Universidad Autónoma de Baja California

Facultad de Idiomas
Análisis Contrastivo
Grupo 741
Escobar Dávila Teresa Guadalupe
Gallegos García Analí
Gómez Martín del Campo Valeria
Granados Rodríguez Jocelyn
Tijuana Baja California
2014
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Categorías
Gramaticales
En Inglés
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NOUN
Many nouns can be recognised by their endings: -er/-or ( actor,
painter, writer) -ism (criticism, magnetism) -ist (artist, journalist)
-ment (development, government) -tion (foundation, organization,
recognition).
Most nouns have distinctive SINGULAR and PLURAL forms. The
plural of regular nouns is formed by adding -s to the singular.
However, there are many irregular nouns which do not form the plural
in this way ( man- men).
In English, however, nouns are not in themselves masculine or
feminine. They do not have grammatical gender, though they may
refer to male or female people or animals.
At times a noun can be replaced with a pronoun.
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NOUN
A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea. A proper noun,
which names a specific person, place, or thing (Lucas, Queen Elizabeth,
Middle East, Republican Party), is almost always capitalized. A proper
noun used as an addressed person's name is called a noun of adress.
Common nouns name everything else, things that usually are not
capitalized.
Common nouns are either count or non-count. Count nouns can be
"counted", as follows:
one pen, two pens, three pens, four pens... Non- count nouns, on the
other hand, cannot be counted in this way:
one software, *two softwares, *three softwares, *four softwares...
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EXAMPLES
The black shoes are dirty.
The queen of England fell yesterday.
During the vacations we spend a lot
of time in the hotel.
Your dog needs a bath.
My father lost his cellphone.
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PRONOUN
A pronoun can replace a noun or another
pronoun. You use pronouns like "he," "which,"
"none," and "you" to make your sentences less
cumbersome and less repetitive.
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PRONOUN
Pronouns are small words that take the place of
a noun.
A pronoun can be used instead of a noun.
Pronouns are words like: he, you, ours,
themselves, some, each... If pronouns didn´t
exist we would have to repeat a lot of nouns.
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PRONOUN
A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its
form to indicate person, number, gender, and case.
A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as
the subject of the sentence. The subjective personal pronouns are "I,"
"you," "she," "he," "it," "we," "you," "they." Indefinite Prononuns
Objective Personal Pronouns Indicate that the pronoun is acting as an
object of a verb, compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. The
objective personal pronouns are: "me," "you," "her," "him," "it," "us,"
"you," and "them."
Possessive Personal Pronoun Indicate that the pronoun is acting as a
marker of possession and defines who owns a particular object or
person. "mine," "yours," "hers," "his," "its," "ours," and "theirs." Note that
possessive personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives
like "my," "her," and "their."
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PRONOUN
Demonstrative Pronouns, IDENTIFY a noun or a pronoun. "This" and
"these" refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while
"that" and "those" refer to things that are farther away in space or
time."this," "that," "these," and "those."
An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. The interrogative
pronouns are "who," "whom," "which," "what" and the compounds formed
with the suffix "ever" ("whoever," "whomever," "whichever," and
"whatever"). Note that either "which" or "what" can also be used as an
interrogative adjective, and that "who," "whom," or "which" can also be
used as a relative pronoun.
You will find "who," "whom," and occasionally "which" used to refer to
people, and "which" and "what" used to refer to things and to animals.
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PRONOUN
You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to
another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are "who," "whom," "that,"
and "which." The compounds "whoever," "whomever," and "whichever" are
also relative pronouns.
You can use the relative pronouns "who" and "whoever" to refer to the
subject of a clause or sentence, and "whom" and "whomever" to refer to
the objects of a verb, a verbal or a preposition.
Indefinite Pronouns
Referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An
indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some.
The most common are: "all," "another," "any," "anybody," "anyone,"
"anything," "each," "everybody," "everyone," "everything," "few,"
"many," "nobody," "none," "one," "several," "some," "somebody," and
"someone."
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PRONOUN
Reflexive Pronouns
To refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence.The reflexive
pronouns are "myself," "yourself," "herself," "himself," "itself,"
"ourselves," "yourselves," and "themselves."
Intensive Pronouns
Used to emphasise its antecedent. Intensive pronouns are identical in
form to reflexive pronouns. Note each of the reflexive pronouns can be
used as Intensive Pronouns.
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EXAMPLES
The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes.
After many years, they returned to their homeland.
I'm not sure that my contact will talk to you.
This must not continue.
Who will meet the delegates at the
train station?
