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The decipherment of the hieroglyphic script by Jean-Francois Champollion on 14
September 1822 opened the way to a more intense study of Ancient Egyptian texts. Egyptologists discovered the ancient Egyptian writings but the development of this writing still receiving much attention from researchers.
Egyptologists believe that the ancient Egyptians went through different periods in their long ancient history. This research is about tracing the expansion of use of language as reflected in the writing systems during the Ancient Egyptian periods. Following are the four Ancient Egyptian writing systems. The use of each was reflected through the Ancient Egyptian Culture at the time:
1. The oldest Hieroglyphic was discovered goes back to the end of 4000 BC. Hieroglyphic means sacred scripts inscribed on the walls of the temples or religious verses written on the papyrus. Hieroglyphic could be read from top to bottom, Sometimes from right to left, or from left to right. When the writing from right to left the signs face right. It reflected the strong relationship between kings and gods. The following types of writings were developed from the Hieroglyphic, which was the original one.
2. Hieratic was developed before 2000 BC. It was the type of writing that the priests used in their religious books. The Hieratic Signs are abbreviated forms
Usually. Comparing materials from each stage reflected the impacts of the culture of each period on the language use. 3. This writing reflected the powerful position of the priests in some eras of the Ancient Egyptian Civilization. . These materials will be analyzed. Greek letters mixed with some signs from Demotic. 4. It was for non-religious usage. Discovering the ancient Egyptian writings enabled the Egyptologists to give a systematic and detailed picture of the ancient Egyptian culture. a new form of writing was developed.from the Hieroglyphic. Coptic: When Christianity started to replace the Ancient Egyptian religion.] Statement of problem: Culture and language played a significant role in manifesting the Ancient Egyptian Civilization. Coptic literature is full of Greek words. the directions of the signs face right. Demotic: This type was developed from Hieratic around 700 BC. What were the impacts of the culture on the developments of the ancient Egyptian writings through the ancient periods? [III.] Methodology: The researcher used content analysis as the main method to collect data. The Public used it in their daily life communications. Writing signs were from the main elements of the art. [II.
] Results: In his book “The Ancient Near East” Saleh argues that at the end of 4000 BC. a hieroglyph might represent or imply another word suggested by the picture. hg. a hieroglyph could be used in an almost pictorial way. the signs also served as representatives of words that shared consonants in the same order. [IV. Fourth. He got use of his educational background. the hieroglyphs stood for individual or combinations of consonants. this contributed in conducting this research. Four basic principles characterized the Hieroglyphic writing. The sign for “eat” could also represent the conceptual word “silent” by suggesting the covering of the mouth. Third.Imn nh. It was a historical dedication of a sarcophagus from Queen Hatshepsut to her father Thutmose I: (1) nh Hr wsrt-k3w nbty w3dt rnpwt Hr nbw ntrt h w (2) nswt bit M3 t-k3-r s3 R H3t-spswt hnmt(t). The sign for “sun” could as easily serve as the sign for “day” or as the name of the sun god Re. Following is an example of Hieroglyphic writing.” Similarly. thus the Egyptian words for “man” and “be bright” both spelled with the same consonants. Ti dt . the word “ sun” would be represented by a large circle with a smaller circle in its center. The sign of a man with his hand to his mouth might stand for the word “eat. the Ancient Egyptian Started to use hieroglyphics in their writing. First. Second. could be rendered by the same highways hieroglyph.The researcher's undergraduate degree was in Egyptology.
Aa-Kheper-ka-re. and in (3) & (4) were titles for the Queen’s father Thutmose I after his death.kau. Hatshepsut who joins with Amen. justified. or not easily. Nevertheless.n= m mnw=s n it=s mr=s ntr nfr nb t3wy (4) nswt bit 3-hpr-k3-r s3 R Dhwty-ms m3 -hrw (1) May the Hours. the system differs from the hieroglyphic script in some important respects: . The above underlined words in (1) & (2) were royal titles for the Queen Hatshepsut as a living Queen. Hours of gold. recognizable. the two ladies.e. Changes occurred in the characters of Hieratic simply because they could be written rapidly with brush or rush and ink on papyrus. (3) She made (it. Thutmose (1). Weseret. the Hieratic symbols never strayed too far from them. Wadjet-renput. divine of appearances live. the perfect god. the sarcophagus) as her monument to her beloved father. lord of the Two Lands. son of Re. the picture form is not. May she live forever.(3) ir. son of Re. In general. Maat-ka-re. (2) King of Upper and Lower Egypt. i. (4) King of Upper and Lower Egypt. Because their models were well known and in current use throughout Egyptian history. The structure of the Hieratic script corresponds with that of hieroglyphic writing.
