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CHAPTER 1

1. They have to be able to produce many kinds of functional text and monologue in the form
of procedure, descriptive, recount, narrative, and report (Depdiknas, 2006: 278).
2. According to Tomkins (1994:11), writing a descriptive paragraph is like painting a
picture with words.
3. According to Raimes (1983: 27), picture (such as: drawing, photographs, posters, slides,
cartoon, magazines advertisements, diagrams, graphs, tables, charts, and maps) can be
evaluated resources for teaching writing. Picture shares experience for the students in
class, a common base that leads to a variety of language activities. It can help students
improve their language use when writing (grammar and vocabulary).
4. Raimes states that picture can be the basic for not just one task but many, such as
sequence of sentences to the writing of original dialogues, letters, reports, or essays.
5. to Sadiman (2009: 29-31), picture is (1) concrete, it points out the point of discussion
more realistically than any temporary verbal media do. (2) Picture can reduce the border
of time and space, (3) it can resolve our observation problem, (4) it can make clearer
certain concept in any subject ant for any age, so that it can avoid and correct
misunderstanding, (5) it is cheap and easy to use, with no need of using special tools.
CHAPTER 2
1. Rivers (1981: 296) says that writing depends on the mastery of listening comprehension,
speaking and reading comprehension.
2. Harmer (1983: 16) says “Writing is a productive skill”. By productive skill, he means
that writing is a skill to produce a sequence of sentences, which are arranged in a
particular order and linked together in certain ways.
3. Byrne (1997: 1) adds that the length of writing is varied. It can be a short writing
containing two or three sentences, or more sentences. When they are put in order and are
linked together, they form a coherent whole, called as text.
4. According to Cross (1955: 268), writing is closely related to reading. The students who
read more will write more fluently. What they write is a natural follow up what have been
read.
5. However, writing skill is different from speaking. While all people who are normal
physically and mentally can naturally learn to speak, they have to be taught how to write
(White in Nunan, 1989: 36).
6. Byrney (1979: 1) defines writing as an activity of forming graphic symbols, that it, letters
or combinations of letters which relate to the sounds we make when we speak. These
symbols have to be arranged, according to certain conversation, to form words, and
words have to be arranged to form sentences.
7. Bell and Burnady (1984) in Nunan (1989: 36) point out that writing is an extremely
complex cognitive activity in which the writer needs to demonstrate or control of a
number of variables. It means that writing requires cognitive activity in which there are
number of variable.
8. Concerning with writing simple sentences into a paragraph, Burnady (1984) in Nunan
(1989: 36) adds that:
“…at the sentences level, the variables include control of content, format,
sentences, structure, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling and letter formation. Beyond
the sentence, the write must be able to structure and integrate interrogative into
cohesive and paragraph text.”
9. Guided writing is an instructional writing context chiefly teaching the writing process
through modeling, support, and practice (Tyner, 2004).
10. It offers greater opportunities for young writers to make valuable connections between
text, sentence and word level decisions and help children shape and redraft texts with
particular criteria in mind (Holdich and Chung, 2003).
11. Most importantly, with such a writing strategy, young students are guided into
independent writing and help them discover their own abilities by providing opportunities
for choice, peer response and further scaffolding (Oczkus, 2007).
12. To make a good paragraph, a writer needs to complete several stages of writing. There
are five stages of writing suggested by Peha (2002): 1)
13. Genesee and Upshur (1966: 207) suggest five general categories, which are often used for
the evaluation of students writing, namely: content, organization, language use or
grammar, vocabulary, and mechanics. They also proposed numeral scores for each of the
above categories as follow:
14. The purpose of writing is what the writer intends to express on her composition. There
are many purposes of writing. The followings are those stated by McMahan (1996: 8):
15. Everett (1997: 1) says that Descriptive Writing is writing which represent or describe of
people, places, things, moments and theories with clear, powerful and detail images in the
mind to help the reader create the mental picture of what is being written about.
Accessed: 8 September 2012 at http://leostcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/descriptive.html.
16. The E (English) Team (2006: 53) say that describing is like painting a picture with words
so that our listener or reader has a picture in their mind about the particular things
described.
17. (Harmer, 2001: 38-39)
18. Picture belongs to visual teaching aids (Vale and Feunteun, 106:1995). It is something
drawn or painted: a shape or set of shapes and lines drawn, painted, or printed on paper,
canvas, or some other flat surface, especially shapes that represent a recognizable form or
object (Microsoft® Encarta® 2008 © 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights
reserved).
19. Wright (1997: 10) says that picture can play a key role in motivating students,
conceptualizing the language they are using, giving them a reference and helping create
the discipline activity
20. According to Wright (1989: 17), there are some roles of pictures in speaking and writing:
21. According to Raimes (1983: 27), picture (such as: drawing, photographs, posters, slides,
cartoon, magazines advertisements, diagrams, graphs, tables, charts, and maps) can be
evaluated resources for teaching writing. Picture shares experience for the students in
class, a common base that leads to a variety of language activities.
22. Wright (1997: 2) says that pictures are not just an aspect of method but through their
representation of places, objects, and people, they are essential part of the overall
experiences teachers must help their students to cope with.
23. According to Arif S. Sadiman (1992: 29), some weaknesses of pictures are:
24. As posted by Sowath Bee at http://usingpictures.blogspot.com/, to choose the right
pictures for learning, teacher has to consider the followings:
25. Bee (2009) suggests the following techniques for using pictures in the classroom.
26. Not only reading, pictures can also be used in teaching speaking and writing. To teach
speaking, for example, teacher can arrange the students into pairs and give each pair two
different pictures, and then ask them to find 10 differences in the pictures. If s/he wants to
focus more on accuracy, s/he can ask them to write the differences on a piece of paper
(Werff in Bee, 2009).
27. (Werff in Bee, 2009). Bee (2009) gives the following example:
28. This text quoted from John Haycraft (1978) in an online journal by Ioeng (Bee, 2009) is a
good example:
29. To accommodate the use of pictures in the writing class in the research, the researcher
adopted two of four activities created by Wright (1989: 41). The activities are as follows:
30. With appropriate technique, pictures’ benefits help students to give idea on what to write,
and to pay attention to organization. Picture can also help teacher to drill student’s
grammar (Wright, 1997: 2).

CHAPTER 3
1. The method of the research is Action Research. Burns (1999: 30), states that action
research is …
2. Carr and Kemmis in Burns (1999: 30) state that action research is simply a form of self-
reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social situations in order to improve the
rationality and justice of their own practices, their understanding of these practices and
the situations in which the practices are carried out.
3. The goal of the researcher is to overcome the problems that the researcher found in the
language teaching. In this case, he wanted to solve students’ problems in writing. These
meet the goal of an action research which is to find a solution to certain problem (Watt in
Ferrance, 2000: 1).
4. According to Burns (1999: 80), observation is a mainstay of action research.
5. During observation, observer made field notes. Observational note-making of various
kinds is a flexible tool for action research data collection (Burns, 1999: 85).


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