Globalization

ln this pockage:

1. Pre-reading activity on Globalization 2. Write-up on Globalization: What is it? What does it mean? 3. Write-up on Globalization in the areas of Trade, Finance and MNcs 4. Post-reading activity on Globalization in the areas ofTrade, Finance
M NCs

and

5. Write-up on Globalization
Tre nd
s

in the areas of Cultural and Communication

6. 7. 8. 9.

Post-reading activity on Globalization and Culture Write-up on Globalization and the Environment, Politics and Law
G

lobalization

Fact Sheet

'The Clash of Civilizations' by Samuel P. Huntington 10.'Was Samuel Huntington right after all', by Fouad Ajami, IHT

ll.Questions on 'Was Samuel Huntington right after all?' 12.'selling Globalization: The Myth of the Global Economy', by Michael Veseth'
l3.Questions on 'Selling Globalization: The Myth of the Global Economy' 14.'Cultural lmperialism: An American Tradition', by Julia Galeota 15.Post-reading activity on 'Cultural lmperialism: An American Tradition'
1.6.'Cultural Globalization', by James L. Watson, Encyclopedia Britannica

activity on'Cultural Globalization' 18.'Jihad vs McWorld'by Benjamin Barber 19.Post-reading activity on 'Jihad vs McWorld'
17. Post-reading

20.'Cyberterrorism: How real is the threat?, by Gabriel Weimann 21.'Responding to Transnational Crime', by Raymond E. Kendall 22.'G loba lization, Terror's Unwilling Ally', by Loretz Napoleoni 23.'Globalization and Terrorism', by Jamal R. Nassar 24.Post-reading activity on Globalization and Terror - DEBATE! 25.Application Question Revision

Pre-reading activity
What is globalization?
smdll oroup discussions Qn What do you think globalization is? How does globalization impact your life directly? Are there individuals in our society who are somehow not impacted by globalization? Who are they?

Qn

eliminate globalization and its influence, how would you go about doing so? What constraints would

lf we were to attempt to

Qn

lmagine a world without globalization. Would we be better or worse off? Why?

Share your onswers with the rest of the closs.

G

lobalization

1. Whot is it? Whot does

it

meon?

It involves the stretrhing and deepening of social relations and institutions across geographical boundarles such that, day'to-day aciivities are increasingly influenced by events happening on the other side of the globe. Also, the activities of local communities can have significant global reverberations
Globalization means that many chains of political, economic and social activity are becoming inter regional or inter-contin€ntal in scope. L;nkages between societies are well documented in history. The difference today is the intensification of levels of interaction and ;nter connectedess between societies. The modern global system stretches social relations through new dimensions ol activity through phenomena such as communication networks and new information technology. These differ from the historical forms o{ globalization as the networks of connections are far more extensive, far more intense and have a far more massive impact on a global scale. Globalization is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, involving diverse domains of activity and interaction, including economjc, political, technological, military, legal, cultural and environmental.

The significance of globalization differs for individuals, groups and countries. Obviously, societies that are intensely connected are sitnificantly impacted by events happening elsewhere. That said, seemingly disconnected socicties can also find themselves profoundly affected by globalization.
Globalization is rharacterised by asymmetry. Not all peopie will have similar access to global network5 and infrasiructures. At the same time, such networks have an uneqLral effect on the well being ot people, classes, ethnic groupings and genders.

2.

Trade

Giabaliictian n,as Jirst seen 6t o meoas cj decreasing the poverty icvel oJ the vlarla. By ollawing the free law aJ cheop gaods of o high quolity produced os a result of the odvontoges af moss production, if would theoreticolly allow cansumers o wider I unqe af p,adu(, < of h.qhpt quol;Iy ot lowet p]| p, The thinking was that each country could then focus on the means of production where they had the greatest comparative advantage and the movement of labour intensive industries to less developed nations with lower wage structures would increase the economic growth of these nations by providing employment at higher wages than subsistence agrlculture, the main economic activity o{ these nations. Jhis movement gained inrpetus under the direction of the World Trade Organization \\/hich encouraged barrier Jree trade on an international basis. The developed nations supported this movement as they would now have new markets for the industrial goods they produced and the less developed nations were encouraged by the rapid economic growth of the 4 'Asian ti8ers' (Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore and Taiwan) to try this route to economic development and employment opportunities.
_the
Llnforeseen results were that subsistence farmers were displaced and became slLrm dwellers in urban re8ions and the small and medium industries in the lesser developed nations were unable to compete against the cheap goods sold by the transnational corporations and the franchisees of multinational corporations based in the developed nations. Furthermore, the tax structures and environmental laws of many small countries, desperate for investment by transnational corporations, tlrere negatively impacted by Sovernments/ attempts to woo such investm€nts. ln the present economic climate, while most people a8ree that the world economy has lmproved to some degree thanks to globalization, the reality is that most people argue that this has becn at the expense of ihe quality of life of the poorest peoples ln the Third World nations and the envlronment.

3.

Finance

The exponsian of glabolfinonciollows around the warld hos been stoggering in the last ttn to fifteen years. Fareign exchange turnover is no\^/ aver a trillian dollars o tioy lhe Ja.i lttot ioda1,. cornponies can raise and invest rnoney regardless ol {:eagrophical boundories, m€ons thot we naw have o highly inteeraled internaliotlol li.tonce syster, for example, mony Chinese businesses ore listed in the Singopore :iack ExchonEc. As a conscquence, it is ihcreosinEly diff;cult Jor aounlries ta put:u€ ;rdependent fianetar.\t po!r(ies. lnevitably, manetcr)t policy must now be done (cking into octoL)nt the intetests oJ sometimes powetful Jarelgn entities investing or tc,aing capital )r a hatt covnity

The 'Asien Finencial Crisls'of 1997 and sinTilar tlnanLiai meltdowIs such as the one failowinSthe Septernber 11 :001 incident have shown that world financial nrarkets arc incxtricabl_! linked Globalization has clearly meant that whal happens in une

part of the flnancial world impacts on the rest ot the !rorld. Yet this not the greatest threat resulting trom globa i2ation The issue of speculative influences over the e(onomies of soverergn naticns wds firlt raised Dr. Mahathir N4oh:rnmed, thcn Prime Minister oI Malaysla, during the onset o{ the Atian Financial C ris is. The second and more insidious netative impact ol globalization has been lhe holdinB of small sovereiBn nations to ransom by Trans National Corporations Though China may have been the first nation to embrace Blobalization through the voyages of the admiral ChenB Ho, and the most ardent supporter of Free Trade today, Slobalization is seen as a Western policy run for the benefit of the developed nations. The transfer of technology and jobs notwithstanding, the loss of sovereign power and cultural and economic independence to the EU and the US is the main result observed in many Third World nations.

3 1 Passible Iinks between Globolizotian ond Paverty Presently, a global agenda seemingly focuses upon the possible links between globaiization and poverty, epitomized by the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000. Among the values and principles meniioned in the United Nations Millennium Declaration, the links between globalization and poverty were
emphasized:
The central challenge we face toclay is to ensute lhat globaltzation becones a postlive force far alllhe worid s people lls benefls are unevenly shared. $lhle its costs are unevenly d$lnbuted

Furthermore, in a show of unguarded cptimisrn about translnting rhetorical intentions into an operative plan for development and poverty eradicatlon, the leaders o{ the world committed themselves to the followirrg deadline:
We furlhet tesalve lo tial\,e by 20't5 lhe propanictt of the world s people \rha earn less ;itan ane dallat a day ryhc sufter han hutget and wha leck access 1() safe

This declaraticn cf good intention demonstrates, at least at the rhetorical level, that there is an emerging consensus withln the international community about the importance of the links between globalization and poverty and inequality, and that globalization should fult,ll a positive role in reducing and eradicatinB poverty. At the same time, there is a serious disagreement about whether the link between globalizat;on and poverty and inequalily is a positive or a negative one; that is, whether globalization creates more poverly or reduaes it. Moreover, ii is not completely evident that globaiization can reduce poverty. Alter all, divergent ideological, philosophical, normative, and theoretical epproaches 1o international relations and internationil political economy Benerare dil{ereni interpretations of similar {acls. The assumption that the rnvisible and polent force5 o{ Blobalization {j'rcluding markets, science, and technologv) will resolve the problems of inequ.lity and poverty is not completely reassuring, considering the lingerlng realiiy of at !east a billion peopie l;ving in absolute povefiy.

It is becoming incrcasrngly evident, both in rhetoriral ternrs and in ihe actual
practrce

.ubslanti-l lliks belween glob!lizatroir and povcrty. For insiance, the Urited Nations Development Pro8ramme (UNDP) sus8ests that colrntries should link their poverty-reliel programs not ony to their national poiicies but also to their internalional economic and financial policies. Ihus, in a world of increasrng
cconomlc integration and globalization, those links can be crucial. For instance, since the Blobal recession ln lhe 1980s it has become evident that lhere is a direct relationshlp between external debt and poverty.

of states .nd iilernalronal institutions, that ihere are tangible

and

At the same time, what remains ambiguous is the character and direction of these possible links, ultimately interpreted according to divergent paradigms of internatlonal political economy and disparate normative views, such as realist, liberal and radical viervs. For instance, the liberalview of global economic relations, based on mutual and complex interdependence, reeards international economic relations between developed and devcloping countries as mutuallV beneficial and benign. ln this view, the forces of globali2atlon will eventually stimulate the economlc growth in the developing nations, thus reducing and even eradicating poverty. ln contrast, a more radical view maintains that the global economrc relations between Northern hemisphere and Southern hemisphere are asymmetrical and approximates a type of zero sum relationship, accordiog to which the forces of
globalization exacerbate inequality and poverty.

ln logical terms, speculation on thc potential links between globalization and poverty prod uces the following ten pos5ibilities:
(a) Glaboltzotion causes ond deepens poverty; (b) Glabolization r€du(es ond even resolves the problem of poverty; (c)There is no necessary link between globalizatian and povefty; (d)Ihere is o negotive impa.t in the:hort term, tutning inta o pasitive impact an the avetallecanamy in the lang run; (e) Iher€ is a positive itnpoa:f in the shorl tenn, tuntnO tnla a rcaattve tmpoct an the cvercllercnonty in the lang Lerm; (f) there is a negalive tnpact ta a ctrtoin pa)nt, then the relationship becomes neutrol or insiq niJicont; (g) Iherc is a pasitive tff)poct ta o te.toin painl. then the rtlatianship becames n eutral or insi g n iJtca nt ; (h) Iherc is 6 neutral ar itjsignifi(ont t.lotionship ot the beginnirtg, then becomes o
pasjl ive relattonsh ip; ond

(i) Iher. is a neutral ar tnsiqniJicant r€lotionship ot the beginning, then becotnes o
n

egulive relal iaDshi p.

\l/hat s evlcenl fron all lhose possiLle permutaticns is thal the links between globelization and povert! are complex .nd ambiguous. The que<tion still remains of wheiher gicbalizatio|r promi3es to ij{t the economies of developing nations, or cxacerbaies lncome gaps within and bctween nations, or perhaps leads to both
(ontradiciory processes simultaneously. ln this sense, elobalizalion and poverty are ifterdepen.ientr B obn i.ation noi onl,,/ alfects poverty but, ln turn, poveriy might dctermlne tl-e fatc ol F oballzation.

4. Multinational Corporations
MNCs such os Nike, Sony,Ioyoto, Hondo ond Ford ore todoy a driving fotce behind globalizotion, moking warld trode ond finoncial morkets more integroted. MNCs naturally engage in Foreign Direct Investment iFDl), pLlmping money into host economies, advancing the pace of the local economy and translerring technology as well as knowledge and skills. Most MNCs are from Japan and the lJnited States (approx 89%), with about another 9% cominS from Iurope. Between 1993 and 1999 worldwide flow of FDltripled, and even in the midst of the'Asian Financial Crisis' in, FDI to the developing world was USS165 billion. long term interest in the host country and also implies that these MNCs have a profound effect on macroeconomic policy. They can respond to variations of interest rates by raising finance in the most favourable capital market. lhey can shift their demand for employment to countries that have the lowest elnployment costs. They can move their activities into the industries which give them the most benefits. The fact that MNC5 can act in these ways influences government policy and shapes economic strategles.

FDI involves

a

MNCs do more than just expand the amount of tapiial in an economy. They also increase technical skills and innovation of lhe host country. MNCs enable the local popuiation to learn business skills, such as production methods, management techniques and access to export markets. For example, if Toyota sets up a car plant ouiside of Japan, it would need to traln locals to ensure that high quality standards are retained. l{ Toyota gets a competitive advantage, the host counlries get the skills and jobs A {cw proven examples are SoLrth Korea and Singapore The economies of these two countries prospered through export drlven strate8ies that used cheap labour. This labour became skill{ul and cleative withirr a few decades. Korean firms Somsung, Kio and Hyundoi and Singapore's Creot;ve ate a few examples of 5Lrccessful local companies

It is however not uncommon to hear accusations thai MNCs are th€ new coloni2ers of the modern era, exploiting incentives designed to attract FDl, and cheap local labour. ln these .ases, the MNCs are not perceived to be Sivin8 ba.k to the local econorny ano generally not seen to be improving thc lives of their local workers. BLrreaucratic corruptlon and poor enforcement of local trade, Iabour and taxation pollciL's could be a possible reason for ihese so'called 'neo colonial' MNCs As a fesult, oniy a lew members of the elite actuallv benefit (personally) from the presence of these \4NCs. Also, poor standards cf €:ducation, traininB and people to developmenl amongst the local population may render it very ditlicult for '\4NCs translcr knowledge, skills and iechnology. lnevita[riy, the MNCs mLlst then rely l)eavily on expatriate manpcwer and the localg contir'ue to perceive lhemselve5 a5 a
poor and exploited underclass.

Post-reading Activity
Examining globalization in the areas of Trade, Finance and MNCs
Brainstorminq
ln small groups, come up with lists of real life examples of globalization in the areas of (1)trade {exchange of good and services), (2)finance (movement of capital) and {3)MNCs (businesses setting up factories and offices in countries other than the country of origin)
Share your lists with the class and collate your findings. When the list is complete, examine your examples and determine if globalization was beneficial to all parties in each example. lf certain parties were disadvantaged, who were they and why were they on the losing end?

What conclusions can we draw from this exercise?

Essov ptonnino exercise

Mindmap sn essay plan to the following questions:
-'Globalization only benefits the rich' Do you agree? -'The rich become richer and the poor become poorer'. Comment. -'The nation state is irrelevant today'. Do you agree?

5. Cultural and Communication trends
Evidence aJ qlabalizotion in this damoin is complex ond dtfficult to document. However, same trends ore cleoly observoble. English has become the daminont

longuoge oJ elites, business, camputing, low, science ond palitics. The internotionolisolian ond globolizotion ol telecommunicotions hos been extroordinorily ropid, os seen in the grawth of internotianal telephane trofJic, tronsnotionol coble links, sote!lite Iinks and the lnternet. substontiol multinationol medio canglomerotet hove developed ond TV has been trcnsnotianolised. Citizens' volues ond judqements ore naw influenced by o camplex web oJ notionol, internotionol ond qlobol cultural exchange. The copocity oJ politicol leoders to sustoin o notional culture hos become morc diJlicult. Far exomple, Chino h6 not hod extroordinory success in restricting the impoct af the lnternet an its domestic paliticsOften touted as wesiernization or Americanization, globalization has been regarded by many as an act of the West in imposing its cultural superiority on other less powerful nations. Aided by increasing technological advances in communications (transport, infrastructures, telecommunications networks and the World Wide Web), the impediment of geographical distances and national borders have vastly been reduced as an obstacle towards social interaction at a world wide level The phenomenon of the 'shrinking' state of the world where hLrndreds of kilometres are bridged by thc nlere click of a button through the internet or a mere day's flight frorn Iasl to West has led renowned theorists such as Ma.shall McLuhan to coin the phrase "Erlobol villoge" - a word that aptly illustrates ihe present conditions of the \ /ay we cu rrenlly live.

Nevertheless, globallzation should not be seen as something new or recent as since time pa5t, different individuals have embarked on the euphoric ambition of LinitinB the worlC under one particular order. ln fact, the<e previous efforts have historically eslab!shed certain lmportant foundational fundamentals that have paved the way Jor globalization to successfully take place. One such example ls the British colonlzation of most parts ol the world, r,rhere in thal process Entlish was instituted as lhe linguo Jronco of trade, eovernment and livinB. [ver since, English has become thc world s most lmportant language despite ihc small ratlo of people in the world who actually possesses the prowess and abilitv to applv the language. La.guage inevitably becomes a platform where culture is lransmilied to those who are instructcd ln that very langun8e which is taught. learnt for the purpose of lrade and communication wlth those in power, English ns a domlnanT !anguage therefore €xerts its '.,/ay of living over other \treaker nations Tele.ommunicetion technoioeres such as the telev;sion and the World Wide Web (not aoincidenlaliy discovered and invented bV the ciominant Western nalions) thu\ bring to those who own .ny of these technologies, some form ot culture that originates from the West. lhe hegemony of thc film industry or more specilically ljolywood attests to the dominance of Western ideology in the world, as tilm conglomerates such as ti,<ney, Poramauna Pictures ond lJniversal Studios spread lhe American way ol living and the Am€ncan Dreotn to cinemas worldwide. likev,,ise, subtly lhtough M]v, Grey's

cultore tor a globali5ed world Nonelhele5s, lo merelV c aim I hat America muscles its cuiture over other nations through the use oi media and its telecommunications ndustries is to'bllndsight'the (or:_pl-"xity ofthe phenomencn lhat is globelizatron

Employing simllar technological means, other nations have subverted the use of such telecommunication technologie5 to re a5sert and pre5erve their cultures from the onslaught of the West. Using similar channels, globalization has unwittingly enabled for example, national cinemas slch as Bollywood to develop as a Blobal industry and eventually allowing it to receive acclamation and recognition worldwide as it does in this present day Nonetheless, the preservation of lndian culture through Bollywood cinema remains a largely hybridized form as the transmission of lndian culture is largely enabled through the translation of the Hindi language into English subtitles Jor all to gain access into that particular culture's traditions and forms. The access, ;n other words is limited. Neverihele5s, this i5 but one example out if many of intercultural exchange - a field of study that is gainrng significance in the realm of academia. Globalization has effected a remarkable change in the way that we live whether throueh the way we communicate or in the wav that we have come to understand our existence through the different mediums that we increasingly interact with daily. lt then remains to be seen, how the nebulous and complex notion that is globallzation willcontinue to alter the ways rn

which

we llve and

communicate with one and another

in afast

becomrng

'trorderlPss'world

Post-reading activity
Exploration activity on globalization and Culture

that five alien beings land on earth. They are instructeC to learn different languages to facilitate communication with the inhabitants of our planet. The first learns English, the second French, the third German, the
lmagine

lourthArabir and Lhe last MdnC.rin.
What cultural attitudes and habits might the five aliens develop as they learn these languages? What m;Bht be their attitudes to social and political
issues?

5. Tl-|e

Envlronment

Ihe environnent itselJ is inherently globol, wilh lile sustoining ecosystems ond watersl)eds Jrequently crossing notionol baundories; oir pollution maving ocrass entire continents ond aceans; and a single shored atmosphere praviding climote protection ond shielding us Jrom horsh UV roys. Monitoring ond respanding ta environmentol issues frequently provokes a need for coardinated globol or regionol governonce. Mareaver, the enviranment is intrinsicolly linked to econamtc development, providing notural resources thot fuel gtowth ond ecasystem services
thot underpin both liJe ond livelihoods.

The environment impacts the pace, direction and quality of globalization. This happens because environmental resources provide the fuel for economrc globalization. The environmenl and globalization are so intrinsically linked, they are so deeply welded together that we simply cannot address the global environmental challenges facing us unless we are able to Lrnderstand and harness the dynamics of Blobalization that influence them. By the same token, those who wish to capitalize on the potential of globalizaiion will not be able to do so unless they are able to irnderstand and address the great environmental challenges of our time, which are part of tbe context within which globalization takes place. The newly prosperous as well as those who have been alfluent for much longer will now have to come to terms with the limitations ot lhe ecological space in which both must operate and also v,/ith the needs and rights of those who have not been as lucky.
Fbr example, higher demand, growing prices and dwlndling stocks are already propelling new races for contro over key reso0rces The race is now on not just for oil, but for metas, minerals, timber and even for recyclablc waste. For many developing countries endowed wlth critical resources in high demand, this provides an opport'unity to harne5s the power of globalization and pull themselves out of poverty. At the same time, poplllations dependent on the extraction or exploitation of nitural rescrurces, or on natLrral systems and e.osystem services, could lose their llvelihoods as local sources are depleted ({isheries, forests etc.i or degraded (soil lnferriliry) Environmental degradation could also impacl global productivity through damaBe5 io hcalth Derreased environmental stability will create more hostile conditions for econornic 8ro\,!th and also"place new pressures on international cooperation.

Climale change is the ultimate threat to Elobal security because it can threaten security at cvery level fronr ihe individual to the planetary. Climale change related sea ievel rise and agricultural disruplion could cause 150 million environmental reiugees in thr year 2050. The death of low-lving coastalstates and chan8es in their economic zones and maritime boundaries mav cause lurther instabilily. Ihree key security challcnges in the context of climaie change are water scarcity, food shortages and disrupted access tc strateBic minerals such as oiJ. Historirally, these have been ihe cause of violence and war !nvironmental stress unleashed bv potential climate change couid lriBBer international migration and possibly civil vr'nr5. ln fragi e aircumstances, envirofmenlal 5tre5s coold act as ;n additional

lr.

destabilizing
socrai facl
a]l

la(tor

exa.,orbatin€l ronfIct as

it

ccrmbincs w]th

olher polilical and

!

7. Politics and Law
T.l GlobolGo\)ernonce
in between o vost orroy of internotionol orgonisotions set up to manoge ond arder whale oreos af tronsnotianol octivity (ttode, the aceons, space etc.) and collective policy ptoblems. Newfarmsaf multinotianol arganisations hove been formed which involve collective decisicn making by governments, internotionol qavernmentol argonisotions, internatianol non-gavernnentol argonisotians ond transnotionol pressure groups This has helped engender o shift owoy from o purely state centred internotionol system. Two oreos praloundly oJfected by this (vis o vis the events al September 1:l), orc notianal secu ty ond
The sovereign stotes now sits

Globalization has drastically transformed the nature of the international system and made the world an increasing economically, politically and socially inierconnected place. Civic lnteractions are no longer restricted to the community ievel and are occurring globally with a degree and intensity never seen before in history. lndividuals from every remote corner of the globe can now quickly reach around the world and access others who have vital inlormation or know-how. All told, globalization has made it clear that intra community ties are but one of many forms of civic en8a8ement that must be simultaneously nurlLrred in order to ensure proper economic and politjcal development. The roles and efforts of lGOs {lntcr tovernmental organizations) and NGOs (Non'governmental ortaniuations) have therefore become increasingly important.

vital new resource {or giobai mobllization, lGOs and NGO5 such i:s the Uniled Nations, lMF, World wildlifc Foundat on and Greenpeaee play an irnportant rolc. in looking inio the wel{are of lhe world as a wholc Rcali?ing lhat the actions and reactions ol ea(h ndividual country has in tLrrn dra5tic repercussions for the rest of the world in ierm5 of €conomic and environDenta stability, these or8anizations therefore work towards bringing a world view towards pollution, poverty and polilical iurmoil in the various developing.ountries. taking a bi8 piclure approach, 'the-!e organizations navigate the vagaries o{ national pollcies and inciividual political intcrests in these counlries in ordel to ensure that the world may remain sull ainab e for future gen€rations.
As a 7.2 Terrorism

lerrorist groups are themselves now truly globalised movemcit5 l5li:mic terror st. ln particular, operate, raise {unds {largely through illegal activities and businesaes wllh legilimate Jronis), train end plan attacks in several different countrjes, usrng agents of verious nationalities, thelr only link being ideologicel symmetry. Te.hnology is often harnessed to communicate clandestinely or to spread their

tl

rclcology. the atsents used in the September :i1 attacks were from Saudi Arabia, the Unlted Arab Imirates, Egypt and lebanon Post Sepiember 11, anti terrorism effort5 ignrnst Al alaeda have seen the groLrp's'actlvitics in Western countries severely dirninished. However, this has brought about the advenl of loosely organized groups lvhich swear allegiance to Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, though not formally linked to the group or even aware of the existence of other similarly autonomous terrorist groups. The July 7 2005 London Bombings were carried out by British born Muslims of Pakistani origin that were not believed to be connected or formally operating under the leadership of Al Qaeda. As terrorism becomes borderless, nations must adapt their responses to terrorism accordingly. As such, intelllgence and law enforcement agencies must work hand in hand with one anolher. To illustrate, one possible scenario of a terrorist attack is an attack by a ship on a petroleum or petrochemical processing area near the sea. lhe scenario has the bomb'laden ship hittinB the petroleum processing area, creating a catastrophic explosion which could release many harmful substances into the atmosphere, endangering the local population and perhaps even the population of neighbouring countries. When preparing for such a scenario it is necessary to involve many different elements from the local security establishment. These could include the port authority, the maritime aulhority, coast guard and other elite police units as well as military experts on bomb disposal and the removal of hazardous materials and pollution.

order to counter the ease with which terrorists may be able to move across borders, local and foreign intelligence and security elements must work in tandem, sharing information and offering cooperation. For example, several intelliBence services rnay need to share in{ormation in order to piece iogether ihe identity and lo€ation of a parti(ular terrorist. Th€y may also need to work in tandem \,",,;th local police, immlgrrtion and customs officials. When lndonesian lemaah l5lamiyah (closely linked to Al Qaeda) leader Hamball was arrested in August 2003 in Ayutlayn, Thailand,,the intelligence servires of Tharland and the US had worked .loselyto ocate and capturc him. l-le was exlradited to the US as he was deemed a mor:e valuable asset to US anti terrorism investigations. Hambali used a fal5e 5panish pa5sport to enter Thailand.

