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I. Article III: SCOTUS: original (ambassadors, state v. state); appellate (writ)
A. Limits: Article III, section re!"ires person litigating a constit"tional !"estion to s#ow:
1. Ripeness : $itness %or ad&"dication
2. Moot : Case is not moot i% it is capable o% repetition 'et evading review
3. Stn!in" : Act"al or imminent in&"r', along wit# ca"sation and redressabilit'.
#. T$ir! prt% stn!in" : (embers #ave standing, %its p"rpose o% organi)ation, and participation not necessar'.
&. 'oliticl ()estion : (atter assigned to anot#er branc# b' constit"tion or incapable o% &"dicial answer
*. A+stention : *#ere %ederal co"rt abstains beca"se meaning o% a state law or reg"lation is "nclear. A!e()te , In!epen!ent
Stte -ro)n!s: SCOTUS won+t #ear a case i% t#e case is s"pported b' an independent and ade!"ate state law gro"nd.
,. Seprtion o. 'o/ers:
Con"ress So"rces o% power: -n"merated (commerce, ta. and spend, immigration); -nabling cla"ses (/01/2) and t#e 3necessar' and
Commerce: Congress can reg"late c$nnels o. interstte commerce0 instr)mentlities o. interstte commerce0 n! cti1ities t$t
s)+stntill% ..ect interstte commerce, incl"ding c"m"lative impacts. 5imits: Cannot reg"late intrastate non1economic activit' and
cannot overcome state sovereign imm"nit'.
Ta.: Congress #as power to ta. and spend %or general wel%are. 5egislation will be "p#eld i% ta. raises reven"e, even i% t#e ta. is "sed to
Spending: Congress can set a condition on t#e receipt o% %ederal %"nds as long as it serves general wel%are, condition is "nambig"o"s,
relates to %ederal program, amo"nt in !"estion is not coercive and state is not re!"ired to ta6e an "nconstit"tional action.
Ot#er powers: *ar, Immigration, 7ropert', -minent domain, Civil *ar Amendments (w#ile t#e /0
Am. applies to private actors as
well, t#e /81/2 onl' appl' to states).
9elegation o% 7owers: Can delegate to agenc' so long as some intelligible principle
C. E2ec)ti1e 'o/ers:
Appointments: 7resident appoints #ig#1level o%%icials wit# advice and consent o% Senate. Congress can delegate appointment o% in%erior
o%%icers:an'one wit# a s"perior. 7resident #as t#e power to remove e.ec"tive o%%icials w;o ca"se b"t need ca"se %or o%%icers w; %i.ed
terms or &"dicial o%%icials. <eto power: /= da's to veto "nless passed near end o% term (overridden b' ;0 vote o% >o"ses).
,icameralism and presentment are t#e onl' wa's in w#ic# a bill can become law. 7ardons: 7resident can grant pardons b"t onl' to
o%%enses against t#e U.S. 7ardon power cannot "ndo impeac#ment or restore an'one to o%%ice. *ar powers: Congress #as power to
declare war and absent a"t#ori)ation, 7res. can respond to attac6s b"t not initiate war. $oreign a%%airs: 7resident can ma6e treat' w;
consent o% Senate (treat' prevails over earlier %ederal stat"te); enter into e.ec"tive agreements prevail over inconsistent state law, b"t
not %ederal law.
Congressional limits on t#e -.ec"tive: Impeac#ment, Appropriations 7residential limits on Congress: <eto, pardon power.
$eds can+t be ta.ed b' State: "nless nondiscriminator' ta. on persons w#o deal, or contract w; %ed government.
A. S)it Imm)nit%: 7rivate individ"als can+t s"e state %or damages on an' claim "nless p"rs"ant to Congress power "nder /0, /8, /2;
>owever, can s"e %or in&"nction. ?;A to: s"bdivisions; state v. state; %ederal government vs. state.
,. T2 Imm)nit%: $eds cannot impose a ta. on "ni!"e state activities or essential state sovereign %"nctions.
m: 4e!s cnnot commn!eer t$e sttes s so1erei"ns, cannot compel state legislat"res to pass laws or en%orce %ederal law.
9. 5ormnt Commerce Cl)se : Strict scr"tin' %or discrimination against o"t o% state goods or economic acts. I$ state law
5ISCRIMINATES on .ce b;w in1state @ o"t1o%1state econ actors, state m"st s#ow: reg"lation serves compelling interest A narrowl'
tailored. I% state INCI5ENTALL6 BUR5ENS interstate commerce, state m"st s#ow important state interest and no e.cessive b"rden.