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ADJECTIVE
Any member of a class of words that modifIes
nouns and pronouns, primarily by describing
a particular quality of the word they are
modifying.
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ADJECTIVE
Adjectives are used in two main ways; they can either be attributive or
they can be predicative.
Attributive adjectives:
This is the most common use of adjectives, standing next to a noun in
a noun phrase. In English, simple and complex adjectives almost
always come before the noun.
Predicative Adjectives:
They are used as the complement of the verb to be, or other similiar verbs
such as get, become, grow, etc.
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ADJECTIVE
1. Determining adjectives:
Also called limiting adjectives, these are words that are more often referred to
as determiners, and are dealt with elsewhere. There is a limited number of
these words. They are notably possessive adjectives (such as my, their),
quantifiers (such as one, two, three, every, many), demonstrative adjectives
(such as this or that), interrogative adjectives (such as which). To learn about
the use of these determining adjectives, please consult the appropriate pages.
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ADJECTIVE
Descriptive Adjectives, Describe the permanent or perceived
qualities of a noun (big, wonderful)
Qualificative adjectives which express the perceived
qualities of a noun (My car is very old) and
Classifying adejctives which express permanent
qualities or absolutes (The old computer was much
quieter than the new model).
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EXAMPLES
Your house is very beautiful.
The green trees are enormous.
You have a tall brother.
The way you look me
is just wonderful.
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ADVERB
The part of speech, word or phrase, that modifies
or qualifies an adjective, verb, or other adverb or
a word group, expressing a relation of place,
time, circumstance, manner, cause, degree, etc.
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ADVERB
While some adverbs can be identified by their
characteristic "ly" suffix, most of them must be
identified by untangling the grammatical
relationships within the sentence or clause as a
whole. Unlike an adjective, an adverb can be
found in various places within the sentence.
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ADVERB
Adverbs have the function to tell when, where, why or
under what conditions something happened or happens.
We often use more and most, less and least to show
degree with adverbs.
Adverbs often function as intensifiers, conveying a
greater or lesser emphasis to something. Intensifiers are
said to have three different functions: they can
emphasize, amplify, or downtone.
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ADVERB
You can use a conjunctive adverb to join two clauses
together. Some of the most common conjunctive adverbs
are "also," "consequently," "finally," "furthermore,"
"hence," "however," "incidentally," "indeed," "instead,"
"likewise," "meanwhile," "nevertheless," "next,"
"nonetheless," "otherwise," "still," "then," "therefore," and
"thus." A conjunctive adverb is not strong enough to join
two independent clauses without the aid of a semicolon.
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ADVERB
Simple adverbs those that consist of only one
free morpheme; they are mostly identical in
form with corresponding adjectives, e.g. hard,
clean, right, slow, etc.
Derivative adverbs those that are derived from
adjectives by adding the suffix -ly, e.g.
carefully, slowly, hardly, politely,
considerably.
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ADVERB
Adverbs of time answer the question When,
How long and How often e.g. once, always.
again, often, daily, seldom, frequently, etc.
Adverbs of place answer the question Where,
e.g. here, inside, upstairs, evereywhere, etc.
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ADVERB
Adverbs of manner answer the question Hoe, e.g carefully, slowly,
admiringly, etc.
Adverbs of degree answer the question to what degree or what extent e.g
scarcely, too much, nearly, enough, quite, wholly.
ADVERBS OF DEGREE ARE OFTEN USED TO MODIFY
COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVES.
Modal Adverbs are used to show whether an assertion is true, doubtful
or not. They are, in form, like adverbs of manner, but they modify the
whole sentence.
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EXAMPLES
Nicolas swims well.
Messi ran fastly.
Eliana spoke loudly.
Harry coughed softly to not distract her.
I ate the chocolate cake greedily.
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PREPOSITION
Connecting word showing the relation of a
noun or a noun substitute to some other word
in the sentence.
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PREPOSITION
The preposition is almost always before the
noun or pronoun and that is why it is called a
preposition. The preposition and the object of the
preposition together are called a prepositional
phrase.
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PREPOSITION
Prepositions are used to express a number of relationships, including
time, location, manner, means, quantity, purpose, and state or
condition.
Prepositions cause problems because sometimes they can be used
interchangeably (He sat on the chair: He sat in the chair), because
prepositions are often combined with verbs to create phrasal verbs (to
look after someone; to look down on someone), and because a single
preposition can be used to express several different ideas (He is tall for
his age; I swam for an hour).
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PREPOSITION
Time: about, at, by, from, of, on, past, after, for, in, to.
Place or direction: around, down, from, of, through, to, at, in, inside,
on, up, with.
Means or agent: by, from, in, on, with.