ln addition,

jn

Sources

. . . o

E

ncyc lopedia Britannica, 2007

The Incvclopedia Halle

of Earth ionline). Articles by Adil Najam, David Runnalls and Mark

Ihe American Chronicle {Online): MNCs and Economic Globalization by Tanv;r Orakzai Democracy and clobalization by David Held

l'-

:€L.$_F-fqLlz.erl$-11__fil

J*"lt€4f

iechnology a!-e t,i'omotiir(l this rrend by reducing the b:rri€rs of tii-ne and distarice. Sijclt ad'rnnc€s !nclude the Internet, cell phones, and sateilite TV. in tcday's !li.haiiz*d world, an e-mail ser'lt ihousencis oF injies away arriycts and is a,-tswered in Seccnds. A cly for assistance from one cor.Jiltry can rllc:i heip the next day irom d.rze s cj'othi.rs. In short, ,,{herc people locat--d is less impodant than their ability "!-e to comfilunical€ and r',/ork iogether. In the prccess, people, aompanies, and countries exchange goods, money, and ideas faster and cheaper rhan eyer irefore. \4hat they produce may be ccnsumed in a nearby town. Or it may be traded across ihe world.
FOSXTIIiE lMPAC-]*', . new jobs, irriusiries (€.g. industrielizatjon in China, cell se.'/rces outsourcing to Indjal " i.:chnojc'ji. iiailstitr in iess de'l€loped .:{rUitiiles {ccni;ute;haidr.'.;.:i.; ir Tal',?;]l-r, South Korea. scfiwari: jnc!st;-r' : Ela n ga !ai!';, jrrd ia,1 ' greeter'/;ii€i'/ oi p!"Qriucis for the ccnsunlers (foc.J prcdu.ls oijl oi season) " lcr,ier irria€s ior- ccr:sumer goods (resull of ecoitornies of scale) . ccnsistency in qr:Jl:ti/ oi p!-oducts (Standarciized mrriLlfactured qoods) . encouiaq-es jnaiiviijlel rights, freedom of p!-ess ilnd ether demcciatic pi-ocesses {sei-, China, South Kc}reajGives lndivi'Juiti-qthe chance to interact internationally, especialiy " wiih uii€ arf rnoderr] cflr.ni-nufiications teahnolcgy_ NEGATIVE IMPACT ' Can cause structural nemployment (native hand-made textiles lose cut to air$fa(:tirreC textiies in African and Asian nation:) " Cnn wipe olti ihe !i',/elihood of smail farmers, entiepieneurs, srnali io irlediu'n businesses unable to con",peie .ljith t,iuli:iNational CorporationsIMNCs] and hypermarkets

GlqltlalizatiDn is 3 trend ioward greater interartion and interdependence aixong the teop!e, ccmfianies, crga!-lizalior]s, and acuntaies af ihc !,,icrld. ,ldvance:r in communicati$ns and information

. Gives an unfair advantage in

advanced/developed countries over lesseT developed countries, making worse the rich-poor gap. [See North South expansion of divide, destruction of the economies of sub-Saharan African nationsl It has led to a period of rapidly increasingly income and

certain areas

to

^ ' '

wealth inequa!ities bo r within individual naiional econornies and societies anci within the global population as a whole. Local cultures ere replaced by a unilorm and single cultu.e, dictated by the same poweful corporations that contro! the global e-conomy ll'icDonaldizatlonl Production oi gocds is contracted to under-paid wcrl.:ers !!ho may be assembliflg cornplriers but do flct !,now bc\,v io operate them and cennot afFord thern for person;rl use. lchina, Vietnam] Brain drain \fiestern nations a magnet for tl:e jrtelliqentsia of

lesser developed nations, thus draining them Gf skiiled prof€ssionais necessary for their econoffiic, social and political

development.
The term "Gtobalizati6n" became popular in the 1990's. Bui many of its features are not newT particularly the iendency lor people and countries to trade and invest. For thousancis of years, people--ancl, later, compa ies--iraded across great dist;nces, For example, Curing the Middle Ages {500-1500), traders iraveled the faned Silk ff.oad ihat connected China and Europe. Likelvise, for centu.ies, peopie and corpoaatic.rs iilvesie{l in ventures in other ceuntries. The rnodefn age of Glolraliz?tion gre,Jv out 6i the lnrju:;i'-i:i Ret,ilutiori

[{r5T@nY

it iillssible to manulacture large quaniilies oi goods iaster and cheepcr" Trains a d steara-powered iloats tr3nsported goods farther and faster than ever before, Between ihe
iaie 1800's and 1914, the first era of modern Globaljzaiion, irad€ ltrevt guickly, as did tlre pace at wl'rich companies iflvesi:ed abro.Jd. t'eople were also on the move. About 10 percent of the i,/orld's populatiorl moved from ELJrope anci other parts ol the wo.ld to i-eside in oLher
countries,

cf ilre 1700's and 1800's. ii transiormed the ;Srii:ullr.lra! s.lcieiies cf soi e c{luntri€s, iirciucing tire Uniied Stai€s and Enqlairij, into mod?rn jndustrial ones. Steam- and yrater-powered rraahines iransiorrned
production, -ihe)/ made

In the second era oi modern Globalization, from 1950 to 1980, many countries open€d their €conomies to trade and investment lrom other countries. They participated in international agreernefiis- An exarnple is the Generat ,Agreernent sirr Tariffs and Trade {GAT-I-), which regulated trade among countries. (GATT later became the World Trade Organization, or WTO.) Governments also created organizations, such as the World tsank and the International Monetary Fund. These organizations encouraged countries to open
their economies to trade and investment.

technoloqy and ciher factors, Better informaiion and communications technologies dre making it easier for cornpanies lo operate internationally. Using Internet technology, lor sxample, they can aitract, rea{--h, and serr'e ntore ausiollrcrs, e.ten those in distant couniries. GJobai coi-ripirn;es locate and hi.e €rnplo./ees w.hilrever good opportuniiies ari:je, regardless oi $/here thal mily ile. fhe'y' te!-id lo locaie the:l op{-'iai:ior'rs r'lhere production costs, inclijding salaries, are io\,!'. frnnsferi-inr; itlrsi i]ss frot one locatiofi io .irother io take 3dvantage oi lowcr f,csts is called offsl]aring" lt afld oiher forns of Globalizaa;on er€ causing some countries to los€ iobs. In contrast, cther countries, pa[icu:erly sorne deveioping o es, are !]ainir]g them. In addition t.r t-.eneiiiing companies, new technologies are also helping individuals. For example, people with Internet access can shoit, bank, cr work for .l cclnlpany thousands of miles alvay wiihout iheir
homes.
C{JLT4JRflA- } }'4 i:

Since 1980, Globalization has quickened, driven by aclvances

in

'eaving

,

"

. '

!-lttl!3: McDonaldizaiion - Ev€rywltere in the yJorld peop,e shcp in simiiar mells, ilai the sarre chicken nugg3ts at l4cDcnald's restaurants, drink :ii!rlLlcks cotfee" 1\ta[ch tfle ho,.'iesi l',i 5hcw:] cr ahe ultjmrri: Iia!;iylvci'ril tliockbi_tster, or listen tc lhr iaiest report irom ll-"rit laui.: ne:rys chanriels. The arq l.r,erjt is l,irat iiie US culiure ar,d .+i.r.rmeicial interests are dorniniliinE thn wclrld ecoronry <1n.j {,feai.ing ;n consurn€r culture. Loss of Uoi{:iu€ness/icj€ntity - culture! glob;llizatjon does not weicolne diversity. Independent shops are replaced lly chain stores and "cptions ior unbranded alternaiives, for open debate, criticism and uncensored arl-for real .-hoice--are facinc n€w and onrinou: rastrictions." lTheodore Leviti's essay "The Globalizaticn of Markeis."l Thus wherever yor are in ah€ ],!orld, you are rnore likeiy lo buy/uJear or use a siendardised product than a prcdiJCl unlque,t iraditional, represenlath/e of your locale. Creation of an elite uber-culture shared by the international super-rich - i.e. race or nationality is secon.lary to those w;th sufficient i'Lrnds to ignore social conventions, religion and law. The terrn 'Davos cuiture' is used to refer to lhis group. The cre.]tion of ll.le trallsnitior]al 'guest'y/ork--is l,'Jho bring their food, cuiture and sociai norms to Western nations.
H R 1}.,

1T RESEAR.CH SOI..|R,CE5: 1Weiner. Rebecca. "Globalization. " The New Book of Knowledge@,

2007. Grolier Orline.

2.

<http://nbk.grolier.com. libproxy.nlb. gov.sg/cgibin/article?assetid=a2041728-h >. Kitching, Gavin. "Globalism and Globalization." Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics. Ed. Carl Mitcham. Vol. 2. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 874-a77. Gale Virtual
Reference Library. Gale. <http ://qo.galegroup.com. libproxy. nlb. gov.sg/ps/start.do?p=GV RL&u=sgnlb>. Prono, Luca. "Anti-Globalization." Encyclopedia of Politics- Ed. Rodney P. Carlisle. Vol. 1: The Left. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Reference, 2005. 2B-31. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. <http ://go.galegroup.com-libproxy.nlb.gov.sglps/start.do?p=GV RL&u=sgnlb>. "Globalization, cultural." Encyclooadia Britannica . 2OO7. Fncyclopaedia Britannica Online Library Edition. <l,t!p_:/iibrarv",eb.com. jboroxv. nlb.oov.sq/eb/article-22499 1 >
I

3.

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ard

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l.j iD i,andrenronirrr. r.h poltrrizrd scenaros
;he rrro suspenttrd

in

.

The Clash of Civilizations'i

I

liurnucL P. f luni.ingtott

'ss consplrc io underpossibilirv ot a global

n tillcs nrd
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a

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Ljnndkrterr) cortrol

e io 1l)osc lvlto conrrol

The

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rr

nqsle between ]ihad

.irrrisr, postindus
ire renninalty

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;s crLering a n.}\'phnsc, rnd ;rr.llecruriis }tr.r. ror h,-s;rired ro proljfc. irhrL it wili be - rh. cLl.l of hn(xr, thc rLr;D oi trrdiri(nnl rivrtjr.s betwe.n natjorr riaics, arrrl thc <ltriirc ol tht nrtion sl:rr. tronr ihe conflii:{inrl pLrIs 01 f.ilalisrl 2rld globaljsnr. ?n4ns oiiers. lr.h of lhcsc 'jlir.Js .nt.hes aspi:c$ oa ihrl c reri,i.g r..lin Yci thr! ail miss..r .ial, irci:cri a ..nrraL, arp..l oi lvirar glob l poliri.s js lileir 1o Le io rhc .onlnril yerrs11ir nrv hypodr.sis lliit ih. ilxirrJr.rntrl s,)u.e oi.o;ri.liilnr rh;sr.1! r.r;ll 'vo d rnn b. pr;n)::rilr ideclo:r;.i:l or prnnirih .cononi.. The lterr ili!!stors ,ilo::1r l.,u rr-;n. lirnd .Dd the rioni.urli.! soirLcc ol ,ro lict lrilJ b. .uirlLiJ. N-xtiol sri.cs lvi rerl:rnr the rn.st !r(rL.r1iil i.iors i]l wcrl.l .ifiirs, L!i1 rlr. pr'r.irri c('Iil !.rs .t !toi).1 roiirics

Worl(] tnrlitics

arc visions of

'vi

r'.,,,.'

...-.i. :....,cnr,. rtr.r: :r,..,:t\ slrcngll and, mrst jniD(rrini. the icrriror,l th." rnled lIt ll,. proces-\ ti,.v crert(:.t nnlion::riics, ind bis;onjng \,iijr thc lrrlrcl tiei.olutjol ihc frnr.jl,-!t lin.s of.onfti.r '..r. b 'h...,..,,.r ,'herr'..ny|rr. i. t:,,....: , t,, -r. ,, t'., v, -'<ir;. L'r n,r''h, .'i''. ...t .p,1'.J F.i,,r. lhr. ',, ', .. , rr ,, , . n r p"rr.rr ' lasled uniil the cnd oflvorld War I. Ttren, as n rcsdtt ofrhe tirdsian i{ei,olirtion an<l lhe rea.tiorr rgajnsr ir, dr. .orfl;n of naridrs I'j.jd.d tc tic (onflirl ot: iitc.tosies, irst enrur conmunisrn. l:s.isni Nrzisnr ari.l litrert,i ilrDra.r.rry, irf.i rl)c, bctwecrr
,

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.

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basis

f0. idcnri

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Ciriiizat;rJD

io

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sh.teal in

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n J.ftr.nr .,

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are ncr

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In the past,
hu!sr,.rnd hld

1

more lirndarnenrnt thrD diffecnces rn:onq

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rrs brtween p.oplts

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. . ,,. ,:,; ,. . . . . ;,. ':r rlle rertrtio,s ps rr€ beiDg rev.rs..i. .i .1r 1..i:t.rnj...i ir ard iaij ll::::-11:.,: leir:ail.n .i I is..c!rri!3 r,vcster..ot '''''''.,. . ...,,trr.r.,rr,,-,tn,,,t.,,,,,..,,,.,,
in

ln rL' frsr' rhir of''an wesrcfn :;Lrci€ii.rs iger c riuil!,; rrr. !r.r)irr. \.lrii r.rc rn'sr io/ol.;.d \.irir'irif\ \visl, ba{i bcel c.1ir.ared.r rirc {)rrorlt, ih: s,,,t,.1,..,,. s",,i .1, ,, . \4, .,,r/r,;luo

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pdc..rrxn,ir)ali :gtneraies hastiiin 1.' inrnigrntion bv

r rir.iy to Japarese
:-.r couDt.ies. sirni, rn Owcrri tbo or an b sirl'll lrL lbo.
Lcia.l;ons arnoD!:

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tlatitb ,,fF!.oircrrt .utn,re ii,ici r.V.jsi.rll Cbisri.rnin,. rhe succcss or rtu r.r.;;, ,r,;.;; lan lrrec-I*de Are. iLfends on rtrc r:o.rcr5encr . o', .nder !!,ia o1.Mer(ic.r1, .:,ralt;.rn

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b.! Turkey, rakisr,:n anci rran, js the rcatirj,.,, Ll.,t," ,.,,i"." oi sevcnl of ttrse cqrrtrier rh.rr rtre)_ had no chance oi ad.ri:jsiorl to ,h" ;,,.;; ..,,,,,,dn,.....,,,ir..,,,,,,,,u,,,..r,..,r,,,,.,r

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truild. b.o.dcr Ltrribbea;
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,

i')rdrer Sovicr Unio,r Dernrirs rra(titional cttrnic ide.ritics .i1d

iI , ,,,,. ,,.,.,1 ) cthni. . -,_,..,r_.".r,..,,,,ithei,rrc ..; :; ;. srr .; i . .l flnrr.F ,' r;, ,. I-, x r.t.,,r,jrr."rr .J.r.,.lj,Jr jrn,,.,.:,,,
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nr.nt. (;.ogripirlcal I,ropin.luit,v gives rjsc to conili.Ling territori:rl .hirs tront Boroii 1o i\1ir.]ar o. i\'1ost inrpo.trnt, lhc cftiir$ ofrfi. Wesr io p.ornorc its valu.s ofdenr). cr rrLi lii,crali$n as uriwisrl '4lucs, to maiDt.iji ;ts milirary pr.d,rnrinlnce ro(j lo a.lvanir jrs ..ar !nn i. ;rtercs ts engeD d.r .oun ir-ring rcsporses fronr other .;vilirr ric,ns. tl.....ringh abl.: 1o nic.t,jlizi support ind lorri cotlitrDs on rhc basis of i(lcolo.gl, gov.rnrxcrrr rrd gturps i/ill nr.rr:rslr-sh iitcrnpt r0 rnobilize sut)irc,r bv appealj g . .r - '. ,t,r',r ,',''., i ..r,,,.nL I \ Tlr(.irsL 'ri iiviliT.iioiri llrui oc.ur,i ar trso [:vrls. ir t]ri nri.io l$"-.i, rliircc:Lr grrqrs rl,rr| th. ia!lt l;r!s Lctrr.c! .iviliz.riions sr.ugg;.. .hen !tr.cr ih. 'i.,1.'rlt,v, .onlrol of 1rrrit.ry iId c::.h .rtli.r. Al iire l]li.ro kvcl, -rt.irts ff'nr (tithrenr cililizr

rh. iar. DiltcrcDces in .ulture and r.ligxm .r.ati di1li'rcnccs ovcr folicy issu.s, rzllrgii! irolr hunan rglts to inrnigntxln to ir.dr iril conmertt to rlre crviur

Korg, laiws:r,
lrgi.rldift€renccs,

ljors.r)jlt.cte 1tr rctrtirc Dliiirery.n{l e.()non}jc tarer,:rruggli ot,cr thc c{JDrroi o1 int.rx:1il.r,i3I iinitrlions aId i|ir.l fa.ties, iJ!d .onp.ritiv.iy pror11.te rhcir parr;.ular polnl.i:'l 2r.i k-lirirr!s \llu.s.

'fhe lrault l-ines berwren Civiliations
.:j',"1 buun/ (tdd war h€gan itri,rs nilie rloja \\ixr.s ihc tash poir)ts tor crisis and trLonlsh(d. Tlrr . ir.,r ' tI',,". p, l r...rl .'i .r ol,.;.rl \ L,( , o'.r r\.. .ndr,i {ith th. urii 01'1lre lron Curranr. As rhe jdeolryicd dir.isiou ofELrropc h:rs dis apptrrcrl, rirt culrrinl diljs;on of FluroD. ber\.reerr Western {tl]rjsrinIlirr., on rhe on. irarrJ. ilrrd Orrll.riox Clrristiaiit) and lsiam, oll ihe other, his reen)efgcd- The Do:t !ignjlr.i)it ,lilnlirr-s l;n. ji Eur:pe, as'n illia1l] 1,!"llr.. ir.s sus:jesied, v;.ll b€ th. 'ur_! lisi:r ! in.lt:r-r.or lteslcn Ch[siiar]ir.r i rli.]i.r 150rr. lbis li'1. ruls along Ntni ur .o,t +;. '..nadari.s l).irlecn |irlai(i nnd ii,rssir 2Dd Liil'een th. ]lxlri. sirtet alld iiLrsri:i, .ul,i rir1.n,il llcl.rls dnd U1 ;r). scfardt4g +,e rlore r-;rlLrli. Fesrcr]r ii(rrD:. ira]n {,rl'i|1rrllr-\:..slerr Uii.ire, s$.ugs {ts.'rr2rci scparrriril l'rNsvh,anir ,toro ilt re5i {n li.ir.2tr'r, ard then goes ihrolgh .i ogr-.la vja airosl .-!.tlv along the iir. .!.{ s.rrr.ii!3 i-ro.iia an.t S{oae|ja fronr thr rcsi ci}Lg.rsli:rii. In rhe SnlKant flii:r :inr, {rlr.in!|l.. .ol'l.iiirs r|iih rhe Iistori. bourlJil. ha11r€en iire Eapsburg arci lltfuRn rFroir'ls lhe ecapics 1.) tire rortl rnd r.n rt diis linc rrc l)rotesrant or i-alix)ii.; rL.:i sj!.rr.(i tilc col]ln.)Jl eaprricrtc4 ot lurope.1n hjsror letuialjsn, rhe rr,. r,....r.rJ.iorj t1. lIr:h,.1, trtr",l ri,...,t,. r.r,t,. ti ;.ri ;i. rohlii,rr I Lltry ar. g€n err]]r c.o noDicrilv b.$ef oiTt]rd the F.oJt.s ro tIL.:rusi; and tirr; rnaY r,,'rr |rok lor'r)ril to inoeaslrg itMlrclridrl ir ]:urofc.tn ^.crrJnon ,r.(I(,r'r !ICl 10 tit. ,.insoli.lxrion of d.rro.rttric I,.Jliricnl j)stems. ihi r\,opt.s Lo ih. eirst !r)d south .)irhis l]lr. dr. {).thodoa or tlloslim; ihtl, Iistoricnttv beloDged ro ttic l)Ltonrxn or fsarist cr)rpir€J and lvere only lightly rooched hy ilre shrping evenrs nr rhc resi ofluropej tlrc.v ere generally less aLlvanced e.ononical\'; rhc,v s.elr much less iili.ir t.,le.llop st:ibL denccr:irii poliLical slsrems thel'c1,r.1()nlli;*oi.!tfr.. tr.s r.pji.rd tl. lrol {-urrxio oiideol(}gl is th. mosr silrrilj.lnl dilrii!re:lhtl in ijurop,-. is ihr .'.err u \ ugoslilix sho\!. it is n.,r onl), I linr oa L{i1f{renc,ri ilj! it5o /,. ixnes

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(loFlli.t riorlg thc lalilt lnir hcr{er \lrestror and Ishtnjc .iejliziti., s }rls 1\r€rl lloiDg ;x lor 1,100 Iciir. Aliir rh. ic.r,rlnrg oi lslard, Ihe Arxb xn.t Nlo.rrish si,.:t. r,:sl irid ii(r h onh .ni1.i.r 11nrrs in r32 Froj]r thc cltverth to th. thi rrLcn th ..ntri ir. ''.. ' ,,' " "' ll.t..l ' 1.,1' ',r'ir .' .r'.,|rlv ".r' h '\,r', flr1e io rtic iloly lird l-iori! th,r l:,;rrric|r! i{! ihe irirent.inth cerrtut, th. OinDrrt t r.!risc.i 1h. Ljrlan\:r, cnt.n,i((l th€ir su'ar over the Mi.idle ljtrst a d the L\:rlhrrs. 'rrks .ipiurcd l](]n-ct rliloltc, rnd rivite laid si.se tD Vienni. ln ttre njnetcenih arld L,rjt srenti.th cntrrrj.s rs Otloilitn roir.r decliJred Britain, Ir.rn.r, rDd lhl! .r:lablishld -lveste;D ontrol o.rci rn.sr oaNorth,rfrictr .nd thc LIi.tdle East. Aii€r Worl.l Wir jJ, rhe \i./esr, jn ilrrn, b.gan to r.ireaL rhe coloniil emt)ire5 disrt pcrred! }lLst,\rab ,)urio'r,rii:.rl r.l thrr Ijl.d,ic tuB.lafi€Dralisjn nr.lnifiried rh.r'r sel'/cs; ilre W est t)c.arn e ilr.ri'ili tlep,i.l.. r on ihe Prrsiix! culi:co'.r uiesforirse|.fij1..i Ihe oil ri.h Mrrsiirn cr)oirlrics L..enxi non..; d.h,nd,Nlte theywished to, !vc.t-.ols ricil. S|vcrrl \rars o..i!rrcrt i)nl'ecn arri lsrael (crerted Ly the l!rtsi:). l:i'n.c '\.al-.r foughr a bloocly ul nithl.-"s ir.rr i;r ,llceri;i ibr most ofth. 1950s; BritisL and li.ncii tor.cs u..,adcii iglpr in l9:i6r.lnr,r1,:.n iot.c! ,rerr !]t.r l.tlr^noD in lt5li; nrk..tlr.rtii ,\ntri.or aorcci r,::'.rnr.:i rr 1.aL;ro;r, ,:ilicktd Libyr, rncl eDgagetl ;r 1a n]!s n iji laif enco rrer wiii I r r; ra; r ;1.i l sl iic r.rrori$s, s pponed b.r ar l.xs1 l hr,r r l{iddi. tlastern gocernne|rs- eji:.].v..1 th. !rju1)on aithe rveak ard boDb.d \\r.-!r.r il plar* acd ilsr:,llanr,rs rn.i jeized ','i'.s terr h.rsttiges. Th;s 1v!lfar. b.t"!e.D Ar.rbs 1.d t|c \{esl .uln;Jrated in 199.r- \el.r lhe ljnitd St.i:s seDi x tnassive arm.i tr, th.
r

rh,:

Ul'l S.r.trity

.

r'J

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rltcfinaih N,\'IO plrnn;Jrli js !r.rt:]!;rglt drr.,1.J to potenfiai rhreals ari(1;rsiubjiin :rl.Dg its 'sortLcrri ricr. This.cnrn.i.s old nilikr'; i|rlilr.tion b.firecr tllr Wcst d..l lshD is llrlikciv t{) c..l;.e- {t.oul.t b.o0e n rr. ..irf,lei1r. 1Le {iiiliwlr lcfi sone ,{nbs leciing prod{l thet Sddan lfussein hld Nrii.l...i lsricl fird srco{t up io rhe West. It iiso ielt D. rt ieetin:r ]tu il;ated rnd r.s!:iiirl oi tir \V.-{is rnil;r.rv pres€llce jn 1be Persi.n culf. thc \\csls ovcrwhclrn;)g rihtu) ,lornBatr.e, aird thejr orlJl rpparcilt inabil;i!. io
shapethcir derrnry. N{ary Arah count.ics, in addition to the oil e-rportcrs, ur. rerrhi g le.r,els of ecoiomic ind sori;l ,le\-elopn.rrt rvhcrc auto.rati. forms of.eovernrrent becom. irappropriatc ur.l ei1;is l.J inl.oduce delnocra.r become stronger. SGJ1}e o.Denirgs in rtrrh polir;.rl :"rt]'c h:;v,: elrerdl ,rrcurrert. ihc prlnt;prl l).nc1i.;rI';.s oitli.s. opennrgr hrv. b: ) lsiarni,rt rlolrt'renrs.ln thcArab uorld, m:]fu.i \!.s!irrrr

'u'l roJr.,r"

i,ri;.frl ..iiii

.lemo.flcy strengthens inti !\,ene!n poliricnL io.crr. lhis nray bc a passhg ph.n{,rr eIon, but it surely cornflicates rclatiors Let'vecn lslamic .ountri.s .nd the lvest.

t...1

'lhe West versrrs th€ l{csI
iv.5r is D!$,rt r! .rrra,rrLlirarv ptek oi po\lcr iit relation n, o&.r ci!ilirirrons. Irs sL,pc.po\!cr opp{}ncnt lr,ts rljs:rppcrrc(l lrorn the nrnp I,liliriry collilict .rmonr: W.st.n !ralcs is unrhirkaLlc, rn.l lv.stcrD nrilit.q' powc. is uI.ivrLicd. ,\parr lrorn 1.4'an, lhe !V.st J:ccs no ...,Do r{: ( hrllenge. 11 ilonriml.s inter natxDai toliticel ,Lnd !c.uirv irslitnti(rri ar!,1rjth Jrfrl inr.rnatn)Drl dconoInic institutions t-lhbrl politi

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rrr ard (lhr;strin

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crl eml secr;ltv issles rr,r ejT.divrh seul.(l bv x (li.e.rorirc ot rtrc ijriled Sr.lt.s, Britrrn mJ lrr. :e, \vorld ecol(Diic ;isrles h)- I dn.crorlt. ol rhc Ur;ted Srat.s, (;errrnril' anJ l.rp2n. xll oI n4rj.h ri.inrajn extraord;rnritl. clor.e reJ!tor\s with .ach orhrr to the crclusrolr ollcssctrrd hrgelv nol] Wcsrcrn .oLr|1r'ier. Dr.irions rn.rttt ar tlre ill.l :le.!rit,v C.!r.ii or in ri)c Ii)i.rn.iionrl ifoncrrr-t i itd t|t!.rtle.i 1ll. iur.r cs|s ol th. \ .st rr. f.cjcnrcd ro thr i*rr]d as ..ficctiDg th. d.sir.s ot ihe ,.:.rkl,:crrr nnrr;r,r'lhcr.ryfhLrr."rircqorldcorrrlL!rjr,v"hish..rrrJ,.lhc.ulh.rnj5ri..,)Ll,r.:tiyr nonrr irtlirrir:r "tlrt |ru: WoriJ"; ro giri glLrbaj L,rqirx!r,jr n).criolr rrit.!rjjrs tht .:rri , .r.,, r u ri, Ur.i,,l .'r.i-',1 .:r,', \'....... .,.rJ . i!rcina!jur:il c.ono j. irsrihrr;rrs. rh. W,'sr proD(n.j iis ec,rii)Ii( jii.!.sr. .rr(l ilrpl,s.s,n ..'iIef ritions tlle c(oDonii,: policj.s il rLirk!.rIrrrorJ.j.ir. tn.{r" t.jr irf ]]oli \\irstcr peotl.s,theilvlfunckubrcrilywlllli"inriJ(,:lftorioritu {rlrjrn Itrs:1lr.! a t'rrr otir.rs, bDr gcL rl ovi,rl\trelirnrglv unraror::l.lr r;tirrg i,onr iirsi :rt{)Llr evc:!orie.ise. rrr)'dodl.]xqr& liih c.oi!v Arbir(J! s.Jrrr.j,1!rj'.Liioj) or lt"I t ol-ii.jrl, ii rr.o liolilr.rilts iov. cxDrapriitirg (nher pe,,l)ic -r n!,r.r. jIr)lrjsjr* rril{t.rr) '!ilo crrLi. irid riitI rdl.s oi €.r]iiolrrn: 2i.i polirl.il .ol.ir.r :rni! liiri!rS .cDli'rnr. \"/esltE donrin.ti4n oftirr UN S..{rrity Colr'.il ind ir d..isx'r!, reDlpdeJ oDh, by o..rs;ontrl ,bsretrtion bv (;1,i.., produced UN lesjrLnrurlo, ot rhc Wcsr,s use of ioiie io diirt h.r(t or$ oi t ui!2ii ard jrs eltlrlrrari.rr oi lri(r'-. so])lr;sric.t!.i vieapons
and

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apa.'rr r,r produ!. su.h 1rc,rl)on\. Ii also produ...l rh. tnit,r i!.r-!...dcdr!cl rclion br th! Unired SLrres, lrir3in rrd lr.ncr nr gctnrc it)r Sccurr11,(:o|lcit to d.nrxdd ilru! l-ib.ra jrnn{i cvcr th! lr!r ,\rl1 t0t Lrom|rr8 slrljjccLs a;rti rb:i' ro in1;o-sr srr.iions wir.n J-ib1ii rri[scd. d€li:trtilg thc ta.g.]si Lrrir .rr!nv. 11.. lv.sl ai.i noj '\ircr hiiilalr lri lhror its wrishi arounl ;1 tir. ;!ral. $()rtl:i. i h. \\rcsl iji .tic.r rr !5irg irlerniiiolal iDsrliLrriotrs, niilii rr.,. D.re-ir al.] ..oro::,i..: re:e.rrts to r,::: ih! rrcrL(t il ulvs tLni q,;ll rnainliin r,ii'sic pr..lc lii:!cc_ tnrft.i \\;i]srJ n ji1'.r.ri-. i,i rl DJ.irr{r. .;.- -. ... 1. :.

