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Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar

Department of Electrical Engineering



EE 333 Electrical Machines and Power Electronics Lab. B. Tech.: Electrical, Sem. : VI

EXPERIMENT 4: 1.V CURVES AND INVERTED V CURVES OF A SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
2.REGULATION OF ALTERNATOR BY EMF AND MMF METHOD.

AIM
1. To obtain the V curves and inverted V curves of a synchronous motor.
2. To run the same machine as Alternator and determine its Regulation by EMF and MMF
methods.


APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Sr.
No.
Apparatus Specification Quantity
1. Rotating Machines from
Test bench
1. For V and inverted V curves Experiment
the machines from the Test Bench are to be
configured for running the Synchronous
machine as motor with the DC machine as a
Generator
2. For Regulation of Alternator experiment
by EMF and MMF methods, The
synchronous machine run as an Alternator
by the DC motor.

1
2 Extension Panel Panel that facilitates having terminals
extended from rotating machinery, power
supplies, Load banks and panel meters.
1

THEORY:
The Synchronous motor is one type of three phase AC motors which operates at a constant
speed from no load to full load. It is similar in construction to three phase A.C. generator in that
it has a revolving field which must be separately excited, from a DC source. By Changing the DC
field excitation current the power factor of this type of motor can be varied over a wide range
of lagging and leading values. This motor is used in many industrial applications because of its
fixed speed from no load to full load and its high efficiency. It is also used to improve the power
factor of the three phase industrial power circuits. It runs either synchronous speed or not
runs at all. It is not inherently self starting. It has to run up to the supply frequency. The
Synchronous motors have the following fields of application.
1. Power House and Substations to improve the power factor.
2. Factories mills to improve the power factor.
3. Constant speed equipments such as fans blowers and MG sets.

V Curves of a Synchronous motor
When the field current of (i.e. Excitation) of a synchronous motor is reduced, a lagging stator
current I is produced which exceeds the minimum current at unity power factor or at normal
excitation. Similarly when the motor is over excited, the stator current also rises and exceeds
the current required at normal excitation to develop the necessary torque at any given load. By
applying a given constant load to the shaft of a synchronous motor and varying the field
current from under excitation to over excitation, recording the armature current at each step,
the V curves are obtained. The AC stator current is plotted against the DC field current for no
load, half full load, and full load respectively. The power factor for each value of stator and field
current at any given load condition is also recorded. The power factor is plotted against the
field current for various given loads. It is worth noting that both curves show that a slightly
increased field current is required to produce normal excitation as the load current is
increased.
At no load the stator current at unity power factor (Normal excitation) is not zero but small
value of current per phase necessary to produce torque to counter balance rotational losses. As
load is applied (neglecting the armature reaction) not only does the stator current rise but it is
also to increase the excitation to bring the armature current back in phase with the bus phase
voltage. Each of the curves in the family therefore will have a shift to the right as the load is
increased, to provide the excitation required to obtain the same power factor (0.8 lagging,
unity, and 0.8 leading) at an increased load. Thus the V curves represent the phasor diagrams,
and vice versa for various conditions of load and power factor.

THEORY (REGULATION BY EMF AND MMF METHOD)
By conducting the Open Circuit Characteristics (Generated voltage vs. Field current) and Short
circuit Characteristics (Short circuit stator (or Armature) current vs. Field current), it is
possible to predetermine the regulation for various load conditions. From the short circuit
characteristics the synchronous impedance can be found out. The constituent of synchronous
impedance the synchronous reactance can also be found out with the knowledge of armature
resistance.

By considering different load levels (from 1/4 to full load) and different power factors (UPF
and 0.8 lag/lead) the voltage drop from the rated open circuit voltage levels can be calculated
with the knowledge of armature resistance and synchronous reactance. This Method is known
as EMF method.
It is also possible to determine the additional field current that is required to generate the load
current at the rated open circuit voltage. The Vector addition of the field currents give effective
field current under load condition and its corresponding voltage on the OCC gives the total
internal voltage E
0
generated at the load condition. The voltage regulation can now be
calculated and this method is known as MMF method.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM (V Curves)
M L
C
V
M L
C V
G
A
A
V
V_
Sensors
T & S
Display
T/I
L
O
A
D
R
Y
B
C
o
n
t
r
o
l
1 Supply
A
V
Variable
DC
Power
Supply
F FF
1 Supply
C
o
n
t
r
o
l
Variable
DC
Power
Supply
A
V
3