As a result. In offices.1. 3.. There were ligatures in Hieratic so that two. Hieratic was replaced by Demotic in the seventh century BC. In the life of the Egyptians. the cow’s leg received a supplementary distinguishing cross. 2. during the course of the various periods. Certain Hieratic signs were taken into the hieroglyphic script. Hieratic script played a larger role than hieroglyphic writing and was taught earlier in the schools. Hieratic texts do not correspond exactly to contemporary hieroglyphic texts. Because of its decreased legibility. letters. Subsequently the papyrus scrolls were written in columns of changing widths . horizontally. All common place documents—e. catalogs. Hieratic used diacritical additions to distinguish between two signs that had grown similar to one another because of cursive writing. and official writs—were written in Hieratic script. from right to left.g. either in the placing of signs or in the spelling of words. because in Hieratic it had come to resemble the sign for the leg of a man. In earlier times the lines had run vertically and later. about 2000 BC. but. Hieratic was written in one direction only. but no more than two. the spelling of the Hieratic script was more rigid than that of hieroglyphic writing. the spelling developed and changed. Variations from uniformity at a given time were minor. 4. but it remained in fashion until much later for religious texts . as were literary and religious texts. signs could be written in one stroke. For example.
They were neither slaves nor serfs. Yet. The modern Arabic name of the desert valley in which it is situated—the ancient workmen called it simply “the village”. J. as they angrily protested. Some were written on papyrus. but free laborers paid by the government. The latest Hieratic texts stem from the end of the first century or the beginning of the second century AD. as happened frequently during the Twentieth Dynasty [1186—1069 BC]. we have to keep in mind that it was an exceptional community. Janssen described the life of the artisans through their Hieratic writings in Deir El. If their wages were in arrears. of Pharaoh. The settlement is called Deir el—Medina. The inhabitants were in the service of the state. They had abundant free time at their disposal— at least regular long weekends—in which they were able to earn a substantial extra . they went on strike. is not certain. on the West Bank of Thebes. It was a village settled in the desert.of all sorts. The inhabitants were artisans who were highly literate groups. or. in the Egyptian terminology. Egyptologists found thousands of texts. In general. leaving the necropolis and sitting down near one of the temples on the Theban west bank. These texts together present us with a fairly complete picture of all aspects of daily life. Whether they were indeed hungry. the only one of its kind preserved to us in the entire history of ancient Egypt. In his chapter “Earning A Living” in the book of “ Cradle of Civilization-Egypt” Jac. including a wealth of information about the way in which the necropolis workmen earned their living.Medina. they were well paid. but most on ostraca potsherds and flakes of limestone.
Demotic script had come into use every where in Egypt for business and literary purposes. Demotic script was the Egyptian writing of cursive form that was used in handwritten texts from the early seventh century BC until the fifth century AD. fish. oil and barley] owed to the workman Penne by the policeman Pasedet. and so on. Oxford. mainly garments and sandals. The Demotic script began to be displaced by Greek during the Ptolemaic period (304—30 BC). and also manufactured items. but Hieratic graffiti left by the priests of Isis at Philae date from as late as AD 452. vegetables and fruit. By the fifth century BC. the staple foods of the Egyptians. It records the “ money” [“silver”] value of various commodities [a bed. and it began to replace Hieratic writing during the reign of Pasmtik I (664—610 BC). oil. Since no money existed. although Hieratic remained in use for religious texts. Some Hieratic signs are similar to their Hieroglyphic counterparts while others differ quite substantially. they were paid in kind: grain for bread and beer. Below the Hieratic text is the same text transcribed into Hieroglyphic by Cerny and Gardner. two wooden chests. Demotic script derived from the earlier pictographic Hieroglyphic inspections and the cursive Hieratic script. salt. .income by making and painting coffins and other funerary equipment for the upper classes in Thebes. The Hieratic text at the first half of next page was written in ink on an ostracon [limestone flake] from Deir el—Medina. [This piece of ostracon is kept in Griffith Institute. Ashmolean museum.
w wpy. I can enchant (phr) the sky. The primary definition is “to go around. The latter declares: Tw-s hr phr=y t p. the mountains. I can hear what is in it.w n p mtry irm n i w. I can hear what the sun—god. The sister of the thief uses the book and declares: s=y w hp n hp n sh n-im=f phr=y t p.t d n-im=w tr=w I recited one spell from it: I charmed [phr ] the sky. the [avenger among] the Gods.w gm= n nt n ipt. turn around. In the story of Setne Khamwase. In his article “the Greek Alexander Romance and Demotic Egyptian literature”. 2. a Demotic tale preserved on papyri contemporary with the Alexander Romance.t n tw. This word already existed in the Pyramid Texts.t n rym. the waters. a Demotic text incidentally translated into Greek.w n ym. so that I can hear what is in it. . In the myth of the sun’s eye.tp t t tw. Prince NaneferKaptah has stolen the secret book of Thoth. I discovered what all the birds of the sky and the fish of the deep and the beasts were saying. the earth.w n t p.” and it retained this basic meaning into the Roman period. the shining one. there is a section about two fabulous creatures: the seeing—bird and the hearing—bird. the netherworld.Following is just an example of a usage of one term in Demotic. which is obviously a source of great magical power. Jasnow gave three examples to show of specialized sense in Demotic for this term “phr”: 1.t= hr p t n-mny hn t ihy. ordains daily in heaven concerning the earth.t d mtw= sdm r n y nt hn=hr sdm=y r t y nt-iw P-R p h y p [db] n ntr.t Lo. Richard Jasnow investigated the usage of the term “phr” through the Ancient Egyptian history.