J,a..d in:.b;iilt rc : 0a grrYrrnrnlnr a stra|3:r. Sotre iDrl iJ.n.itci.{ies I -dlor i. tr\iesrl:r.
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ir

ri \ tnd rlrc Weit

\\/en.rn .!r,,cprJ .ii*i. lundalncr]ratlr fforii itrosr p*,u.te,r, ni orlri ciriiizarjors. Ur.slerri id-ras ol indr.ii.lulirjrr, tibrrriislr, {:onsr;r!ri(Dxtisn, trurri!r ,ighis. rqu:,titr, !ibtLt1, rie rdc olhr, risrnorft$,, lrc maArcrs, rtt sepr,r.rt,:n of .hrr,-b urrt sutc, oiterr irt:r.littlc !esl,,r'." ., t rtn"';., liur ir.i".,, t2D]lrese, llnrdr.lJud,lhisr or Orrho

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'.,, \r..,..o ..i,,,:. rr.uri g-r. ,.. .,|....I.,.L.....,...,' I qJ.n. 'ri;i.r.rrrrr, r.rl'..rr".,..rJ.(.,rrnn.,r;,.r...t rrr,J.!e,,u,,."t-.,.,\.dn '8,,r l,' . r,, rlr' rri" , ru r. liD oi . trrnd .ti.rn t. t,. ro nc. ',.renr !,ur,\l .r ,,1r,r,.. ,,.-.. t. .. ,:r.:\..-.t.:.t..r,i.,. ...,.,....,..,t,, rl.:. . t. .r'....,.r .. ,i,.^,,. I.^|.l ,,...,,,,i ,.;... ,t...r...rol ,'.i ..-,t...,.,...... .-.. t,.,... ,.i.ri , (,
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46 l)ahni;i!.

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ib. Wr,,i ar. lcrsl n,rPor.nt lvorl(l'!'idt." L1 thc political ..ljlm, of.ourr., I[ll,],i;ji.rerces a.. nlo,rt nrr ;len I'r the rlfo.ti di ih. Lrnii i Star,\:nr(i crlr.ir l'li -rf.dr iro\!.ir lo ir,lucc i,thu. p.opic\ rn;Jopr iq,rslern idea! crDicnring dcr!tuerac..xnl h!nr!rr r:gijrs. ilode.n {l$!!,.rati. gol,..l,lt.ni otjg irxr.d h ihe lvest. When itLr5 Lt€velirpcri i1!or1 W.rlern s{r.i€ri.s ir iia:i r{rrll! bc.n Lh. " 1,, , i The ccniril ixis ofn'orl(l pol;rics i. rhe iirtl'. is likrly to be, in Kishore illihbubiri's phrase, th.r codliat bi't1rr.n "lire lvesl and rh€ Rest" and ihc rcsfonses of ton --- We3rrrn .i\.iljzrtions io r,restc.! powcr:i ri.ralues. fhose r.sponses gc'rrallt take ote -- -df aaombirlrtion .i thrte ionn:. -,\t orc irb'cll]t, ron-We,it.rn sr.ies can, likc l]!rrnx -.;l d ]\iorth (ore.. rtteDrt)r rir jrii:'siic x.riDrt.,)Iisol:Liior. ro insrtl.te ih.ir $ci.1;cs
v.]ucs lh.tl arr xrosr i1rJ,'orl.1nr in
}-ro,n

.

f1'rcir!t;oir or ".olrtrpri.u l bi:|t w.sr. an(L. ir cltucl. lo opt onl ofparric4r:t iioit iir 1lc \a/esk'r'r-ioirlnr.re:l Siob.l .ontndDitr. The costs cltlis course, hoee'ier, :rrchi:jh, rdlr'/ s !.ltes h.r1.e porsu.:l ii.t.{rsirir'- A sc.on,-l ri i.ynx livc, r}re i!1ti'alent o{ 'brnd-r:ago::ilg ' i;r in1{:n1'.i,rtiii r.hriolr,' iheorr. is ro attcrnpt r.] io;rt ih., rtesl anJ rcccp: iis rJ c; ari irtsl;ilrrio:rs. ihc iiiirtl rllei naliv. is lo .iilempl io 'brlin.:" ihe v/esi i',v rirvtloping rtororniL: ird rnililart po'i.r anrl coop:ratirir Lrirlt othrr ruoi W.ste! so.i.ii€s xg:,j)s: llc We!|, t'h;lc lrreserrir5 irxli.qero!-i ululr a'rd ilrsii lntionst in shofl, to lr(ricrniTe ir!i iioi lo Wtsrernize. l. . .l tv.rtern .iviliTriion ii lrorh',\'ciricrri rDJ rtlo.iern. NoJl \\'e!lera civilizatior)s hrYe -.rtren4rie,lnr be.clnr nroJ..r qtlrc\r tr.c5rn;ng wesi.rir. -l.,o daie1,nlytapan has flriiv sir.cee.lcii in this q1r.sr. ;.1('r [r.s1r.rr civiliz.l;drs ui]l .oxiirue k' rrtelniri 1ri ic.lLrirc ile xrilih. rccir nol.rs., sk:ii.'. !r,r.binr' ! !r.i v{ pcis l ha t .rrc p:!i l oI bcing lxoiler n. Tlrer lvill ilso .llcjr]pr to rc..'rcil"' th;s rnod..]rilr wirh thrir Lrnditiot.rl !uliule rnd -lheir econonn: rnl lnilil-rry slrelgrir r€lniivc io th! Ulesl !'ill incrcase. Hetce !.alues. in.reasin:tll ir\ir 10 .i.cornrrr,d.re iles. noJl \\r.stern rnodc'n ciljiiztr 1!e \Vesi 'i1l tiorls wlrose l)o\ver xpproi.h.s thai ci Lhe iveiit l)ut whose i'alu€s end lnt.r.sts (lifer rc{trire Lie \Vest to Inairrrair the ..o' si!+riil{:antiy from thos. ot tirc \aasi.'Ihis 'vili rloriilj and riiijtarv rrovtr ue.cssary tc prot€ct iis int.tcsls in.chii.rl1lr r.hes-- civili?i tions- Itlvili also, horvever, require the West to deveiop a more profound undersranding oflhe basic religious and philoso phical rssrlrptions underlying other civilizario s,nd the revs irr rvhich |col'l. m ihose civilizar()ns se. thcii inlerests. 11 will r.(ton. an effoft to ide.tii,v .L!rerrts oi.ortrnlor.l!F b.i/rcen vJert.rn aD{l oiht! civilinrions. lo. rhe re{eyant 1uhrr.- t|fr. .'ili b. ri,r uniferJai ci1-iiization. brr lrsicn.l r ,'orl{l of ,l;iierenr .ivili721io.s. cach oi r*iclr rrill irrrc Lo l.nrl to .oexisi *iih ihc olhcrs.

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Essay: l,Yas Samuet l-.iL]nii'tgton r;ght
tsy

a.taer

ali?

fotrad Ajamt

F'iday, lanuarv 4.200a

(:)

li v/ould heve Deen Linl;kc S;nrJelP. Hlntjngion to say l totd you so, aficr 9/1 1 lle is tco alrste:e.nrl serious a ma,r. v.4ih a klcend:ry c;reeriis arauably thc rnost inJtuenijatarrd o.ieinat potjilcat scienli:jt af the lasi hirlf century - zlways swinlminc again:rt the curenl of p!eva;ti.g opirriorj

ln ihe -1990s, ilrsl in an ariicle ifi t e nr.gazine ioreign Iffai,s. tiren irr a book pvbtished ir tgge n.ler "itle aiash of Civ'i'zriiorrs ard the Rernakina ofWorki Order,,' he had {:omc i)rrir litir z ih.ris ihal ren couri:r lo the zrilgeisi af t.re er. ;nJ Lts euL/h6na about qtobati2rLo,r rno a oorr:,,ertess. !orld. AIier lhe coid u/ar, he 'rroie. theli rvould tre a "clash ot civitizaiions," Soit trnC blcod and cLrttlrlEt loyallies \,rould claim, and detne, lhe \/orld ot slates. ltuntington s cedog€phy w;s drawn with a sherp pencil. ltwas 'The fvest and ihe Resr": the Vvest standin-q atone, ond eighl civjlizaiions .tivi.jing the rest . Latin Arnerican, Africa., islamic, Sinac, Hindu, C'1hodox, t3rddhi:I and .tlrmnese. And i! ,u5is posi.col'l war lvcfld, lsl6inic cii;izal'on wouid re e,rerge as a nemesis toihe lvest lluniington fjrri the matle. il siark ierrns:
ihe iiile "The re'ations t'ehveen lsl;rr)l 3'd Ch.islianjly, hcih Ortho.tox and Westem, have oft:n treen slonny. E..h h;s been !h€ othe' s Other '1he 2Cih-ceniirry confli:: b--ivreen tiberat d€modacy :r,rct ir3rrisr Lc i*isnr is onJy a iieeiing an.j suierficial h;storicai phenomencn compared b 1,le coniinuirg rnd dee,rly c.r, riiici!;i I e laiicn bel.nreeri i:l:jin and Chisrianiry.

Those

s.cietes, and yculrq A.abs anC ,lrslill;s were trav,/ ihe sho.k{roops ot a rl€W ra.t'calisfl. Iheif rise Iia.l cv{rr'.vhcltned ihe ordrr in rheif tromelands and hed so;lted inio ron t,Juslim roct.jite.i ik$! ilr. bor.lers t'eti./eeu luusjinrs anC cth*r p€opies l..ratn {jerl qrown Jsserirte rnJ tLtlnerr]lrli ti:e i.jeolcltj.s r'i Vr/eslemiz.rlion th"l hcd Cofii atel lh'r hi.rones oi Tu/^ey, kan rn.t iire ,\-dtr .io d{i, as in€ll .s Scuih Asia, iraij b(icd; "in.iigeni. adon ' had becorne tlE orderol the da) ir s,rlji.)ii.s r^_,ios.l .aiionalsms once soullhl io ellulale fi€ ways of ih€i West
Raiher lhan Wesle,'liTilg iheir sccjetres. i.lalric lanris had devetoped a po\relluj cr.Isen.ls ir;:j.r'or of lslamiZng n]odernity. Thcre !1ras iro 'lrriversnl .ivii'zaiion,.' l lunlinoton had olrsenx,ct: itjir,6s olrtv lhe preicnse oi '.i/trat he calied "Davos culhrre,' rionsjsiinll of a hin laver ot technocreis ;r ,,J .,.-.ra.n,ri-. and busiressrmen who ,tather annL,ally ai ihat x,aiedrg hoie of the gtob:rl etire in Slvil.enail{J
ln Hunlingicll s unsparhlg view, culiure is undeiplnned lrnd deiined by power. fhe t-lcsi h2.j cljco been pre'emirreot and nrilitarily dominart, and the first generation ofthird \rorld nationatists had sought to fash'on their world in the inlage ofihe WesL But We-stem dorninion had cracked, Huntington said- Demography besl iold $'e story: whe.e more than 40 p€rceni of the world pop!talion rv.s unddr lire political controj ofVlcstcnr civiliz:alion i. the year1900, that share had decl'n..1 t(, abcut 15 percent in 1990, and is 5ei to conre d,r-wn io 10 fetcetiby the yeat 2025 Conversety. IstarJ) s shr..l hac ri:ier) lronlI percent ill lgUC io 13 perceni i 19{lO, and co,rld be as hish Es 1!l i}.rr.grt by 2021t ti is nd prciiy :rr iire iro.'i;rrs belr,veen locieiies \i,ith dvr'trdlinq pop!tat'ons WestrrN t urcpe be!i. orie example. Russia anolhcr and those lliih yoLrng people making claims on the wortd tiuntingior say/ this gathe.ing storm Those youn0 people ot the densely populated North Ndcan srates ,j/tro have been risking all for a iou.ney across the Sirait of Gibrattar w-dtk right out oi his pages

'"vere ,..J|.,.1!,ru1tr^.(/:,ri,"!.r ../.r,.r.,.,:ri.,t.!,,.i",.4v.r,x..n.ir':/{,uu.b,.i,/,,,.. ,.jt.i,.,....

I

S

yolr)g ,arabs i'/h. sin-ick Arnci.a on 9/1

1

io qive Hlnriinoion moft: of h;stry s

o

Shortly atter the appearance of tle article th3i seeded thc book, Foreign Aftais magaziire caltcd pon a group otwriiers to respond to llu,rtington s thesis lwas assigned the tead criiique. twrote my response wilh appreciation, bur ,wagered .ln modernization, on the system ihe West had prlt in ptace. ''The ihings and ways $rar tllc rrvest took to the rest. " l wrote, have become the v/ays oi lhe wortrt The secular icJea. the slate systcm and the balance of power, pop cotturejumpinll iarlffwa s:nct barriers, tht'slaie as an oJ welfare. all these have bcen internalized in lhe remotesl ptaceE 'nstrument We have slrned Lip lhe ve'y sloflns inlo which wc now .ide I had grestioned Hunlinglon s suggestion lhat civilizal;ois could be found "whole and intact, waterlioht under an elemat sky." Furows, I

obscrved, run across dvilizations, and the nlcdernisi consensus would hotd in ptaces tike lnd'a, Egypr Hunijngton had written ihat ttte Turks rejeciing i\,1ecc,r. and reiecied by B.uss.Js would head tow:rrd -lashkent, choosing a pan Turkic wond lvly f.iih was'nv(:sred in lhe omiat Wester,riztrg creed oi K{rn3lisn} ihat Muslafa KemalAtaturk h:d bequeaihcd h's counLry. "What, hor/ever. it T-urkey ie,:letned itself? Huntinglon asked. At some poinr, Turkey coutd be ready to give up its trustraring and i)umiliatincj role as a bellgar pleading fDr rnemLrc'ship in tire Wesr and ro resum€ iis much more irnpressi/e and elevaled hisiodcal role as the p,irlcipal tstemic interlocutor.nd altagonist of iirc

(q

f)

flearly

nrliilary brreasratic el;te I herc h:is come i|l.n 'teLiefrniii.r{. ihai itultingian prophesied. -r o b!-, nrre. ibev=.dictriray not tle quita i]s st.aillhiJorwerd as h. foresaw_ thelst2 rists have pr€vaile{j, i}ulthc; ,.lesi(id cjeslination, or so they ielt us, is siitt Brus:rels: in ih-lt Furopean shetrer, ihe ls'arnisis shreer'dty fupe ihey can find protection againsl the pc,rv.ir c;the miliiary

vcars on, Huntingion's thcsis a .iviti--'rti(j)at chsh seenrs more .oinpeltinll io r,!e lir:n "i,ori fire cniiq{c I piovaded at th3i t;me. kr rcccni yer!s, f.r exanrpte. lhc e.J'fice of Kemalism has come urr.ler asssuh, and turkey has no''! elecr.d.n tsla'4ist to ihe presidency in open defance ofitie

'15

"l'llteech ycu djf€rences,' Kent says io Leer's servant. ;\nd t{uniingion had tle irtegriiy and ihe

loresighi 1() see the falseness ofa borderless vrcid, a wortd,.rithout difierences- iH-qis one of trvo greai ;nleilectural figures who peered inio ih€ heari of Iri|g: .rnd were nut taken rn by qtobtism.s coaceii, Berlard Lewis baing the other_)

,

{:,i
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siil'harbcr doubis aboutwhethe. ihe radic€t !,(illmists knocking atlhe grles of Europe, or as.salrlling ! hey nee fre buin;,1g qrounds oi lsta,n. tut cari lhe firewith them- lhey are "nolrhere men," chi;dren of the franlier bet!,een tstam and the West, trelcnging io neiiher lf an_r4hing, they are a les{arn.jni io thc faiiure of mcd€rn isiam to provide ior iis c./n an.l lo hold the fidelities ofihe youna.
I

;l i:om l.;iihjn, are the bearers of a whole civjiizaiicn.

i\ro:e ornin,rusly perhaps, th€re ran ihrough l lLrtilEioi,,r iJaate:i ai arxieiv.bout the,jjati r,rd rhe coherei)cs ai lhe West - openly stated at tirnes. nraC . i..,, .l usjon- rnr cu gtrout I he tu,r peris of the rl,:sl e'e not carefuily moniicred ane dete.rdecj, tiunijrglcr feare.l tstatu.,$ remain tslam, hc 1,!rrded. bu: ii is "Crbious" uJhether ihe Wesi v/jii rematn L1.c lo itseji and its m;ssion Clearty, .iorrfi!Era. has not cielivered us olit of hisior/s the.;^,/crld l./Vicle Web has not cast lsiCe blo.Ll arid kh and raith- It is no tault of Samuel iiuningil]n's ihat vre have noi heeded his darktjr, an.l 'ras:ronrj, ooss;bly iruer, vision-

l*.frTr

crpyrrqht A 2ooa The lnter.aliona M.r akr riibhe I vtuw.irt.con

Comprehension Que5tions

qu€stions on 'SJas Samuel lluntington tlight after all?' by Fouad Ajarni {li-lT)

L

lt would ha're been unlike 5arnuel P. lluntington to say, "t told you so".,.. What does th;s suggest about the \,^/riter's impression of I-luntington's character?
Clash of Civilizations with a ihesis that ran
a

2. '...then in a book f-,ublishccl in 1996 und€I the titie "The

and the Remaking of Worid Orcier", he had come forth counter to the lgitgei5i of the era and its euphoria about globalization and "borderless" world.' \ lhat do you think ihe woid;eifgeini could mean in the context it is used.

3. From poragroph 3, What do you see as the effect of comparing 1'The 20th
Century conflict between libelal dernocracy and Marxist-Le lrinisrn" and the "relationlsl between lslarn and Christianiiy".

4. fram parogroph 4, V,,lhat reascns does Huntington
no universal civiiization"?

give for saying ihere "was

5. Ftom psro-qraph 6, ln your

c'"vrr words, explain

what FiuntinFian

rTteans when

he says, "cultui'c is Lri'tcierpinne.l ancJ defined by power"?

{.

l'rom paragraph lO, txplain the difference between "a borderless,aiorld" and "r world !vithout differences".

Foilow-up reodingl:

8 o 6

F{dncis Fukuyslna's'End of llistor,v' Noam Chornsky's'Foiled Stotes' Noomi Klein's'Shock Theorv'

S€$_Ln{L6iaeatlzatlAjJ-r.jlL_e_

MldlQl-the-S,lQt a! ig{}!.j}rr-!y

Michael Veseth

Lyrrle Biclr.!.9r1!!!.sjt!
19'18

15,

ltr,

id€th:n,{ing G!Gi:ira!iz;:i;lf,r

r

The social process is really ol]e indivisible \^/hole. Out ol its great streaBt the cl:)sslfytnE hand of the invesiigatot artificially exi-r.rcts eccitoiltic iacis. loseph A. Scir'rr ?itc. 1 There ls someihirq impo!l,ena il;tDp..:!-linq in ihe lvcrl.l toda)/, an!] yr-e c6)l it giob.rlization. l-ia,rrl'i(j slr'.ni sc, rnucit etfort itr/inq to deilunk tne myths surrolrndinc 9l{.riralir-atiol. i jniiitt lc be very clear rjc',v tha.a the for-ces l.'le sce and set!s.'aie r..ai. 3ri1_ if lhe piocess cai!.-rd clobait:t:l,.iori is ltnpoltart-and it :: ti-r:rn ii i-' ,.tr/en ;nrr"€ imler iaitf ih:ri !,ye :e!;ifl to undei-stanrj whai, ii t'.r:;il,' i:r, r,,iirai_ is ieft lr'hen iite rhei o.ic as eliiterj clli and i!.re srntrkescrel:r! is :tLripil..d ar,'.iay. When iltis r.iil-iirring ts done, I suggest, we '!ili L,t"alt irn.le!-:i:ancj g;obaljzation rncj.e ilearly anci be able to conce'\/e l.]l', bt:-l€i it:irr" ior \r./hat ii is- l

:lh€ Argurn€nt S*

fat

So far in SellinQ GJabai;.:,?tr'or I ha\/r arqued that globalization ir) practjce !s very- rnuch Liiff.:rena irorn globaliz3tion in tbeory and especially ihe visions of globaiizatio.r that drive political choices today_ Actual global firms are relatively rare and the process of globaljzation is far less developed i:han mGSt people imagine. By sonie rneasLr!e5, ihe world is less thoroLrghly intellrated today ihan it was in the period before World War I lhal. K"vnc:; has t{ieailzed.
When I examined case studies of four "global,, iarms*Nike, Boeing, Microsoft, and Frank Russeil only Nike seemed to fit the definition of a footloose truly global busjness, floating effor essly in a virtual market world, draw'ng on global resources for its production and globai markets lor its sales. When peopte think of globatization, for

good or for bad, the.7 ttrink about a world of Nike, i./hich is an unequal, envicus, peformance oriented, cap'talist worldThe other "global" businesses I stlrdied !.rere as unljke Nike as you can get. Soeing is a creature of the siale and in the process of negotiating erith states has become cne, ilr nearly .-so. Micrcsoft is rnarket driven, but lt teeds stiong staies tc enaci ai!.j eriorcc intellectual properiy r:ghts lar,!s; it cannol e){ist as a fiiofiiable enteiprise without strong states to enforce its copyrjghts. Illicrosoit's pr{laiuct lines illustrate :he durabilib/ of local langu"ge, clilture, and hisio.y (distinct n.ttional dlfferelrces) by the er{tent tc r,^,,nich they are taiiored or custornized to fii local markets. The Frarnk Russell Company, \ihich looks frorn the outside like the quintessential vidual financiai fjrm, turns out on the inside to ile based on t!-ust that is built ihrough face-to-iace personal relaiions, fbr which no electronic periect substitute exists.

Glotlajization exists as a prccess, but ii ;s less ccrnplete tha| many peoFle think ani oi a Cllfereni: nai[r-- than comrnonly assumed. 's Globalizalion in practice tui-ns oui not to be the triumoh of the irreslsiillle nlarket iorce over elj lhat stands in iis y,lay. The rLimors of tire deaths oi disiancc. an{: 1.he riaie a|C crliure anai the individua, ali are exaggeraied. -tl.rese forces, wltiri) har/e always lr iled glcbai meri€t integraticn, still jii,. iii ;i rcila-!.