1. E2ceptions: Congressional a"t#ori)ation OR State is a mar6et participant
MBE CONSTITUTIONAL LAW
-. T2tion 'o/er: States can ta. interstate commerce so long as it is not %aciall' discriminator' and does not "nd"l' b"rden
1. Sle t2: Cons"mmated in state; Use t2: interstate seller: s"%%icient ne."s to ta.ing states (e.g. maintains o%%ices t#ere);
5oin" B)siness t2: relate to bene%its con%erred b' ta.ing state "pon interstate b"siness; Net Income T2: same re!ts above;
License 4ee: %lat %ee "nconstit"tional (order solicitors); license ta. on peddler valid i% sells in state
III. Stte Action: Be!"ired %or /8;/2; -.ceptions: p"blic %"nction or signi%icant state involvement, endorsement, or enco"ragement
I<. 5)e 'rocess: I% %ederal government is discriminating, invo6e !)e process cl)se o. &
Am. I% states, in1o7e 1#
"nless rig#t to
indictment b' grand &"r', rig#t to &"r' trial. -7C will "s"all' appl' "nless visitors (Article 8 7rivileges and Imm"nities) or (igrants
(7rivileges and Imm"nities o% /8
A. 'roce!)rl 5)e 'rocess : 7rotects persons against deprivation o% li%e, libert' or propert' wit#o"t d"e process o% law. *#o co"nts
as person w#o can assert rig#tsC 7eople and corporations. 5ibert' is broadl' de%ined w#ile propert' interest is narrower:p"blic
ed"cation, p"blic emplo'ment, wel%are bene%its, driver+s licenses. *#at process is d"eC Ade!"ate notice and ade!"ate #earing. To
determine ade!"ac', co"rt will balance t#ree %actors: importance o% protected interest, ris6 o% error, b"rden on t#e government to
provide proced"ral protection.
,. S)+stnti1e 5' : Se."al orientation, contraception, abortion, marriage, possession o% obscene material, ed"cation, relatives
/. Strict scr"tin': i% government wants to reg"late %"ndamental rig#ts, it m"st s#ow compelling interest and narrowl' tailored.
. -conomic reg"lation onl' gets rational basis review , w#ere 7 m"st s#ow t#at reg"lation is not rationall' related to an'
legitimate government interest
0. Abortion : An' reg"lation on pre1viable %et"s is "nconstit"tional i% it imposes an "nd"e b"rden on woman+s rig#t to c#oose and
abortion. Und"e b"rden: Total ,an, Spo"sal Consent, Spo"sal noti%ication, Becording patient names, 7arental consent wit#o"t
&"dicial b'pass. ?ot "nd"e b"rden: 81#o"r waiting period, ,an on certain met#ods i% not t#e sa%est, parental consent wit# &"dicial
b'pass, tr"t#%"l non1misleading in%ormation, no rig#t %or indigents to get government %"nding
8. $amil' relations : Dovt. cannot pro#ibit e.tended %amil' members %rom living toget#er t#o"g# state can ban "nrelated persons
%rom living toget#er in single %amil' residence
2. Big#t to travel : 7@I cla"se o% /8t# allows ever' citi)en to travel %reel' %rom state to state and set"p residenc' in new state
E. Big#t to vote : $or total bans, appl' strict scr"tin'. (ore li6el' to see reg"lations, so "se balancing test s"c# as "nd"e b"rden.
Unreasonable restrictions: poll ta.es, sc#ool board elections limited to parents and propert' owners
F. Ta6ings cla"se : $i%t# Am provides t#at govt. cannot ta6e private propert' %or p"blic "se wit#o"t &"st compensation. Two 6inds
o% ta6ing: direct government appropriation and reg"lator' ta6ing. To determine i% t#ere is a reg"lator' re!"irement so onero"s as to
amo"nt to a ta6ing: permanent p#'sical invasion or deprivation o% all economicall' bene%icial "se or balancing economic impact
on owner vers"s interest o% state in propert'. Under Gelo, note t#at p"blic "se is broadl' de%ined to mean an' p"blic p"rpose.
<. E()l 'rotection
A. Approac#: Identi%' w#o is discriminating, t'pe o% discrimination, and level o% scr"tin' to attac# to t#at discrimination
/. Bational basis is level o% review in sit"ations o% disparate impact, w#ic# is not discrimination. ,"rden is on 7 to s#ow t#at
government action is not rationall' related to legitimate state interest.
. Intermediate scr"tin' applies to government discrimination regarding se. and illegitimac' "s"all'. ,"rden is on t#e 9 to s#ow
t#at t#e classi%ication is s"bstantiall' related to an important government interest. $or se.1discrimination, co"rt seems to %oc"s on
!"estion o% w#et#er discrimination is motivated or rein%orced b' traditional stereot'pes abo"t appropriate se. roles.
