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Bird View of Internet

Bird View of Internet

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Published by Er. Amar Kumar

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Published by: Er. Amar Kumar on Nov 16, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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What is Internet

Internet is an Inter-connection among several computers of different types belonging to various networks all over the globe. It is often described as “network of networks” because all the smaller networks of organisations are linked together into one giant network.

Internet is a world wide organisation of computer network. When you are at Internet, you become a part of that group of millions of people who use the computer for exchanging their idea and information. Internet is also referred as web.

Internet is Information Super Highway
Internet is called the Highway of information. When you travel on a highway, you come across different people, incidents and groups, likewise Internet is also a treasure or source of information.

History of Internet
 

1969 is the birth year of Internet ARPAnet (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) was the first network started by Department of Defence (DOD) of United States of America. It began in with one computer at California and three at Utah.

Later to share the software and hardware resources, the military allowed Universities to join the network and gradually by the year 1979, it started being known as Internet.

The OSI Model
->Open system Interconnection (OSI) was developed by ISO (International Standards Organization) ->OSI that follows a set of protocols that allows any two different systems to communicate with each other regardless of their underlying architecture.


The OSI model is a layered framework for the designing of network systems that allows communication between all types of computer systems. It consists of seven separate but related layers, each of which defines a part of the process of moving information across a network.

What are the seven layers ?
Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 5 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1 Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical


In the sense of purpose and responsibility, each layer is separate and independent Each has its own function, but also provides a service to those layers above and below itself The model should be considered an aid to understanding the nature of communication on the network – and useful in sorting out troubles that might occur on a network By providing, it allows both software engineers and hardware manufacturers ensure their products work together.

The layers at work
NODE A Sending Device Layer 7 Application Layer Layer 6 Presentation Layer Layer 5 Session Layer Layer 4 Transport Layer Layer 3 Network Layer Layer 2 Data Link Layer Layer 1 Physical Layer Supports the communication between applications over the network Presents data to the receiver in a form it recognises Establishes a connection and terminates it when no longer required Acknowledges the flow of data including re-transmission where required Adds the appropriate network addresses to packets NODE B Receiving Devic e Layer 7 Application Layer Layer 6 Presentation Layer Layer 5 Session Layer Layer 4 Transport Layer Layer 3 Network Layer Layer 2 Data Link Layer Layer 1 Physical Layer

Adds the MAC addresses to packets

Transmits the data on the medium

How does data flow 1 ?
When data is sent from the application on the source computer the following happens  Data in the form of a packet moves down through the layers  When it reaches the Physical Layer it is ready to be sent along the cable  At the Physical Layer the bits may be analogue or digital, in the form of electrical, light or radio waves

How does data flow ? (2)

The data is transmitted to the destination device It travels up through the layers of the OSI model, reaching the user. As data moves down through the layers it is encapsulated – ie additional information is added. The data in the packet does not change

How does internet work?
Internet Cloud

Web server

Customer Web server Customer Web server Web server Customer Web server Customer Customer Customer Customer Web server

Customer Customer

Internet uses a protocol called TCP\IP Each system is assigned with an IP address Each server has a name called Domain Name We refer to the server with Domain Name A DNS (Domain Naming Service) Server resolves the IP address with the name

Internet Cloud


Web server


Web server

What do we need to connect Internet
    

A Computer A Modem Connecting Media Account with ISP Web Browser

A Computer is the basic requirement to access Internet.


Modem is the modulator and demodulator which converts analog to digital signal and vice-versa. It can be internal or external.

Connecting Media
Connecting Media can be  Ordinary Telephone line  ISDN line  Leased line  Cable connection

ISP (Internet Service Provider)
ISPs are those who connect the individual users to the Internet. They setup a server which are connected to the Internet through dedicated lines round the clock.

Some common ISPs
     

America Online India Online Satyam Online VSNL Seraphic Sky Cable

Web Browser
It is a software and necessary tool for exploring the web. It helps to move from one web site to another web site.

Some popular web browsers are
Mosaic Neo Planet Netscape Navigator Opera Internet Explorer

How to access Internet

The user has to register himself to any one of the ISPs by paying the requisite amount. Different ISPs have different tariffs and different ways of registrations.

Why do we use Internet

To get in touch with near and dears through
Electronic mail (E-mail) Keyboard chat Internet Telephone Video Conferencing


To access to lots of databases, libraries and news groups around the world for gaining information on any topics of your interest. To access and share information on all topics ranging from agriculture to astronomy.


To stay up-to-date with news, sports, weather & world wide current affairs. To listen sounds, music and watch digital movies. To enjoy a number of interactive multimedia games and gain knowledge through several educational tools. To visit an electronic zoo or a museum.


To get latest information about movies & your favorite stars. You can also publish information about yourself, your family, your organisation, hobbies and interests. To learn foreign language & to make friends globally. And there is no limit to it.

Electronic Mail
(The Internet as a post man)

Electronic mail or e-mail is the process of sending and receiving of messages by one user to one or more other computer users over a computer network in a digital form.

It is very similar to our traditional mail system with post boxes, post offices, envelopes and addresses. The difference is that instead of sending it manually, it is sent electronically.

By using email, you will be able to electronically

   

Send messages or memos Receive and read messages Reply to messages Forward messages

Send the same message to a list of people with one stroke Attach a text file such as a report to your email message Save mail to a file and print the message

How does it work

The process of e-mail is also very similar to traditional mail. An e-mail is made up of two parts, the address and the message. Depending on the address, the message is sent to the receiver of the letter. But the message is not delivered. Instead, it is stored in the mail server. When the receiver logs in and checks In-box, he gets his message.