Arn.Jnq the rnany fo|ces lhei llmit the extent io which true Eiobaiization can hapfien is tlre il]ndantcntai instability of global financiel merkets. If globali?raiifin is io happefl, I argue, !t musi draw cn ea.l perhaps be dri.ren bi" global financial inat kets, 'rhich picvide iihe econornic means by whiclr !-esources move around the globe. But these markets are an unstible icundation ior globalization" Global financial markets are sutliect te baih ltlg instabilities caused try currency cTises and to smaller but iuildamentally more t!-oublesome chaotic movements. Globalization can only proceed so far if exchange rates are as fundamentally unstab,ie as I think they are. There is reason to believe that as global financial markets expand they become increesingly unstable. At some Doint, the instability is great enough to lialt lhe lorces of econo ic integraiion anC perhaps io reverse them. If my aral'/sis is correct, globalization is a self-lirniting process. The !.Jorld economy may nevei be much fitore "9iobal" iB a reai sense than it is today or was in Keynes's day.
globalization is not new, not ubiquitous, and not unstoppable, then why does it get so much attention? I have provided two answers to this question. First, globalizalion gels attention because it is a useful concept. Politicians, policymakers, and intellectuals link their pet

If

globalization and then seli globalization to us. Because qlobalization is such a large and vague idea, all softs oi policies and projecis can be easily attached to it. Ancj it is easy to sell this vague ialea to the public durinq a period when lhere are ,nany reasols for anxiety a|d concern. Globaliznt;on js srictr a useiul concept that if !t did ot exist, it !,roLl!d haye to be inveniedagain, not to describe the yr'ay lhe worlC works. but as ar deiivery device for all sorts of good and bad ideas thai are packaged wiih it.
The second reason thai gloiializaticn h,:s been so effectively rn"rkeie{j :s that attempts to provid€ a scund economic critique of thjs concept have thus far been inelfective. In some cases the economic anaiysis

projects

to the promise or threat of

economists say for the most pa!-t, so a meaningful econontic critiqu",j of glcllaijzatiofi by a c€rtiiied economist might as well be ,rriti€n ill Maitian on the back side ci the inaon for all ihe gcod it lvill rjo. t,tore to the point, hoy/ever, is ih€ notjon (lvhich I advanced in |te iasl af:epteij that postwar eccnomics has ,ln jateniiona!iy delined iiself in a r.ei-y narrow way that eflectlveiy el(clitd*s ihe sort oi anal.rlris that le;ds to theoi-eticai questjons about globaj markel fbrce:i. Crisis ard i:cinplexjty, which are ihe ttasis cf i.llv analysis of glolla! finatci;ri rirefl<ets, are not econoinics as most economists u,tCer5tan.i it. ixpecl,ng a crltique of gloital markets iforn the economics proicssion, thereiore, is like expeciing a cjefense ol usury irom a qroup oi islainic
clerics-

has been done, but it didn't nratter because economists tend,to communicate using highly spec!:ilzed and symbolic languacJe and rnethods. Noneconomist "ciyilians" simply cannot understand what

lhe boliom line hei-e is thai qlobaiizatjon is not r.vh.lt it lile qlicitiua, lhen, is rih.rt ts iLl
{;lDbalizaticn and Compi€xity

scerns

lo jl?.

The process that we call globalizaiion is re"lly a complex set of changes. It is driven by a number of foices that interact i",,ith one another in endlessl)/ fascinaiing 'r!ays. Such a process is calicd :.:onplei in th€ language ol noniine;r dyflamics, dnd whet ,r,,a iii-e seeing now is an example of complexity. There is no generally accepted definition of complexity, according to M. Mitchell Waldrop, whose bestselling book by that name helped to popularize the concept. I The subtille of his book, however-fhe Energing Science at the Edqe of Order and Chaos-suggests a definitjon. If thjs is a deiinition cf cornpiexitv, then globalization certainly seems to fii.

The key to misunderstandinq globalization is io ignore its complexity. li you adificially extraci facts about globalization in a simple way (to paraptrrase Schunrpeter's epigraph to this chapter), then you will understand it as a simple process (e.9., demonic global market, i.apotent siater borderiess world) and succeed in rnisconstruing what is go'ng ofi. Worse, your rnisunderstandinq wili serve ro confirm yolir highest hopes and worst fears.

The problem lvith complex sociai proce:rses is ihat it is difficult to undersiand thern jn their complexity. 5() )"ve simpliiy. This process is nriiliciai, however/ as Schur.npeter says, and erbitrary. We must pick and choose the facts that we emphasize and ihose that we ignore- lt is possjbie to see anything yoLr -r^Jani to see, ii the process is complex enoirgh. So we tend to choose what we want to chcose and see \r,/hat
v{e }.iant to See. This is a serious probler!" U/hen we misunderstand the forces o{ change, misiaking thefir for angels or devils of our own

cfeation/
f"lcre

r^Je lose contact with reality. It becomes rnistake friend ior foe and qood eli.ect ior b3d.

all too easy to

io the point of ihis book, because gioba! aomplexity has so rlany illerrelaied elements, ii is inasy ?cr poiitiaail and intellectual enirep.eneurs to pick and choose ihel; fa*s io suit their agendas, It is bard to understand glcbal .cnrplexily bui r:as:r io seii "Elobalizatjcn" a: tire cuie for ihis or the enemy oi iirai. Sc loiiq as globaiizetion is lhu-s
rn,sunderstood, it can be too easily abuscd ijnd .risuse{i.

-lire histcrian David Cannadine iras !',/fitten about ihis pioelern-rn!s,Jnderstanding complex social pr.Jcesse5--iir the case of ihe
iricluslrial revolution. 4 The lndu.-cliial revoluiion in England was like Eloba!ization is today in that ii was a complex event of qreai ir pcrtarjce, but also of great corfipiexitv, it we can n'ranage to misunderstand the ind[striai ievolution, elren gi!'en the improved perspective ol hindsight, thsn we clear!y can misunderstand giobalizaiion today. The way that historians, economisls, and the informed public viewed the industrial revolution changed r,l.amal.ically during the one hundred years after Toynbee's Lect!,ires ati t.h,4 litdusi.ria! Aeyolutlon. V/ithoLlt rnuch charige in the "facts" availairle, each gcneration was able lo see in the industrial revoiution a different image. 5_ In each case ii was an image of startling clarity and relevance to the contemporary situation. In each case it was the,mage that viewers wanted to see. Cannadine found four "phases" between 1BB0 and 1980.

]n the 1920s, for exampie, historians saw the industrial revolution in terms oi the social conditions of urbiJn workers and the unemployed. The "facts" chosen \,\,er€ those ihat best reflected the then current concern over social condition and poverty in England. U/hat they {lristorians, citizers, anil Gilicials) sa!.i in the Industrial RevolLriion !!as a mirror of their own tinres, and '.heit reading of this history probabii/ also iniluenced their reading ol cuffent events and policy. 6 lhe iesson oi history il]as that inclustry is hard cn the weak 3!.t.J Cevastating to the poo|. som€thing shorjid be done to chen.lc lhjnlls beloie il is tco laie.
Economic historians wfl.) ),vroie iront the mirJ-1920s to the mid-195Cs sa\r/ a clifferent industrial revoiution. lrvhai they saw were the cycles in the economy, the ups and doyJns of the business cycle that seerned to characterize indust!-ia' capitalism. In this, of course, they vvere guialed by the experience of thejt o,,!n times. The crash of the Great

tepiessjon and ihe efferis of )lrcild war were on their minds and

so

ijppeai-ed before their eyes in lhe forin oi history. The lesson oi hislory i'ras that capitalism is unstible-lI bccams and crashes, but esF,ecially it {"(ash€s- Sollrething shculri be doite io ch:nge lhings before jt i*c ioo ]ate.

Thcse who studied tila iitailsi!-::i i-e./olrtion frcrn ihe mid- i950s io the ]97Os, ihe pericd ol the .jreat pos'rwar economic expans,on, !,arj lJrcwth, noi: povertlr end j'rr-rt cycies. -lhey saw ihe rise oi e st;t'c econonly to seli-sus'.aining ecoflorrlic gt'or,^{h. The famous sfaie: oi 9ror1,ifJ tireory thal glii(i€d ccot-ro,l]ia Lroliaies around the worid in tl'e :L!63s uras ille prodLJct ol'Vt. 1,,,/. iiostow's examination of the eccltorrli{hisioi-y of the industrial reyclulic . lrlDrc'/ed data (bettef facts) meke uS think tod"y that Ro.etov,"s theoiy of the need of a "leading Seclor"

in iis interpretation oi ihe industrial revoluiion as il 5cems to have been r,ronq in ihe fori-li of advice to less developed counhi--s. Bul the lessoll ef iristory r.ras lhat economic growth cor!ld be
lres as
r/rrrong

aitained by promoting
needed.

a

leading sector.

A great leap forward

is

!'inally, Llannadine noted that titose lvho have stuciied ihe industriai ri'v'llirtion durirtq the curreni "Ag{] ol" Dir inished Fxpectations" have .-.1$o ilerceived it as a distanl tnirio!- of ihe contempol-ary condjtiorr. 7 It was an industrial evolution, not revolution, with many evolutionary lalse starts and dead ends: Instead of being presented as the paradigmatic case, the first and most famous instance of economic growth, the British Industrial Revolution, is now depicted in a more negative liqht, as a limited,

in '/Jhich ./arious things d'd noi iloppen or where, if they did, they had far less efiect than ',\ras
restr icted,. piecemeal phenomenon,

previousi,v supposed. s

:lirsior;, or al least rioi sometlring io be expected. The past js pretiy inlr:h iike ihe present- rfilred ir the dold!-ums. You'd better gei used to i',.

Ihe

;ession o;' history here

is ti-rat drail'iaiic eccnomic growih is

an

,lt shou:d flow be obvious to you ihat the industrial revoluticn was a preiiy carnpllcated process--ai least as cornplicated as gicbalizatio*, ;roi in ihe l-ast because it incllding a dramatic global expansiorl ci lrade. The industrial revolution \r,/aG clearly all of the thinqs that these

Cailadine's analysis forces us to consiCcr $/helher our verdict on il'le irldustriai revolui.ion says nlore atlout Britain !n i!-!e perioci 1780-1340 o!- aboili i)ur o!1/n view of ccntertporary social and econcff'!c
r:on.:Jil

iour generations of historiaas atld citizens perceived: unequal, .Jnstabler d'/narnical, and evoiutionary. Ii v,ras rflore, too. But the point is lhat v,'e select the tacts to suit ollr uses, to mirror the times.

ionsl,^,,ani

lhFj [jain Nclnis i

i.-i n]itke hi:re er e iiicsre. First, vlllnt "ve l;l; cicbeiizai.lon is not a new pfcce-s, even ihough vxe think of !i ns le1il. :i:r3rid, Eioilalizaijon s€ems io b€: coft!ile)i, 'rviih maity caLlses and eiteris, sor.ee quite ufiexpected. Fln;j!y, be:ar-ise glcbalization is s'r
corrrple)(,

air;.jce ihai'fi€ ars missing the mo5t ii,'iilortant aation through a poclseleclict.r of "lacts." With ihese poinis ;ir mind, let us turn Froin pa:t
tense io piesent,

ii {r;n be v!e\,ved in rnary

iniaysr

et.l ti}ete is alln/ays ih:

{ri1r-{!blirirj WBlls, Corn!:rlex nnt€r"cti.ons

we call globalization is the complex process that results from breaking down the walls that separate and distinguish many of the inrFoltal-}t instilutions thai we use ic define the lvorld we live in. In our ;ri.ternpt to understand a cornplex \r./orld, uJe necessarily try io conaeot,.ralize it in simple ways. We put vai-icus elemenis of sociell/
'dJhat

into pigeonholes or mental compartments, During periods of econolltic and social stability, this simplified framework is useful. During periods of rapid change, however, the old mental framework prevents us from understanding the nature of the change itself. The walls of the pigeonholes must be broken down and rebuilt to reflect the new realily.

The tact that the borders that define dte qeoqraphical tloundaries of nation-states are nour less important than they were 30 years ago rs only the most obvious aspect oi this gene[al process of crumbling walls. Unfortunaiely, it has qiyen the entjre process its nanle globaiization. Globalization is about the reed lo reth!nk slaies aod n.rarkets in terms ether thitn '.hose defined by geooraphic borclers, but it is about much more than r!s. Giob:lization i-c about a genera! b!-eaking down of borders and the p|ocesses lhat result from this. -fo illuslrate and motivaie thi: poini, iet me diaw on analylic;! frame"joiks developed by Ke;rneth r"!j_ ,lrali_z,]arnes i\.1. F,osenau, and S'isaa Strange.
Kenneth N, Waltz is the euthor oi one of the most useful inlellectua' frameworks for understanding international relations. In his influeniial 1959 book Man, the State, arid l,4ht he proposed a three-level analytical framework- e Human individuals exist within the nation siate" which exists within an irter n:ttlonal system. Each element_, iFdividLrai, state, system has its c}^',i", narure ancj mctivatjons and is corlCitioned by ihe rext higher;3vF! cf ari._rlysis. ln ,rriting aboul lit€ prcbl"['r of war, for exampie" lvailz saial that lyar anci Deace .]i-e corflpiex il.raite[s inat cene cir aii r'i-,.ree !3veis anci their iniefactions. To Linc€rstand vlar ar;ai peace, yc! rIti.tsi ui]Cersiand human ;ndjviaiLtals and their rxol.ivations; i.he sleie, iis !;i.rii.,,atjon, anaj ttolv ii condjilcns ihe aaiions ot indi\-/iduiils; aftd tll!. iriie|r]e,rional system, iis stiucture, and h{.}',/", it conditions ihe acii.rns cf siaies. ro

Wriiing in i:fle i950s, ii was p! obably I el;,rt jveiy easy to conce ji,?e oi a liainework in r'vhich incli.ridu?ls aoul.,! he consideied separately irorn states and from systerns ir'l _strucrLlral aficj rnciivatjonal lerms. In fact. I think this three-ievel approach is siiii us€iul in considering rnafiy prolllerns. But the clean distinct.ifrn a;non!l tha three levels of a!raiysis has broken Co\,'/n. lndividu:ls, staies, anc systems now ;nteract jn a variely of complex waj/s tJrat in part define the world arounC us. the brief case studies I presented in Chaptei- 3 do not prove this point, but they provide a few examples that I hope will illustrate and motivate it. Boe:ng, for example, !\rould be conside.ed within the :ndividual tevel oi Waitz's analysis, sin{te it is a t'irfi rr,'a{Je uD of and controllecl by individuals and lackiird thc a{thor ii y f rr.r.L ,r' rdtionally detines staies. Bul, ai we have seen, goeifig acts ljke il siate in its negotiations r/iih nation-states and is even treated like a nataon-state for some purposes. In the negotiations that we studied. the nation-states were most often concerned with profits and lobs while the enterprises r,vere most often concerned with security and autonomy-a role reversal. Both were caught in a competitive environment that brought their

interests togeth€r in new combinetions. The difference betuieen the first tr,n/o ievels of analysis is thus no lonller distinct, and their intercctions are complex,

"Ihe l,licrosoft case study illustilted another

breakdo!".i

iranleyjork. Who determines ah-- sysieri? Fcrr Microsoft, the systent-et ieasi the tarts of !i that affeca int.eileciual property rights -is terribly irnpcrtant, and so Microsott !nvesis heavily in technology and legal tesoufces io iry to defjne the :-iysleryi y,/ithifi which siates and ;ndivldilals operate" -fo L,e successfuJ, Microsoft must help create and slslain a global syslern Lhat protects it from the seii-iflterested .rrrrftiilive aciions of ihe ind!'./idu.:ls and states within that system. In a .,rert.rin sense, l4jcrosoft must be the si'stem, or at least be of the system, since it has the strongest interest in defining and enforcing it. (I meei.r this in ihe larger sense, but of course, "being the system" is alsc Microsoft's strategy concernjng theii- Wlndows-based operating s)rsiern aird prociucts.) It is increasirgly hard to sepa.ate the system f-rrJr.r the ind:viiluals who comprise ii anii tireir actions and n]otivations, js intefe:ting to consider how much giob;iiz3llon is associated urilll techrloiogy, tiespite the faci th;'r ina3rraticral trade and iinance are rioi inuch rfiorc iechnoiogy it'l'r--ti-.jiye ihen other aspects oi cor,iemporary iile. Clire feason icr- ihi: association is thai ihe mjcfcelecircn;c revolulion of !-ecenl :ieats has been an importanl eie'neni in the ilreakdown of batii.:rs anioitg individuals, states, ancl sysiefis, which we mistakenl]- call giol-ialization- tvlore rapid ancl eliici€ni acr-rrmuflications have cleari-v helped insert individual interests .rnd rnoti'/aficns into siate-le./el anC sysie t-ievel issues, On ihe lntefnei. in fact, staies and systetns are slrnost tlut not quiie irrelevait. The resulting frarne!',ro'-k is not glotlal and systemjc, ho,.'?e./"r, but iocai and individual, which js the main message I found in Bill Gates's book, Ihe Road Ahead. Retreat of the State, in which she frames the issue in terms of the breakdown of traditional structures of auihoriiy and the creation cf new comb;naiions that ernbody authority jn nevi ways.
Susan Sirange has recently cieveloped a sirflilar theme in her book 7he

n in

tl.ris

Ii

Strafige perceives ihai the dylramic li'lai we call globallzalion ;s conditioned by the diffusion of authority within sociely, nol just befween nation-states, which creates different patterns of influence
and behavior. Using the terms of international relations, we might say that there are more actors in the international political economy today and more levels of analysis aTe necessary. Strange makes the point by

arguinq that traditional inlernational potilical economy is based on the "Gilpin equation":

5+M=Py'E
:-:tilies + M:lrkets = Political Ecenonty
1r

This equation suggests a staie-l€rvel analysis focusing on a small set cf nctofs. Ii is consistent with an internaiionai relations-based approach t{} inte!-national political economy. This way of thinkjnE musi r}ow be replared, she Suggests, tvith ths sori suogested by the ,,Stranqc e.juation'": 12

A{n)

:

X,(r) + M{n) =A{n) = V(i}) + Soi{n}

The interaction of many sources of auihority wlth many rnarkets Dlus rhs jnieracljon of many markets y./itfl lll.lny sources of authority, equal the distribution of values within a colnoiex, filultilayerecl socieiy.
This r:quation siresses the complcxiiy oi tf;e jnteractions: mor€t levels, n"i-- aciors, and more Clfferent sjociai va!u;i.iens io influence- Ii !s ncil :trf, n.ruch thet states are less {io,*sriul ErC rnarkets ?re more L.owei{l-rl, i. i:; lirat ihe whole pracess a! datern,i;lli.'c! ,i,rhose valu€s cirlr,]t i:nC 'ulta:ra Lhe,l'count is now iar filore cortgrle;< and at the same ti;-|€ ;a, rncr,: dynamic. What is mosi illtpor tanit here is not the lefi-hand si{_te ci this eqLtation but the righi-iiand s;ije. 'i.he diffusicn of polv€r js silln;ficer.rt only because it aljovrs a chanqe in rhe disiribution oi velues :vilhi..l socieiy. People u,tlo ieaf vnl,.rc .jh6nge withjn their 5oclal sysi.:l;ls iind in g:obalization a convenient cxiernai villain.
-.larres l,j. ilosenau has taken ihis idea tji ct-Llrrtlling wails and cornplex Lieh;rviors and used it to develop models oi Turbulence in World poljtics itrat mirroi, at least meiaphoricelly, thr: formal mathematical models ol hydi-odynamic turbulence that lvere ihe original chaos theory. 13 Like Waltz, Rosenau develops a three-level framework of analysis. He prcposes lhat there are three dimefsic s oi giobal politics. -fhe first dirnension operates at the micrrlieve! of indivlduals and ',cons;sts oi th€

ori€lrtallons and skills by r^.rhich ciilzer.ls of states and rn3mbers oi rror]sta'.e organizations link iiremselyes to ll:e rflacro world of global politics." 14* The second dimension operales at the level of "collectives," which include both state and nonstate actors and where structural parameters are particularly relevant. The third dimension is reiational and is a mixture of the fii-st two. Rosenau,s analytical franlework is not as easy to state briefly or to understand quickly as

are UJaliz's three levels, but a deep understanding of this theory is noi necessary here. It is what Rosenau says about his framework and what he does with it that I find interesting.

fi.osenau argu3s il"rat al! thiee climensi.Jns of his analysis .jre undergoing rapid chanlle ancl aie interacting in increasingly compiex ways. Thai is. the orientations and skills ot ir-rijiYiduais are chanqing rapidly rA./ithin a system oi coilertives ihai is exFieriencing fundamental stiuctural change, and .jLirir]g G period ,rhen 1-he natuie ol relationshipS L'etween and arnong ir)di"/iiL,als and coilectives is also in iiux. The result, he argires, is .Dncepiirally similar to the fluid dynamicai llows that produce turbulence anai chaos in nature.
Rosenau's work, apart from his rgl.ltively forrnal attempt to appiy chaos theory to politics, leads to an inte!-esting obsemation that brings us back to ihe qlobalization issue. \!hen the three dimensions of

political change are mixed, the r€s lt is a bifurcatian, which is a common occurrence in naturaliy ciii,.oiic sysierirs. Thai is, the world does not settie into a sinple ar'rd uniarie €quilibr!um but deveiops a pair of "strange attractors." lr.r Roserarr's an"lysis, ihe biiurcation 's toward pojitical issues that ate ,.)o biq for ihe xation-state ("global"
!-egionef issues such as tradii)g lllocs) afld ihose lhet zre taa snall far ihe naticn-state (rnan-1/ s.jcuritr' is',ues/ ,r,rany econcnric issues). 1Il Rosenau's rncdei of politicai lurbulence, the naljcn-state is the n'rissing rniddie i,r ihe bifurcatron of politr':j.
issLres such as ozone depleii.rn end rcean en\,,ii.0uiriental poliution, and

This poiiiical bifurcation hypothesi,.r is interesting because ii argues that the "death of the natjor-stat€" ihat lras been 50 loudly proclaimed is rol c?used try the rise of the all-porrerlui global markets (which I think is !r possible). Raiher, ii is due tc'.he rise ea new combinatlons 3f opportunities and constralnts wiinin the worid of politics itself. 6 ttosenau finds tlre cause oi poiltical chanEe iJr poiitics itself, which is
refi-esh in g ,

We should press beyond e'Jen Rosenau's analysis, to cons:der the economic ani social as well as the political irnplications of crumbling walls, rnixed levels, diffused auiho|ity, scralnbled dimensions, and nelv con]b!nations of the institulionai €lemenis that we use to define our world- This is my notion of the complex global dynamic that is reshaping society today. It affects a u,/ide variety of structural relationships and is driven by a number of forces, and its dynamic interaction make it difficult to describe and to understand. It is qlobalization and a whole lot more" when we choose to consider it without eccounting for its complexjty, r/e make a simple error at the

very least but also risi< making enorntoLrs and imporiant errors.
il
Undeist"nclirig this complex silliation is difficrjlt, but misunderstanding is easy. 3eLr"e ycu sharpen ycur pe| i:nd beLliit to ljst ihe problems with,rhe :li:aedit,q an6lysis, you shcuicl t(n(,u ihat ii)ere is a betier analy!'is :han ni j.-re. ,loseph Schumi]€'rer l{rcie l.r: in 19,11, when he gave this r-crnfrle-\ i,roc:s< a sifiiple nail'l€, (:conrnJ[c develapment.

jlie1!'r

Cc ;h:!ratiitris

,e\,'e!opn-,etit, srhich he lqrote (i;r G"rman) in 1911. A second German a.jiii.rn uris published in 1925 anrj appea'-eC in English translatio!..r in i93/1. l/l,ilrat rilakes Schui]']perei'5 iiJeoi), sc appealing in the prijsenc ctnt:xt its iociis on forces ih.rf saem especially r€levani iodayt the '9 tsnsioir beaireen ine sLalic .ind ihe dy ai-ric and an ernphasis on the iril0ori?rnce if inielle{:i.ual cfe:1.iviiy-. ;n l.t:li, as he lockea! llack aa the

Ihe best tileoreticai analysis of Elcbal complexity, as I perceive jt, is iounlj in ioseph Schumpeler's iirsi book, The Theory of Eca afiljc

ci iiri3 laka in the lrres€nt ccnie){i 3uiprises :jrrd iascinaies iite.

