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An Introduction of

3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)


SpeakerTsung-Yin Lee
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Reference
http://www.tcs.com LTE-Advanced: Future of Mobile Broadband,
TATA Consultancy Services
Takehiro Nakamura ,Proposal for Candidate Radio Interface Technol
ogies for IMTAdvanced Bas d on LTE Release 10 and Beyond,
3GPP TSGRAN Chairman
3GPP LTE Channels and MAC Layer, EventHelix.com Inc. 2009
Ahmed Hamza, Network Systems Laboratory Simon Fraser University,
Long Term Evolution (LTE) - A Tutorial, October 13, 2009
Jim Zyren, Overview of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution Physical
Layer, Document Number: 3GPP EVOLUTIONWP Rev0 07/2007
David Astly, Erik Dahlman, Anders Furuskr, Ylva Jading, Magnus
Lindstrm, and Stefan Parkvall, Ericsson Research, LTE: The
Evolution of Mobile Broadband , IEEE Communications Magazine,
April 2009
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Outline
History of 3GPP LTE
Basic Concepts of LTE
Introduction of LTE Protocol
Compare with LTE and LTE-Advanced
Conclusion
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What is LTE ?
In Nov. 2004, 3GPP began a project to
define the long-term evolution (LTE) of
Universal Mobile Telecommunications
System (UMTS) cellular technology
Higher performance
Backwards compatible
Wide application
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Evolution of Radio Access
Technologies
LTE (3.9G) :
3GPP release 8~9
LTE-Advanced :
3GPP release 10+
802.16d/e
802.16m
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LTE Basic Concepts
LTE employs Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) for
downlink data transmission and Single
Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) for uplink
transmission
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Multipath-Induced Time Delays Result
in Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI)
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( t n m t S t S t y
y(t) : output signal
S(t) : input signal
S(t-m) : delayed m time input signal
n(t) : noise
y(t)
S(t-m)
S(t)
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Equalizers in Receiver
Against Frequency Selective Fading
Channel transform function H
c
(f)


Equalizers transform function H
eq
(f) (Receiver)
fm j
c
e f H

2
1 ) (


fm j
c
c
e f H
f H

2
1
1
) (
1
) (


) ( ) ( ) ( m t S t S t y
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Frequency Selective Fading
the coherence bandwidth of the channel is
smaller than the bandwidth of the signal
It may be useless for increasing transmission power
Frequency Correlation > 0.9
B
c
= 1 / 50 is r.m.s. delay spread
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Cyclic Prefixes

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FDM vs. OFDM

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LTE-Downlink (OFDM)
Improved spectral
efficiency
Reduce ISI effect
by multipath
Against frequency
selective fading
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LTE Uplink (SC-FDMA)
SC-FDMA is a new single carrier multiple access
technique which has similar structure and
performance to OFDMA
A salient
advantage of SC-
FDMA over
OFDM is low to
Peak to Average
Power Ratio
(PAPR) :
Increasing
battery life
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Multi-antenna techniques

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Generic Frame Structure
Allocation of physical resource blocks
(PRBs) is handled by a scheduling function
at the 3GPP base station (eNodeB)

Frame 0 and frame 5 (always downlink)
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Resource Grid
One frame is 10ms
10 subframes

One subframe is 1ms
2 slots
One slot is 0.5ms
N resource blocks
[ 6 < N < 110]
One resource block is 0.5ms
and contains 12 subcarriers
from each OFDM symbol
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LTE spectrum (bandwidth and
duplex) flexibility

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LTE Downlink Channels

Paging Channel
Paging Control Channel
Physical Downlink Shared Channel
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LTE Uplink Channels

Random Access Channel
Physical Radio Access Channel
Physical Uplink Shared Channel
CQI report
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LTE Release 8 Key Features (1/2)
High spectral efficiency
OFDM in Downlink
SingleCarrier FDMA in Uplink
Very low latency
Short setup time & Short transfer delay
Short hand over latency and interruption time
Support of variable bandwidth
1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz
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LTE Release 8 Key Features (2/2)
Compatibility and interworking with earlier
3GPP Releases
FDD and TDD within a single radio access
technology
Efficient Multicast/Broadcast
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Evolution of LTE-Advanced
Asymmetric transmission bandwidth
Layered OFDMA
Advanced Multi-cell
Transmission/Reception Techniques
Enhanced Multi-antenna Transmission
Techniques
Support of Larger Bandwidth in LTE-
Advanced
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Asymmetric transmission
bandwidth
Symmetric transmission
voice transmission : UE to UE
Asymmetric transmission
streaming video : the server to the UE (the downlink)
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Layered OFDMA
The bandwidth of basic frequency block is,
1520 MHz
Layered OFDMA radio access scheme in
LTE-A will have layered transmission
bandwidth, support of layered environments
and control signal formats

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Advanced Multi-cell
Transmission/Reception Techniques
In LTE-A, the advanced multi-cell
transmission/reception processes helps in
increasing frequency efficiency and cell
edge user throughput
Estimation unit
Calculation unit
Determination unit
Feedback unit
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Enhanced Multi-antenna
Transmission Techniques
In LTE-A, the MIMO scheme has to be further improved
in the area of spectrum efficiency, average cell through put
and cell edge performances
In LTE-A the antenna configurations of 8x8 in DL and 4x4
in UL are planned
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Enhanced Techniques to Extend
Coverage Area
Remote Radio Requirements (RREs) using optical
fiber should be used in LTE-A as effective
technique to extend cell coverage
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Support of Larger Bandwidth in
LTE-Advanced
Peak data rates up to 1Gbps are expected
from bandwidths of 100MHz. OFDM adds
additional sub-carrier to increase bandwidth
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LTE vs. LTE-Advanced

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Conclusion
LTE-A helps in integrating the existing
networks, new networks, services and
terminals to suit the escalating user
demands
LTE-Advanced will be standardized in the
3GPP specification Release 10 (LTE-A) and
will be designed to meet the 4G
requirements as defined by ITU
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Backup

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LTE Downlink Logical Channels

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LTE Downlink Logical Channels

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LTE Downlink Transport Channel

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LTE Downlink Transport Channel

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LTE Downlink Physical Channels

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LTE Downlink Physical Channels

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LTE Uplink Logical Channels

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LTE Uplink Transport Channel

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LTE Uplink Physical Channels