demonstrated by larger men, he will never have confidence in their use for himself. He will always subconsciously feel that "that's all right for those big guys, but how about me?"

. Any hold should be regarded as a means of getting a man Into a position where it will be ,asjer to kjll hjm. and not as a means to keep him captive. The whole idea of releasing y?urself from a hold or in applying one is to $!!able you to •

.kilL The disen a in move should form the De mnin of an,1tt.ack. This same emp asis should be pace technIque.



Balance-Mental and Physical


7 of

so that

Vulnerable Parts of Body

A man's body is made up of many parts; some are soft, some are hard, some bend, some do not, in some places nerves are near the surface. The following are. the weak points of man's anatomy which are most vulnerablejrrattack.

The Crotch: T e sticks are the most vulnerable and

ensitive art of a man's bo . ny strong oot or an blow de ivere 10 t e crotch WI enable the weakest man to knock the strongest man senseless or to disable him to the point where he is easily finished off by some other means. The strongest holds can be broken at anytime by grasping an opponent's testicles and pulling and twisting them.

; The Chin: The time-honored American· punch on the ia..w IS hard to ~ Delivered by a skilled boxer it puts a man down for the count. The force of. the blow Qn the poin! 2i_the chin <;aus~s a form of <;oqcusSlOn and we hayethe

I,ILL nn o x r K1Ll.lI:D

so-called 'knockout," Thi~ .;lOlC r MIlt I.:tll he Ihtain 0 h\ a blnw • II he heel ('If !hc JJ <I rid, wru ih .Jl!!-CkUl errifi£.' l\i1]2il' F,l1'r}\eL It js !llllt'h ea'<ict I ur those inexpcl'icnced sr Doxmg 1,as: more of ~1Il clement or lJ"pri<:e.;in 1 can \.Ie '! cd from shorter starting d15tag9c..

The Windpipe, t 1 w wid, the edge Ilf the hand across

I he edge of [he windpipe cau es rOl1lp0i'lIr\. if not pel'I1I:lnenr, blackout. the blow bas the same effect;1. results in erushing a piece of copper rubing with .1 sharp-edged msrrumem, Blows on the sides of the rhroar ami on rhc large cords a. the back of the neck wil] cause dislocation, concu sion and 'ery often :1 hreak. rcn few phvsiqnes will stand edge IIf rhe hand blows on these Split!>, the onlv exr-cprinns hcillg those individuals, like \\ rcsrlers, having cxceprionnlk \\'dl~mllsclcd necks, '1 he effects of such A hhn' nn the windpipe cnn be Clbil.v demon trarcd h\ h:lnng some nne place his rhurnb in the small 110110\\ :1l' (he h::1S~ of -Y0nr rhr tit, pressing ,cntly.

Tbe nridf!;e Of ibe NOH! 1\0 edge of the hand 1710\\ delivered at [he point where lire nose join» the hony SU11C[Ure (I( the 111'£1\\ causes a cnl~hing of the most fragile parr of the bon! structure and hrings uncnnsciousness rind pcssihle death 11'0111 cerebral hemorrhage,

Tbe J ltil1e'),s 1111<1 mal! {Jf Back: gl:1ncc II[ a phpiolfl!,n

book will how YUll that the main muscl cords Hnc! nerves of me bocl.\ branch (Jut £tom the ll:t~l of tilt' spine Itt I point vcry ncar [he surface, In this aren, a sh~ rp sudden blow has 3 great stunning' effect. 'he entire section ,I I' s. rhc back ahour six inches abo ~'C [he base of I he spine. tnt! uding the right and left kidneys, I~ sensir i \ C ro rius furm of rrrack.

End of Spine: ,\ blow with the edge of tile hunt! on the end of the spina I column ", .. i ll often result rn unconsciousness e 'pechll) if an individual is !."[oopin!f over, . lrhnnqh it is not alwavs certarn, i is ofrcn eas\ [0 ~i\' this blow" hen lo0~ in combat and nlpplil~\\ nh n'il opponent .

.. Tbe Nose: W!1\V with H~gl~Uj,!e f II e hand directed

uemc!ah ~h.e nose iI;l an l1P~ dirccO! he rors-

~ cause II crushing- nf rlu, Irnrunl hones unconsciousness,

d cerebral hCl11nrl'h:lgc. - ......

H F T.


TtL S,1"(.:d ond Solm- f'ICXII.f: One inch below the navel is :tnl1rher vulnerable spor, whrch, if hir In a finger jab or other !'hAI'P blow, will C~IlSC cmcunsctou 11CSS. However it is nor [00 C!\S,~ W find [his spot. Jr must nor be confused Wlth..a bltm- to the solar pkxus \\ hi.!;h li k1i\'cred above the navel in n IHI ~p tTrh!<';~l1c Db tl"ll tll'e

l'be ]Vl/et's: 'he kne.e~ nrc partictll~lrly susceptible, be-

rausc of their hinge t: pe of structure, rn hard blows, especially those struck b\ the Ieer. [f \\ c kick ;I man from behind on the had" of his knee, he will fold IIp off balance and lllay he polished ofr thut much faster. Blows or kicks delivered Jlrcccl~ at the knee c-ap from the from or directly from rhe right or left ~Idc uf the knee when. the leg is stmight wil] CilU;C .1 IH-C;!].;, lvcn liuht blo\\'s delivered in thi.:. milner cause dislocation 01 (~Lldolls nnd cartilage', such 3S

are common among fnoth.lll players, known a~ "fontlrall

knee," - - - -

Tbc A1"1fH: The urm has three jninrs. the shoulder, the dhow, and the wrist, Namre made them [I) hend on \\"llr onlv. 1£ ynu force them in !he nppnsite dil'l.!ction uf tile hinl:!t:. thev will cilh 'J" Ilrea),; 1/1' C:HlSC yoill' man tfl go lown,

nJU'!.;:5 r..:SIll~ (be H ITllds

1 he besr Illnws 'jsj~lfuL.illL[lds nrc delivered with tbe fist !lI [fie heel of till' hand or tll~cdg.e.of he hand. Blows ~lruc~ wIth "[he hst (uppercut, h~l) In.' ker, jab) are most eff c~m~e when the user h'l!\ h~d considerable experience in It will [;11,' lip tIl 'ii\ 1)10111 hs If! IC;II'11 to deliver :l Pll~l( ive ),;11' !ckllut hlO\I \\ h II cirher li~r

he heel of the hand bI!)\\ ttl th i:1\\ is the simplest i1nd IIl()st effet,ivt: of :111 hlows III this l) pc anel when used in ennjunctillll with a kick tn rhe tC'ittclc. wluch causes the opponent ttl l-end torward, \\ III often result ill a neck fracture. "IJ1C heaut: of this laxt LII1\V is irs sirnpllcm , 111 applfIIlg the fist !llnw tcohniquc, A man not used to \l~ing his fists rnav casilv break a nnO'er or cause a dislocation or cut himself 'm 'his op'poncJlt's hflll~ facinl structure.


Kffk ,d",lI¥«rft ifI ... [JIJ.' ·;!II' 1M 'I[ ilG'U ....... lf"'o .. ,Ii_11! !!lIi!

i'r!Jm iF!HiI'.. !,hrl", .'I!' '"~..tI, ~nd lhi !!<;Ir>!!1 QII DJI' eJ ~I'i f!!illil

bir.n~ Ilf 111 .... 11.ii~"', ~nd I!Q"W "".

Lil!l S Hoi il\:I, ~r . i!I; I'Mill

UNA R .\\ >E U 0 F FEN S 1

Kick to side of knee.


Kick from the rear, unbalancing the opponent.

Stay on Y our Feet

Don't believe that a mastery of these elementary techniques will give a magic formula which will bring you through all types of unarmed combat unscathed. Your main purpose always is to inflict as much damage as quickly as possible and at the same time to receive as little as possible to yourself. Two ood rules in combat of this t e are: (I) Kee our

I I I I.

It G L: I K I I. I r n

not hnvc (( om t!:!.2CC whar he it> up to or to \\ ark vourself. - ATtrltluah II cardinal rule in this type of combat 15 never go to th~1l0WICh or wirhout ?Ollr opponent, due to ~lll c mUfnon. onder" hiCll rhis ugh iog mnr take place, know]edge of [he ;lIT of f~t1ling is vcry worrhwhilc. To he ahlc ro fall properly takes many how's of pracrlce nod ueh knowledge and description of method can easilv be procured through any hook dealing' with tumbling and ic~ allied subjects. .\5 there is rn LtC h d i ff erence berw een [:111 ing on mats and Fallin on unev en rod\\,gTf)und~ it i r)lwimi that YoU

sh uld CQnCCl1mm: on rCllni.in1tg on , ) if feet. .

Let" this one rhing be s aid. hr" ever, Once goin.' 0 The grtllmd, nC)7(,f stop moving=stan roUi11~ and get rn :1 pusition wherehv you 1.':111 easily regmn'~ltl' upl'igl1t )1o'iitioll. I r is nor rreccs s"ar}, or) 011 to rllllflW \ uur npponcm ro the gr und once } ou hnve placed hint there. '0\11' feel nrc th weaptll'l h, \\ hich ,0\1 can lini s h him, Rcmernher that if you ~lnce ger to the ground and remain imJ11obile,), \I are .1r yonI' cnenn 's mere, and vulnerable to Rtt:H':1. fnlill his feet.