,-licbaiiz:ticr Feiiod tran] ibe perspective oF Vieit ar ::'chfii,i'iter s:w ii]rse as crjl-i,,r:i iieiiieitis cl:;oaial change. fhe pe\ii".
";lciraiiJr.'

n;riure tc irolh sustain (equiliilri n] irnd gro!1/ and change (developmeni). Although SchunDeter did not say so, ihis metapiror iiray be a fractal propefty ot biolog./, exlsiing rn evei-y scale from the .ell 1..r iie indivi{iual to the sF{:cies ic the eco:ogical syste.n. Socia! Jiyste,;]s oi humar'rs lit in tltere sortelvheT-..
Sihulllreter's economic analysis is diyided inl.o a study of equilibrium, the "circular flow," and a study of change, or.economic development,,,
He conceived of

:ci: ! n:pei.e'-'s aaraiysis b€Sins ',.?iitr a broiogjaal ,-netephor for soi:ieiy and social change: Society !s iille i: Fhtlt cr ao anima,, with the dlei

a "circulaa flor,rJ" running on in channeis esserl,ially the samc year aiter ve:ir -sirri:ar to ihe circulntion oi th€l h,lcorj in 3n animal organism. lJo!../ ihis cjr cular flow and iis cha nels do alter in time... continuously, that is by steps which one can choose smaller than any assignable quantity, however small, and always wilhin the same framework. Economic life experiences such changes too, but it also experiences

others which do not appear continuously and which change the
tramework, the traditional course itself. They cannot be understood by

means of any ana'ysis of the circular flovi, although they are purely economic and although their explanation is obviously among the tasks of pure ihec!-y. 16

s;chuinpeler's analysis of economic adtiviir--that ii aompiised a static {:'..lrilibriurn circular flow and a dynamical p|ocess oi econornjc ajeve lopmeni--parallels Paul Samuelson's laier {livision oi ecoilorniL analy:is irlto co parative statics acd con'Lp;ratiye dynam'cs. This sir,ii;iity ls unsurprising, since Samurlson r^.r:rs:lchurnlleter's student. Secai.rse ::he relevant maiheniaticai tc!1ls r,rer': already available, 5arn!elscn focused his altenticn on coinparirtit/e statics, and the development- comparative attention.

proiession large!y followed his lead. '!n Th€ l'hetry of Ecanom;c Dev"lopmeni, however, Schumpeter makes clear that it is economic

dynamics-that deserve the

most

Lleveloprnenl in our sense is a ciistinct phenomenon, entirely foreign to urhat rnay be at)served in the circular ilow oi ir the tendenc), towards equiiibi-iurl-r. ii is spontaneous and disconilr)itoj-ts change ln the clraniiels oi ihe flow, disturbance nf equilibriuq], ',rh;.h forever alters ;r.raj dispjace5 tire equ!!ibrium stale pi-er,/iousiy el{isiiril. z

econornic dev€io:r eni aieilves iioln intellectual {:f.irti1,'lii/: which Schunrpter liescriiles sirnpl_v ;s the ai}liity ic ullrisiiak(: "llevr cornbinations." Gl']balizairioti, iit il"lis reduced tbrrt node1, i:nd Eiobal complexity, is all about rle'/.r coiflbinatlons within tifrns, ';!itirin nations, and among naiirns- 5ui the 5;Dr t of derjelopment thal Schurnpeter is interested in is eridogenc s, not exogenous, Thal is, it is not ihe result of an oLttside acrce but raihr.rr is generated by Itferlal eyents. This way of thinking is coflsister')t with the biological rnetaphor and also consistent with my under,sianding cf globalization. S.humpei:er wriies that these new cornbinatlons come in five types: new gcods/ new methods, new markets. ner/i sources, aftd new forms of organization. rs Schumpeter's ideas are es current as today's l4la// Street lournal. You could find these ideas in a story about Nike or a
"bord€rless world" coillmn t]y Kenichi t]hmaelrJhat is irntoriant about Schumpeter's analysis, holdever, is ihat these

trh: paiaei of

new cotnbiFaljons act to stimulaie int(lllectllal creativity, tleca se it is ideas that count, along with the values that those ideas embody. The

taking risks, trying out new combinations, creating change. Change flows from the individual, through markets, to society- This change

clear hero of The Theory of Economic Development is the entrepreneur, the person who reacts to changing circumstances by

diffuses authority and produces new dislributions dynarnic and creat;ve, in Schumpeter's vision.

of values. It

is

abvious lveakness jn this analysis is ihat Schumpeter lvorks on two levels w;ihout providing a way lo ccnnect thent- On the one hand, be claims thnt "ihe social prccess is really one inclivisible \./hole," 1e bui then his tneoty ends up lcoking at new carmbinatioos fro.n rr',/ithin a reiatively nariow market-based franrework. HorJ can 1 iind this way of thinkirg nrorc usetuj or revealinq lba" giob:ilizatian? i do nol know rJyhai Schumpeler wauid thini( of this" lrut I !-relieve that the new ecanamic combinalions that he desciibes lt3re are only part of the clynamic process. That is, ihe new markeis that stimulate entrepr-ene!rs lo create new changes ar€ an example of the process oi social change. i\lew contbinaliot]s need nrt be economic or solely econc:nic. 2q These ne,,\, co binations take many fcrms, as Susan Sirange has suggested, and they prcd ce not jusi jre\r,i profits, but new vallres. And Values are \,,Jhati co,,lnt. Iilese changss can resuit in new poiitic:ll crCers, includ;ng Rosenau's t!rbulent polit:cal bifurcatjon.

lhe

-i-he

renqth .Jl this \r,7ay ci thinkirg is that i'[ chalienlies LS to corisidet globaiiz1tlan ns sarrnethiilO oi.l, noi sor|ali)in9 ne$r, as someihtng hurr;air .:;rd intel;ecitjal, .loi ; h,.tn'rEn an.l gerqrai-Jhicel, and tirai it encculag€s tJ.-s io perceivc i{ at:i iiie caijs€ c:- th€ efiect Gf the oltentna oi new opf:oi'i ur.riiies. Tl"rese .rDio!-itJitilies are made rea! only when a,.t--C l'i b,v cieaiiYe intellecl. :iahuinpelr.lr citaracier:zed this process by l.i!e iamous t.ifnr r/€afiye dc:tLrucllon" ;1nij il is both cleative arid (:cslr J - i/L u(,:a,r.iF,i rs..,lan!i(.
lii

Enci n( )j:es

l';$te :1: lose ?h A. Schumpeter, !iE i heot,/ ai tcantmic Develapment, trans. Redvers Opie (New Brunswick, Nl: Transactions puLrlishers, 1983), p. 3. .s_aj!.
Pdcte 2; -fhanks lo Dave Balitent, who enr:ouraEed rne chauiBr a ciearef and tjolder focus. E?qK

to give this

Note 3: M. Mitchell Waldrop, Comptexity: The Emerqins Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos (New york: Simon and Schuster, 1992), p. 9.
Back.

l.i$te 4: David Cannadlne, "The Present and the Past in the English lrdustrial Revolution 1BB0-1980." Fast and Present 1A3 (May 1984), cA- 137-1J2. Thanks to my colleague Davld Smith for pointing me to lhis art'cie. BaeK 5: -i-he "facts" ha,/e chanlled ioo, holn/ever, especizrlly in receui vears, as i[]p!-oved dzria aboul vJ.rEes, producticnj itnd irade have

tict"

been produced.

BEL

ff;ste S: P€rhaps cne af the factqrs that infiuenced Churchill in his clisasircus 1.927 decision io return gnitain lo tfre EoiLi standard at ihe p!e!!ar- oarjty r'/as a percept:on ofihe success of Britain's qold poiicy during the industrial revolution. gjlek

llote 7; In rrly book Mou tains of Debt, tar example, 1 cornpared the

jrldustrial revoilrtion to a firountaln glacier, which is powerful, because aithough it rnoves slowly and unevenly, the iandscape that surrounds il does nct inove al ail. 3ac.!$Jst€ S; aannedine, "Pfesent

l6?.

ard Past in ihe IndLlstrial Revoluiion,"

p.

-g.arl-{.

t!i€ SteiE, and War: A Thearetift:l lJnivers'i:y piess, 1959). Waltz wriii,.s And!!'sis iit"w ferk: Coiurnbia ;boll'. ihr.€: "!fnages" in ihis book, ,lhich is ilre bas;s cf ihe "levels-of irfialysis" ;.rpDrrach to iniernalioiral reiat;crrs. Bagk.
i',jir,rt.-:

3i

XanlteNh

i\.

r,4laliz, Man,

lloter :{Ci Siaates aci diiferenlly i'l a bipoiar lioild system, for example, thal'] in:l h:gemcn'c sysiern or a bal:rnce oi po\.Jer system. g--a_c]s_. i\irltei :L:l: Susan Si:range, The Retreat of l/re Stafe: The Diftusian oi !]awer in t h.: \ivorld Ecanlrfly (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University pfess, 1.997), p. ,17. Rob€rt Gilpi.l is llre a ihor ol the standard text cn lniernational polilical economy, 7'he Palitica! Ecanomy tlf Internatianal f<elations (Princeton, Nl: Princeion University Press, 1987). EaEL

l\lete :!.?: Strange, Ihe Retreat of the Sfate', p. 33. EaEL

itrte !.3: iamss
l'll: Fi; c"irl.

N. Rosenau, Turbulence in Worl.J Polifics (Princeton, Llrriversity- Press, 1990J. 8ad!

t{ote 14: Ibid., p. 10. EAeh

Note 15: Obviously, however, many of the new orientations, skills, structures, and relations that Rosenau discusses involve technoloqical
and economic factors. 3ack.

i.'lot€ 16: Schumpeter, Eco anic Develorneni, p.

all. -BaiL

;\lrrt.:,17r Ibjd., p.
;

64

gaci

i8: ibid., 0. 55. ilartk. l'.1{r;:e i !: i;rid., p. 3. b.a!l!
i{rrl"i

li4t€ ?1]: jndecd, the very idee ii;a:i: i,,,-- r.l.toui,j it;{arnine t:-}{i-.e:5sr.s l:r quesiioits cf int€.nalionai p.rjji;f;jl :ta{ttl.j[].,1 is ajt exantDle cf tit3
ir:rpot 1--1,c€'

oi ne\J iritellertuti

{:ol-itbiirait

ions.

i.jacl{.

Post-reading Activity
Questions
1, what

on 'Selling Globalization: They Myth of the
to

Global

Ecr:norny' by Mictrael Veseth

descrtbe what the average man thinks about globalization, suggest to you about what he believes the man's beliefs are 'smokescreen'
of globalization?
2.. From paragroph 2. How is the reality of globalization different from the theory? Explain in your own words. {Hint: Think about the advantages and disadvantages of gloLralization)

does the writer's choice of the words 'debunk', 'myth', 'rhetoric' and

3. From paragraphs 5 and 6, the writer gives 1 reason why globalization
been llmited so far. Explain in your own words what this reason
is-

has

4. Fram pltagroph 7, Explain in your own words why is globallzation
described as a'useful' concept?

-

5. ln the section entitled -Crumbling Walls, Complex lnteractions,
poini o{ th€ analogy of the pigeon hole?

y.,/hat is

the

2OC]41 H Lt5!i!f'.ld{ST

E5 S

J\1/ C{}t'J-i-Fi 5T

l'l,'it\.: !\JEFt

5

Cr ril l

irai irnperialisnr:
,4.n n{n-lericar-l

TracJillon
''ruore

ov -?uiia

Gateoia

T!;r,rel almosl ar$lvhere xr Ihc iv'rrld lodri rnd, .. . l-t ,., I p, \r. .,.. ... ^ . . .. ... .; t;irr3, ,,r lirc rl ,xrfhr ri li)jssjng ile ne$esi .!'ise\le ol i'!!\'! 11,. (.,r/ lri,r!,l, r'ju .\m.rrcar hsl,rs .rn l,e saiis ll rklni,111 rrtr;rLlt,'rc.'l1tis prolifcrallo! oli\ncr;c!n t.L,ax.r\ rr,o,ij thc "q].lr is more than nkrc acc ent. ,\s a i,,?ro.ilrt oigbbilir!rnrn, rl is p:trt L\f a larg.r t.crd nr $. dlrscirds ,l!sJ!!nir.tion 01 ,\neric.r attilld€s dd lriues rhir is.ll.n r.i'eu,tl ro rs r ulhiaL itnpt;. i! . l[hi! 19i6 rrorlt r-.i,r'ivirrirr: ri:J {i irtal Doiijirdtiotl, lletb.tt lj.h,11tr ,1.tnrc 5 .rltLrid inrp.ri.lisn.s: thr su'!
lroL,rl,r nn'r

ridclr re.ogniz.d dnn lh! llhristirn .rossl Sriir ,\lle, ic a n .lnmiDrti,rn i.r\itrb)y hrrts Io!lnrrikrts, as tlre !n.)oriL1'oiiort;Sr ir!! ftrics irr o blr ro.crxprlr riljl
11, ,,..,. rl , tp.,,,. i, .,1. t I r.-",\ ,\nre,l.ar i:fionii int.r.sls. .o.!onlions .rnrtnicrtll irnor. th..lrtrincr{al ;rt}ct ofr\rrt.irxn cori.ol c'l lorCo.pordions dDr'l ]r!rbor gual,ns ,loLrl lh€ dctrin1!

'

il l\mer i..n izatnri ol fo.rign .xhuci, ns nrLxr corfu! ,ri la.i ,r-(Lrr:,ibl) conlin.c.i thenrlrlres lhrr
iirl eflrits

forld s,rst€nr, i'd horL 'irL'u,,le itr rirx!iditing srrtur is iLlrr.Lcd, p(ssu.cL!, I;r,iL,i, .n.i Jo clines bribe,j irio snafnrs social irj!rLtr$! !r) .orr.r.rl(i to, o..vcn {o plonclf, lhr !:ric.r trn(l ,,rr!':rrtrct ol'lirr douri3it.cnitr oi
r

!i r|!

froces.jes

bi

whi.h tr societl rj

,\urc.iuD.ullrrc ls slferior and ther.tbre its lrnurJr.e is bereiir;J ra o1hcr, '].s!J" ciihL{es LlJorturate\', ibN l.1liinr rlre $r!.riorir)- flU.S. cuhLrrc ir xrllhrrg ^d.rlc!ri ;r rs r\s !l,1irs th..dllxre itseli lhis itlihrtlc {as bll n,jti ..,,a [r...r1, h1".r '.; .io' ,.ir'', llrl! c|j]nir,rji r.)i rn3rs:icfcd r'r issinrili'id eJ:rJrlirli-v rh. .rti!' "ii'{!r' liJ'i,c {ncri,ur) foDillali'xr. liris allix(i

ir ..r:!rnei iio!as; it ;\'olv.s th. disse!rnrat!{rn oI !slcr:rilr, ,iNrrrl.m lruriplcs. srch as lrecdo .,fld
:i,rif

ii.r .r"i. f|rlgli

lrulh !!a!y.irilu.s iroLrtul 1lr. L'.rl.l !. gr.(t!.lh: {lisiFpriing dllr to ihc oy.rlrirflrds jrj jLr.ir.r ci.orro.ntc and.rhLrrrl Arleri.a. il)r !:,4ti"3t1rts brl !!l l .ri..r.ultrril lnrpeii.l
iihieiriDg
iJrn

il!: s,ni,:., rl mlsiis ! f

ijr:r i.r.Less tniglt s,rlnd

at!.rl;rg,il

.1.. . . ,'t..tu ni ;irllsr, rl!riiE rthirl lirL: jirgoist! rfiein .d to iillfrl rl,at ricr i)rji.!.{l $b.llre (i$inely crd.ir..i !rrinitcsr l.sinL;' .f .\rrt!ji:ii c\!i,,rslirn lin,e,r'5ir slrongl) heliere ir!th.ro) ,ieli oi sr.iri l).aririsrn: thc sLro Srr. "suf.rinr' cnlturcs lillr!':r1.iti dr. rro\cr, ";iiirior' ct:lur.s in a "!uri!al,)f r|i ti116rl' li is illis;.ro!airtbrlieiin il!! nc! nrtrral,iiiv ol
r

ol ,, o,

,i

rr(l

|.1

!!i.il sirar.::i{s

h

Drxii, i lirt

LLtriiji{r:,ii,:,rs t,:,' U.S.

;inpcriills.r t|rough

lJll hiriir,v: ilre d.slr. i,ir....ss io foreignrrirhr(r ind thi

b.hJ in Ur. srper rill fi n.rrii.in collure. Though th!
lh. world\ larycsl, mi'sl po 'crlir! e.onoDry, no bus'ncss is complctcly s.tisfied ivith c{'Irlrol'

tlrd

litrcs dres

-t,l]]rst

,rlt\ oltii.if .!ituic, butlort doesrirc.orlrince ihersl of rl,e ,'!rla d tire mp.rioril_r oi ilDrcri.in !:irltrrc? tIc hs'er is ii plei nafiklirg. Wl)rd\c. illlirrpti.g 11r scll dl il.rn, r L,rmi, L'.1r entire rrliue, oi!ltctcrs halc al!'ils bee'r ible to su.cessfully associate Aincrifln prodL,cts t'illi
nro&.rrit!

"t : " ,. \', i r ',r'

11,.-la.v.

-,

lirg ,)nl! llt ,lnririri! !rul:.tj -A-neri.un .orlorrtio s lninr tr .4lroJ Lh. lrirc. L)5 pcr.enl oi I'xe rrorl(l! .oi s!Dcrs:i!rtll nlan!ir:,1!nrjrs rri credibll suc.c!slnl rl tjr.il rcniL,r. i\..orrliiq 1o tIc arrcrllrr, Antr;.iar ill$s !,c,,{rri1i ior .,t!rnr\;,!:r1.i,v Slr }r.r.cai oighrbil bo\ o1!li rcvenrr !r linuii) 200j ,\nd hho cdr iurger good old illi.Lv D.\l \\ith over li),000 restlmnls in o!.r oDe lNn dred.ourtftj, tLc ubi!trit{ms goidcn archcs olIlcDonrldiJ arc nori, a.conlng lo Eric Sdnosscr's Firt tbrd Nrrnrr.
;22

ir

tln: minds ol rorsliD,:is \rorldNide \\rliil.

lboll, ;roiricillr. i0!!rta.tiLrcd ,rrJtlc oi lhc Uj,i1.d 5L!t.rl. rirr". .r. .rr,! scll;rg rl!r nnigr cl Arrtri.r .i lhe |rd r,1 ooil' 1|is irdrslol.ble a$o.i!tio. .l!r(s !1,:,
nurets dll ov.r rhc globc ro elanor .trsclessly lor the s.!rc 'lrrenry v.rrs rgo,

i\lrrk.tsl ll0r!'r

ir ba cssr) "Thc Globrl!?ation ol brsiidss !rolessor 'lheodorc l.evill

9,r\l/
dr.hr.(i
.?Ll!
irortro.crnj?.11 1{)

c_

q.h!''T-.E

5

r

wlnjr\N€..Rg.

iril(ifu. ll! (lrdr a.lisrir.txlr b.hfrD gerl !r 1L*.rio.al {r{rforiliDos rl,rl opcrrrc diJlir.ntl.r nr ca!h .o{rrrr rnd sin)nil rlob.l LrnrportrlioDs Ihat i dic d e.tia \iirid olhr:in.1 x,itb rire sa,fti a!...1!. j!r irccni Iri.r. .j.D)d iin.!.Irr)rr(idrs hxt. d.v!hiri \l an rvdr arore sLrc..ssi:,1 !trite!:v: irsterd .a(hlJtis. 'rl,rirrl ng ,lriricr urloar:t! 1vilh blor.lt hautd. Inue eyeLl. n.ran!]ri.!l r\4rrri.trl\. l|e./ pilr! div$lit\r 'l Irte .air |oign-\ s!.n rs r.1i!lorrlil! n.N jrrrrn.lnDji l'm io!i'r' il".r |'rirr \ilrk i;r dr.\rrr! oI lli. Urited Si.1e! his .'hi.r , i ,,..,.,.,.ur..t....tir .r '., t;alll errrt .x1i!r. i! rh,: 1\,orld r\! .;'rly eiar!fle ol lh's glob.l nr.rkcri,r! rJ.!i. ias h) ni iD i (11).i Coix conxr!r. .iri iroDr l9tl i!.,tL,i;,,q (h;lJrcn Iiom mnry dif.re.l cou rr;rJ i&noc.11l.. s'nijirg, lil like ro t(:rch ili! wo.ld t1r sn)!;i Fcric.l nirnur'/llii llie to LrI i|c orlila Col'. to kre! il.!r,r,inl" liri!.',nr:r.r.irl ill.str.r(\',r! rrtinrpt r,) toJtri) . U.S g.olr 3s a pr.d!.t cJa,ll€ !f rr.J:!r{.ndirg polrrl.rl r ni:, ,.ligifir.. \,.cii!. and !.,,r,!j. diilire..ej .,,1,,.,,. rl., u 'u .,r,r 1.. :, .; '
drorn.J

rilli.I

.ie,l\,.d d.ri(\ hinc brcn urrro " l.r!11irrld r!ur corl.orrtions lh.t Nerr ro b.nd t{) lo.al trstr',\ rJ,d hri)its ne'c crilJU)
I hr \!(),ldl(

OiLlir.). lrr
,

,,

I n ls,

U.S

rj!rble i. ]or:!l .ulturci rrilh lrhrt is
,iD.rica

r5iir poprlrr loQl imis tr thcn idnrris. (r poratio Ds rlt.!essllrllv isso.iilc rhri is t:sil

fi!l);or.rL,l,r in csrenlirlly siDrples Ih. \'o!lds rultLt.\, rel,iLi.igcs thrm nih thr nnr.ricar (.tidcnlxrk olmilcrit is'r. rnii .cseils th.Dr t. the Norld.

;\.r!rit

. rr,r,.,.,

,.r.ti.:.t. r

,

irqnr ilral ktrrirn .ors!,lers dort pasr'nrl) lbrrtrL, llr,: '. , ',,., ,J .,.rri-.,a I r: r..,,i,.,. I iur!!r! {lr rlxv;'r idile rol. irr th. r.dpnr.al rebinr:hip 1..trlrt. burr r rnd n'licr l:!r irlnrtic, r..o inr to f.l.r!''ri Kifids lrr lo.r4 i\rncni.n ruil|rrl nnpcrlrlisn l: s Insrr(.i a sii\r ic,rd I'rrierlelt" il lhlr aid 3.lemolslftnrrlJlrr,S fi! burnnre oi chickens otrl-(;dc oi 1;r€ firs! l-erlil.ky f'riid (l|i(lfn crtlri in l!d'r 'lhouir]l ihcrr hrrr , .. .. , r ,,i,. ,.1 r . "., i. . ,h.r. .,ld ,r...", .cs;la!... tlu $ieise, lrrele ti g ba.rigc dl An.ricar

ti.r

.ul txl i

ilL!cn..

.c!1t

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as

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....

.

J

irro f!r' ruir?li€yxl.1r' ;ntu.,iirl -1r),:r;car nf: "r,ri i,;jih o?er :.\0 n'jlrlrrr {rbs.rDers \1orl.l,rnii) r\...r!i irii t'r ,r I r':"r "l\li ,r \ii,rll I c rr S1r.ly" cdrducti(l iiv l)1,11&B'. llrirr\i.\.:t ,iirisirlr, ol tirf 26,t{r0 rniJJl(. .l.ss Ircir i,r ir.li lrr. i(liiLri:rr !tirltlril. jJ5 l)eLrrt ("rt.ti .vilt 4.rl drtr'li.n,:r.rr,it'snri !li,u r\llf i|1crds rl sho!'is c !i1(.s. rrr:.r.rinr.l i.llue!.es bxt is relli!
cultr:i1s

]lclhirg rnorr liriir na!(!tu.LLrj.d

.Dlt{l to,\;n.,n.x rituhr i.si. 'l;. r, r.. o . i,. .'' in.,.r' rot irrcrful.jrrr.sh to iio!. pr.dq.ts, r\meri..rr .orrrrl ii{,n: alr{] ar)i!.fjia1f L..rtl .!llukr n o th.i! A.lrdti\inl .bro..l rjnljlar I-ci;it! ,r.rh rnrltiritr.nrls, ili.se corlnrN lrons donl berd b local tastrs; rircy orcr.ly inscn nrdig. non! ..bbrities or lrrods r,J prrs.nl llrr ll.rilc ()l r
.uri,Driz.d x.1\'!riirtnr(,,1.

n

s

srnrrrr in llngljjh

1.'

Lo t'ounrling th. nrtiuen( {rf€ornnrc.ciiil nu}3rs 3rc l|r ,.rdir :r')J iriLrrnrlinn !.dustric,s, which Drrscrt litlr ,jtiiclr trll] rr!ii.it res-(u3!s i,borl lhe \.ry r.'al mi1il.r'/ d nd co n.Jni. Lcge rirq rl th. I-hited Stnles. l.orica !l-\: t h. jrdrilr; lirr!.lirirns ro le ttri solr.efor "tajr:lrd b.]arrcd' iriir'ltir, Dl.rr ; lrrg. rolc in ll. ttuDilirii()! oin'1er; iiri inlL1.!.. ri,riri ihe uorld lir. .onconniio! .l i .r"lrr'l '1 .:oit' ", 3n.i Ji.;tisJi ii,,,iir oiqi)riz.lio!s to sain nrrrt.ol !t thc mlrorj.: oi rh: rrL,.!lis iens sc../;rcs. Sxt(]lir.s .llorf ov.rr !5rl n'illilu ir.trtrrir.l.li N .ppr.{iln.i€ly 212 co!'tr;s lud !.lxcr;'r \cil{]1!id: rL, subscribe to UNN. a.)elrbcr !l -Iin. !!$iot I|. w.rl,]! hrgrsl !i.di. &)ngldiir.l€. 1,1 lIc,i,rrd! oi iJrliisI so.ioJojisl lcrcny li,rstrll, \ir.r. go,;rrnrnerl rl!,rrs levs r !.orlation, it is in.1ftct irnron nrg a fjr.. ol :nother .,Lrllr): foiitics -rrbi.!r is tru. oi ro rlilr. ln (Jdirjri to t)olii'.s and.orirneie;rls. n{nrolki'irporr' lini (l}:N.lso a':escr,t foreig. c|urtrj$ trill ''-.1",1 .. J 'rI r.'1...r\
,r

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lus !t,irnInl olcr tr,!Dtv

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the rorld\ride plotagllion ol ADrcri.an rnfiu€nce. lnieresttrgly, son)e Ir. 'l, r r 'r'',o,n,t.,,n " oron,, I iloni llifi l!r i.rn crllurll inrp.i.iisfl is ii de.lme Ii .l riri_rnr rLri lh. gloLnl a&:cssibiliiy oF lhis decerlr!lzed Dr, Jtrln hxr,lr..ers.d,irc rclerrn.e 01 tlie'corr and po ipjrirr' ihrort olg|rl,jl i,rflLreqce. This tlrco.y descr il,c$ ar ;nhcrcnt inbalancc nr tle prnftrily olrtlvnrd flo1! ol inbrfalion and trrflu.n.e troni the slro g€r nrorc poltcrlul .o.c" ralions such .s lhc Unncd Stares. Addition,rllv, s,(h .ritjcs rrllue, nrlik. .onsnnr€rs ol olhc. llpes ol

ihc Irtcnrtt Jcls.s &oiher lehicle tor

231

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rrs! x.li\el;
s.Lrk lLrt
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CON'TEST
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usersftn cor\,,k) sl!.lr!.se10irt)d

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nrlss.3cs

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I

;ll 'n ' 'r "i....1 pL ,\nd nor shoul.l rv. rinl ro Co,nruv lo lk,thkotl\ (rul (-r.1rg! rrl Birsh\) brliri 11,d, Good dn.i evil, betlrr !rJr!rs!.o.\i5l ill tlis $'orlii: diereirrA)rdrabsolulls