“to seek” or “to require. to turn around”. In common with the synthetic Semitic languages there are in Egyptian causative forms of verbs. Finally. .” scribes generally wrote the walking—legs determinative.” During the time of using Demotic 500 BC. W iy r-hn mtw=w d / n=k w h n mt m.3.” wh3 in the late Egyptian 1000 BC had the meaning of “to wish.t n phr p hne n gtg mtw n ntr. phr alone could have meant “ to go around” or “to cause to go around. Jasnow points out that when phr has the literal meaning “to encircle. surround. usually formed with s—prefixes. in a magical text then this a spell for enchanting a vessel: Phr.” The Coptic verb had a unique behavior with regard to the attachment of the direct object and survived from late Egyptian through Coptic. The origin of this term “ love” had in the in late Egyptian 1100 BC was known by wh3 and meant. there would also be a formation sphr. wh3 meant to “look for. Thus. In Demotic such causative force is sometimes found even without the s-prefix.” scribes generally wrote the man—with --hand—to—mouth determinative. “to cause to go around. when phr had the more abstract meaning “enchant.t Prescription for enchanting (phr) the vessel quickly so that the gods come within and they tell to you a truthful answer. In his comment about the development of (phr) meaning from the old kingdom to the Roman period.” Leo Depuydt addressed the exceptions that the term ancient Egyptian Coptic language.
Not any scriber could be the royal scriber. I would argue that because of the nature of the topic. also to strongly declare the support of all Gods of Egypt. There are several titles that the kings and queens get when crowned on the throne of Egypt. It is an open statement for the priests to say .) The issue was recording a debt that a policeman owed to a workman. That was to guarantee the rights of the workman if the policeman did not pay back the debit according to the agreement. the coptics in Egypt repeat this term repeatedly. Extremely seldom. These titles were to show their ultimate control of upper and Lower Egypt. we will find it was written on an ostracon (limestone flake. kings and queens. It was repeated many times in Coptic texts. a royal issue.” The term “Love” played a great role in the Coptic religion. At the last example from the Coptic language.[V. Looking at the first example of the dedication of the sarcophagus from Queen Hatshepsut to her father king Thutmose. At the third example. Jasnow elaborated on the development and usage of the term “phr” during different times in the Ancient Egyptian history especially during the Roman Period. Looking at the second example of Deir El-Medina Hieratic text. we will find the personal names of the Queen and the king are written within frames known by khartoushes. Even at the modern time. The meaning of this verb in Coptic is “to love. we will find the exceptional position of the term wh3 in Coptic . Egyptologists can find errors in the writings related to the gods.] Discussion: The above examples mentioned in the Results section indicate the difference in time and usage of each type of the Ancient Egyptian Writing. the hieroglyphic signs were in classical perfect condition.
1993. Egypt of the Pharaohs. Volume 79.” This could show how exceptional this term was to the Coptics in Ancient Egypt. The Ancient Near East. Oklahoma. Jac. 3. 1973 Abd El Aziz Saleh. Leo Depuydt. Loeben. Cradles of Civilization. 2nd edition. Volume I. London. 1993. J. Modern land. Relatively. 1976. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. Egypt and Iraq. 1993 . Volume 79. I must admit that the topic of “Culture and Historical Linguistic in Ancient Egypt” could be addressed in more details.” [VI] Bibliography: 1. Arabic translation. the time was short to gather and bring needed references from other location. Arabic edition. Egypt. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. New Light on the Recarved Sarcophagus of Hatshepsut and Thutmose I in the Museum of Fine Arts. it will be a chapter of my future book “ Egypt of the Egyptians. After I do some more research on this topic. Ancient Culture . 2. For the sake of . Sir Alan Gardiner. London 4. Janssen. ‘love’: an exception to theStern- Jernstedt Rule and its history. Earning A Living.“God Is Love. 5. Boston. Peter Der Manuelian and Christian E. I’m very interested in pursuing research on this issue.
com:180/cgi-bin/g?DocF=macro/5006/68/38. April 1997 v56 n2 p95(9) [ I accessed this article through INFOTRAC search bank] . The Greek Alexander Romance and Demotic Egyptian Literature.com:180/cgi-bin/g?Doc=micro/165/13.eb. “Demotic Script” Britannica Online http://www. Journal of Near Eastern Studies.com:180/cgi-bin/g?DocF=micro/270/42.eb. “Hieroglyph” Britannica Online.html [Accessed 18 November 1998] 7.html [Accessed 22 November 1998] Richard Jasnow. “Coptic Language” Britannica Online http://www.eb.html [Accessed 22 November 1998] 9. http://www.6.eb.html [Accessed 18 November 1998] 8.com:180/cgi-bin/g?DocF=micro/143/93.: Relation of Hieratic to Hieroglyphic script” Britannica Online. “Writing: Systems of writing: Hieroglyphic Writing: Hieratic script. http://www.
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