Tbe cu« lab


Thl" xrrci el 'eel ive blow is so uaiucd because it.

onl;-u~c il on the chin aren. It must he deliver cd l1p and under .he chlo wirh the heel of [he. palm, lingt:rs extended ro give palm j"igJdity 111(' wort directh underneath the chin ir is. r\JC more power it WIll pack. It i executed wi h a bent elbow nnd a great II .11 Ilf rhe upward hod" force can 1lC utilized a the time (If impact. Th further Iorwird tlte chin is exren 1l'l1 ;'It che rime of 1l Tl11l1l, the runre :!c\':lsrnl iiig \\ m be the revuh. I r ;j knee thrust lO I he rext ides Ill" ~rnin is u cd in cunncctinn "Hh n chill jl1.u. the llody will hi 11.\.1. olllatic~!I.L hcnr forward lenving n perfccr : t up for thi:i pnrti ular blow. I rc ulrs in unconsciou ill' and pos-

ible neck fracture it delivered WIth sufficient orce,

The 111m or hand uoe~ net have to he drawn back in beinrung execution of the hlow, but call he hanging :It the SlOe, IingC1" hnokcd III belt. hand lin a lapel, or ill any other uoncliulaut position. .An '1"\ cragc mao can cause II

I ",~ f( \1 F' I. (1 Ii f r: " s I~


Hnd po. ilion for 6 chin ja, Chl~ job

.howlo\l ,playod lingur, to 9iv~ p.lm foiliclel.



knotkour with only six inches t"- rrllvcling dl<:tRm:c from the stu i't of [he hlow to the pillar of impact. Tbc clement of urpnsr is Tllf):ol usc HI in 0 tllmrter \ .herc time, space or circumsrances do not ulluw the hanrl and "rill to he withdrawn fIJI' ... lung h:l}llInl~cr, \ neck fracture con be caused ~~ gripping ~ our npprll1cnt\ helr WICQ rill: left lund and I~r"jl'g hill1 fOtw;11'J :11 I.he moment of impa II in .\ jImrighr, It." al~ desirahle to usc the fin!!cr~ of [he itr.iking

fl:l!1d no. ria: c,ves fnJ!u\\'ing the blow, ~

Edgt: (J[ t1.'l' HIJiu/

'l he lllOSt efl' crlve ur all hlow}' Hi she cdgc nr the h'm,,1 blo\\. 1t Is valuable because It can hr.: nrilized :Il vulnerable ~pClts of (he Ilud\ which would not he 'llSl.'Cptihlc W hlu\\' hom the Ust OJ' heel o! rhc hand, I'he cdg<' ,)f the h~nd blow L~ delivered with the fingers extended, cl» C [ogechcr, thul1lh upngh( and wrist J eked, The ~cr!\';'illg _ urface i-the l'11!-.hioned pan of the hand herween the base of rhe little

Kl1.1. n n (;E'I' x r r.t n n

finger and the edge of the palm where it [nms rhe WTiEt. Ir IS very important that the thuml: be raised til an upright position because it prohibits the hsnd Irorn rornnining in ;']. clenched position and the ungers automatically extend. The striking surface is well padded and irs length, vary in!! 'with [he size of different hands. is roughly three inches. The thickness of rhe palm in most cases is around nne inch. Cnntrasr the st.riking surface ill s1-juan inches of This area with that of a clenched fist-where )lnll have r()ughl~- eig-he sllu:u'e inches of rriking surface, with the edge (If [he hand you have only rwo 01' three slluarc inches. Therefore, a blow delivered in rhis 1l131111er gi,'cs a sharp-cdjred effect causing a break, fracUII"e, or cc ncussion because of the force expended on ~ relative!, small area,

Around the neck nnd the cords on either side of the back of the neck, rhe hase of rhc skull, rhe c;ide" of rhe neck. the windpipe area just below the Adam's apple, the hridge of the n ise, tJ1C kidneys, and The end uf [he spine, this type of blo'V'," has a \'el") lk\;11~raring effect. he bones of the Jore-

propor ~and po'i~jon for .dge of ltand blow.

Horizontal blow.

Above: Haod blew I" lor.drm. Below: Hand blow I" windpipe.


R I 1. I. I) II G F. '1' K r L I.l~ D

Ab"... Hand blow to b.t.1& 01 lull. o.iow: Honel blow "I" ,,"der ,,"18.

nrru, Illl' cnllur bone, rhc end of the chin, nnd tilt: II risr area \\ III fracr ru e when subjected TP such 1I hlnw , I t should I,e deli, ered \\ irh the elbow hem, lTtiJi/ing tmu, Iorce hehind it 't\ irh a ('bopping motion. Tnt' last b. ~iI11p()J;'ti1nr because it helps r localize till' Iurce of the !,llm in a small area, If Y"m deliver rhc hlo« und dll not 1]\lic\;:l) lrnw back your hand [roru the part of v ouc oppnnent\ bod) attacked, 11 great deal of the smiling imcc i~ expcnde ! liver a larger area 110d thus becomes less effect rve,

Th is bloll l:~ 11 he lh.:1i vered with either hand in 11 downward di rccrion OJ' dlrectcd hlll1zumnlh palm down lIS \\ ould lie dU/lt; ill a backhand snhn, stroke, 1 he best position from \\ hieh LO lise t he horizontal l'd~e nr \ he h:md blow is with the righl foot Forwnrd, :md \\ Ii=h the favorite hand (usualh ~hL right)_ In this position v our b()d~ weight can he utilized mllre Jull, _ The reverse Ioot position applies for the left hand. \, ith :l sornewhar 1 'caed effect. the blow can be deli\-crcd with either hsnd and (1'0111 RIl\ free position where

the nrm can be swung. -

H~ftd blo" 10 bridq& of no ••.

I,lL. J. 1 R G k T Ii: 1 I. lED

Of all the blu IVS and ,1 rrack methods described in prc\'Jom pages, [he principle one is still .1 blow JcI i vered in .my manncr whatsoever tu me tcstidcs. 1\11\ such hluw \\ III unlilt.: liately pl1ve the way [or a quid' liquidation (If yow' opponcur whenever it i!> delivered w irh suffi rienr force, AI'\\' hold. come along. or or her rest r:1 ining device pIlL tiP n YOII b ' an tlpp nenr con be quicklv broken if :'OIJ can strike a sharp blow to lus testicles, or gr:tb the II I \\'irh your lund. sqll(,C7.Ing aml jerklLlg These m:ga.ns are ibe "Achilles heel" of 111:10'" . \!'l:1 [Om), .

• \n ~, gougC', .1 11 h I.', ,1C a lip tear ill ,II" a) s good ar dose CIIlI1I'tCl'S as n 11lCi11h of di~eng~gil1g YOl1r 0ppIlI1Cm'S !101d or wcakcnmc him IJdnrc dlt' final tlnishinsr ulT pruccss. The eye

~ .

gouge i~ best accomplished b~ placing u hurnh on the in ide

ur rhe eye sod et next til the jlll~(, and tlicking the e c hall nut toward rhe llgc oi rlu, check. T 111\\ ever, in irself rhis is n [ mfficicnt W P rrmanenrlv pili il man IlLJ( of acuon on . his figl,ring in liners nre an used. TI1t SLime i appllcnhle to the

t " " R "\1 F D 0 r. F I· -.: . Ii.


H~"d blo.. ,.. t.n bone.

Up laae.

'" :E



n R G E 'I' K I r J E:O

A .:2.

." e ..

1 Aj{i\ll~f) OFFI!;N E

! I

IIp tear-huok .\'o~r rhumb in. the corner or the mouth and tCIU rnwlll'd the hmge of the pw.

l'mg the elbow against tile mid section or other tender pan ur the anaromv is always good and very effective, <1S 'well a~ such other ~tJ'attgel11s <IS stamping on the in: rep, kicking [he shins, pulling hail', breaking fingers. One or 1 combination of these things is sufficient to effect a release frum nearly any encumbering bold, such as a grappling hold from the rear or: front, or ., mooing front choke bold, Any choke hold can be 1)1'01(6n if ~\ ou can gTllb one of the fingers and break it off.

The Iollcwing nrc additional tried lind proven methods (Ill' usc in certain circumstances where ,ve"polls are not avail'il!JI~,

./.lin ill b mgt Trip

If YOll wish EO dU\'1] an QP~oneDt' while passing him 911 the street hy Oljlizing Y0ul' adv::tntage of surprise, this is a ITery simple and effective means which can be executed without .m) suspicious warning movements. As ou ass yOUl' opponcn,c (011 his right side) at the time when you are directly Opposite him, place yOUI' rjghr leg in rhc rear of his rnrht leg :rn,d execute a chin [ab from a position of hands at si&, He will go down and out, Tile Jeg in the real' has the effect ,If c:1llsing the bod,}' to go up and come down with more I orcc,

Sitting IV eck Brenk

. If ,I (JUI' orponem is sitting ill a low-backed chair, approach _1111 from rhe rear and as you pass by on the Tight or left 1(1e. ar the point in which you are opposite him, with the ~1 nearest the victim, reach across and under his chin \Ith th~ ~and coming :u:nund to the back of the neck. From ,IS pO~ltJOll, a contraction of the ann muscles plus an IIp-

\ [lrd and backward jerk, will cause his neck to break in-



Siftin.,. neck-break.

stantaneouslv. 1L Call be done almost wi hour breaking yom'

srride. '

Tf ),Oll are st:lnding at the side of an opponent, clench yom fist und strike him in the testicle. with the band on the side next ro his b idv, This will cause him to bend forward for your fnJlIl\Y LIP' which will be an edge IIf the hand blow at the back of the neck or the base flf the skull.

Ear COuC1LSxion Blow

Approaching yow' opponent frorn the rear, you can rupture his eardrums by cupping both hands and simultaneously striking them against your opponent's ears. A cype of concussion results which C;111St'!; the victim to become, according to

r ;:..' i\ R .\ J r J) o n F E ~ S E

~r eeecusslorr.


Ear coneusslon.

rhc timeworn phrase "slap happy" and makes him an easy subject to do with as YOll will.

Kick;; to Kill

A ftcT you r (rrpollen r has I een downed, the kill call be made with a kick This can be done with either the toe of vour foot to the Temple or by driving the back edge o£ the heel into the Lib section throat urea, or heart area with great force. In either case, it is best [0 be wearing heavy boots or other heavy footwear. When the heel to finish off _ our opponenr, it i best co use one leg only, driving into the rib section or other vulnerable point. Thus you fiay more easily maintain your balance than .if you jumped on yOllI opponenr with hoth heels. This latter method 01 using both 1egs is par-


[ltt/lotr'l\. dnl1!,rer()lIs if rhe ground is uneven or rile fallen man nil Is, heCHUSC YO\l arc apt to lose yo or balance and gu til rhe ground wirh him. nless you have unnsnallv good fllot wnrk and balnnce It is not advisable to rr~' ro kick a ~[rtndil1g mall at <my poiur nhove knee height unless his hands rue otherwise engaged. The "Savatc' 01' French method of lighring wirh feet js a vcr_, difficult art to master and if f:1ULlil~- employed, cnn result in disaster tn the attacker.