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thrs

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n1n.l.Drfr)r l]1{l

,iri,ii,r.in) l\rtrdo\!..llI. litniting ricers l,)

the Irtcnrrl urrrli r!rurrj lhrl .ou!irics r!jll r.nriirl !irg(ly rl), .,trfi.'lr Irlic. t]r3n t|. .onr ribulo, s, ofinfor
rrairon olr li)r

uxtrriil;s:r, !i (ir rs llu:ri LotLkrli a n,rrrci staio; o1]i r,irl ir .liJrlcr's Oifri!n,rnt ol (lonr,i.rrc, i!gr. !ir.rl ,{xr c.j.i. :r thi::rl nritr.irllj,. lr iri Il:( ir!erest rt orlv nl rh. l.hili.:l 51.,t!s bri rlsr L,t !n. lofld !I large itothkoti .ites s.n\rrl ilr!!rir!:i{iri thnr." iionr rir. C/rjri! .tl C;r, ii7,:itr.s t .ti !l: -i..qi,r,ir( ,,i rlr ill)i'1, Old.r rl,ii. llrc !rr.,!.r rIr .!li!ral llj!j-, !ril;'! i,r llr no!ld, llre Drort lit,:h li ir liat ,:r)rli:i 'r:lll .,.,:!f. :iotilko!i irg!.s lhrt iirr r.rJ)n!rl !iriJini.,ll.ii;nrrs lh'o !l 1-r.S.iulll]lil imFcrii:l
.,ili Dro]rii)r,r i rN.r. !i,tble n'rilJ,.rne ii lriii.i r\nreri ..rr llnrh' icilrs qrtrf)e ?s iii;!. rnosl jun, the nroll loi,rrrl, tir.r .r,,ri ?,rlijjtg L. rr,islilnlJ russcss Jn.l nrlmle iJscl{. i,i.i ijr.5Ert Bo,l.i ior llrc iu1u.: I'],cthkl)pl i:i .,r.rcl i. d.. r5-\r: 1r!rrlcur! ifu o1r the t!.r), tD rslib lish;rq I gkii.Ji roricil rrilh i:i!irt.i c!llri.:ri barir.s. llotlf.r, !rt rJlr!1 (iti'rii,ir ,tlrt,ihrr liris trojf.red so.nr1) ,, i lL,\o1... . , . , . . . , i i i,q ro rllcss irdj!'riars.ullLr(s lol !1!r uilikel,y pronisc ofa rrild $'lilirr! c.n1li!ri iroDrd lhe {o.ld, r!). Dsn€r is.n oRNrhelnrjDg ''Nol Disrtgrrding ihc licr tl)rl a vorkl ol honrogcnized clltu. lro,rkl nor rc.."\sriiltr !rtrrml.. a \orld $,itionl .onlll.t, rh,: .Luitlcr llbric ofdi!.rsc clltLrr.s iro Bl thc \vo.ld is A tiin(lrD.rnil rrri ndisf.rsal,lt brsis 0f hun.nr itti llnorg]1,rut ihc .,rrr( fl h,r,r r c\irler.r, r)i1l;ors l,ale di.-J 1,) i.r.scr!e thei ndii.nonr .ul1u. li is a iun

frlt .ll !:.!rl .ftrs :r. lli. Anilrionizatron of the NrLl !r i i..s.r'.i!e firllroDrcrni,. Propon,jr{s ol. llud

Iittrrii

i.!rlr ii,r.e{xhir r.rinns lo i!c.i!i irs &ilIi!;ol olr}rrt rs 'gt,rJ uri lusr' r,r r:r,:l irodcri I0rtnnrltit,,rury rj.tns .1 n!rcri.an.ohDril inrp. iirli5'i .fuil biilrd lo thr srlivcrsion ol tbtir .'Jltu..s. Urti'rlurlrtr\: these n.dqrs r( oti.n too $€rt t! ight the sl!cnglir ol th! Urritd Sldr.s.rnd srbscqnonlv b p.scrlc r|uir nrtnr iitlo.rr. Somc couor!ltr .h d5 lia'rce, clnra, cubr, Carrdr, rrd iran hay..iteDpted to qurll ,{nrcritas cll]iurai i!lhence by linjling or !.ohibiting i..rss ro imcrican clllur:tl pragrnnlming throu8h 5rltl |rij! d tir| ljteil!.1. lio,vekr, r..ordiDg to thc UN tlji!ei,'.1 D.riarrrio! oilhmin Itlglrs, il is r b.si. right oi ail tr,)iJe n, slrii, re.cir., air(lrntr! i,riorrnatiot alrd idcrs thr.rg]! anI n.dii rl rcgrrdl-is oa liorliersl Goleh r&nrs dioullil i;1. 1l] re5rrici th.ir .iliz.xi i.ciss io lni.rnralioj) jll nrtirr 1o fics. eLh.ir niti,rcrllurls.\\icrs .Icrid n si find r.r! torlcicnd loc.rl cLilllrfus ii a N.!ieJ llti:i,irrs roi (oriirodis.lh€ rlehis ofir.ligen $t.oF]C l|e lrrrtorcri s.'htMis 10 llrt fr.'blJn oa
*i ..ufrorrisc nrcaiurrs behllf of lhd erdrrger.d .i:lIuirr ln ll. leff n"/l ii!. alirr. fi... Tironrri friedin.r tJ.,.", ,,- . . 7r'',.r. r.., .io,. ,..i lar'lxri p.orc.teil r..a lara, es \,;tl] is ihc itpoilnmlri ol iJ,)l;ircians i!it| .!riu.,l iri.Sriir: such air $osr ir) sgric,rl luTl, cu]{ull,1!.. purc Sorthcrr f.ancc. Hofcr.r, rra,) nrlrcr n^tnrs iIr. n,,1,!i..r in ie rdDiiilNn ol{[cir lrrd crrhip, so lnosr roLinlrier reed . ui.ldl. cl.ss rnd cljl€

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d,nrlllel tr

socifi

crn to rbsorb influ.rces tlrrt r'rturally iil inb .'ich laj culture, to resist lhose ilrings rhal are

r.J1 ,r.,r."d... -,1 ,,.,.r".l. rr'u..i i'... ll]al, rhile diff.Rrnt, ran Di'.rth.lis' b. rijo)c,t !nd..lci rlrcC is dift.rent.

r\ .,,"
alisnr. lIl

ot

danrent.tl right ofhDnranity to b€ alloiled io preserve tbe nr.nlrl, plys'.il, nrlcll.cluil, rnd creriive ispc.ls ofonels u r'. .\ .rn . glub,l Jh r. ,.o,ld bi no h nb mu,' thrD

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a

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conliiucd p

/llad rj rvrl[,/./, tsc.jinnr Barber crlls tbr rhe ftlrs.itarn r ol nongover rnr rcrirl, non.atitalisi sp..es
'1ii

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qra!erirlisrri reliart on

'24

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lrtrourr Lrurg\ ro
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nr esirbli\h ir globrl soc'eq \rltc.c

Iikt.. rno,,rii scryilud! inJ hrnrir i{lrts violiri,,i}: QLh pcrson is liee Io l;\r oul rlk .L\!Lr ol hir fr hcr lilr \!rthort ihrsc limilirnlrs /\s nr.ir, N'r..rit i. (!rrr.l Nilh .niploying {DIl,c.n|on)i. rican! Ucrrie, thr.kerrJii\e i {rl)Fos. is lo.on.ert.irtc or , .iriLcr l,,rft riLln,q 9{a{l:, rI{ prrrchrsjnl: ll)rnr bul rrih.r il :!r,f.,,irn! io rh. Lij gqr!rnrr.rt Ii' prss li\s frol,ibjnrg orif,tIr.i ririil, 1(11 fr!(lL,.is ir!.\r)eri..r! rJiarl.cls i..r iiolrtirr lunu rjqlr:r jD rh. Frodu.tn r ol thct j|')(\. -(he L.ri.1.r t,r i'ri!g iboLii lasiingch ie is lcgill,/.,\Drr crnr ir1,r,,rl !,r fr(}ibirrd to,\ co!Dnrunrg ierlii,r j.ts lirri. 'rl,ijr l.|.1rlroid ir. iilei.l i1 ho,r.. jIir fn,hjliiliiil

lor't.\irr afJ ir|ct

rult|hcc ilrty orlh,rnun nglrj?,\lr.r all, onr o11|e Lc} olr\niticu lo!eiqr polc) ilj rlrr prolc.lnr oi]Iinrrlr rj:iris Thr\ r./. s\oni{l trr!ert o,t,otuliors rhrch yiL)taLe stJr rit|ls iruDr tloirs Lusinc5s r! rh. tliired Starc! :\s oLrJ ,rd'l{l he.nrnf\ in.re,rjirglr rn[roDr..trd, !r iJ !,jj.-\:iir) lo rdiir:lrrD ,nr pr:!riitl.s \\'r .rn't Jllo,r ouj
goilJ

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1,) le ia{isliril nirh e,IDl! !..1!Fs lLat rrJk. !s ii.l br!t!. .t.,ri ,nri:rrlr.s rirli(nrt tli,rliri: :ni .r.n:rl .l.n!!. liDrt ji) is ri !rtrrl.rl |ari L,l1[i] t.o.css, hui,:rrl]r1hl ij rs!1,\. !'irji{x rL:1Jolr lo 5aI thal hi\.jng rulnjr' xirc. js (i.nr h! i^lijnt jdrll\rcDs rt jroine i\ a rondc,i,,Jtrr) b :!r.ri!. t,!blLit)., Lut $.illri,ul i orher.,it. oi!!ri?rd r,ore

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i"ll{idir 1l.isi.trr broilr.l lr frolrjbited trrln i,urrh!si.:r .r fl)iU i)n.njrrt. $hr.cr!l {e lse the srr c r.rsoring ^nil I,Jri. r{, !iolijbit .o,foraiions lronr cmpbring labor trli !i..\;rftutrJ \vlirh {l{rir coDtirrr! !o,,\rl)tri.rn stud.rds 01
LAlf .onlhLred ir!trr

liiJl. t. g drul.( ail i|otk thr hLr.r,r JiEuir nl nliiih ri,i1 r!lih:rrrl) i!rr a iriithriglit.
Ann! .1.5ilev!kt/,a

ludentit

HarvirC University

is

tBL'ntt
tr-.

yc.rs ald.Thiq c:say piacccJ 5cccnd tr rh-Aeiglir.cn-Lo tyr.ml r.or yr:.' .1!j ag,) categor_v rl rhc 200:l Hdr'nr-r E$ay

rs.

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dri!r. ir t;t ;trrJs oi \r'illi;n lrqitncr, ihir ilrf ind{rnti|Jlie i rrar +irit..)riil ncr Il|ere\. ,i! !ri,

D l-q

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st:ft.irg

Bi,! Lrr!rnd ihir trrsir rcle llre'; s.rr'. a .trind.r L,{r.t(,ri! ia rir:1 ilrr liirils ol i{r irFgiD"l;!ri. A'r cv.f

ljt iJtl..!rrioril .iuiJ oir!&v 2re a gocd nfi t. icr rt d' , r.,.'
5!J1'

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oi n!.:in^iioixl lirminjtrriarj l.1rr rf rriurlccrrrlrsior, ,'i1lr.lcgit j.lcol,,itirj ii i\\',r .ri i:rr ia lr;r0rr'1r iilsiirxr 'lo.ffr-j L|;s r,r,h.t h,ir,,!n i-.!r:r.s! il1r. rrriBth io nrelgllr is. chrrg. rfr gliilr....fi ir,r itis. !i rsse!.i., rs llunrNnilr nt a.iior.
ii iior.:rlro rs rtxr G.klt)r rg oi'4;rhifgton DC, is lwe ty tlnce,/fii,s .1n. r:rs as:y flnlrir itr3i itr rhc eight€en to.rvrenly.ioil )c.. .l'l .!r ..i,r.l,jv or ri,e 20t'1 Huoarin i5s3v C.nr.tl nmJ li4.rn ol Noiih Arnernr!
ili.rr k I

.jllirc rrecns, tir..s nfr.!i !r ,s riojsi)ir or lornnurjtl schools lt is ,rlso .(i!iil), 1n!'t,ri r..r. -.1. .ll . ri i., liliir:1,r!; i Jiiri!!rs. lrdrs cst..'nlll ne.il r counl.,rLJal ir.r !iir.ri,ji .,r .',!u.ji.:,' co!s,{rcr;rn lirl :trs.,,I rnrr ll.€ t-r':!l;tr il!(r; iIirrl;rniu.ls or .ourtriff .llticiollslf .l,r!,s. i. b..fm. :irn.r1.:rii,iri oi "rnorloriz€.1; ih.ji clui,:r ri,;rl,l br rxrL tnrl.; dxi nr.Lf.nd.rril rii Ihc i!,rr.iDir Ini !rliitri.r Dl .\n.r !..n .llihr nl i !f€,lrlisir. lI. rr:tri:!iL;liir' :oi p]!s.rving c tr..s iI.ui!irir rrrl .,rlrcl) !r, ii,o:c trr risli. I|c Ur,irtd S1.rlf:.xFl tiht rcn,e,rt rl,iI r!\:,I is !flxl ior its econonr., js'il !r.*.sJr ill
ro 1]r.

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I (i! ror rrani

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rnd politiGl !crdrri cl li:i Lllil.(l 5i.t.s ,ro!til !.r!cilrdriscd to h.id the.r 1r.rdi

t. l,

'.r'lo!r!rr,4/onlrn

Firk up a aopy trf
the Humanist
3.

!|d .r'f r'rjndflrr lr

lir

hoRse

al..l

,ridlhrxistabtLbrr!abolr nrl.hoNeasfrcrl) is possiblc lrrll 1 r.lirc to be blo{n olT my fe.r bl anl

It bc ilillci !i or illsi(ler be shltfcd. I li3nt lh,:.!llur.

l}rdof il Giri.li. ilawley-Cc(]ke
lo5cph Beth. Shinder's and several othcr indcpendent bookstor{--s and newst.n.ts

Dalton - Barnris & Noble 8ooks A i,,4illior' Eookstcns UofcJeis ljooks arrd fu]Ll5ic

lbr r-hit.d St.rt.s r:Lrsl rcLIi.llr{!sc rIli n! !!! .L:lirr. .!r or -.hi\Jrl r€rgr s!prenrc, ior ll". n,.jrb it rii,,:;r' ,dir:ri's c.,u L,rir iirnircr hirrr. littrre gc,rr.irdri.
lllia G:leob of
[,'lclcan, Vt.]inra, is tevcnrren ye.6 old. Ihis cs5ay placed lrrst in the thi.tcen 10 seventcen year oid .ge.lt|!,ory oi tlre 2004 Hrr,fi,5t Essay conl$! ior yo!n9 \rvom.n and iven ot No{h Amenca

,

.16

?oFie - 4;lobagizatien
Article:

o

Goleota, Julia- "2004liumanist Essay Contest

Wiflners Cultural lmperiallsm: An

Arnerican TraCition". The Humonist. May / June, 2OC4. ?p.. 22-46

Activity
Students will be tasked to read the above essay and will be shown five different

M€Donald advertising clips. Students are to apply what they understand from the esiay
in order to critically reaC the McDonald advertisements. Students are then to be split

into groups to deconstruct wh, how and what the 5 dilferent advertisements are really trying to achieve !vith help irom iull.1 Galeota's essay- Discussion as a class can then be based on the material that siudents have worked out in their groups.
Added suppiernentiiry activity Students are io look at the last four paragraphs and sumnlari?e ihe author's suggestions on the possible meihorls of solving the problem that is AiTi€riccn Cultursl lmperialism.

Articles used:

1) 2) 3)

Watson, James L "Cultural Globalization"

.

Encyclop!dia Bitonnica,2007

Lechner, Frank J. and lohn 8oli. "Jihad vs Mcworld" I/r e Globolizotion Reoder 3'd Edition.

Elackwell Publishing, 2008. Pg32 -38 Galeota, Julia. "2004 Humanist Essay Contest Winners - CLrltural lmperialism: An American Tr:dition". The Humanist- May / June,2OO4. PC.22 46

t{3!'TN.rR,qi- €L0tsALIZATX0r\.i E rt c''c lo pe d ia B rita n n i ca Arti cle

Cultural Globalization is the phenornenon by ,/./hich the experience of evrryday liie, ?rs intluenced by the diffusion cf commodities and ideas, re.fie{rts a star}dardization cf cultural expressions around the u,/orld. Pi.rDelled by the efficiency or appeai of rvi.eless cornmunications, elecli"oi.ric comnerce, popular culture, and international travel, gl.baiizaiion has been seeil as a irend tolvard homogeneity that will evi:ntuail)", make human experierice every\rjhere esseniially the same, This apoeers, however, to be an overstatenrent cf the phenomenon. Aithougli homogenizing influences do indeed exist, they are far from creating anything akin to a single worid cuiiure.
fi?tn?'g€nce af gf@fzal s.tbcetltlrres

Soriie obseryes argue ihal a rudimentary version cf l,vorid cuiture is 'iakiirg shape among cefaain individuals v,/ho share similar values, asplraiirns, or lifeslyles. The result is a collection cf elite Croups v/hose un:ii/;n!l ide;-ris i.ranscend geographical linitatioirs"'lil--: ir{r::i

"

{.r,rdrt{tfg

lo Fo!itical sciflrtisi 5;Jriu€l Huntifigton in lhe Ci;sh oi ai'riiizations (1993), .ornorises an eiiie group of hlghly edurat.-:ri ijeople wiro operate in the r;refied dor ains cf international finance, medie, a,rd diplonacy. !\anred after tire Sr'iiss lown that
slri,i'r {:a{lr€- accoriiinll

3ri"

beqan hoslinq annLlal ineetinqs of lhe worid fconorric Forun] in 1971, thi.se "Dar/Lis" ifisiders share corlmon ileiieis airout individualism,

,-lemo.rac)/,

the Frorld, afid f€el fiiore comlortable in each other's lrresencc than they do their less-sophisticated comPat!-jols. ar;tollg
rercogn:Tnllle Iifesiyle, are instantly ideniifiable anywhere in

ard marl(et

econom!cs. Thsy

are said lo iollolv

a

The lnt{:rnational

"fa{ulty c!ulr"

Tl.re globalization of cultural sLrbgroups is not li,nited lo the upper clesscs. fxpaflrjinlJ on ihe concepi oi Davcs criiture, ::ocio:ogist Peter L. terger ollserved that the globalization ot Euro-American academic agendas and lifestyles has created a worldwide "faculty club"-an international network of people who share similar values, attitudes, and research goals. while not as wealthy or privileged as their Davos counterparts, members of this international faculty club wi€ld tremendous influence throuqh their association with educational

insiitutions worldwide and have been instrumenial in promoting feminisin, environmentalism, and humafl rigbis as global issues. Berger cited the antismoking movement as a case in point: the movement began as a singular North American preoccupation in the 197{ls and subseq ently spread to other parts of the lvorld, ira./eling along ihe contours of academe's global ielwork.
fuo ng$)tern

rnefi tal

<l t

ga n izat

ions

"organizaiion

Anoiher global subgrcup cornprises 'cos opolii;,lirs'" who nurlure an iniellectual appreciatlon for local cultur€s- As polnted out by Swedish anthropologist Ulf Hannerz, this group advocaies a vlew of global culture based not on the "replication cf Linifcrmity" but on the
nongovernrnental organizations (NGCs) that lead efforts to preserve cultural ti-aditions in the developing hrorid. By lhe beginning of the ?lst century, institutions such as Cullural Sunival e/er{: cper6ting on a world scale, drawing atten'aion to ioLlig€ or.]lr g.oups !1/ho are encouraged to perceive themselves as "lirst Ijetoles'r-a erJ global designation emphasizing comrnon expeii€i'?crs oi expioitalion among :ndigencr.s inhallrtants ol all lands. 3y sharpeili!.r!t suair i{jentiii€s, thes€ tlccs hnve gicilalized ihe movelareni il-. i,.r ese rve indigenous \,!orld cultur€s.
??el,n$tr;,] iti-srra,l vn a r lde t "s

of diversity." Often pfilmoting this view are

Anrther group sterns from the rise of a tran:nai;onal !./orkforce. In.dian-born anihrope!Lrgist Arjui Appadurai h;s siudied Englishspeaki g professioflals who trece their origiir:r ta Soul.ir Asia but lvho li.ie and liork elsewhere. 'fhey circulate !n a soclai Hcrld '{hat has rnultiple home llases, and they have gaineC access to 3 unique
network of individuals and oppariunities. For exafipie, many softwaTe engineers and Internet entrepreneurs who live and work in Silicon Va'ley, California, maintain homes in-and strong social ties to-Indian and Punjab. Maharashlra states SUCh AS

7r€

Fie{sJ"sf,ed?c€

${ laca! tultut+:

Underlying these various visions of globalization is a reluctance to define exactly what is meant by the term culture. During most of the 20th century, anthropologists defined culture as a shared set of beliefs, customs, and ideas that held people logether in recognizable, self-identified groups. Scholars in many disciplines challenged this

noiion of culiura' coherence, especially as il became evident that nernbers of close-knit groups held radically diffcrent visions of th€i. social !!orlds. Culi:ure is no longer perceived as a knoy/ledge system inheriterj lrorn ancesiors. As a result, meny social scientists now treat cultirre a:i a sei c'i,deas, ati.ribules, and €l<peciaiions tilet change as pelrple :=e;lrl '.o cirnnging circumstances. lrlclcfrj, by the tLtrn of the :isl .e'riur), il)€ collapse oi ba iers enforceal ily Soviet cornmunism arid ihE lisa oa elect!-o ic controerce ha'-,€ ilcteased the Derceived
spSc{l qf :;ociai c:raaate eveny'".\'hei-e.

l-j1e ierrn local a.titure is cornBronly userj to cha!-acterize the oi eYei'r'day liie iil specific, identiijable localiii€s. It reflects ordjnatr people's feeljngs of appropriateness, comfort, and corrscli iess-i.rtlribL,tes that define pei-sonal preferences and changing iasles. friivel1 ll]r-. stienglh oi local cultures, it is diffjcuit to argue thal an overarching qiob:rl crlture aclually exists. Jet-setiing sophisticates may fecl co;iiicd:ble cperating in a g:obal network disengaged ircm sFleciilc localiiies, blrt ifiese people aonsiitlrte a r,'ery small ntinority; tile,i nirmir.ris are insul-iicient to srisiain a c.therent cultural systenl- !t i5 rxlre lrnpcriart ir ask vrhere these ,licr-.ri oper.riors maifltain thejr lirfiiliee, xi.lari l(irji cf kinship nctr,^/ol ks '.i re.,. !irly ijg{'Jt, ii any, and lqiaihg. ih€ij.E i:j a l:-ansitolry ljfesi,vle cr :: reriuani-:.nt coitdiiic;1. Fil. itlt.s'. t€jctlc, !iaae aild lccaljiy si,iii iila.ier. ::vi:r't ihc iransnational
e)(perienc{r

b:; c9r161s6 Feli€oiions of !,vliai iulii liilg lllestl/1,-.
!: x +j {:! ; €: r}
N:

inrtrl.l3rs {iisd.rssed b/'eppadui-"i ere i.ooteci ifi loc3i comntunities bound {e..li-eseitl-s an appropiiare and i n lJ
g :.a b a I ;

zai i ct n

llasearch cn gk-rb3lizatior llas siror,rin ihat it is not;D omnipotert, uniCiiict:cn;l iojce leveling er/el.^hing in its path, Because a global cuilure aioes ilol exist, any search for jt would be iutlie. It is more fiiritiLii ic jfisic,ld focus on particuiar aspects of life that are incleed affected by the giobalizing process.
'iike t:al r!prt:i:;ic:'i 4jf tirfie atld stl€{;€
Ti'le breakdor,/ oi li,ne and space is besi illustrated by the infiuential "global village" thesis posed by communications scholar Marshall Mcluhan ;n Gutenberg Galaxy 0.962). Instantaneous communicatjon, predicted Mcluhan, would soon destroy geographically based power imbalances and create a global village, Later, geographer Davjd Harvey argued that the postmodern condition is characterized by a

"tirne-space compression" that arises from inexpensj'/e air trayei and the ever-present use ofielephones, fax, and, more recently, e-mail. There can be iittle .ioubt that people perceive the !,,riJrld today :s a small€r place than il appeared to iheir grandparents. in the 11]60s and "70s imnrigiari. wcrkers in London relied cn pcsril s,rsterns and personally delivercd let-tei-s to send rer,l./s back to their h.rrnc viilalles in Tndia, China, and elselvhere; it could take trcic nronth:i io reLcive a reply. The ielethone was iiot an option, ev€n in diie emergencies. tsy the late 1990s, l.he orandchilCren of these fii'si-ijeneralion llljqrants \rJere carryinq cellular phcnes that linked theln tc corisins ir cities such as {--alcutta iKolkata), Singapore, or Shangh€i. Ar,,iJ.rrensss of iime zones {\'\./hen people will b'e awake; what time oafic€s open) is now second nature to people whose work or family iies connect them to far-reaclring psf.s of the world" Mcl-uhan's notion of lhe global village presupposed ihe uiorld,,iiide spread oi television, !.vhich brings disiant events into tbe hornes of viewers evetrwhere. Building on ihis concept, !1cl uhafl [lairced that accelerat€d conrfir-!nici]tions produce an "implosion" oi persooal experienc€--thai :s, ci:siant events are broughi ic ti-'e ,mm€diate attention ill'!.eople h;!iv./ry aroi-rnd tf:e world^

-fhe sFech.ulaf qi.rwilr of Cable i.ievfs i',jetrJork icl.ltil is a case in poirit. Ci,:ld became ai; icon cf globnlizatioi' b.v llroaiJ.ast;J!g it.s iJ,5,style n3v,/s :irogi:nrryllllE around the !,lor]d, 24 icuis ;j d;ry. Live coverage of the fall oi ihe cerlin Wall in i 939, the Pefsian Guli urar in 1991, and exiended coverage of events surrcundinq liie i:errcrisl. attacks in :\iew York City and Washington, D.C., on Sep'.ember i1, 2001, illrJsirated ielevision's poweful global reach. Scroe govr:rnments ha'/e r,-spoflied to such advances by eiternptirlq i:rj restrlci international brcadcasting, but satellite comrnunicai'on rn:jkes these
restrictions increasinqiy unenforceable"
The standardization of experience
Travel Since the nlid-1960s, the cost of international flights has decllned, and foreign tra'/el has become a routine experience for miilions ol mid.lle-

and working-class people. Diplomats, businesspeople, and ordinary tourists can feel "at home" in any city, anywhere in the world. Foreign travel no longer involves the challenge of adapting to unfamiliar food and living arrangements. CNN has been an essential feature of the standardized hotel experience since at least the 199Os. More
significantly, Western-style beds, toilets, showers, iitness centres, and

the Westernized hotel experience, featLlring 13panese-style food and accomnrodaticns, can also be found in most major cities. These developments are llnked to the technology of climate control. ln factr th€j ver'{ idea of roLrllne glolral travel vras incon{tei./able pricr to the universalizn'ricn oi air-condilioning_ An expefrl:n.:e of illis natLire vJould have be-on nearly impcssible in the 1960s, whefl the li/eatherr arolra,
and noise oi the local soclety pervaded oile's hotel roorfi. Chlthing Modes of Cress can disguise an ari-ay of auliural di.,,ersity behind a facade of uniforrrity. The nlan's business suii, iiliih aolcured tie and buttoned shirl, has become "universal" in the sense that it is worn iust about everywhere, although variations have appeared in countries that are cautious Ebout adopting global popular culture. lranian parliamentarians, for example, wear the "Western" suit but iorgo the tie, !.rhile Saudi diplomais alternate "trriditiorral" ljedouin robes with tailored Liusiness suits, depending upcn ihe occasion. In the eariy years cf ttrc zisl ceniury, North l(oraa arrd Aighanistan were among the felv socieiles irold!nq oirt sgajnst iires€ gioitaiizijig irends.

restaurants now constitute the global standard. A Japanese variant cn

The eme,-genae of women's "po!,riei suiis" ii.r l.he i980s siEn:fjecj ar;oth€r forn: of glcbai cfnformity. Siyljzed trcrlser sJiis, rJiih silk sLaru€s anC ca,lorir=iui b:ouses (ani,:io-rlue-< of il]e fiiilat otjsiness siJit), are no!"r woi-ld-,,v!de symbols oi fxo,Jeriiity, indeFendence, and compeiefi.e, Mor--ovei, the €xporl cf Lissr-i cl{:ihlnt irom Western countries tLr developing rations has acceieralrd ihe adopUon of Viesie.n-st,lle ciress b}, people of all socioec{llrojnic ievels aror-lnd the
world.