Manner: by, like, on, with, in.
State or condition: at, in, for, by, on, as.
Quantity or measure: for
Purpose: for e.g. He bought it for an emergency.
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EXAMPLES
I went to the store last night.
Your baby daughter was hiding under the
table.
By bus we went to the school.
At 12 pm, the party will start.
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CONJUNCTION
The part of speech, or word class, that serves to
connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences.
There are only seven coordinating
conjunctions, and they are easy to memorize if
you use the acronym: FANBOYS.
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CONJUNCTION
Coordinate conjunctions The coordination kind join two
grammatically equal elements (In other words they join a noun with
another noun, an adjective with another adjective, and an adverb with
another adverb, etc.)
Addition: and, nor
Alternative: or
Contrast: but, yet
Inference: for, so
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CONJUNCTION
While the subordinating conjunctions join two equal parts of the
sentence, the subordinating conjunctions join a modifying clause to a
main clause.
Time: when, before, after, once
Place: where
Comparison: as, as
Condition: if, unless
Contrast: although, while, whereas
Cause or reason: because, as, since
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EXAMPLES
I want cookies and milk for dinner.
I will eat broccoli after I eat this cookie.
To be or not to be that is the question, right William?
Did Ronald went to the school library or
the public one?
Lili nor James Potter like Tom Riddle.
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INTERJECTION
An interjection is a word added to a sentence to
convey emotion. Words or phrases used to
exclaim or protest or command.
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INTERJECTION
It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence. They
sometimes stand by themselves, but they are often contained within
larger structures.
Most mild interjections are treated as parenthetical elements and set
off from the rest of the sentence with a comma or set of commas. If the
interjection is more forceful, however, it is followed with an exclamation
mark.
They are rarely used in formal or academic writing.
They are common in spoken English, so they are appropriate if you are
capturing dialogue in your writing.
You usually follow an interjection with an exclamation mark.
They are uncommon in formal academic prose, except in direct
quotations.
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INTERJECTION
To capture short bursts of emotion, you can use an interjection, which
is a single word, phrase. or short clause that communicates the facial
expression and body language that the sentence itself will sometimes
neglect.
However, any word, phrase, or short clause that captures an emotional
burst can function as an interjection. So if you write, Emily has
switched her major to chemistry, you could use an adjective, for
example, as an interjection: Sweet! Emily has switched her major to
chemistry.
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INTERJECTION
Some words are primarily interjections. Below
is a list:
bazinga, blech, boo-yah, duh, eek, eureka
eww, gak, geez, ha, hello, hooray, huh, oh, oops,
ouch, oy, ugh, uh-oh, whammo, whew, whoa,
wow, yahoo, yikes, yippee, yo, yowza, yuck,
yum (with exclamation / interrogation
marks).
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EXAMPLES
Congratulations, Emily has switched her major to chemistry.
Emily has switched her major to chemistry. Way to go!
Holy macaroni! Emily has switched her major to chemistry.
Emily has switched her major to chemistry.
Oh, the horror!
Ugh! I cannot believe we are eating
vegan food for a second night.
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References
Viloria, C. (2012). Pronombres: Características Generales. Recuperado de: http://latinpraves.blogspot.mx/2012/04/pronombres-caracteristicas-generales.html
Pronombres. (s.f.). Recuperado de: http://av.cdb.edu.sv/claroline/backends/download.php?url=L3RpcG9zLWRlLXByb25vbWJyZXMucGRm&cidReset=true&cidReq=OCTAVOSAB
Sustantivo. (s.f.). En Cuadernos Digitales de Lenguaje Vindel. Recuperado de: http://www.cuadernosdigitalesvindel.com/libres/gramatica.pdf
Funciones del Sustantivo. (s.f.). En Cuba Educa Portar Educativo. Recuperado de: http://espannol.cubaeduca.cu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2989:funciones-del-
sustantivo&catid=397&Itemid=84
Adjetivo. (s.f.). En Profesor en Línea. Recuperado de: http://www.profesorenlinea.cl/quinto/castellano/gramaticaelemental/adjetivos.html
Las preposiciones. (s.f.). En La Escuela Digital. Recuperado de: http://www.escueladigital.com.uy/espaniol/8_preposic.htm
Conjunciones. (s.f). Recuperado de: http://www.gonzalopulido.es/alumnos/Textos/Conjunciones.pdf
Las interjecciones. (s.f). En Gramática Española VLLDC. Recuperado de: http://centros.edu.xunta.es/iesportadaauga/orientacion/actividades_recursos_educativos/le_eso/09_interjecciones.pdf
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