N ec]: Pressure Paiurs

I 'here arc nurnerou .. s prc.~surl' puiuts On the hod), which II ill cause severe p~jrl if certain nerve centers are pressed, However. ihev do not ha vc any permanent damaging effect owd can only be used to break holds, Other I11CM1S mentioned before arc better' for til is purpose. 1'1 iwever due to :1 specific usc, One nerve center is worth mentioning. H a man is 1,\-il1g'on the gTOWltJ, fakil1g death or uncnnscioLiIiElCSS and YOll desire to aJ'OU!;C aim, lean over him and with your middle fingers press on each side ()C the head into [he points Ull his skull where the jaw bone hinges. By pressing 111 and

Neck p'e;,ure poinn,

a r r.t, 01{ GET J~lr:.L£D

up toward the tup of his head, you will CRuse such pain that no rnnn who is pretending can stand .ir. He will come ro his feet or give himself away instandv,

In conjunction with all of the before-mentioned tactics, anytJljng unusual or unexpected that can be done to confuse an opponenr is desirable. If YOtt can distract his attention, throw dirt in his e)res, ur hit him ith .my object which comes readily to hnnd Or create allY other mental diversion, YOll have ialcially placed yourself at a decided advantage. It is nor H bad ides when. anticipating mugh and tumble raetics to have a small amount of sand in your pocket which Illar be thrown into a man \ eyes, or co have :~ handkerchief folded in [he breast pocket of YOllr suit coat containing II Little pepper or cayeone £01" \1. C in your opponent's eyes. IT in rile midst of a fight you find yoursel f CD top of ,~ JI1~n trying to throttle him, you may hasten h.i$ end by heatillg his head up and down on the ground to stun hi~ thinking process so that he may not try any of the numerous breaks to free himself £rom this position.

Jap41lese Strangle

tl'luch lu~ been said concerning various t) pe.~ of strangle holds, principally for use il' wiping our- a sentry by an arrack from the real". It is nhvions that in this case, a knife is desirable. If you DIU t a icomplish the task with your bare hands, the following basic fundamentals should be re~ membered: The approach would naturally be a noiseless one. Your artacl should be launched from 0. leap over the remaining foul' or Ii e feet between your self and the sentrv, This leap is important became a great m~n~' people, especially when rhey are oo the alert, have a snperdevelopcd animal instinct t\ hich gives them warning of hostile presence, although they do !l01: see or hear anything. Your first and most important objective, of course, is to strangle the man quickly and silendy. In conjunction with yow: leap, your fisc should be driven into the man's right kidnev section with such force chat he will be. cnuscd to bend backward nne! rims COTTle off balance. Ac the same time, your left


u c ~ .. -"

K J L L (J J~ l, I' T K J I L F JJ

[oreann should be ~wung around his neck in such manner as to strike him across the Adam's apple. These two blows are enough initially to stun him for the few vital secocds which Rl'C- necessarr fol' you to be able to apply a quick, scientific strangle hold.

From this position with ),Oll cleft forearm across his neck, pJ,1CC yow' right hand on the back 01 his head and hook your left hand inside the bend in the elbow of yom right arrn, Witb yow' hand in this position, you are able no exertenotm(m~ leverage by p1l.'ihing forward with your I'!Hln hand and pulling him hack with yO~LI' left at the same Dille. In :1 matter of seconds, "VOL! have strangled him completely ur broken his neck. One of the mosr .important tbing:; about this particular hold is that YUll must be COJlrinuallv pulling yom- victim backward so that he is off balance at all times. This is even more important if you are shorter than vour victim. In this case the use of the knee in the kidney section in place of the fist is best for the first hlow, Another sUisfactory J11&'1I"U; of getting your victim off balance is to thrust vour foot into the back of his knee. This will cause him co topple backwards and enable you to ~lpply the hold easily. This technique is known as the Japanese strangle hold, and it is regrettable that the name Was originated by the Japanese tlu'(!lIgh their lise of it, in pi}u.:e of h; been named from its frequent usc on them.

Front Strangle

A strangle 110111 111ilY also be applied from the front in the fnllt1wi:ilg manner. In tJl is application, it .is easier when :! man's. head happens to be Towered as it would be if he were ' CO make 1:1 gnlb for your legs or waist. If ~1:allding swing your right arm forward and around hringing the palm of the hand .against the back of his neck. By givl11g your body weight to the swing, you will cause him to bring his head forward and downward to a position where yom: left forearra can be brought across up under his. throat and locked around his neck, with your right hand t~king a grip on yOllr Icfr hand as ~ rei nforcern enr, When

l '\1 R \ 1 I· n () Fl' r ,. s I-

.. Q. :;;

.... E z ~ o ..

'" cL¢:






yon Ita ve hin: in this position, all you need to do to cause ~rrangnhltion or a neck hrea k is to push yOU!' hips forward .lUd yom shoulders well hacl.. lifting upward as you do so.


There are anv nuuiher ill throws which could be described, hur one of the simplest and mast effective is the good old "f:IyiJlg mare." It tan be !l1lpjied S'\dftly by grasping your npponent's rig'he wrist 'with Loth hands, stepping io with ) OlU' .right foot, and hril1ging h i~ arm over your right shoulder II ith the hinge joint of hiselbow up. In this position, you wiJl have a firm gmsp of his arm 011 which pressure will he exerted against the binge resting on your shoulder so char any sudden downward movement of yow: body combined with a quick back thrust of your hips will send him sailing through [he air. If he doesn't go) his arm will break from rhe leverage exerted, and he cal] be Jinisbed oEIl 111 some other ""'Jy. The flying mare used with rhe elb(nv hinge in [he reverse of the above described method has been used in wrestling circles for yeal'sas 11 spectacular type of throw. If ;mu are w(teking on ::t hard surface, in place of letting' !!(J or your 0}1ponenr, Ai P him over your shoulder, maintain .1 our held upnn Ius aL1j1 after the throw and briog him down on his beadandshonlders at your feet with a .resuleant concussion or neck fracture when 11e Strikes rhe ground.

Wrist Throw

The wrist throw should he mentioned here because it has several practical applications. Its most practical use would he in a situation where a man has reached our and grabhed your shirr or coat lapel wirh his right hand, "Vitll your left hand reach over to the inside of vrhc gnlsping hand and place yom left rhumb In the back of his hand across the srna 1 L 1m-Dekle bones. Your lingers will p:1SS underneath the palm of his hand. '~'1[11 your hand in this position, twist his hand sharply back toward him ~Jnd to his right and force ir toward a pnint on rhe ground three or four feet from his right foot: He will immediately be forced to go til the

I, I r.: ! 1 It l. I I k I I- E D


Ab ... ; Initial 9,lp 1'4 .. ,. hUmb .lon9 h ec k .. r _""dJ •• ,

.. I .... t hglnn:n", ,,' p'."u,. by banding hood b.,~ tol'ord ol'p"n~rrt and t-><hlr"g eut ,



Compl.tion of wrhl


Follow through by holdln'il on to wrhl. and k',king tompl •.

ground and from there you can either release your hold 115 he goes down or retain your hold upon his 'hand, pulling his Ann ant straight ab ur his head as he goes down. and lcicldng him in the temple with your foot. In many cases particularly when there is a great difference in ize Qf opponents, it is advisable after making rhe initial hold \\ ith ~+our lefr hand to use your right to give additional pressure and leverage to complete the throw. The SAme Il~structions can be applied by doing JUSt the opposite in case of a left-handed procedure,


The subject of "come-alongs" or a means of bringing in II captive is a large and varied one, but no such hold yet

levelopetl that is applied by bare hands can be maintained SlJccessfully over long periods of time without being weakened ~o such nn extent that it may be broken by he captive, It ts true hat in some of the escapes from these corne-alongs, the victim 'Will hurt himself, but at the same time if h is desperate enough, rhat will nor deter him from an attempt to escape. The only way to keep a prisoner being taken in


by come-along methods over any distance with no danger of his escaping is to keep him in a perpetual state of semiconsciousness by edge of the hand blow on the neck, short jabs on the dun, or any mean which will keep his mental processes foggy. It is well to take his fl-ee hand and stick it down inside his belt to help prevent possible escape attempts.

The most effective of all come-alongs, particularly when you are forced [0 walk a man a long distance and keep him under control is the fonowing: Yon are facing yonr opponear who has arms hanging at his sides and as the come-along' is not an attack, you have already subdued

Thumb cerne "long! InItial grip across back or of'f'"nent'. nand.

him rc a point where he is submissive. With your l'ight hand outstretched, palm up, grasp his left band on the back, with your hand holding across the back of his .fingersWith, your left hand, reach over on the outside of your prisoner's left elbow and pull it toward your right foot to a point where you are directly opposite the victim. Yon will find that the victim's left elbow will be next to your body with your right elbow between his arm and his body. Yon have




Ide,,1 I"Hlal grIp: hooking thumbs.

not changed your grip from its initial application during this process. By k-eeping his elbow close to yom body and locked in place by your right arm and raising his forearm to a vertical position, you have a very effective come-along which is maintained by twisting his hand and wrist toward you at any sign of rebellion. By applying a few pounds pressure on the wrist, you can raise your victim on his toes and it is by this means that you will know that he is completely under your control. This come-aleng has the advantage of allowing you in most cases to be able to maintain sufficient pressure with one hand to enable you to walk along with a weapon 0.1' some other implement in your left. This application can be reversed £01" the purpose of leaving your right hand free if desirable. Ideally the initial grasp on the victim's hand should be done by hooking thumbs, as illustrated. Due to poor light, gloves. weather etc., this can not always be done easily. You can change to the thumb position once the bold is applied if you so desire.

Another come-along which bas a great deal of merit is the arm lock. Properly applied, this lock makes a hold sufficiently



~rrOO(T fOJ.: escorting a prisoner a short distance gives control of y~t.r opponent completely if pressme is maintained on the forearm, and is very desirable as a torture hold or ill taking a man to [he ground before tying him. The come-along is nor an attack It is applied as a mastering .hold after yonr victim bas once been subdued by other means.

Its application is as follows: Facing your opponentl reach out with your left hand, palm down, and grab the opponent about the right wrist. Shove his arm to the side and rear of his body, in conjunction with this move take the flat of your right hand and strike his left arm on the inside of elbow joint. The hand should be immediately withdrawn after the slap bas been given causing the elbow to bend. From this position disengage your left band which has been about his wrist and shove 'it under and up between the opponent's forearm and his back Place yom left hand on or JUSt below the shoulder point on his ann. By bending forward with his right arm locked in this position rou have him completely TInder control. Your right hand can then be placed on his left shoulder to prevent him from pulling

Arm lock: FIrst step.