Some milii:Jry ieshions reflect a sintiiar sense of ccnyeritence" Rebel flght.jrs, such as tl.rose in Centrai ,r\frica, Sclrih Lrnericia, or the Balkans, seerried to take ttreir style cue ir{rm the Euerrilla garb worn by movie star Syivester Stallone in his trilogy of Rambo films. In the 1990s the United States military introCuced ttattle helmets that resembled thos{: wcni by the German infantry durinq tvorld Ujar 1I" Mariy old.i Afiericans were offencied by iiite asscciaijcn with Nazism, but younger Aniericans and European5 nrarle no such c{:}nnections. In 2001, a similar helmet style was worn by elite Chinese troops marching in a parade in Beuing's Tiananmen Square. Chinese fashion underwent sweeping change after the death in 1976 of Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedonq and the resultant economic liberalization. Western suits or casual lvear becam-- the norm. The androgynous gray or blue llao suit essentially disappeared in the

1980s, worn oniy by communist patriarch Deng Xiaoping and a handful of aging leaders who dressed in the uniform of tl,e Cultural Revolution untii their deaths in ihe 1990s by which time Mao slliis lvere being sold in llonq Kong anC Shanghai boutiques as high-prjced nostalgia wcar, SafrjralLd / ,lh p(.SLr,t,rdFtn Otl7.

Entertainntent fhe poy/er of m€dia conglofi]erates and the ulliquiiy of entertainment programrrling has globalized television's impad and made it a logical target for accusaiions cf cultui-a' imperialism. Critics cite a 1999 anthropological stud'l that linked the appea.ance of anorexja iri Fiji to the popularii] of Arn€rican television ptrgrarns, {tatably J'lelrose place and tseverly !-lifis 9021A. Both series featured slender r-oung actresses who, it was claimed, led Fijian women (who are typjcally fuller-figured) to question indigenous noiions of the ideal body. Anti-globalisrn acl,ivists conlend that American televisicn shows have corrosive effects on local cuitures by bighlightine \r'Jestern otions of beau'.y, indjvid alism, and sexuality. Alihcugh many cf the tides ex,Dorted are consldereo' second-iier shows jn the United Siates, there is r]o f,iisp!-rae ih$'! ihes€ lrogra!]]s are parl ci ihe Caiiy fare ior viel/ers arourid ih. ,xoti{1. leirvislon access is !flldespreaci, fjven !i receivers aie nct present ill e\,f.v hoLtsel'told. ln the smail tot"r.ns oi Guatemala, the villa!.s e: ii:nljxi Ffovince in Chjna, cr- ilte hili seiilements of Borneo/ iot lnst.jnce, i;iie televlsion set--.ofien a sateliiie system powered by a gasoiine lien€relor-may serve i}yo cr three dozen viewers, each p.a,v;ng a small fee. Cclieciii/e vie!/irg in bars, restaurants/ anc; teahouses was comrnon dilrij.l!] the eariy stages of teievision broadcasiiiE in liidonesia, lapan, Kenya, anii many other countries. 3y tns 1980s v jdec,./ie!'ring parlours had beconte ubiquiious !n many regions of tile g,obe.

Live spods prografis continue to dTaw sor|te of the largesi global audiences. The 1998 World Cup men's football (soccer) final between Brazil and France was watched by an estimated two biltion people. After the 1992 Oiympic Games, when the American "Dreain Tea!-n,, of Natio al Basketball Associaiion (NBA) stars electrified vjel.rers hjho had never seen the spori played to U.5. professional siandards, NBA games were broadcast in Australia, Israel, lapan, China, Germany, and Britain. In the late 1990s Michael lordan, renowned for leading the Chicago Bulls to six championships with his stunning basketball skills, became one of the world's most recognized personalities,

Holly"vood inovjes have had a similar inflLrence, lnuch to the chagri of sorne countries. In early 2000 Canadian governroent regulators ordered ihe Canadian Broadcasting Coiporation (CBC) to reduce the shor,ving ol Hollywcod films durinE prime tjme an.l to instead feature more Ca,f radian-rnede programrning, CBC ex{:cLlf i\",€s pi iliesied ihat iheii- vie!/eT:; vJcuid stop watching Canadian iele\/isicn s1:aiicns ard turn tc satellile rec€ption fbr internaiionai ?t.rLe$:;lin'neni. Sijcl.) objeltions were,,!i-rll groundecl, given lilat, ir': i998, 79 percent of Fflqiisn-spsai(ing Canadi3ns named a U,5. progr.,..n rJher') asked to

identiiv their favourite teievision show.

I-lollywood, ho.,r,/ever, does not hold a fijoitrJpoly on entertainment programming. The world's most prolific film indusiry is in Aombay (l,lumbai). India {"Bollywood"), !1,herc as nran} as 1,0fi0 feature films ar€ prcdriced annualiy in all of lndia's majo. ianguages. prjmarily love stories with heavy doses of singing and dancino, Roily\,1,ood movies are pogula. throughott Southeast Asia and ihe l.li'Jiie Fas'a, Siate censors iJ'r Islamic couniries often find the inodest dr€ss atd subdued sexuality of trndian t'iinr stars acceptable ior theii alrdieirc{]s. Alihough the local appeal of Lo:lywcsC movies remains str3n.l- exposure to Hollylvood l"ilirs srch ;s -jur;sslc Park (1993) al-]d Speed i1!94) {;jjjseal 'y'{lung Inclian nrryjcgoers to develop an appr€claiirri l'er {he special eifecis anc fciirNtii€i- graphics ihat had be{ori}i'ii-.r lr"llriarl{s ci manv Arneria;!n flinls-

l'octi
Fcod is ihc oldesl global carrier of culture. In fa.t, facd has always beeri e *!-iving iorce for globalization, especiall'l {lrjririq earlier phases oi Eu.cpea.r ir:de and colonial expansion. llre hat J"eci pepper was inlr-oducefi io the Spanish court by Christ{rph€r lolr.]lnbus in 1493_ It spreaci rapidly ihroughoui ihe colonial liiorid, iransiotming cujsines and iarfting practices in Airica, Asia, and tlre tvt!.ldle East. It nright be Cifficult to inlagine Korean cuisine without !ed pepper pasie or Szechuan food withoui its fiery hot saucer but both are relatively recent innovations-probably from the 17th ceniury. Other New World crops, such as corn (maize), cassava, syJeel potatoes. aod p,^anuts (grounajnuis), were iesponsiille for agricultural ievolutiofis in Asja and Africd, opening up terrain that had previou:li./ been unpro{lu.iive.
One century after the sweet potato was introduced jnto south China (in the m'd 1600s), it had become a dominant crop and was largely responsible for a population explosion that created what today is called Cantonese culture. It is the slveet potato, not the more celebrated white rice, which sustained generations of southern Chinese farmers.

These are the experiences lhat cause cultural meaning to be attached tc Aarlic lar fcods. Today the descendants of Canionese, !-iokkien, and

Hakka pioneers disdain the sweet potato as a "poveitl/ iood" that conjures iffiages af past hardships. In Tai!!?n, iry ccirt!-ast, independe.rc€ aclivis[s (aifiuent members of the r-jsin!] Tai!,ranese middie class) have embraced the svreet p,-riato ns an eiriblem of

identity, reviving old recipes and celebraiing lheii- cull:ura! distinctions irorn "rice-eating rnainlanders""
While tbe qiooal dist!-ibri'.ion of foods oriqinaied with Lhe pursrrit of exotic spices (such as black pepper, cinnaino , and claves), contemporary food irading features more prosaic comnroajities, such as soybeans 3nd apples. African bar'ranas, Ct',iiean grapes, and California oranges have helped io translorm expectations about the availability and afiordabllity of fresh produce everyw*here in the world. Green beans are nor?{j g!-o!vn in Burkina Faso iri Centrai Africa and shipped by express air cargo to Paris, where tihey erld up on tlre illates of diners iir the citv's top restaura'1ts. This pariicrll:rf exchange systern !s based on a "noniradiuonal" crop that was not grcr,/fi in Burkiaa Faso uniil the rn;d-:1990s, wher the lvarlcl Bank enccirr;.:gn--ri iIS cui{rliatlon as a nrgans of econoroic developiile'ri.. Ihe caruntT)r soarl became Africe's secqrid iargest exporier of !lreefi brtrens. ilentral ':riciitci:!":!t African la!-r,'rer-s cons€qlenily forjnd tliemselves ill difect co$peiitiGn wlth other "aolntcr season" grolriers of green beans frofi Brazil and
Florid?.

The average daily diei has elsc undergone tremendous clrange, with ell nations converging cn a diei high in neat, dairy producls, and processed sugars. Correieiing closel,v to a world/,/ide rise in afflijence, the new "global diei" is not necessai-ily a beneficial trend, as it can increase the risk oi cbesity and diabetes. ilolv yiewed as a global healih threat, obesity has been dubbed "gicbesity" by the lvorld Health Organization. To many observers, the homogenization of human diet appears to be unstoppable. Vegetarians, environmental activists, and organ:c focd enthtlsiasts have orqanize.J rearquard actions tc reintroduce "traditional" and more lyholesome dietary practices, bui these efiorts haye lleen concentrated among educated eliies in industrial nations. Western food corporations are often blamed for these dietary trends. McDonald's, KFC (Kentucky Fried Chicken), and Coca-Cola are primary

targets of anti-globalism demonstrators (who are themselves organized into global networks, via the Internet). McDonald's has
become a symbol of globalism for obvious reasons: on an average day

sold.

in 2001, tlre cornpaDy served nearly 45 milljon custorners at more than 25,000 restaurants in 120 countries. Ii succeeds in part by adjusting its mefiu to loctsl fleeds, In Indja, for exarnple, no beet Droduats are
l"!cDonald's also succeeds

in countrles ihat mighi fie expecteel ro disdain fasi food. in France, ior exampie, foo{i, esoec,;,,lly haute cuisine, is cornmc ly regarded as lhe core el€ment of French culture. llevedheless, l-lcDonaid's coniinues to expand in the \,,eay ltearlland of opposit jo : h\y' ihe i:urn of i:he 21st century there were mc!-e than g50 l4cDonald's restaurants ln Fr.rnce, empjoying over 30,000 people_ Not surp.jsingly, n.lany Eurcpean protest movemenis h;1ve iargeted llcDor]ald's as an agent of culturai imperial!snl. french intellectuals may re!.'j,e the 3ig Mac sandwjch for all that it symbolizes, but ihe steady growtlt ci tast,ibod chains demonstrates i;rat anti-globalist attiiudes do not aly,/ays afiect economic behaviour, even jn ;ocjetjes (such as Frafi.:eJ .rhete ihsse sentiments are neerly universal.
Like the;j- coLrnter p;trts ir) the Unitecl States, French orkers are iilcreasirqly prelisid ior ljtne. Tl.le t,,^jo,hour lunch js lirgely a lhing of the ptrsi. iood ?riii bevet-eclr: l-tQmpa;] jes attraci atte|Ji,ioil becar tse ihey cater tC the mnst eiel1;ei-iiai iclt'n {ti hurtafl cor}sLrmp.tcn. We .-ie ,.vtlat w€ eat, ani wh€n iljet ci.t;nqi:-", loiiajns of natienal an.j ethnic :derility a!-e aifected. Critics cl.i;!.n r..hai the spreaci !f iast iood unriermines indigenous ciJis;nrs by falcing a homogeri.,:etion cf irrorld ciietar-v pret-orence-c, birt anlhrcpglcgjcai research in Russia, -lapan, and Hong Konq rJoes r :oi cL,ptjo, i il,r, ./ier.v.
trend.-c al the locat ievel, ho\i/€v€tr, shows that the qlobalizatioir ci i?a.i lood can inl'uence purlic cor.tcjtcl. Fasi-food chains have introcuced practjces that changed some consumer

Clo.je siu.jy

3i fLtliliral

behavlaurs anLj pr€:'rerences. For example, in Japan, where tising one's hancis to eat prepared ioods was considered a gross breach of etiquette, the popularizatjon of McDonald,s hamburgers has had such a {]rartaaic impact on Dcp{jlar etiquette ti.rat il is nolrv common to see Tokyo co[]mLrier:-i eatinq ;ai public'rfithoul chopsticl<s or spoons,

late-Soviet JLussia, rudeness had become a high art form arnoog seruice personnel. Today customers expect polite, friendly service when they vistt Moscow restaurants-a social revolution initiated by McDonald's and jts employee training programs. Since its opening in 1990, Moscow's Pushkin Square restaurant has been one ol the busiest IlcDonald's in the world.

ln

The social atmosphere in colonial Hong Kong of the :t960s was anythjng but genteel. Cashing a check, boarding a bus, or brrying a trajn ticket requir-ed br,-rte forc,.. l,#hen McDonald's opened in 1975, cr-rsiom€rs crorirded aroltnd the cash reglstel5, shouiit]g crders and waving ilror].c,/- aver ihe heads of p€ople in iront oi them. McDonald's responded by Inirodircing queue rnonitors-youn9 qremen who
channeied customers into orderly lines. Queuing subsequently became a hallmark ol llD g Korg's cosmopolitan, rniddle-class cuiture. Older resiclents credii i\lcDonalci's fbr introducing the queue, a criiical element i thls social transition.

Yet another innovation, in some areas of Asia, Laiin America, and E rope, was McDonald's provision of clean toilets and washrooms. In ihis way the company was instrumental in setting new cleanliness standards (and thereby raising consumer expectations) in cities that had ne'rer offereci puttlic faci!ities. Wherever McDonald's ilas set up business, it fapjdly has l,.e.iome a haven for an emsrgifig class of
!'niddle-inccme urilafl ltes.

The inirodu.ii.n

birthday padies thi-oughcut East Asia, with specjal rooms and ser',ices provided for the eveni-<- These and other symbolic effecfs nrake fast food a powertl!l force foa dletary and social change, becausi: a meal at these resj,aurailts rvili inlroduce Fraciices that younger conslJrr)ers may not experience at home-most notably, the chance to choose one's own food. The concepi of peisonal choice is syrnbolic ol lvestern consumer cullure. Visits to McDonald's and KFC have beconre signal events for children who approach fast-food restaurants with a heady
sens3 of empo$/erment.
R

has been paniculafi).' iriluential cn ahiidren, espc(;aj!'l since so rnany advertiser:rent! ere des;;cneaj to appeal to their. L-afqeiy as a consequence ot 3lich :rdverti,<ing, Amarican-si:yle birihclat Fait:es have spread to nrany p.llts cf the vrorld wh3rc inrji-ridua: blilh dates previously lrad never l-ieen aelebrated. l4cDcnaid's ?rr.rd KfC have become ihe leading ..reou€s for

ol tasi i+cd

Centrai i:o Huntinqton's ihesis in The Clash of Civilizations js the assumption that the post-Cold War world would regroup into regional alliances based on religious beliefs and historical attachments to various "civilizations." Identifying three prominent groupings-Western Christianity (Roman Catholicism and Protestantism). Odhodox Christianity (Russian and Greek), and lslam, with addition"l influences from Hinduism and Confucianism he predicted that the proqress of

e li g io

n a nd

g

lo b.) i lza t! a t)

The result ,vould be a "multipolar r,vorld." Huntinqion's view diifered markedly fronl those who prophesied a stanalardized, homcgenized
c,lobal culture.

globalization \r/ould be severely constrained by re lic io-politica I barriers.

refLite.j this njadel of civilizational clash and suggests insteacl a rapjd diffusiori of religious and cultural systems th.o ghoui the n/orld. Isiem is cne case in pcint, given that ii constituies dne of the l'asiest-gro'ding religio s in the United Staies, i:rance, and Germany-suppilsed basijcns of UJestern Christianity. Felore the end of the 2tltl) centu!-y' entlre arrondissements (dishicts) oi Paris were dominated by Muslims, the majcrity of thern French citizens born and rearecj in Frcnce. Thirty-five percent of stucients in the suburL,an Dearborn, i"iichiqan, public school system were Muslim in 2001, making the proyisio| of hala/ ("lawful,, under Islarg) ineals at iunchtirne a hot issue in loi:al iroiitics. By the siaft of the Zl-st century, Musiims of TLrrkish ofjqin constit ted the faslesi-gro\r.iing redor of S{:rlin's populatjcnt afidi in i-:crlhern Erglafid, ihe old indllsirlai c;lies oi Braciford and l\er:Jcasile had been r.evitalized b.y' descend.?nag oi Pekls'L:ni a d Indi:n llusiii-l-rs r',,jto irnnilarated during the l,95cs ::ri.i '60s.
Fro r iis ii'cepi.icn_ [hfistienlt.y' has been i]n alJEiessirely p.oselyijzlng religion ,,viih a EloL].ii:ing agenda. tndeed, ihe Aojii,rn CFrihoi!c Chu,-ch was arguably ihe ijrst globai iflstituiiorr, having spreaC rapidly throughoui the European colonjal $/orld and beyonri- l.oda,r/, perhaps the iasiest-gr.iwinq re:igiorr is evangelical Chrtstiarity. Siressjng the individual's personai expeiie.lce 01' diviniq/ ias oppos€d io priestty intercession],,-vatgelicai;sm has gained ?/ ide :irpr:ai ;n rcgioils such as Latin ,qrriarica and sub-Sabaran rlfrica, il!-est-j ting serlous challenges io esialllislted Catholic churches. Follo.,./ing the collapse of Soviet porr'./er in 1991, the Russian Orthodox chrrch beqan the pracess of rebuilding after rnore than seven decades of repression. At the same time, evangelical missionaries from the United States and Europe shifted rnuch of l.heir aiieniion irorn Latin Airterica ancl A,frica to Russia, alarrn;ncj FLrssian Cfhodox leaders" By 1997, under p.essure irom Orthodox clergy, the ll-ussian ilovern[]ent ljromole{j legislation to restrict ihe aclivities oi religjous organizations that had operated in Russia for less than 15 years, effectively banning Western evangelical missionaries, The debate over Russian religious unity continues, however, and, if China is any guide. such legislation could have little lonq-term effect-

Th--fe is, l)cwL-.vei, considerabie ethnographic €viclence, gathered

anlhrcpclogisis and socjologists,

that

b,v

]n China, unauthorize(l "house churches" became a major concern for Communist Party officials who attempted to conifol Muslim, Christian,
and Buddhist religious aciivity thlough siate-sponsored o.ganizations. Many of the urlrecognized churches are syncretic in the sense that tirey combine zrsDect:r oi loral reiiilion u,/ith Christiar ideas. As a iesuit tirey have been ai|llcstr i!ntlossible to organize, Iel alone control.

The social anci poliiicai connotalions of lhese consenat;ve Lipsurges aie uniqlre'ao each culaur-e and religion- For- example, some sociologists have identiiied Christian €vangelicalisrn as a leading carrier oi modernization: its erfiphasis on the Bible is thouqht Io encourage

co firrr the wcrliilt/icle resurgence, since the late 20th century, of cons r\raiiye reiigion among faiths such as lslam, liinduism, Buddh:srn, and evi?n Shinto iri iapan and Sikh,sm in lndia.
Social scientisls

giobali;ing popular n]cv€ilefiis ilodayl, but evangelicalism is clearly the fitrst dynamic."
D€ m
0

literacy, lvhile involvemeni in church activities ca leach adminislrative skjlis ihat ar.e 6pplicable to work environments. ,As a sociologist of religicl.r, Lle rger argues thai "th€!'e may be othet-

tlfi ! leit tes "ala::h ul ci., iilzsi::nl]s" lhesis assun-]es thsl tite m:jcr East '-liJnticgtaii's Asian societi€s cansiilute ;n slli;rnce cf "Confuciari" culi res ihat sha:-€ a [omrncn irf:rirage in lhe ta.rriiiirgs of Confucius, the a]rdieni Chinese sage. Early 21st ceni.Lriy !ii.rityles in Tokyo, Seoul, ilejjing,'faipei, and Flong Konq, hor,\rever-, sirrrvr f:l!- ;nore e\/idence cf !tlobalization than Confucian ization. Th-- reprrleC I'rallrnarks of Ccniucianism- respect for parenlal authoriiy ;lnC ance.-{i.ral tradiiions-are no more sslient in these cities thJn in Sostor!, Lo*don, or tserlin. This is a consequence cf (among other ihings) i sie:dy reduclion in family s;ze that has s'"n/ept
g ra, h ic
i

through East Asiarl societi€s since the 1980s. State-impos.d restrictions on farr;ly size, late childbearing, and resistance to
marr'age amorig highly e{iuc.rted, working wonren have undermined the basic tenets of the Confucian family in Asia.

declining rapidly. Ihese developments mean

Bidh rates in Singapore and lapan, in fact, have iallen beiow replacement levels and are at r€ccrd lor,o, levels in llong Kang; b'rth rates in Eeijing, S,ranghai, and olher major Chinese cities are also

that East Asia-like

Europe-could face a fiscal crisjs as decreasing numbers of workers are expected to support an ever growing cohort of retirees. By 2025, China is projected to have 274 million people over age 60-more than the entire 1998 population of the United States. The prospects for other East Asian countries are far worse: 17.2 percent of Japan's 127

million people were over age 65 could rise to 27.

in 2000; by 2020 that

percentage

cornmodities involv€d in the exchange of gopuiar culture a.e ieiated io lifesitie, e:peciaily a-c experienced b_v young fieLlpl€r: pop rllrisic, lilm, r/iceo, comics, fash;on, fast foods, bev€rages, home C€rcoraticns, entertainment systems, and exercise equipment- Millions of people obiain lhe unobtainable by using the lntern3t to breach conrptter secr.rril,/ systems and irnporl barriers. "I!tibrmation r/ants tc lle fa€e" was lha clarion c3ll of softlrare desicners and aficiorados of the World \n/itJe Web iB the tr990s. This ccde oi ethics takes ,ts mcst creative form in sociei;es r.{here governments try harCest lo control the flow of iniormation (e.9", China and lran). ln 1999, when Serbian officials shut rjc,r"Jn the operitions of Ra{iio 892, the independent staiion coniinued its co'/erage of events in tlre iormer Republic of Yugoslavia by moving its broadcasts io the InternetThe ,dea of ;: borderless wor,d is reflected in theories ol the "vifiual slate," a r1e!.,/ -.iystem ot world politics that is saic to reilect the essentjaj clrecs of 21st-century capitalisrn. ill Oi]f c,. Control i.199/+), authcr l(evin Keliv irrealicteri that iite Internet wo ki {tradualiv €rode the pc\4er oi gr\ieininenls ic .Onlrol ciiizens; arjrarra€s ii-t digital terhiroicgv rr".!rLlil insiea3 n!lor/ peopl€ to;'oil1,r'r' t-ileir owfi i:li:eres;ls anii icrrr tran..c-siatfl coalilions. Sirnilarly, liiclt:iri "icserirarit*:, it:' T|1e Rke of the \qtttiel State (19-og), rriraie ihat miiitary ccrf icts an.l ierritori:l disllutes wculd be superseded by the iic!"r cf jnformation, capital, techncioEy, and manpo!ier bet',l'een stetas. 14ariy s{llojers djsagreed, ins:sting that the state was unlikely to disaplear and cculd continue lo be an essential and eflect;ve basis of Eovernafice. Arguments i-egarCing the erosion of stale sovereigliy aie pai{iculariy unsettling ior r:ations ihat have become consumers raiher than producers of digitai technotog),'. Postrsoviet Russia, post-t'.1ao China, and post-Gaullist France are but three exarnples of Cold War gianis

lhe

facing uncertain futures in the emerging global system, French intellectuals snd politicians have seized upon anti-g!obalisn'r as an organizing ideology in the absence Df other unilyjnq th+:rnes. in te-s cartEs de 11,2 France A J'heu!-e cle ia rnantiialisatian (2AOA; "i:rance's Asseis in the Era ol Globalization"), Ff"nch fcrejgn l,!inisier llubert
Vedrine denounced the United States as a "hyperpower" that promotes "uniformity" and "unilateralism." Speaking for the French intelligentsia, he argued that France should take the lead in building a "multipolar world." Ordinary French citizens also were concerned about losing their national identity, particularly as the rcgulatory power of the European Union began to affect everyday Iife. Sixty percent of respondents in a

greatest threal lo

7999 L'Expansian poll agreed that globalization represented the

the

French yiay

of

life.

globalizaiion, they exhibii nreny of the cftaracterislics of;!.tloilal, transnationai suticuliuie; ihe lnternei, moreoyi,, is one of the prlncipal tools that maker globajization feasible and arrganized prctesis against it possible. Foi ix;rrnple, Greespeace, an environrneritalist NGO, has orchestraled worldwide prot€sts against genetically modiiied (GM) foods. Highlv organized demonstrations appeared? seemiflgly overnight/ in man'y' parts of the world, denouncing Gll products as "Frankenfoods" that pose unknown {and undocumented) dangers to people and to ihe envii-cnrneni, The bioengineerit-tg industt-y, supported by vaiious scientiiic orqanizations. iaLlnch{td its o}vn trnternet-baseci cour,teriiila,ik, bul: the response was too iete ;nd ioo discrganized io ouiilank GreenFeaae afid its tlGO allies. Sensai:ior.al rnedia coveralls had al:r:ady lurned consumer senljinen'i a:lairst GM foods hefore the scientilic co!t-ifriunity even entered the deiai:.
The anti-Gl'l fsod rncvriIre;tt !leiric.nslrates the irnme se i-Jcrrer ol ihc lnternei to mabillze pclirica, itroiests, This power de!-ives fi-om the abiiity of a few deterrnine.l aciivists to communicate wilh titcrilsanCs (indeed m!llions) oi poieotial aljies in an instant. The Internet's power as an organizing tooj be.arie evident during the World 'frade Organizaiion (WTO) prciesis i Sealile, Washington, in 1999, tn which thousands of acti./jsts corveralecl on the clty, disrupting tl.re lvtC meetings and drayJjng the ,./orld's atlention to cr:ticisms oi glailal trade practices. The SeBttie prolesLs set the stage for similar t.,,pes of activism ;n succeeding j/ears.

