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Unit -3

DIFFERENT TYPES OF ADVERTISING

Print Advertising – Newspapers, Magazines, Brochures, Flyers
• The print media have always been a popular advertising medium.
• Advertising products via newspapers or magazines is a common practice
Outdoor Advertising – Billboards, Kiosks, Tradeshows and Events
• Outdoor advertising is also a very popular form of advertising, which makes use
of several tools and techniques to attract the customers outdoors.
• The billboard advertising is very popular however has to be really terse and
catchy in order to grab the attention of the passers by.
• The kiosks not only provide an easy outlet for the company products but also
make for an effective advertising tool to promote the company’s products.
Broadcast advertising – Television, Radio and the Internet
• Broadcast advertising is a very popular advertising medium that constitutes of several
branches like television, radio or the Internet.
• Television advertisements have been very popular ever since they have been introduced.
The cost of television advertising often depends on the duration of the advertisement, the
time of broadcast (prime time/peak time), and of course the popularity of the television
channel on which the advertisement is going to be broadcasted.
• The radio might have lost its charm owing to the new age media however the radio
remains to be the choice of small-scale advertisers. The radio jingles have been very
popular advertising media and have a large impact on the audience.
Covert Advertising – Advertising in Movies
• Covert advertising is a unique kind of advertising in which a product or a particular brand
is incorporated in some entertainment and media channels like movies, television shows
or even sports. There is no commercial in the entertainment but the brand or the product
is subtly( or sometimes evidently) showcased in the entertainment show.
• Some of the famous examples for this sort of advertising have to be the appearance of
brand Nokia which is displayed on Tom Cruise’s phone in the movie Minority Report, or
the use of Cadillac cars in the movie Matrix Reloaded.
Surrogate Advertising – Advertising Indirectly
• Surrogate advertising is prominently seen in cases where advertising a particular product
is banned by law. Advertisement for products like cigarettes or alcohol which are
injurious to heath are prohibited by law in several countries and hence these companies
have to come up with several other products that might have the same brand name and
indirectly remind people.
Public Service Advertising – Advertising for Social Causes
• Public service advertising is a technique that makes use of advertising as an effective
communication medium to convey socially relevant messaged about important matters
and social welfare causes.
• like , energy conservation, political integrity, deforestation, illiteracy, poverty and so on.
Celebrity Advertising
• Although the audience is getting smarter and smarter and the modern day consumer
getting immune to the exaggerated claims made in a majority of advertisements, there
exist a section of advertisers that still bank upon celebrities and their popularity for
advertising their products. Using celebrities for advertising involves signing up
celebrities for advertising campaigns, which consist of all sorts of advertising including,
television ads or even print advertisements.
Developing an advertising campaign
1. Campaign responsibility
2. Target audience
3. Campaign objectives
4. Budget setting
5. Media selection
6. Ad development and testing
7. Implementation and scheduling
8. Evaluation
EVALUATION METHODS
• Unaided Brand Awareness: focuses on what brands are top-of-mind for consumers in a
particular category.
• Aided Brand Awareness: focuses on consumers’ awareness of a brand that is presented
to them by name or logo.
• Ad Recall: focuses on consumers’ ability to recall seeing or hearing an ad for a specific
brand. Message Association: focuses on the ability of consumers to accurately link a
message or statement to the brand among a competitive set.
• Brand Favourability: persuasion metric that focuses on consumers’ overall opinion of a
brand, using a scale ranging from “very favourable” to “very unfavourable”.
• Purchase Intent: persuasion metric that focuses on consumers’ stating willingness to
consider buying a product/brand when in-market. A variation to this is behaviour intent, a
gauge to measure intended behaviour (e.g., likelihood to ask a doctor about a brand).