Arm lock: Right hand inside .1 bow 1"0 bel p bend arm.


Arm lad: Final hold. Lef+ ha~d can be placed on point of opponent', lefl shoulder to prevunl him from puffing cut ,ideways.



side ways aut of the hold or used to exert extra pressure on his pinioned arm by pulling it. OUt from his back. This will force him to do as you will because of the pain. or possibiHties of a broken elbow. Tills come-along can be maintained over a long distance but has a disadvantage in the face that your own body must be bent forward alongside lind slightly over Y0ll!" opponent's body to keep him under control. However, this is offset by the fact that it call be used for the other purposes mentioned above.

Wrist Release

Mention should also be made of the principle of a simple wrist release 1'IS it ism invaluable aid when some one has gra~l'ed you by one or both arms, The usual thing an opponent does is to grab either your wrist or forearm, TIlls is obvious because be wants to protect himself as well as to immobilize your own offense, When a man grabs you by the wrist, he will have four fingers on one side or your ann and thumb on the other side. Regardless of how strong a man is, the thumb, which is the weak side of his grip.


Above: Continue turning "nd lifting "qafnit thumb s.

Below: Break doublo grip by pulling against" thumb •.



Continuo pull agarnsJ! +hurnbs with help of lolt .arm.

will not be stronger than your entire arm. By a twist of vour wrist outward against his thumb, you can break his hoTd with a sudden effort. The entire movement must be made rapidly. If you will always twist yOUl' wrist against yom o~ponent's thumb, regardless of whether it is his left or right hand, you will be able to break his grip. I~ he grabs yeur wrist with both hands, jerk upwards toward the thumbs ano the same release can be effected with a little more effort. ThL~ type of wrist release is well-known in all unarmed combat, wrestling and life saving circles.

Pushing Counter

Evel), man at some time or other has been in. a 'posirion Where ~ belllgerent opponent or a drunk has attempted to a~tagoUlze him by placing a .hand on his chest and shoving rum backward. The counter .1.5 simple and effective. As your ~pponent'~ hand is placed on your chest, take yom O'WTl twO

ands, layiug one flat on top of the other, raise them above YOllr opponent's pushincr hand, and come down sharp Iv with

rh d;:' -

e ege of your hands at the angular bend where his wrist


A bovo: Firrl step.

Bolcw: Hand placed on pu.hlng hand at bond of wri.f.



joins his hand. As you do this, bend forward, Your opponent will go down for a very simple reason. When he is pusbi?-g you, his :vrist is already at a right angle. ben~. A~y :llldiuonal bend will cause iii break. When you strike hIS Wl'1SC with the edge of your hands,. he can do nothing but go to the grollnd to protect himself from a broken wrist. As he !!:oes down, yon can use the knee in his testicles or chin or do whatever you will, depending upon how you desire to dispnse o! him. It ~s important that you. bend f?rward ill applying this at the nme of the blow on the W11st angle. By so doing, you force him to the gIOund and also pin his hand ag~unst your chest in such a manner that be cannot pull away.

Knee be IJled 011 chin.



Hog lie.

Boct lao. lie, thumbs • nd lillie fingen,

cr'L"'I~M!£U OfPF.NSE



It is also well to cover this well-kno-wn means. of tying a prisoner securely, It is initiated from the ann lo~k with yow: opponent face downward on the ground and wirh the forearm bene up behind his back in a painful posicion. A little additional pressure 011 his arm when in this position will force him to readily place his other hand behind his back at your request. With your rope, tie the two. wrists dgh~y together. Take one end of the cord and run It around hIS neck and tie it again to the pinioned wrists.. Have enough pressure on the cord around the neck to force the hands high up toward his shoulder blades. Cross his ankles and rake the other end of the cord after doubling his legs up behind him and tie them with it so that they remain in. that position. Any struggle to free himself will result in stJ.·:lllguIation. Correctly ap2lied, there is noesppe from this tie. There are various knots advocated in making such ties, but any standard tying knot: may be used. The essential thing is the fact that the victim will be unable to make any effort to release himself, Tegardless of the type of knot used. Another simple tie can be effected by using a man's shoe laces for cord. Place him w.ith his back to a tree or post, preferably of ten or more inches ill diameter, Have hisarms placed around and behind the post place the hands back to back and tie his wrists, two thumbs and his two little ~gers together with the shoe laces. In these ties, practice 1$ most important, because a faulty procedure in tyihg Is glaringly apparent.

It is well to emphasize again the face that in applying the numerous holds and come-alongs and throws that have been and are being shown throughout the country, you cannot a1w~ys assume that you are up against an rmrrained adversary, p~~cularly so in case of the jap, 1£ this is not the case, you will lay yourself open to attack while attempting their execution. 1£ you are in a position to apply any of these eucllm~e~~g holds, you are also in a position for a ltilling attack initiated by hand 0.1." feet blows.


Dummies are absolutely necessary in training of this type.

They should be of standard size, complete with arins, heads and legs, On the dummies, the vital spots should be marked and the student should be made to practice daily with no restraint all hand and foot blows he has learned. It is easy to see that if in practice of this type of combat you use a sparring partner, great care must be taken in application of this instruction. Submission signals should be arranged to avoid damaging each other. A man who masters the blows emphasized here and practices them enough to be able to use them readily as he uses his fists need fear no one. Even if he never has a chance to use the technique in actual fighting, it still will be worthwhile because of the supreme self-confidence he will develop.

This manual is downloaded from


The science of disarming is a large, field which contains so many different methods and variations that· the average individual, without a proper introduction to the subject, has no certain means of determining any particular method which is suitable in his case. The majority of disarming methods to date have primarily laid greatest stress upon getting possession of the weapon and secondarily on subduing the individual. This theory is the basic principle upon which most disarming methods now being practiced both in and out of military circles are based. This type. of disarming, concentrating on the removal of the weapon, plus the restraint type of man handling, is truly a police practice.

In time of war methods of killing replace methods of restraint. Therefore, in disarming technique, a method whereby the enemy can be disarmed and instantly immobilized is desirable. Emphasis here is reversed: first, the removal of the enem and second the rocurin of his wea on.

~atura: IV the first movement in any Isarmmg tee mque should be the removal of the wea on's muzzle from our

o y area. 1Jle next step is attac , not t e securing 0 t e ~eapou. Disarming methods in general contain too many separate movements. For some reason they are made as difficult and complicated as possible. Such techniques demand a vast amount of practice since they involve the use of both hands and feet in one concerted movement. Practice is always necessary before any individual can become confident and proficient no matter how simple the technique.

Teaching the average individual disarming necessitates



showing him something which is simple and which he can understand and do with practice. The majority of people will not practice of their own volition, after learning such techniques. There is a great need for simplified pisto! and rifle-disarming in our training of troops, as well as in law enforcement agencies, and also a need for training our soldiers to counteract attempted disarming by their prisoners. One thin i e i· when a man sticks his wea on in our and sa s, "Hands U ," he oes not wish to shoo

ou, or e wou a rea a one so. though this is an

obvious act, as individuals we seldom think of it in this light. Why he doesn't shoot we don't know. Perhaps I silence is desirable, perhaps he wants to take you prisoner; or to secure some information which you have. In any event, the man behind the gun unknowingly places himself: in a defensive frame of mind when holding another person at the point of his rifle or pistol. We are assuming in this discussion that the man with the weapon will be at least withinarm's length of the person he is holding up. Disarming methods to handle situations other than this will be discussed later. We are also assuming that he will be armed with a; hand gun, although the same basic principles would apply' were it a rifle or a submachine gun. !

We are not concerned with a mass round-up of individuals! such as is common in large operations where a group of prisoners are held from a distance with a tommy gun, but rather with individuals in situations where they will come in close contact with the weapon in the hands of an enemy. It is nearly always possible when confronted by a weapon in the hands of another individual to make him come within arm's length. In most cases he will do so of his own volition because he wants to emphasize the fact that he has a weapon by shoving it in your back or your stomach. If he does keep out of arm's length he can often he forced to come in to close quarters by disregarding his orders or obeying them slowly, so that he tries to emphasize the gun and its authority by pushing it in your stomach or your back I to make you move.


At the time of initial contact, the man with the gun goes through a period of tenseness during which he is thinking that perhaps his victim may try an escape or an attack in the face of his weapon. This period of tenseness during which he is most alert and more "trigger conscious" than ordinarily is important in considering when to attempt disarming. Cert~inly at this time no attempt should be made.

After the initial period of tenseness which lasts but a few minutes wears off, the man behind the gun relaxes and starts thinking why the actual holdup was made.' He will be thinking of, a good many other things than an attempt to disarm or an attack. Because he is thinking along such lines, and is probably talking to his victim or otherwise mentally occupied, the fraction of a second which is necessary for his brain to telegraph to his trigger finger to shoot is doubled. This is am'· onsiderin when to disarm.

ry and make him careless, and attract his attention away from his trigger finger to set the stage for the actual physical disarming.

In the first placc:..t induce your captor to talk by asking him questions, by encouraging him to boast, or by volunteering information which will immediately arouse his interest. If you can accomplish this, you will find that his movements reacting to an attack from you will be much slower than dunng the initial period of contact. Try to make him be car~less by appearing to he frightened, by hysterical mannensms and speech, by begging for mercy, etc. Watch his ey~s; do anything you can to distract his attention without bemg too obvious. This can be done by a slight movement ~f the foot or of the fingers of your upraised' hand and by like strategems. If he reaches forward with his unoccupied hand to search you, to take your weapon from its holster, Or to touch you in any' manner, he is placing himself wide ~en for an attack; his mind and eyes are otherwise occupied. ~alyze ~our situation. In most cases, it is not necessary ~rst few moments of contact to disarm immediately.

e enough time to consider your situation. You may find Your opponent as anxious as you are to avoid a shot or a



struggle. He may be an extremely nervous type of individual, inexperienced in the handling of weapons, and if one attempt to distract his attention does not work, try another.