,

4
1
5
V
A
C
,

5
0

H
z
R
Y
B

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR EMF AND MMF TEST
Variable
DC
Power
Supply
Variable
DC
Power
Supply
A_
A_
V_
V_
M_
A_
V_
Variable
DC
Power
Supply
C
o
n
t
r
o
l
C
o
n
t
r
o
l
A
AA
F
FF
R
Y B
F FF
1 Supply 1 Supply
A
V


PROCEDURE (V Curves)
1. Select the Synchronous Machine in Motoring mode and the DC machine in Generating
mode. Keep the Field of Synchronous Machine and The DC machine off initially. Ensure
Mechanical coupling between Synchronous machine and the DC machine.
2. Keep the synchronous machine field off. Start the synchronous machine as Induction motor
(with the built in Damper winding). Once the synchronous machine reaches the no load
speeds close to synchronous speeds, turn on the field of the synchronous machine. Now the
rotor (the poles of the synchronous machine) gets locked with the rotating magnetic field
and the machine now runs as synchronous motor driving the rotor of the DC machine.
3. Now to obtain V curves on NO LOAD the field current is adjusted to a minimum value and
the stator current of the synchronous motor is noted. The field current is varied from
minimum to maximum and the corresponding values of the stator current are recorded.
4. Switch on the field excitation to the DC machine and bring up its generated voltage to its the
rated voltage by adjusting the DC machine field. Add the resistive load on the generator
such that the load current of the Sync. Machine is half of its full load current.
5. Now again vary the field current of the alternator from minimum to maximum and note the
armature/stator current.
6. The above step can be repeated for obtaining the V curves for near full load by loading the
DC machine (now acts as a generator) by resistive loads at different values.

TABULATION:
Terminal voltage: ______________________
Sr.
No.
Load
(KW)
Field Current
I
F

(Amp.)
Line Current
I
A

(Amp.)
Power
Per Phase
(Watt)
Power Factor


1 No Load
2 Half Full Load
3 Full Load








MODEL GRAPHS

0
I
f
No Load
I
a
Full Load


0
I
f
No Load
Pf
Full Load


PROCEDURE(Regulation by EMF and MMF Methods)
OPEN CIRCUIT TEST
1. The Rotary Bench is configured for running the Synchronous machine as Alternator and the
DC machine as its prime mover. The DC machine and the Alternator are mechanically
coupled. (Induction machine not used.)
2. The Synchronous machine to be selected as Alternator and the test selection is at OC.
3. The Alternator Field kept at minimum.
4. The DC machine to be selected for motoring mode. The DC Machine field is kept at
maximum.
5. The DC machine is applied with armature voltage gradually and the rated voltage is
reached. The Field current of the Dc machine is now adjusted to bring the DC motor to run
at Synchronous speed of the Alternator.
6. Vary the field current of the Alternator in steps (of 0.5 A) and note down the corresponding
generated voltage of the Alternator (it is the open circuit voltage).
7. Repeat the above steps till the generated voltage reaches 1.20 times the rated voltage,
maintaining the speed constant. Record the Field current and the Generated voltage (any
one phase voltage).
8. Reduce the field of the Alternator to the minimum. Turn of Field Supply.

SHORT CIRCUIT TEST
1. Keeping the Alternator field at Minimum Select the Alternator test mode SC test.
2. Turn on Field Supply for the Alternator.
3. Keep running the DC machine as Prime mover of the Alternator at its Synchronous Speed.
4. Gradually apply Alternator field current keeping a watch on the stator current. Increase it
to the rated current of the alternator. Record at least three readings of field current Vs
Stator Current.
5. Reduce the field excitation to the minimum and switch off the Field.
6. Bring down the DC machine Armature voltage to Zero and turn of Armature supply and the
field supply.
7. Switch of the Rotary Machine Bench supply and remove the coupling between Alternator
and the DC machine.

MEASUREMENT OF STATOR RESISTANCE PER PHASE
Armature resistance is measured with a Digital Multimeter

TABULATION
OPEN CIRCUIT TEST SHORT CIRCUIT TEST
Sl. No. I
f
(Amp.)

E
G
(Volt)








Sl. No. I
f
(Amp.)