0. Strict scr"tin' 1 Dovernment m"st prove its classi%ication is necessar' to ac#ieve a compelling government interest, appl'ing
mostl' to race, nationalit' and alienage iss"es. ?ote t#at %ederal government gets rational basis review %or alienage. A%%irmative
action is constit"tional i% remed'ing past;present discrimination OB ac#ieve diverse st"dent bod' in #ig#er ed"cation.
Rational Basis Intermediate Scrutiny Strict Scrutiny
• Alienage (feds)
• Sexual Orientation
• Undocumented alien
• Contracts Clause
• Alienage (states)
• Domestic ra!el
• "ational Origin
Discriminatory intent facially or as a%%lied
<I. 'ri1ile"es8Imm)nities Cl)ses
Amen!ment: 5imited application d"e to Sla"g#ter#o"se Cases. 7rotects interstate travel; petition Congress %or redress; vote
%or national o%%ices; enter p"blic lands; protected w#ile in mars#als; assemble peaceabl'. Corporations are not protected.
,. Article I9 or t$e Comit% Cl)se: 7ro#ibits discrimination against non1residents on rig#ts %"ndamental to national "nion. ?;A to
aliens and corps. Invalid %orms o% non1resident discrimination: commercial licenses, comm"ter ta.es, abortion and emplo'ment. ,"t
recreational license and instate nat"ral reso"rce "p#eld.
R)le: Stte cn tret o)t o. stters !i..erentl% i. !iscrimintion is s)+stntill% relte! to importnt stte interest.
MBE CONSTITUTIONAL LAW
<II. Retrocti1e Le": Contracts Cla"se (3?o state s#all pass an' law impairing t#e obligation o% contracts) applies onl' to t#e states; -.
post %acto: States can+t pass retroactive criminal law (new crime, more p"nis#ment, less evidence, longer SO5) @ bill attainder (state and
%ed): legislation t#at in%licts p"nis#ment wit#o"t trial to named individ"als or gro"ps o% people %or past cond"ct.
<III. 4irst Amen!ment :
A. Est+lis$ment Cl)se: Appl' Strict Scr"tin' %or laws t#at pre%er religion; I% ne"tral law, appl' t#e 5emon test: /. Sec"lar leg.
p"rpose . 7rincipal;primar' e%%ect or p"rpose neit#er advances nor in#ibit religion; 0. 9oesn+t %oster an e.cessive govt. entanglement
w; religion. 7er se invalid: sc#ool pra'er, ten commandments, creationism, delegation o% a"t#orit' to religio"s organi)ations, mone'
%or religio"s instr"ction, sec"lar teac#ers at secondar' sc#ools.
,. 4ree E2ercise: T#ere is a cond"ct1belie% distinction. I% t#e law is abo"t cond"ct, appl' t#e Smit# test. State ma' reg"late or
pro#ibit t#e activit' i% t#e reg"lation is ne"tral wit# respect to religion and its general applicabilit'. I% not ne"tral, appl' strict scr"tin'
C. 4ree E2pression: -val"ate w#et#er law is void %or vag"eness or over1broad. Appl' strict scr"tin' %or content1based
discrimination. 5aw t#at reg"lates cond"ct, creating incidental b"rden is allowable i% it serves important government interest and no
greater b"rden t#an necessar'.
1. Unprotecte! speec$ : (pass rational basis test) %ig#ting words, #ostile a"dience speec#, obscene speec#, de%amator' speec#,
advocating violence or "nlaw%"l action I$ directed to inciting or prod"cing imminent lawless action;li6el' to incite s"c# action.
9e%inition: $ig#ting words (gen"ine li6eli#ood o% imminent violence); obscene (contemporar' comm"nit' standards:wor6
appeals to pr"rient interest @ lac6s serio"s literar', artistic, political val"e @ patentl' o%%ensive depiction o% se.;C#ild porn)
2. Commercil speec$ : 7rotected b' t#e $irst Amendment i% not %alse or deceptive and doesn+t relate to "nlaw%"l activit'.
Dovernment reg"lation m"st serve s"bstantial government interest, directl' advance t#at interest, not more e.tensive t#an
necessar' to serve t#at interest.
3. Reson+le restrints on time, place, manner o% speec# on p"blic areas: Content ne"tral as to bot# s"b&ect and viewpoint A
narrowl' tailored to serve important government interest, leave open alternative c#annels.
1 I. NON:p)+lic .or)m: onl' need be viewpoint ne"tral @ reasonabl' related to legitimate government interest.
#. 'rior Restrint : o6 i% obscenit', "nprotected commercial speec#, natl de%ense; or i% reasonable time, place, manner.
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