One of the oldest "gags" shown in many movies is for the victim to say to a fictitious individual standing supposedly behind the man with the gun, "Don't shoot, Joe," or some such statement. In the movies, the gun man turns to encounter the individual so addressed, and the hero immediately jumps upon him and disarms him. This type of thing, to use a slang expression, is "corny" and probably would not work with most Americans. However, old though it is, in a good many cases you will be up against poorly educated. slow-witted enemies who might fall victim to such a trick. One variation of this type of thing which has been used with success against intelligent individuals is this: glance quickly behind your attacker, as if you see someone approaching from his rear, and as quickly return your glance to him, making no comment. Although he may suspect a trick, he will still be uneasy because it would be entirely possible for another person to be coming up behind him, and for you to be too smart to say anything about it. These and like stratagems are sometimes worthwhile.

Taking into consideration all the above mentioned factors which may lay the ground work for the physical disarming, remember that the element of surprise is still the biggest single factor which will contribute to your success. Your enemy with his gun trained upon you possibly might consider the possibility of your trying to escape if desperate enough, but the longer you wait before attempting your attack, the less paramount this consideration is in his mind, and the more careless he becomes. By the very nature of the situation, the individual with his. hands in the air has an advantage he can and must use. He can pick the time and stage for his disarming action. The man with the gun cannot anticipate it.

In the other extreme, a most pro itious tim 0 disarm is at t erst second 0 contact. e e ement of surprise ere is very great, but thIS type of operation can be done only


by a highly trained individual with instant reflexes, and even then it is not always successful. We deal largely in generalities because no two situations are exactly alike. Differences in individuals, their stature, light -conditions, weather,terrain, and circumstances occurring around the scene of the action all vary.

Before going into a detailed discussion of various disarming methods, it is best to consider the. conditions under which they must be practiced. Practice in disarming is all important, because only in this way can an individual gain enough confidence. in himself and his ability to undertake the possibile risk of being shot by his enemy if he fails. Practice must be done with real weapons, which can be loaded with blanks or in any case, the weapon must be one in which the hammer will fall when the trigger is pulled. The element of uncertainty in an individual's mind when practicing disarming must be reduced to the lowest possible point before confidence will develop. All the demonstrations and lectures in the world will not enable a .person to actually perform disarming in real circumstances unless he has practiced it in circumstances as close to the real thing as possible. -Ihe element of surprise is a difficult thing to achieve in practice, because the man with the gun knows when you are going to disarm. This element of anticipation on the part of the holder of the weapon in practice is something which must be constantly watched. ( I) It can usually be detected when at the slightest movement. of the man whose hands are in the air, the trigger is pulled. This is unnatural a~d would not occur in actual disarming. (2) When at the shghtest movement of the trunk of. the body the man holding the gun turns the barrel to follow the movement, he is anticip~ting, because the individual holding the gun under ordinary clrcun~stances will not follow the movement of the body, but will attempt to pull the trigger at the time the disarming movements start. He will not be able to think fast enough to move the gun barrel following the changes in the position of the opponent. In practice, any means which will enable the student to evolve ~. element of surpris,S in his disarming


attempts will make him progress that much faster. Unless checked at the very outset, this element of anticipation by the man with the gun will cause the student to lose confidence to the extent where he will never be able to disarm successfully. If you can't break the persol1 who holds the gun of the anticipation habit, it is best to replace him with another man.

Naturally the biggest doubt in the student's mind is whether or not he can move fast enough to best the man who pulls the trigger. Strange as it may seem to the average individual, the gun man cannot think fast enough to pull the trigger and make a hit before your body is out of line of fire. This fact, when properly introduced and practiced, will give to the student great confidence. It should be pointed out by the instructor that if it is possible to keep from being shot and to disarm a man when he is expecting you to do something (as in practice), it will be 50% easier to do the same thing when the element of surprise is on your side.

Ninety per cent of the people who use weapons to restrain a prisoner hold them close to the victim and within arm's reach. We can attribute this in part to the fact that the public, outside of police circles, knows very little of disarming. In the case of our enemies in the. present conflict. they are mostly ignorant of the possibilities of disarming, and they also rely entirely upon their weapons for close-in fighting. The fact that they do this and have so much respect for and reliance on their weapons and little self-confidence when they are without them, makes them feel that by holding a man at the point of a gun, the prisoner's case becomes hopeless and he has no possible chance of escape because they themselves feel that way when facing a gun. This is particularly true of Germans, Italians, and all other races who do not-like close combat involving body contacts.

One difficulty encountered in teaching disarming is that after the introductory lecture covering the points mentioned above, many students immediately becomes "wise guys" and know all the answers before things begin. To offset this natural state of mind, in the initial period of your course

let the first introduction to the course be somewhat as follows:

Give half the students weapons and tell them to hold up their partners. Do this before any introduction is given. You will find that ninety per cent will hold the pistol on the opponent so that it is within arm's reach, a necessary factor in actual disarming. Call the attention of the class to this fact at the time. Then proceed to the introductory lecture.

Bring forth the point that in European and Asiatic areas dis-

. arming is a little known science, due in great measure to the fact that people of those countries lack weapons in their civil life. Consequently, they are largely uneducated concerning firearms and weapons outside of military service. In America we have movies, various volumes on weapons and allied subjects, and many millions of weapons in the hands of private individuals. Still, even in a country that is so educated in guns and gunplay as ours, disarming is not a matter of common knowledge.

Before going is well. to consider the position of the hands which will naturally be upraised. Do not practice disarming with your hands hanging ,. at your sides, or with your elbows any lower than the shoulder height. You will possibly be able to lower them this far from. the extreme upraised position, but seldom will be permitted to let them come any lower. You can disarm equally well with your arms in the upraised position or from the hands clasped behind the head position which is common in handling prisoners of war.

You can move your body from the path of the bullet from your opponent's gun before he can think to pull the trigger. This is the first phase of disarming both in demonstration and in the beginning of the practice of disarming technique. Demonstrate, then let the student practice the following:

With the gun pointed at your stomach or pressed in your back, look into your opponent's face, not looking at the weapon, make a sudden movement, twisting your body to the right or left so that it will be out of line of fire. Keep your feet in place, your hands above your head, and execute this body twist by bending the knees. The man with the



Body twis!. N 01, end of mumlc

10 r@l~ti9n to body.

Irnmobilrllng ~ revelver 0" double ~cH'='1l by ~f",pin~ cyllnd\,r.



!tun will pull the trigger after yOllr body is out of line of fire, even r.hough he is expecting yon to make a movement, Don't let him rum his wrist to follow you.r body as this is antici P'' ri 00.

Let the student practice from and rear until he is satisfied 111 hisown mind that he is actually dearing himself hom the bullet's path, Even a slow bodv twist is faSt enough to prevent a ~erj()lIS wound. A crease ,";.ill be (he only .resnlr, AJthough the bodv twist is a basic of all disarming, horh in the frout nnd in the rear, in realirv if is not .1 separate movement but occurs nnturailv ill conjunction with the downwRrd:;weep ()f the hands in the actual disllJming. Any disarming method or technique shown to an individual will not be successful, from the standpoint of his having enough confidence to use it, unless he .is satisfied in his own mind about his speed of urovemcnr and chances of 5l1ccC$S. This can be done 11v the

hodv twist demonstration. .

X~ previously mentioned, the aTTI1$ and hands have as yet had no place in rhedisarming procedu re, It is well to emphasize again that the purpose of the body twist js merclv m prove to the individual that he can actually move his body our of the path of the bullet faster Than the tl"iggcr man can think.

The type and size of the weapon with which the enemy is armed has often played all imporrant rule in determining the particular method of disarming to be used. For instance, ~. rClfolver which is pointed at yOIlI' stomach and is being fired on the double action can eas.ily be immobilized bv a swift downward movement of the hand g.ta::;ping the cylinder. Th e l:;71 ind er is rims- stopped from turning and this prevt:ll ts the gun from being fired, Another good method is striking t~]e weapon with rhe riglrt hand and sweeping it to the left side, ral:·ing the left band and bending [he weapon back toWard the body flgainst the wris r, This is g.ood only in the case of a weapon with a long bane}. It will not work in the case of a small short-barreled weapon which may go off and shoot ),o(lr hand. Numerous other techniques nrc also ugVocated for use against specific, weapons. To be 2];)1t; to

KIT I, 0 [, CO b T t, t l.. L. B n

Hands ~pl

Bendlnll weapon b"c~ ,"way fro," ",rht to gain pcssosslcn.

Sweepili9 weapon add e.

Hand. up!

P ! :; II H J\1 ! Nf; 57

Edge of h~ nd blow on ins lde "r Cflln !a band knee,

wrist wilh fellow rh,ollg:h.

kno \V H 11 d use va r i nils dis:.trrllin g tech n i11 !lC_~ which vary wi til rho type of weapon faced resnl ts in confusion anrl is onl~' for experts.

Using the edge of the hand below with the long follow through, follmving up with the knee to the testicles and the chin jab is anerher good way to disarm. Face your opponent (not looking at the weapon) who has the gun In his right h:1I1d. With \ our left arm. sweep down and crack rhe inside 01 his wrisr vwirh edge or your hand, follo'\"ing thnHlgh coiuplctelv su that (he gun will either be knocked out {!( hi" hand or or 'least end up at IT great distance from yoar hodv. At the same time drive "our knee into histesticles and execute the chin jab. This elm aJl be done in one swift motion. U~11211y the edge of the hand blow on theins.ide of the wrist will by its force fracture the wrist or at least force the fingers open Jetting the weapon drop. This movement combines the elernenis of surprise, attock and the other previously rile n tlOned cons i dera tions <I-Qd .is ptattkall y fou] proof when



properly practiced ~U1d executed. The we<lpoll IS Imucked

ur of the hand and the attack, b\ rhe blows to the testicles and chin, downs the opponent. Even ill a few cases where rhe man retains hold of the wcapon he will not be able to 'Use it: because of the knockout effect f the bl \VS to his body. This can be practiced with some restraint by using the palm of the band agairul" the inside 01 the wrist in place of the edge of the hand and of course ptilling up shorrlv un the chin jab and knee, Irs efficiency and sureness will prove itself tu "[he student ;J fter a sh we arnounr of prac icc,

The .ame principle), apply if the gun is placed in the middle (If [he back. Glance over yOU( shoulder quickly ar the nurser of rhe contact wi h the man to see which hand holds the we~pon. This is important for rwo reasons: first, you will riiscnver whether he is acruallv holding the weapon in the middle of YOllr hack or his finger with the gun on his hip, and also whether he is either left or right-handed. These facts can be determined at a g"lance. and are not usuall, subject to change after initial contact" man usually carries his wenpan in his master J-UU1d when expecting to use it and never changes it except ill SOIne cases, such as conducting a search. With the gull in yOIll" back and determining where it is held and which hand is holding Ir pivot toward the enernv's inside <It the same rime making a full 1 en g til ~wecping arm movement to the rear, with complete follow tlu"oagh onrward against the arm holding rhe gnu. Follow tbi. hy pivoting, nn yOW' left foot, into the opponent where the chin jab and knee are applied,

The followinz tw o Frontal disar.mii1g methods are ery successfu 1 in speci fie Cases where he situation is sud that the gUll itself must be procured ,1I1d used either as a striking weapon to suhdue the opponem OJ." fnr f ring. A ny situation where the man with his hands in the air is confronted l"~ more. than one individual calls for a disarming 111erho(J which will give him po sessi n of the weapon in animrnediare firing' posirion co conrrol [be individuals accompanying the aetna I carrier of the weapon. Ir is well enough bv ordinary methods to immobilize the Ulan carrying the weapon, hur

Hold up from reer ,

fo;.IIQw up wit~ ko ... and jal;>.