DAGMAR is
Defining
Advertising
Goals for
Measured
Advertising
Results. An advertising objective involves a communication task, intended to create
awareness, impart information, develop attitudes or induce action. In the DAGMAR
approach, the communication task is based on a specific model of the communication
process, as shown below.
• Awareness
Awareness of the existence of a product or organization is necessary
before the purchase behavior can be expected.
• Awareness needs to be created, developed, refined or sustained,
according to the characteristics of the market and the particular
situation facing an organization at any one point of time.
• Comprehension
Awareness on its own may not be sufficient to stimulate a purchase.
Knowledge about the product or the organization is necessary. This
can be achieved by providing specific information about key brand
attributes.
• Conviction
The next step is to establish a sense of conviction. By creating interest
and preference, buyers are moved to a position where they are
convinced that a particular product in the class should be tried at the
next opportunity. To do this, audience’s beliefs about the product have
to be moulded and this is often done through messages that
demonstrate the product’s superiority over a rival or by talking about
the rewards as a result of using the product.
• Action
Communication must finally encourage buyers to engage in purchase
activity. Advertising can be directive and guide the buyers into certain
behavioural outcomes,
Use of toll free numbers, direct mail activities and reply cards and
coupons.
Tupperware, Aqua Guard, are famous in Indian cities as a result of its
personal selling efforts.

AIDA MODEL
Attention
Interest
Desire
Action

Integrated promotion management (integrated marketing
communication)
Reasons for growing importance of IMC
A shift of marketing dollars from media advertising to other forms of
promotion , particularly consumer and trade oriented sales promotions
A movement away from relying on advertising
A shift in marketplace power
A rapid growth and development of database marketing

Integrated communication planning model
Review of marketing plan
Analysis of promotional program situation
Analysis of communication process
Budget determination
Develop integrated marketing communications program
Elements of promotion mix
Objectives
Strategy
Message and media strategy and tactics
Integrate and implement marketing communications strategies
Monitor ,evaluate, and control integrated marketing communications
program

Media Planning
Situational analysis(to understand the market problem)
Size and share of the total market
Sales history, costs and profits
Distribution practices
Methods of selling
Use of advertising
Identification of prospects
Nature of the product
Marketing strategy plan(to plan activities for solving the problem)
Marketing objectives
Product and spending strategy
Distribution strategy
Elements of marketing mix
Identification of market segment
Creative strategy plan(to determine what to communicate through
advertisements)
How product can meet consumer needs
How product will be positioned in advertisements
Copy themes
Specific objectives of each advertisement
Number and size of advertisement
Setting media objectives
To translate marketing objectives and strategies into goals that media can
accomplish
Determining media strategy
To translate media goals into general guidelines that will control the
planner’s selection and use of media . The best strategy alternatives should
be selected
Selecting broad media classes
To compare and select best media with in broad classes again using
predetermined criteria .
If magazine ,which magazine
If television ,which television
broadcast or cable television
network or spot television
radio or newspaper
Media use decisions
Broad cast
which kind of sponsorship
what levels of reach and frequency will be Required
Scheduling
Placements of Spots
Print
Number of ads to appear and on which days and months
Placements of ads
Special treatments
Desired reach
Other media
Bill boards
location of markets and plan of distribution
kind of outdoor boards to be used
Direct mail or other media
PROMOTION MIX
Elements of promotion mix
Advertising
Direct marketing
Interactive / internet marketing
Sales promotion
Publicity/public relations
Personal selling
Communication and motivational aspects

Understanding and analysing the target audience
• Mass markets
• Market segment s
• Niche markets
• Individual and group audience
Elaboration likelihood model
Persuasive communication
Motivated to process
Issue involvement
Relevance commitment
Dissonance arousal
Need for cognition
Ability to process
Distraction
Message comprehensibility
Issue familiarity
Appropriate schema
Fear arousal
Nature of cognitive processing
Favourable thoughts predominate
or
Unfavourable thoughts predominate
or
Neighter or neutral predominate
Cognitive structure change
Enduring positive change(persuation)
or
Enduring negative change(boomerang)
If no condition
Persuation cue present
Self presentation motives
Demand characteristics
Evaluation apprehension
Source characteristics
If yes
Temporary attitude shift
If no
Retain or regain initial attitude