E-mail Account

To become an e-mail user, you need to setup your own email-account. There are number of sites with whom you can register your e-mail account. They also provide additional services such as receiving regular news from various sites of your choice. Some of them are free whereas for others, you have to pay

Some of the sites to provide free email services are www.yahoo.com www.hotmail.com www.rediff.com

Some of the sites to provide paid email service are www.123india.com www.usa.net www.mahaemail.com

Setting of e-mail account

Click at

New User? Sign up

E-mail Address

In order to receive or send email, you need to have an email address and you need to know the address of the person to whom you wish to send a message.

Addresses are made up in a standard way using the following elements: User identification e.g. egtoget, your name or a name you wish to choose. It is usual to have part of your own name to make it easily identifiable. The @ or at symbol to separate user name and domain name

The domain name of the computer receiving your mail e.g. yahoo for Yahoo.com The type of organisation e.g. co for commercial organisation or gov for government. And finally in to locate the address in India

The final address will look like this: egtoget@yahoo.com

How to send e-mail
Email messages are generally sent from and received by mail serverscomputers that are dedicated for processing & directing e-mail. Once a server has received a message, it directs it to the specific computer to which the e-mail is addressed

Advantages of E-mail

Speed: It is a fast means of communication Multimedia: Along with text, sound, images, video and computer software can be sent. Cost: It is lot cheaper than postal mail.

Disadvantages of E-mail
You can’t send anything without an e-mail facility You can’t send anything physical like money, book or floppy.

Chatting is one of the most popular activities on the Internet and involves people of all ages coming together in areas where they can join in on in a variety of topics that they are interested in with people all around the world.

One of the most popular forms of online chatting is Web-based chats. Web-based chats are, essentially, specially designed Web sites that allow visitors to exchange messages with one another in real-time.

When you visit a Web-based chat site for the first time, you will be asked to choose a name (or 'alias') and a password. You can choose any name you like and that is the name by which you will be known to all other participants on that particular site. The password is used to confirm your identity each time you visit the site (only you should know the password that you selected when you signed up).

The best feature of Web-based chats is that you access them with your Web browser– no special software is required.

When you’ll click on any chat category, the next screen will display the chat rooms i.e. the chat areas.

Chat rooms can have specific or broad themes. One chat room might be dedicated to teenagers. Another might be dedicated to sports buffs or cartoon fanatics. The chat rooms themselves will be clearly labeled, and you will be provided with instructions on how to access particular chat rooms on the site itself.

Chat rooms generally include a text box for typing your messages, a large window area used to display the messages typed by chat participants and a smaller window with a list of all the participants in the chat room.

To help you keep track of who is saying what, each message is preceded by the name of the person that sent it. Also, on some chat systems, messages are displayed in different colours. As a general rule, your messages are broadcast to the screens of all the other chat participants as soon as you elect to send it (usually by clicking the 'send' icon or hitting the Return/Enter key).

Some of the more advanced Web-based chats allow you to hold private conversations, so that your messages only appear on the screens of those participants that you wish to talk to.

Instant Messaging

The Web isn't the only place where you can meet people online. Instant messaging is becoming an increasingly popular means of communicating one-to-one with friends.

Web-based chats are generally 'public' forums, so everyone can read your messages. Instant messaging largely overcomes these problems, but to take advantage of instant messaging features, users must first download and install special software.

Each time you connect to the Internet and run your instant messaging software, a list of all your friends currently online is displayed. You can then compose and send messages to your friends. The messages will be displayed immediately on their computer screens. Alternatively, their instant messaging software will 'beep' to alert them of an incoming message.

Instant messaging software
Some of the instant messaging software are:
ICQ-http://www.icq.com/ Ichat-http://www.ichat.com Yahoo! Messengerhttp://messenger.yahoo.com/ PowWow-http://www.tribal.com/powwow/

What is video conferencing

If you would like to be a receiver – that is only ‘see and hear the conversation’, you will be able to do this any standard Mac and if you have a Sound card and Video card on any standard PC. If you would also like to be a sender that is-’transmit your voice and video’, you will also need a digital camera and PC users will need a microphone.

How to download files

Downloading refers to the actual transferring of the document from the internet to your own computer. Setting up a separate download directory to store your downloaded files into it so that they don’t get mixed up with any other programs/files on your system, and so you always know where you can find them should you have to reinstall or find the files at a later date.

What is search Engine

Search engines exist to help you find the relevant information you require. With a search engine, you can sort through vast amounts of online information and pinpoint the material you want

Search engines work by matching words you enter with the same words found in various information sites on the internet

Some of the famous search engines are www.google.com www.altavista.com www.yahoo.com www.indiatimes.com

Internet helps students to get information from a to z in maths through many free sites. Some of them are: www.plus.maths.org www.archives.math.utk.edu www.mathworld.wolfram.com

Some sites providing free information about sports are: www.espn.go.com www.sports.yahoo.com www.khel.com

Some sites that provide free information related to science are: www.plus1plus2.com www.sciencenews.org www.sciencedaily.com

General Knowledge
Some of the sites where you can gain knowledge: www.knowledgebk.com www.encarta.msn.com www.nytimes.com

Various sites to get online news instantly are: www.aajtak.com www.cnn.com www.bbc.com www.ch.com

We can view the clippings of any movie on net through these sites: www.indiafm.com www.bollywoodheaven.com www.amazon.com

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