[) r S A It 1'\I[ I N G


Pi.ot 1 nsld D, left arm ,woep' qun arm •.

Hand. "FI


Kll.l. Oft CEr KII..LED

K n,oc~ gun to left. thum b hooked on tnl1<:le,

Grasp barr.1 .~erl; ng lovGrdq.

down and ,tdkin9 in,lde of 9~n wd.t.

Weapon ready to lir,.


O[SAR1'vlJ 'G


it will do no good if hi" companions rush m and overpower you.

The following merhod h' s been used with success, An extreme amount of practice to insure succes is necessary. Everything perraining to tactics prior to rhe actual physical movement pertain doubly in this case. \iVirh your bands ill the air facing the pponent (gun in his right hand) with vour left hand COLl1e down with a sweeping movement hooking the rhunrb on the inside of the barrel of rhe weapon, [mocking ir to your left away from Y()lU" body 3rC,1. Grasp rhe barrel, exert Leverage down tov ards the ground. ]\1 conJunccion with this leverage, nsing your .rigbt hand slap the inside of the wrist of the hand holding the gun Sharply, causing the gun to be released. 'rep back \ ith the weapon still in YOllr left or :UJitial graspjngband and place the butt in your cighc band ready to fire. This method and the one IoLlo\vlng will work particularly well with long-barreled pistols, such as Luger, Mauser, Colt and Namhu (Japanese military idenrrn) . Any weapon with a barrel of a length less than 4 inches

Hand. "pi

Rlg,)if hand !moth gun 10 lef!. tnen g ra,p' barrel.


En,t leverage dcwn. ",I'lng ouf· ,ide of "'ro.t ",.]til leI! hand,

Blow with b~U of weapon to heed,

Gun fr •• , 9 ra.pod by berra].

Wri.! held , pulling opponent lor" ward.


makes these two frontal methnds very d.i1Iiclllr.

The orher method f disarming from the front enables you ro use his \Vt:aprm as a club OJ' strildng instrumear, With the O"Wl held in yuur opponent's xigbt: hand, sn'eep down with ~ our rigbt hand against the barrel, knocking it aW:lf toward rhc left side of yow· bodv. Grasp the barrel, exert leverage down and at the same time take your left hand and slap the outside of the grasping wrist sharply. This will free the weapon into YOLLr right hand, with yonr grasp on the barrel. Use the burr to strike you.r. opponent on the head. It is well to maintain a grip On his wrist with the left hand afrer striking' it to free the weapon pulling him in towards YOlt at the S:1.IIIC time you lise the weapon t(l strike.

These particular methods are as yee little known to police and military circles in U. S. arid abroad but are very effective

when executed properly. •

Two methods of disarming [rom the rear thar are very good are as follows: The tirsLr is popular ill police circles and used a great deal by the PHl. After looking back to see which

~"';;"h.'1 10 rlgltl. RigM errn goin~ Ur gUn arm.

Ending up In aim 10<;1( positlcn.


Hand; upl

Lock 'l un arm with lef+ arm e nd ... ,,1 "pwa rd pres. u re,

PIYot '0 i OJid e, lelt arm over gun ar-m.

Chin fa b and. knee •


lia:nd is holding the gun which is in the middle of yom back, whirl vour body to the right (the gUll is held in your opponent'S rizht band) OJ: outside. With the right arm sweep down oudel" his gun arm and place yOW" .righr hand inside on the hiceps of his gun arm. Bending forward and toward. the gllllman, with yom left hand gn1b the barrel and wrest it from .his ~dp. Once the gunman' is in this position )'CJl1 have all arm Itlck which can help in ubduing him.

Th is last method is good as ) ou are irnrnediarely in an :llrack po irion. The only possible drawback is that you risk rhe chance of the gun's being discharged \\ hich nughr give an !l1:.1J"11i when silence is desirable. Vt"ith the gun in his righr hand and in the middle of vour back, whirl to your left or his inside. Bring your 1cfca.rm down over and under .his dhow or his gun arm and bend the arm and exert pressure in an upward direction following wirh the chin jab and "knee to the testicles.

With practice it- is possible to disarm a man who places a hand in the middle of your back and holds you up. In the first place, 'when you find yourself in such a predicamenr you should realize at once chat the man with the weapon has some sort of training in the Pl'OPCl' methods of restrainillg an. individual at the point of his gun. Most people when [her. b;1\ e a prisoner at their gun point ill this manner feel, lind [nstly SQ, rhat if the prisoner makes IIIJ attempt to dis?rTli he will fail. Consequently the element of surprise here I:' vcr)' great when actual disarming is accomplished. The merhod is little known, it is" simple and easily accomplished with prncrice, The necessity of always looking to the rear when somebody S:lVS "hands lip" is VCIJT obvious. Once havtng a~cert,lined' tll:lJr a ha nd is in the middle of VClW" back in place of a gun decide for yourself which direction of a body turn would bring you into the weapon or away from the weapon. (Assuming that the g'lill is held in his right hand ~lo5c to his hip, and his left hand is in the middle of your )ltck). After determining this, start your disarm ing, pivot ~~ ,the outside of the arm held in the middle of your back

l\-Ot completely Mound on your left foor take a step until


PQ,ition bator-a outside pIVot-. Gun on hlp.

Plvcf to cut,ld. ~way frorn gun.

Then att.d: •

. vou are :H a point opposite him. The pivot and ~rep toward him will be fast enough that he will be unable [IJ pull rhe trigger in time. Once beside him you arc naturally om of gun range and :1ny hlow, trip or throw lIlay he easilv applied hecause with the first body conrncr he becomes [) ff-balunce. III rhis particular method ):Ol1 must be sure of )'OUJ' ground nnd pick the stage f r the physical disarming cnrefullv. If he ;1t~elnpts to shove YOll forward with the pilm or his hand a g'ow.l rime ro initiate .nlUr clisarming is nt (he rime when he, huves VOLI forward, because ar [his mmuenr ht: is most like]" til he

off bals nee. '

The idea (If putting' your Gnger in the middle of a msn': hack 1:0 imitate yom gun barrel \"1 hen YOll are hoi ling the gun On rllur hip i, a good nne provided ~ OLi are sure he has no knowledge of the above mentioned disarming method, H ~you can fool him ahour which of your hands holds the gun, he is les. likely to be SUGCefi ful if he 3[tcmpcs ro disarm "mi. If you are 'going to r1:1l:c : 0111- finger ill the middlt:


U.e YO"' knuckle joint, net the end of your fonger, 10 fe ke " qun b.rr.I,

of .1 man's back to create the impression that it is 11 gun barrel do nor lise the point of YO[1 r finger, The finger, in an extended position, is limber and will bend when \veight 'is placed against it and this becomes evident to vour opPQuem, D: .. e the knuckle (if the forefinger; rhis will make a stiff unyielding imitation of a gun barrel. If you 'want to be sure rhnr, he knows ~,our weapon is 1"e.~ting (in your hip let him see I: there and place the whole flat of yOltl' hand in the middle n£ his bad find shove him along,

The man who places his weapon .in the pocket of hissuir or overcoar and 'lPPl'C)'H:hes you within ,UTJl'S reach and Sllys "11:111ds up" is hying himself wide open for disarming. This fal'r npparcnrly has not been known or used by om police -::ombating O'a:ngstereJements ur by our movies depicting such hold l1p tectlooques. You are facing the man with your hands In ~he air and he ha~ the weaporlll his .right coat peeker (~\' Ith in arms length of you), all that is necessarv is to shove IW.n . ~h:;rply rom the point of the' shoulrler of rhe gun hand (l'lghr shoulder): This will cause his body to pivot so that



Hands upl

Strlk" shoulder of' gun arm ~n.rply, pivoting him • .,..y i,of11 <Jun.

[he .gull barrel points aivay from you. The hand on the gun is locked in the pocket and is useless. ~ t this point step in beside hin: and apply whatever method of elimination )'0"l1 desire. The individual who carries his gun in his pocket will usually c( me into arms reach without being enticed for three reasons: first, he hides the gun from other people's view; secondly, he will get close to enable him to use his free band to make a search, and. third, he wants to emphasize to [he man being held up that he has a weapon and he has to ger dose to prove it.

There is a disrincr possihilitv of successful disarming in a situation where you are sitting in a car driving Ill' otherwise with :111 individual covering vou from the side with n gtm. This situation is one in whi,c?h: if you have had a little pracrice, you can readily analvze '0 see what your disarming possibilieie may be. In any position 'where the glm hand is held away from direct contact w ith the body or left arm, assuming that the gun is in the man's right hand, you may, by a sweep-


Slop 10 his slde, plant you, toot neniod him, and complete attack.

Gunrna n us; n~ free arm to search,



I I J. (I It C." T


ing: IJIOVemCnt, knock the glUl hand against his ll(ld.\~ und enable yourself to deliver a knockout punch with ~·OI.l1" free hand by means of a chin jab edge of the hand blow, ere, This method can be used with manv variatiens and a studcnjshould practice this type of d;s'lrmi~g wirh various individuals and try ro visualize an possible situations, particularly pertain. ing ro how the gun .is held in [he gunman's hand in .re,gard to his own bod)'. In other words, practice in chis type of di~arming- will shov you you r limitations and possihil iries '0 that: you will be able to recognize [hem when such n circumstance occurs.