R
a *
( Effecive resistance)

= 1.5 R ( R=measured resistance by multimeter)
PRE-DETERMINATION OF VOLTAGE REGULATION (Calculated on Phase Voltage)

1. EMF METHOD
The steps involved in this method are
1. Plot OCC from the OC test data ( E
G
Vs I
f
)
2. Plot SCC from SC test data. ( I
sc
vs

I
f
) is a straight line passing through the origin
3. Both these curves are drawn on common field current base as shown in fig. From this
Synchronous Impedance Z
S
is calculated as follows,
Synchronous Impedance Z
S
= (E
1
/I
1
) at I
f
= I
fr
and E
1
is the Rated voltage.
(Ratio of Open circuit voltage per phase to short circuit current per phase for the same field
current) Stator resistance R
a
is measured. This measured value of R
a
per phase is
multiplied by 1.5 to take into account the skin effect.

I
f
in A
OCC
SCC
I
SC
E
0
Volts E
1
I1

Knowing R
a
Synchronous reactance is calculated as X
S
= Z
s
2
R
a
2.
Now the induced
emf (E
0
) can be calculated by drawing the phasor diagram for a given Load current and
the rated output voltage, using these values of X
s
and R
a
. Phasor diagram for any load
and power factor can be drawn as follows.

FOR UPF LOAD
Taking load current I as reference vector, phasor diagram for UPF load can be drawn as
0
E
O
C
I A B
V IaRa
IXs


=
2
+
2

= [( +

)
2
+(

)
2
]

Where E
0
is the no load induced emf per phase, V is the rated terminal voltage per phase and I
is the load current.

FOR LAGGING PF LOADS
E
O
IaRa
V
I

IXs

In this case the induced emf is given by

= ( cos +

)
2
+( sin +

)
2


Where cos is the load power factor

FOR LEADING PF LOADS
I
E
O
V
IaRa
IXs

= ( cos +

)
2
+( sin

)
2




The % regulation in each case can be calculated as,
% =
(


TABULATION
EMF METHOD
Terminal
Voltage
Load
Fraction
Load
Current
(Amp.)
Load Power
Factor
Induced EMF
(E
O
)
%
Regulation
25% 0
0.8(lag)
0.8(lead)
50% 0
0.8(lag)
0.8(lead)
75% 0
0.8(lag)
0.8(lead)
100% 0
0.8(lag)
0.8(lead)

% Regulation Vs Load Current for different power factors is plotted
MMF METHOD OR AMPERE TURN METHOD
This method also utilizes OC and SC test results. In this method, the total field Ampere turns
required to produce rated voltage on any given load is calculated.

The total field AT required is the vector sum of the field AT required to produce rated voltage
on No load and field AT required to produce a given load current on short circuit current. Since
the number of turns is constant for a machine the current can be calculated and the
corresponding EMF from the OCC can be observed.

If OA is the field current I
f1
required to produce rated voltage on no load and AB is the I
f2
is the
field current required to produce the rated current on short circuit, then the total field current
I
f
required to produce the rated voltage on full load can be calculated as follows

FOR UPF LOAD
I
f
A
B
I
f1
I
f2

The Total Field Current

=
1
2
+
2
2




FOR LAGGING PF LOAD

0
I
f1
I
f2
I
f
A
B
90 +


The Total Field Current

=
1
2
+
2
2
+2
1

2
cos


FOR LEADING POWER FACTOR LOAD

I
f
I
f1
I
f2
0
A
B


The Total Field Current

=
1
2
+
2
2
2
1

2
cos


After calculating the total field current I
f
required to produce rated voltage on full load in each
case, the corresponding induced voltage E0 can be found from OCC.
% =
(


The Total field current can also found graphically as follows
EO

OCC
SCC
0 A
B
I
f
in A
90 +
Educed
emf EO


MMF METHOD FULL LOAD REGULATION
Terminal
Voltage
Load
Fraction
Load
Current
(Amp.)
Load Power
Factor
Induced EMF
(E
O
)
%
Regulation
25% 0
0.8(lag)
0.8(lead)
50% 0
0.8(lag)
0.8(lead)
75% 0
0.8(lag)
0.8(lead)
100% 0
0.8(lag)
0.8(lead)
% Regulation Vs Load Current for different power factors is plotted





RESULT AND INFERENCE