All [he methods to disarm where the gllillllan is OLIt of arms reach ~mcl can't be enticed in should be based on the circumstances surrounding vour own situation. In other 'words, how desperate are ~ y~u? Y OUT chances of success are HOOfI hut hy no means certain. You have a possihilitv of ki.eking the pistol out of his hand by a sudden horizontal sweep of the foot and following righr in. Kick with the side of tbe Foot with the impact being on the inside of the gun hand. This kick will place you off-balance-cfollow tIU'O~lgh with your body and fall forward all the gunman. If he is out of kicking rl\nge your chances are that much more decreased hut there is still a fifrv-fiftv chance. The best thing tel do in rills circumstance is (0 carch him off guard and execu te a. forward dive or tackle to the same ide of [he gunman i:n which the we,lpon is held, This tackle shall narurallv be followed up by bringing the man to rhe ground and subdning him. Experiments have shown that it is milch morecliffi .ulr lor a man t fire at a moving object directlv II and down m the Tigh~ (gun in right hand) than it is for him tn tire co [he left and down. If [he man is holding ;'\ l'iBe Oil yon, your (Chances are greatly increased I ecause the larger the weapon the more unwieldy it becomes for quick sudden movements.

Ordinarily the gUllman wil] pull the o'igger while chc weap 11 is still pointed in a more or less horizontal position. onscquentlv iJ)~ timing yOLU' attempt l"ight and being fast enough your body will be in a horizontal position du rill,!!

Rifle dl.orm;ng, front.


Knock barrel ~wav on .ide a"ay fro m b"It s+ro ke,

Kt •• e .. nd chin jab telt""r band).


Rill. dlsarrnlnq. front.

Gr~I" W"~~C", knea k[,. '.U'o~ opponent to ,alGOle 9on.



the forward dive <1, rhe rime (If the firing of the weapon. In rhis case unless vou receive 11 head shot the possibilities of gercing only a crease are good.

A method of disarming when the gunm,ul hali a rifle held in yoru- stomach or in arms reach hould be simple, concentrating, as .in the ca 'e of the pistol, on disabling (he opponem primarily, and secondarily getting his weapon.

Mosr rifle disarming methods nDW in practice place too 1Il11ch stress, with roo 111:1J]"\' movements, upon wresting the gun a way from [he individual and LL~ing it as n club to subdue him. even easier to disarm ;1 man ;1 rrned with 11 rifle than one using a pistol for the reason that the ,,,eapt n is long and unwieldy in the hands of the user, .His gnlsp on the rifle is with both hands. All that Deed be done if! this case is (gun held with burr on the right hlp) with yom right hand strike the barrel a hard blow, with the Rat rf your hand towards the left koockinz the gun out of line with :\'our body. Retain a grip on the ~veapo~n after knocking it away from your body arid jerk the gunman forward at the same time kicking nut his left knee with the edge of your right foot or kiddng him in the testicles. he gunman when he receives the blow f vour foot on hi. knees or testicles (depending on position OJ feet) will release his grip upon rho weapon, enabling vuu to fire the weapon or use ir as a ell! b because bew ill go d m~111 a n d be helpless from rhe shock and surprise. It is important to strike the 'veap0n awav from V{)lIJ' budv towards vour Iefr side when he has the' gun burr re~ting' I n his righ hip, because .trikin it hom left to right leaves YOLI upen £01' a butt: stroke.

When the rifle barrel is placed in your back the same principles arid methods apply as in the CI1$C of the pistol. Wirh the gun butt resting Oil hi rjght hlp, 'weep your lefr arm down to the rear. strike the gun bane] On the left side, lollo , through pivoting on your left 1001: and move in to the gunman gh<ing him l'I kick in the testicles and a chin jab. These two simple methods are ail that need be known for successful rifle disarming. Most uf the methods now shown to truops are entirely too fancy and involve too



Rille disarming, rear,

PI,."I te left, ,"' •• ping gun barrel aslde witn lett arm,

[{noek him oft b. lance, gettl ng posses .• len ef gun.

u : :'AItl\ll x n


Proper heldu}' position. Gun on hip, cut 01 ,eaoh.

IlH1I1Y scp~rarc movements by feer and 1111uds to achieve success,

In the preceding discussion on disarrning when a ,,-eapon was placed in VOUl' back we considered onlv that yon were ~ta.nding still when vou initiated the disarm ing procedure. Let llS 110W assume that VOU have started to move forward and char [he wea.pon is being Reid in .V(lLLI; opponellt'~ right hand U1' agaimt his . .right hip a in the case of a rifle.

The sweep of YOlU' left arm down and to tile rear striking rile rifle or pistol aside arid the Following blows to hi~ testicles l1lld chin remains rhc same, The only thing which you have co consider, then is rhe wav in which you will initiate vour

pilot, . - -

The best war to do rhis is to stan the pivoting movement ~\'hen your .righr foot has been advanced and yom left foot Is still U11 the ground, 111 this position by- pushing' with rhe 1)::IJ,1 of the right foot am} pivoting on the toe of the left, a IllllC).; and satisfactory pivot into your man will be obtained.

If the we<lpOn .is being held in the left hand or again:.t "the


left hip as in the case of a rifle the reverse procedure will apply.

The same method of pivoting will suffice if a hand or finger were in your back and your opponent's weapon were held on his hip. If this occurs remember, again, to pivot towards his side away from the gun.

For practice disarming use junk weapons and take the safety precaution of. filing or knocking off the firing pin and removing the front of the trigger guard to prevent '. broken fingers when the gun is wrested from the user's hands.] It is also well to remove any front sights or projections from~ the weapons which will cause gashes or abrasions in the prac-j tice .: Naturally such considerations will not occur when i actually doing disarming, but then a small cut on the hand i or abrasion will be of little consequence when disarming isl completed successfully. Blanks may be used for a realisticJ effect after practice proficiency has been attained. 'I,

The question of how . to hold a prisoner and conduct al search of his person when alone and armed with only a rifle has often been raised. Of course one solution is to knock. him out, then search, but this may not always be advisable,! The following method will work: Order him to stretch out on the ground, place the muzzle of the rifle in his stomach or back, rest one finger against the trigger and hold the gun in vertical position. Conduct the search with the' free hand'l At any hostile movement all the searcher need do is to lift! his finger against the trigger. This method is very efficient j and can be easily perfected with a little practice.

Chapter 3


f Knowledge of the correct use of a stick as a means of attack lis very valuable. A man without other weapons is given confidence if he knows he can use it to take the offensive and down his opponent. Anything said here about a 'stick could be applied to a cane, umbrella, swagger stick or any other tlike object. A stout stick 18 inches long I inch diameter

ps about the minimum length and diameter with which the ; best results can be achieved.

[ The use of a stick in attack, combined with the element of [surprise, is as follows: grasp the stick in the right hand ! near one end in a natural grip. Swing the other end up r and grasp it about 6 inches from the other end in your left I hand with the palm out. With a strong grip of both hands [upon the stick and with your right hand held against your i body so that this will be the pivot end of your stick, take the ,left hand and with force bring the left end of the stick across i your opponent's middle section in a horizontal direction. This blow although not fatal and not always an incapaci-

tating. one will give - the effect of a solar-plexis punch and cause him to lurch forward with his chin out. Stop your horizontal blow at a half-way point across the opponent's ~to.mach; from this position bring the. end of the stick, which IS III your left hand up into the soft spot about I Yz inches back from the point of the chin. At the time of the horizontal



Correct s+lc k grip.

follow up wlth poinf e

Blow across s+crnach

. • . or butt drake 10 iaw 10 CI15-O' of miss.



!lIp\\, across the stomach s ep forwnrd 01' at leas bend forwurd with rhe left knee to pur more body power into the L1pmlrci ll,lm\., JatL1r~ll) if y',lIl! miss the chin \\ ith the pO,inl 01 the stick 111 the UP\\ ard Joll! the other end of the sock I,'ill (1I1Im\ [11 rough and give a lm tt stroke effect as with flu: rifle. lLis particular techn ique ending up with the iall in the underneath pan of the hin will often I ill, particularly if rile point of the stick is sharp Of if an instrument such as :111 LJ111111·elJ.a 01: cane is used wuh <1 point or a sharp ferrule 011 rhe end, which causes ir to pierce up through the: mouth cuvltv into the brain,

T;\'() ( rher methods of u.sjng a stick in stra .k are as follows:

First method: grasp I he srick in the same manner ;:IS descrihed above wirh the exception that the stick is grabbed II irh the left ~1I1d near the end ,t:.)itl,l the palm tov.:ard the body, [la~'ing .r0ur opponent and with a firm grip 011_ the stick, m cep the stick upward, catching him underneath the chin ro deliver :1 knock-our blow. Follow rhrongh with this blow ]lcnding your hodv backward at the knees iIS you deliver,

Second method: v\ irh the stick held in [he same manner raise l be stick in rOD r 'arms ro chest level and strike Forward to [he opponent's dam's apple ""ji:h great force.

A blow struck at the top of rhe head with a club, ill not nccessar-ilv cause nnconsciousness but may break the sod. To disable a man, using the stick a~ a club, it is best [I) use (jlle of the following merhods: strike a blow from a hnrizo,nraJ direction against the temple area of the skull. This Will result in a fracture and a possible fataliry . A blow deIInTed in a ~tntighr duwnward movement with grear force at the point where the neck joins the shoulder will fracture the COilM bone t;nusin~ the left ann and the side of the hod~' to he pur uur or'- commissicu.

, ,If a man .is to be pur om f action and vet nor seriously H~lurcd. a \,ery effecrive way [0 do [his if you nre faclng ~111Tl or he is walking toward you (club in :rour right hand) 1.\ TO push him un the righc shoulder, with vour left hand. ~allsing him ro pivot and the same time deli ver a hard blow "II the lHH.:k of the thigh (lcrnss the large leg muscles which



$~g"l"g srlck agaTn,! Adam, apple anI:! windpipe.

u pw~ rd blow to chln,

DownwMd blow to cell .. rbone.

xr t s C £ L LAN J,: 0 L S WE A PO N S

Blow to back of ["9 aft., a pivot erarnp,

will cause leg cramp incapacitating him for an indefinite l~ng[h of time. Tills blow is used by police in rnoh action, riots, etc. Police use the dub as a jabbing instrument in most CU'CUOlstances, They jab into the belly or solar plexus area to cause a crowd to give way, etc.


The pn>per approach to strangle, of which there are many types, has alrcadv been given in Chapter l, Strangulation is possible by using the bare hands, by llsing the ganl1enr 01 the victim, or by using a mechanical aid such as sticks or LOpes. "hese last two are worthy of mention because they C!"I1l he done with great efficiency, the material is readily at hand and they do no involve special equipment.

The Stick Strsngie

This strangle is very efficient and can be done with ::l stick of 18 inches in length or more, and rtmghly I iller, diameter. It should be gripp d 6 inches from ihe end and. with the rest of the length r.unning parallel to the fore-Arm. Approaching the victim from the rear, the stick gripped correctly in the right .hancl, place your righ t foot ag~lin T rhe inside of his right knee to place him off-balance, put the stick 011 the left side of h is neck and place the long end underneath the chin. With the left arm reach across, gnlb the loose end and exert me pressure to [he rear. This particular stran gle has been used w j th extreme effecti veness ;1 nd reports have come back from the Pacific theater concerning its use. With. the stick across the throat against the ~wil1dpipe but liule pressure is ne<:essflry for complete srranglllati()11. Placing the victim off balance anu applving this CJuickl\! rhere is no hope of escape and ill probably the fastest of all known strangles because me wind pipe is crushed,

Another type of strangulation as old as histor in the Far


ST l{ II 'f G {' LA T I 0 :-.: s

Corred grip on s+lck for "rangle.

final appjfcafion, with ftee hand gripping loole end of stlck,

SlicJr acco .. '''rool, foo+ ln hinge 01 knee '0 desj'rcy ba I "nCD.

Cord 'trangl.... Cord field at both "nd, by gripping wooden blecks (or loops).


Taut cord slipped over head, foot destroying balance.

Crossing hands behind neck for pressure.

East, can be done with any light cord or wire of strong Ji tensile strength. The thinner the diameter the more insranr] the effectiveness. On the battlefield it is possible to take up! a short piece of cord or piece of wire about 18 inches inl length. Tie a loop at each end of the cord or tie small wooden] blocks on the end so that a secure grip can be taken. Ap-l proaching the man from the rear, put him off. balance, as in ! the other. case, with the right foot against the inside of the right knee, and with a hand on each end of the cord, the cord held taut, bring the cord over the head and against; the throat. Cross your arms at the rear of the neck and apply j pressure both ways. Strangulation is quick and silent. There! are many variations to this technique: one is to use a noosei like our American lasso. The advantage of having both ends ) of the cord, one in each hand and pulled taut, and then; putting it over - the victim's head is apparent, particularlyi when you consider that he might have a hat, helmet or some- i thing .else which would be sufficient to prevent a noose or loop from being thrown over accurately.

Chapter 5


Every American soldier, officer or enlisted man, should be issued a fighting knife and trained in its use. Although in World War lour men were issued a trench knife for close

'quarter work, to date in this conflict, the majority of our soldiers have not been issued a true fighting knife, the deadliest of all close quarter weapons. The trench knife of 1918 was a short-bladed, unwieldy thing, with a large combination handle and brass knuckles for its hilt. It was possible to use 'in only one way due to the peculiar handle construction. Little definite instruction in its use as a fighting implement was given. Knives at present fall into two general categories, those designed for straight fighting and the multi-purpose weapon,called the utility knife. The M3 knife of recent issue is designed as a utility knife but it can be cut down into a true fighting knife with a little effort. Its construction is basically good; others have been designed and issued for fightIng alone, but their general design has been poor.

Large numbers of trench knives which were carried over from 1918 have been issued to overseas units of World War II in lieu of a better weapon. At the present, some equipment boards in deciding on a suitable bladed weapon for u~e of troops try to combine in the weapon a good many different features so that it can be used to cut brush, dig fox holes, and for other utility purposes, as well as for its true purpose of close-in fighting. Reasons for the adoption of such types of utility weapons are good in 'many cases.






Top: Trench knife, first World War, with case.

Second: Utility knife, constructed along lines of hunting knife.

Third: Fighting knife.

Bottom: Fighting knife modified from utility knife issued to American troops. The cross guard has been straightened, the back edge ground to a cutting edge, and the blade tapered to a point.


Though no attempt is made here to criticize such a selection, there is just as much justification for a pure fighting knife in a great many operational theaters as there is for the selection of the utility type knife. It would be much better, if a utility knife is needed, to issue it along with a knife that is designed and suited for fighting, instead of relying on one type for both purposes.

The utility knife is usually constructed on the lines of an extra large hunting knife of commercial variety. It is sharp on one edge .and sharpened about two inches back. from the point on the non-cutting side. The handle is usually of the conventional leather disk type, with a metal butt piece. The blade at its widest part is about an inch and a quarter broad and it is about one-eighth of an inch thick on the top of the non-sharpened edge. This knife admittedly has many uses, but its very construction limits its use as a fighting· weapon. The balance is. usually toward the point unless the butt. piece is very heavy. The handle must either be gripped with the wrist on the top (unsharpened side) which permits only an upward thrust, or with the wrist on the bottom Or the cutting side, which permits only a downward thrust. In both cases, the only actual fighting quality derived from the knife is that of the thrust and no use except a very awkward one can be made of the knife's cutting edge. The type of handle does not lend itself to that very essential fundamental in a fighting

knife, maneuverability. .

The single-edge blade does not utilize to the fullest extent the slashing possibilities of the weapon. In addition, the width of the blade, the rather abrupt curve from the point, and the thickness of the blade do not give the best in thrusting qualities. An extreme amount of force is necessary to get penetration in the thrust, especially when heavy clothing Or bony structure must be penetrated. The weight, the length of the blade, the single-edge factor, plus the handle construction, all these do not lend themselves to making it the most effective close quarter weapon. A knife of this type, although useful for general utility work, does not



readily adapt Itself to concealment or ease .in carrying and above all,. it has not that personal qoaljty of beiogsn'ictly 11 fighting weapon.

This quality is important fOL psychological reasons ill tile mind of the knife user, When a man has a weapoll which he knows is designed fox fighting alone and has been trained in Its use, he immediately develops a sense of confidence in it that he will never feel toward the utility 1011£e. His fighting knife takes on 11 definite personal characteristic. Be carries it with him at :ill times, he sharpens it often, and he will regard it as a very necessaq pan of his. personal equipment.

The ideal "weapon for close-in lighting has cutting and tlu'l1sting edges, . plus extreme maneuverability. This last feature .is very .irnportanr, The handle should be like ,that! of a fencing foil, so the knife can be used for cutting and rhrusting iu any direction whatsoever without a change in grip .. The weight ill such H fighting knife is toward the .hilt, The blade is about six inches in length, is double-edged mid tapers to :1 point. Thls length. blade is ideal for bal an ce, is good for both the cut find the thrust, and is long enorrgh to penetrate heavy clothing without losing its effectiveness. It'>" width at .its widest p~l't near the guard should not be over one loch. It can either be hollow ground or cau taper evenly toward hoth edges from the strengthening ridge which runs down the center of the blade until it reaches the point of the knife,

The handle Is round at oval in shape, .itS largest diameter is toward the center and it tapers off towa.rdthe guard as wen as the butt, The over-all weight is approximately ten ounces. The handle, in addition to being rounded, is checkered. Such a knife, with balance toward the handle, lends itself more easily to maneuverability, is more easily passed from hand to hand, and with weight in the handle, gives a better gdp for passing, thrusting and slashing. Its ver)'" design makes it a true fighting knlie, combining both cutting and slashing qualities, due to its double edge. The double edge is also desirable in preventing an opponent from wrest-

,'HE F:1(:;EITIK('; KNJ:l'E

Correct "r1p for fi\lhtin\l knif ••

KILL o u (;[0'[ K1LLEU

Cornman 'Vpo -"rip limiting usn fg Common Iype 9rlp limiITng use to

downwa,d Ih,,",I. upward Ihru,l. from the hand of the user .. The opponent cannot grasp its blade without a severe C\1t.

The proper grip on the handle Of a knife of this type is as follows: It lies dingonally aCf0SS the ourstretohed palm of the hand. The small part of the handle next- to the cross guard is grasped by the thumb and forefinger, The middle finger also Jays over the handle at the point' where its largest diameter occurs. With the knife held in this fashion, it is vcry casy to maneuver it in all directions by controlling the direction of rhe blade by a combination movement of the fore and middle fingers plus a tnrning of the wrist. When, the palm is up it is possible (holding knife in the right hand) to slash to the right. Wlten the palm is turned down, it is possible to slash to the left. The thrust can be executed from either the palm tip Or down position. At the time of contact in the thrust or the slash, the knife is grasped tightly by all lingers. The initial controlling grip Of the fore and middle fingers has not changed and the blade becomes a mere continuation of the arm ..


Such knife manipulation is easy and skill can be acquired after a few hours practice, but only if the handle is generally constructed along the lines described above. The handle here described was round. However, a handle of similar size in oval shape works equally well.

Little has ever been written concerning the use of a knife for close in fighting, and in most nations or racial groups in which a bladed weapon is used, little has actually been done in instructing in its use. The knife has been, considered merely a weapon characteristic of that particular ~ area and race, each individual using it as he saw fit. .~

Professional fencing instructors have lately endeavored tOI lay down programs for training in knife work, but most of .1 them visualize a situation from the fencer's viewpoint, in whIch two men approach each other from a distance with drawn knives. Thus they have tried to develop a system of knife fencing instead of close-in knife fighting.

As the knife is ideal for close quarter work, in the majority of cases in which it is used, the victim will not it coming until it is too late. It will usually be used in total or semi-darkness. Thus proper knife technique begins at close quarters when the blade has been drawn for killing. It may be used because it is noiseless and silence is desirable, or it may be used when ammunition for firearms is gone. In any event, the proper approach in close combat utilizes if possible the element of surprise. Carry the knife in the right hand and a handful of dirt in the left. Throw the dirt in the opponent's eyes and stick him in the stomach. Such tactics are certainly not orthodox, but anything to disturb your opponent's mental and physical balance, distract his attention, or confuse his vision, is certainly applicable when he can see the blade coming. Draw your knife only when you intend to cut somebody. Don't use it as a pencil sharpener or to open

a can or tomatoes. -

In the present conflict, the fighting knife has had tWO main uses, one as a reserve weapon to be used when all else fails, and the other for specific missions, such as assassination, sentry killing, or in any situation where silence and quick

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