Anti-qlabaliso) movements .1n(J the Internet Anti-globalism org:rni,.er:; ar-- found throughout ihe wc!-ld, nol least in many management orEar;izaii4ns. lhey are cften among the y,/orld's ffiosi creative aflci soilhisticatcd users of litiernet lechnology_ Ihis is doubly ironic, becaus€ a\,,en as NGOS conLest the effects oi

The illusioEr of global culture
Localized respanses For hundreds of milliofls of urbafl people, the experience of everyday life has become increasinqly standardized since the 196Os. Household appliances/ utilities, and transportation facilities are increasingly universal, Technological "marvels" that North Americans and Europeans take for granted have had even more profound effects on the quality of life ior billions of people in the less-developed world. Everyday life changed by lhe ayaiiability of cold beverages, hot

's

water. frozen fish. screet.ted windows, bot|ed cooking-gas, or the refrigeraior- It would be a mistake, ho\ /e.rer, to assume that these inno'/ations have an identical, homogenizjng effect ,r'/here\.er they appear. For most rura' Chinese, the refrjgerator has continued io be Seen as a status syrrbol, Thei/ use it to chill tleer, Sofi drjflks. anC fiuit, bui thev disptiss the rsfrjgeraijon ot vegetables, rn"at, and fish as unhealth)/. Furtherfi]ore, ce.tain ,roods (notably bean cllrd dishes) are ihought to teste beiler when cooked \rJith more t!-aditional fuels such as coa! ot ytood, as opposecl to botded gas.

ll remains dirlirul ir JrcLlp 1.h.rt lhc globatizarion of L.cllr,otDq,Ls rs rnaking the lxorld ever-vwher-o the same. The .sameness,, hypothesis is cnly sustainable if one ignores the internal meanings that people assiqn tO cuitural inno'/aiions.
Borrawing and "irenslating" popular culture The don]ain of popula. nusic ijlustrates ho!,./ difl-icull jt is to urrave, culiural sysielr)s in lhe ci:fitenporary world: Is rock rnusjc a unirersai language? Do reg!]ae ana ska have the same meaning to young people evet/where? A!1-rt: icail- ii!:,pi1 ed hip-itop (rap) s,,rlepi thlouc!i-l grazii, Briia'n, Frarcar Chilra, a,.td,ta{lan in d]e 1990s. yet Japarese.arpp-ers deveioped tl-r€ir o,!ir. ic{:;rilze,j y€rsions of this ari fcrri, l4!_,,ch at il.ie mlrsic ci h,p-frcp, griuilrjed iri urba African Americar et{perielce, js defiantly ant issr.:-r b!ish;,'ter]1, illt the .lapanese lyric cont€ni is rl€:cidedii, mi'd, celebraiiilll,y'ot.itl:ful sclidarity and exubei-aitce. Simjlar "translations" bea,,^reen form and content htsve occLrrred in ilr:: pop music or'trndonesia, l'l?xico, aitd Korea. Even a casual lisiener oi U.S. !-adio can heai ihe irrofcun{j effects thai Braziiian, Souih Ai;;car't, lndia!, anat Cubarr fbrrt: have hed on the contemporail Arierjcoit pop scene. An earljer exarnple ci splashback-when a cl,itural inncyatioil returns, sornewhal iran-ciornterj, to the place of iis oriqin-u,as ihe British lnvasion oi ihe Amerlcan popular music market in ihe mid1960s. Forged in the United States from blues and country music, rock and roll crossed the Atlantic in the 1950s to captivate a generation of young Briions ,rrho, fcr ]ing :-rands such as the Reaties ancl the Ralling Stones, fi]acie the music their or,ryn, then reintroduced it lo Amifican audiences ti/ith if€fiendoils success. The flow of popular c llllre i. rarely, if ever. unidirectiona l"

Subjectivity of meaning-the case of Titanic A cultural phenomenon does not convey the same meanjng everywhere. In 1998, the drama and special effects of the American mo,rie Titanic created a sensation amono Chinese fans. Scores of

middle-aged Chinese returned to the theatres over and over-crying their way through the film. Enterprising hawkers began selling packages of facial tissue outside Shanghai theat!-es. The theme song of '!itanic became a best-selling CD in China, as did posters of the young film siers. Chinese consumers prrchased rnore than 25 llliilion F;rated iand 300,0110 legilimate) video ccpies of the iilnr-

One might ask lrhy middli-ag,-d [hinese moviego€rs becarne so ernolionaily in\,,olvecl vvith the story told in Titanic- Interuiews ;rrrong older resiCents of Shanghai revealed tilat nany people had prcje.ted the'r own, long-suppressed experiences of lost youth onto the film. From 1966 to 1976 the Cultural Revolution convulsed China. destroying any possibility of educational or career advancement ier millions of people. At that time, communist authorities iiad als.)

discouraged romantic iove and promoted politically corr€ct rflar.iages based on cless background and revolutionary comlnitment. irrlprobable as it might seem to ytlestern observers, the stor'y' ol'lost icle an a sinking cruise ship hit: resgonsive chord among the vetei-ans of the Cultural Revoluiion. Their passionate, emotional response hed ./i'tua!!y ncthing to do wlth the Western culturai system ihat trarneai the fjlm. btsteetT, f ititrit: se!-ved as a sccially acceptable vr.:hic;e iif ths pubiic exi-rression cf i€qr€l i?y a ceneration of aging Chinese revoli.lt:o.,Jnes rdho hari devoted ihelr lives io building a form oi :oi.iaiism lirai i:ed long since i:iisirptreared, Chjnese P!-esideri liang Z€min inv:tei ihe ent:r€ Politburo cf the Chinase Cornnrunist Party tc a private scTeelriri! of Til:afiic so lhat ihey wcuid Lrnderstand the challeng--. rle cilrrtioned that i-itanic colld be seen as a Trcjan horse, carrying v,ri'ahin il ihe seeds of Al'ierican culturai impefial:snl.

[:hinese airihorjties vrere ncl alone in their r isirusi i]f iiollyra6e3. There are those who suggest. as dicl China's li.rng, tliai exposlrre tc Hollywrod filrns will cause people every\nlhere to becone more llke Americans. Yet anihropologists who study teievision and film are v"'aiy of such suggestions. They emphasize the need to study the particular ways in which consumers make use of popular entertainment. The process oi globalization looks far from hegemonic when one iocuses on ordinary viewers arC their €iiolts to make sense of what lhey see. television viewing in Trinidad, which demonstrated that viewers are not passive observers. In 1988, 70 percent of Trinidadians who had access to a television watched daily episodes of The Young and the Rest/ess, a series that emphasized family problems, sexual intrigue, and gossip. Miller discovered that Trinidadians had no trouble relat'ng

Another case

in point is anthropologist Daniel Miller's study of

to the

personal dramas porlrayed in Arnerican soap oileras, even ihough the lifestyles and inalerjarl c,rcumstances diff€recl radically from iife in Trinidad- local peo0le acii./eiy reinterpreted the episodes to fit their own expeflerce, seeing the televised dramas as commentaries on conler!.lporary jile in iriridaal- lhe porirayal oi American r:]aterjal cLtlture, noiebly lvcrnenrs hshioBS, was a seccndary aiiraction. In oth€r wcrds, it is a lnisiake lo t[e"t television vievrers as passive.
The ties fhet.;ti!l llir J Local cLrlture remaills a llilu/eriul :nFluence in daily life. Peoole are iied to ftaces, and those Fja.jes {:ontinue to shape particula. norrns and valu€s. The fart that residents of MoscorrJ, Beijing, and New Delhi occasionally eat at ivlcDonald's, w8tch Hollywood films, and yJear Nike athletic shoes (or copies thereotl does not mal<e them "giotial." The

reveal the iiilerfiaJ nrearings 'ahat people assiqn to a cullLrral innovaiion. True. ihe saandardizaiion of eve.yday iii€ lvill iikely accele,-ate as diq!t:r! l€ah .Jlog-! contes to approxinlate the toaste. in " user-friend liness. " $ut ier'rnological breakthrcugirs afe rc| enougii to

appearance of lrorirogeneily is the mosi salient, ani uli.imaiely the most decepi;ve, feaiure ol'glcbalizaiion. Outward appearances do not

create a !'Jcrld cuii.uia. aj.rople ev{:ry, here shcw a aie:l!."'rg C,ari:ake of the fruiis of aleDel .a'..icn, irlri ihey _;ust as earn€slly'!r.,a;rf- I.r ceiei-lrate disiinai i!ene-53 ihe their II ct]liures.

lames i-. lvaiscn

"Glsbalizatici!/ i!"!lti.ri!l." Eltqycl!p€dlAat|tllrIica. :O07. Eicyclolrrecjia
Briiannica < htto:/lliirjarv,-e,b.
sqr'r].

0nline Library !j!piojq:.!l!-qo!._ssle!./al:ttqle 22499!>

E{iition.
.

C

OFic - 5!olra!izatidlr,

Artiile:

q

Walson, lames L- "Cultur al ailobalizat,o

".

En.yclopedic Btitonnic.r, 2OA7

Activity
3 lessons
-l

- i tor preparaiior!, I for ijatual! iiinqlation

and 1 ior Cisarissi.:i] afid fee.lback

he class wiJl simulate an official Gicbali:ation tcrum ',..,hich is supposedly held by an imaginary .onservative Asian countrv. The goverrr]lent of this particular country hopes

to u5e such a platform to assess and deal with the impact of globalizaticn on rheir 4ountry. Using the irtformation frofi the giveir articlel, siudents are to ciivi.ie iiito 5 Cifferent grcups to represent the it'rterests of these above meniioned 5 groups. Each group is to present: :L) HovJ globalization has imuacred them.

2l
3)

The gro up's response and nrea5
ph en om

u I

es

ihat will be iakento embi ace./.omitat

thas

eron.

Suggest possible reiirsons as io

wh! tite grorp's rauses sho!ld srpeise.j€ thc

other oppositioual groups' iniercsrs. Aiternativcly, suggesi ljossili.' reasons/advaotages is to wiil/ the other groups 5houl.l co-cperoiL- ,l/iih the group {speciiically, the group that benefiis or sees globalization as. positive force).
I he 5

different groups nameiy are:
The fu'lulti-Nationai Corporirlion! in'.,ettin8 in this co,rntry Th,.

1) 2)

llaiionaland CuitLrre Heiiinge

Bca|.-l

3) 4) 5)

Religious Leaders Local Policy Makeri (inclu5ive of Agrjcrlliural, EdocatioF, Foreign Aiiaire and !mmigration) Non Governmental Organizations

As a fcrmal forum panel, 5iudents y/ith the aid of the

tlltor should note, asiess ancl ptoblematize ihe different concern-( expr€ssed. VVltere iloss'bie, si!denti shoul{i fDrther inter-relate and make connections between the different interest groups to highiight the complexity of the phenomenon that is globalization.
I rnsiead ol
u5

ng,un th.

1

artl.l.

5ta1!d,

t!i!^

mry suggrsr rhnl nun.nt5 reier ro all I arti.l.r in or'l€r to obtatn a berier

-l;iq.:-' -il

I

D

shllnrrernr-s P:
1r

ccol0gjcal ior.€s

Jilrad

r.'s.

L.'lcW,-rrli-l

I

Ecitlotzut Btntct

rqenlrhere witir ia i'lcDon.]d's - i)) \lc\\ic.ld ried loi qier... arulhi btn'
arrd coming

rrluc"

srurdcrcd jreoPler or'trrs; olhets .' :
Drcmisc c.t

!;rlua

w.
-rnd dn

arc

.omp.li
e

cit{oPic
lo
a

rlizil}g riisr:orit; ro

nrrinui llistcr).isnotoi.rr\|r::.r'.r:ri'.rti::.Jrerucrlrcrslanrloite.h\.rrr,'lrir.dl;,i r 'h r'., ,I'"r\i . rl. ., ' "t {ien}ocraiic h!!.n, atul {hi |r:1, jrair;.jnL: irri .;';i dis.or.J i(idrrrin.s. s!jl .l.rrrtjr !i. holjzoD iusl bejrurd ns. 'ihor: ',\jl!c lccl! bi.l: s.e ail of the hrtors oi ijrt ?rrcii::rr :,. ., .i., i', i....; 1.,r.. ...'. ', ufi,. lr.'h' 1,.d,, iiJ"a.itr an i th ey de.]i.. lf : ':{,1llri g l i:5 .;ui i!.rd. i Losr rflro iook for\ir<l pfup}r ts I coiim.ici?i and te.hnologidl i lrJrliir,d.a.f .' . 'rirh,.l prrtjdirc rn3d. Do5siiri. h!
,
I

$or

rlr€ i.nier.i.s garne couill!

sp.e,rding nrxrkels anti r:1ol.el rcr:hrol.:31 ..r.] *r!y !r..r.laiD 1]rat cv,rirthir! ir or soon i{ill L.diff.ftnl. 1he rivrl oirr':rer s {err to .onsull {iia1er..t ahnaruc,i d.arso lrom rhe librarirs oI crn*irii,i l)l:rlrrf. Yet an,vole riho re:rds rhr .l:jlv jrrpcrs ;r..irl)y. iakinil ir rhe Irori pis. a..ouiis o{civil carnage aj \Lcli rs Lhc bi.s;,rrss ptii!.,tolies oo the rne.haii.s ofihe jniorlr.ri!,n rujns.i.!lt) superhighwayand the.rlxroirt(s ol .onrlni.:iior rncrgers. an).o!e 'vLo crately to take ir the w]}ol. 160 degrcc iroDzoD, hnows that our world ar otir liv.s are .aught betwe.n whnt Willienr Bntler Yeats called the rwo eternilies of race and io! l: rhat of rac. tefl c.ti! rg lLc tr iirxi j)|s , i;r r i .f $r !1 inti.i|a tiirg rhe casnlorliiar!
r

ol .. at i arulhhs ursin,., I bertring ir l,lI nJrEp.enetrs ie :{rs,,c KfC fi:rD !\itlels s.rte ove
sirLlggiai 1o rene\!

ressrrer ro bot '
Conrpany. Serbi,

heaC.phones as th, l{;oking n:' fi} fa

tnrnrrlro rock n
tundamentalists I No\r ncither 1:r
scitnci: aod reas,

firtrie, Our se.ular et.rniri.s rrc,:orrupLd,lr.i!rt!.r, r... r.il!ctd lo.rr iJrsiglti \ri rcsiolmelrt, aid soul sir.1i .ir-r'n i. iir rir. ,1.'.nrrdicg Lorlv lrr r:hitl it n ils ner.-ls. Naiil!.r.n(]t 'ro, s,rrl cfl!! ns r ilil.t thar is othcr ihaD hierl.., r,:itlrr pr',n,r.e r pr'1it1 rh..r . r rr n,'.y,ir.'oL rt:,
The 6rst scenario.oot.d in nce holds o t thr griIl! prosp.ct ofa retribllization of large swaths of humiBlind bv rvar and bloolshed: a threltenecl ballixnjzirior of nalnD statcs in which culiu'. is pifted.giinst culturc, people agaust pcople, Lribc agairst trib., a lihad in th. n:rI]r. oi! hundred narl(lvly coD.eivetl f.iths again$ .verv kind of irltcrdeptndcrct, clcr.r itind ol rrtill.i'l s,r.ixl c0oper.rrion rnd 'nLrtuilitv: rgxjlrit tecltroio$, aftatrrsLpop cullurc, and r grurst irltcilra L.d nra rkt tsi !itrirs l rrod€r nlry ns€il.ls !v.li rs rh.lrtlrrr Jn lrhich Dro(lt.niLy issuer. 'l h. sccond p.irrs lhrt I u tLu.

lienstrin) l,us bcc
-Agc

ofReasor]

sifh(

anar.ht'

is loose,

detail to acid.

thlt it

nrakes pos
y

ofhuman histcr

b.tvr€en r!em thr

hlr n connc,, lecrive hrna .o Iihi(l
]\ogr.ss to ,rt onli,-.

!igidrl p0bli.irn,, l{r'ls lir..ft.l Irook, r!95, t. I S,9 10, ri rir

fr.,. ljcnJrnrr lnrbir, "l rodu.rnnr.'r, ltrdi,',1 ll.ltlrii/. lrntrr

lihull rr. l"l t:\\4rlL| t',
ccolog'cal l,rr.icr th,ri d.rnind jrtlgrutiol rrnd Lxrito.m;ry ind thrl rr.s;,r.riz. t.oflLs .vcrvlvh.rc \!irh fnrt inusic, fusl tr;n4rtc.s, arrd fist toorl \l'11,', Ll.rii nrsh,,rlrd

ir shiDilrctil!. pasrels.. a brsv t,ortrait of onrushirrs .conoDri., tr.lrrobsi,-ai. .od
homrlrerrcouj

\er

\1.1)olr.Ll'! pr.ssln: !.tr)ns into onc
Ivl.Worl(l ii.d k'sclhir
L,j/

Lonrmtrricdrions, i.li)rnatiolr, rlli(JtrjnI]rflrt,.!d .o :{irrghr brinccn Brbcl ard llisneyland, the planer is trlli.g t}iciripiro jlv ip.rt rrcrcc anrl corri;rg rlitrctrrtl.; toir.thc..ri th€ ve,f sanc monrcnt. Sontc rlut)r.(l obsrrvers noti.e onlv tlabei,.omplnining.bort rhe lho sanil rcwly surr rtrl "i,eor'les" 1'l(: trd.r to rddress thej. rejShbr15 trni rni:u rill.ii !nd nr).rds: olir..s ,.riors in Disnc)l.n.I - seizr on 1inu.ol,ri1ic:tl pl.rriii!.1.r i!(l iilr prortlis. l)f ti11.ialirr. cicl-Jj!,;r3 Ii's i snr.ll !1'orld uiter all!" iJoih 2,. r'glrt, i,,it ]\vr

liol,il iL.nr.

;.iLr(. one

1e

grssibie by

!!'e ar..onp.li l if .iloore l,r-...!rD ivlrnt lusscs r! rhe ir;iight ,,t sor,:rei$rtr-' ind un entrofi. .-r{i oi rll Lisrori or a r.'tun lo the f.st s ril1ls! | 1ir;,r,rs rr. LJ.dr,L :rji?nrg .1ir.o tui; io rlc r irjra.e . a 3lobal anar chv, " to itlilt,rn's crpitrl ori:rll, !L'rla; noniLrl]t nl i yi.,rll !,rtalir'' "{)ut oi.ontroi." 'Ihe lfpir.rlt rulh. rvhi.h spe*s to the paradox at thr core of lhii b.oli. i! th.t the t.nde .;es oib.rh lih?id ra.l Ucworld tuc ar wor,k, bolh vis;bl€ sou.rtri..es in rh. sarrie.olrnlrJ il liru';er)'sanr. jnstari- Iranian ?calols k..p or. rrr [,nri t,r thc nnr]]]h,. urgin-q holy 'jar rnd the other cocked to ilupcrt \lur(lo.il'r Star r,ridisll)n be,trnifs in ,r,xiJt,, Dalnhre, The Sin4]:!Jrs )rLtn hovermg ,rt.ilit.s. Llhin.s. ^t\d Lrnr.p..teu.s 'i.i 1;r !h. att.nrioil of partl carlies ir B.ijnr.q,!d rinnii,irous); pnrs "- X irc i;xr.c|isrs jr1.iiies tike r\itinlg, HaDgzhon, and jan !;h.rf:!rti -.i*ht r^,r'crl ' d rr ,l. Ku.\iir n"r ., 1 . . : ', stl]rg-sii's rc r":rr,;r r!t r.i.ni iaith. hrs entelc.t a joint renrure r"i1h (ltrlii.)rn;a bu::; ti*in r, Io l,Iiii. ,ijrd riii n.r1tral !.?ters under rh€ r!lrdr Sril]r iit!jrjrs \i)aicr Cdnro2ri!. -(crtri:in is:irssj!s sdcakers and lisir! ii) i.la{ir)r,r, on l! !iiiJjrli headl)holr.r :j lhri l.ic fi "e;r,Ldidas lb.augh thcir girnsccpes ai v1lrryiri: :;!iuj.rc .j,jli.rlr lo,)knr:1 b 6il iii,r;I a,rrrctnrs- Ortho.]o:i Hirsids arlri brood;njl n,r! !i,z;r llrfc l-nr1b trrrxJl k-. i o.li ,r,dsii. i,) ,rer lh.r r\ditioml mcssages out to the .r(-, ,g.rj.J ario.. uiriie

firr.lrric|iolirli tl.,r.;jrirri corrspira.ies o!1 thc Jnterner. j"otr I.iilcr I;hN,i rai lv1.1v{:,rl.t is in itseu!o\cl. gistcry rlrdir..

ior;l]'r;i oi

ih. I' iLiliph (,1 'r.. scli'nc..r,i rclsr! (,r;,]Jr. rionJirous p.rvelsion thc.€oiii,,lur! S|€llcf'1 i)o-.o. Irrl,r ' kenslcn) lr.s ln:!l ,:i: l,:irrrot\. of e1'e* piilosophcr rnd po.t 1v|i iris r"-grelri:d iirc {e ofRra5{.r si'j,-. Lh. brij3LLernlerir teats lamrrrte.l "thc clDtr 1v;llrict hol{l, in.r.

-rpl.,

iribe

, . ,,,n oh "^er "iJrhr,lr..J-\ ( hrisrii,r par"ble ol rhe f?li and oithe poi:ibjiili.rs ,)lre.l.rrfriorl thir il: :';tlics insjilrlr.aptrrrcs lhe eightc€rth .eLrhrry arnbilaL!.t :nd our orqr about prsl : !J iriuie i rrNnr, h1i\!.v.r, to do r1or"- thnlr dress ui, rh. ,iirtril ir.d:;or: ,rf huDaD h;I(,i-,' ir trlodir- .idhes. ii is not jihad nrrd \tclvorlil b!i thc icirrlrnshrp
d.hjl
lo .d(i.

lh.

then th.t rnosl interesrs me- Foi, squeezedbexlecr thciropp.'sirg for.es, the 11orld has beci j.nl spinninB oirl r,t control. C:rn ir h. Lhdi rvhrt iih:nl ud N'l.W(irl(1 ha\-e ir conrDrD !s ,ii1ir,;hr: tlrr: elrserce oI comnron rvil thll .on,;!r..trs d ..]l 'll1d l.rciiyi lumt)! ,:inrrul Lr'lilcr thr griidrn.r ofl,t!v I'e cail democLa,r? Prri!rtsrl!]r.si s i,.)! tl:n so rn.tinres lurch backwn sj ill hisi.),vs l1i;ltir:lrir:i2!. Jiitad no1 orrir rel]ilts xgaulst bur rbets \lcworl.l. wlilc M.World rot oujv rlnpclils
betwccn
r

r-! il.l,,tri.!

Glchiji..tin n

l)rr r'.rcJr.s Jnd rcnrtu(.s Jiiru.r. r'h.' pr(,duce thcir .onrrirr;.s'd lr..rr .!1(. .i athef. M' ,Jbj..i h.r. rh.r. is ror rnnl]lr ir! o]]t. s.qc.idal t:,orlrai,, l' O-*.,_f,t i$d jih.rl, tr'rr while cr.m;!in! rtcl\!)rt,t, 1(, kc.t i,, n,y i,,,r,, ui.r;;,",, l;t ",: Nhji. ,l!'r.'nrg lih!d, rlr:vd io lirr3i:r ttrc co.re_rt of Nt.World. ",,,i {llt i! a {t;.i:.ri, n
t1lrt (l;lnjLrjsh Jihait ir.i .ior icil jrteiltepe'de .e.

ol Chrlstiarir,

\:.\1,.,lJ rrd'r,,'.,u.,::,,,,., ..,..r:,J -.-. hu..,, .,,
trtLldriti ],.t rh.t
irckrowfe,t:!", drci,

I.rr,... po,,..t"i

",,J,"..

rh.ir t--:isor:jrc.hrj,r:aicrjr.s tjiie i..ri t,rirt.r,s, jlirllariori,l hclei:: tilic 1i'" r,..t,,.r",,, urd a_.;.le otr€or b;1tLo:irds rxo.i.jDg rh€m lviih L-..1,r.n"s r,l:. i,"-so,,*. a,,r,.,. rrd Coldsi:rr. l',1.\! .go(is, t;(,s, i\1i l:rore trb.rlv?

,,,.h. h.n.,r.i. ,l,\t..,.i,,..1.;;,. ... ",.r,,, srolid, .r1..rb.,,irg sr{ii,€s ci ir:rr.r adi tjr:els I:,ce e:si,;s ,r"""1t,,g jt.*...t",:. 1r.r. llloJ.oiv: l,ilt Jro!' ,:i..ij.ij iher! .1o,rg ihe sr*." ,rr"r *,.*",,tit.. ,,,,.r ,;rri ;. ,.r. ,.. ii,..|.,,.n,r.. .,,,.,o,,-"rrt,..,t nJrr,L\,.,r:,...i,..,.

_ Lheie is x .rricirl djf.rcnce. hoiver.cr, betrreeo jnv ntcdesr atrenrpt:rt diaLLli. anJ th.rt r)l thc Jlrsr.r's <)1 rhc iift:lrcnih celrtury. Siill sc.]ir.c(t L,y,f,. t:,,hgt,r"r,r*",:. Itri$ iir proricrs, l)oin ircsel ind trtarr bclievca ,"or"n," -,nui"s ,u,o o;,1. .j.ic,,; LJ.ocr.ss. l}rr ir ir hrrdtr ro l:rlicr-c thrr rhe.ixsh ol liha.i anil NI:Worl.t rvi iss,r.j sojrr ov.ffid"r.q g(!x;. l-hc., rcone scuns m)r. tiheit to pcrrtrt rhin 1rr l,rn;1 h uma n libcrrv. l-he I rv(, r,ai,, in opposi,q e.:ci, orJr"L, r,.,,k r,, th,, s,_, e c".1,,. ,,,,, t, i ,,

n_r,

$r *h:.s

9,,r,r,IJ r.,tm. r'.,.:r

...h:,..u.,. ..r,

rvhcrtth.trDdeicnrsoilhei,!osers,)fto.cesirriLia vljppearsciuira.!trbt,"""r;,t,r,."r, Afr:r rJl,Iitrat ord Mc\\.oir{t !,rr.ratt wir\ ec1tul srre;i.erh in opposir",ir".ri,,,r..,i," .Ji. drn'e, i)t p.roctriut trarr€.ts, rjrc olho by Lll;,c,.,,t;z;"q ln,ikers, thc ,ln. ." .;_, . ,ro',. 1.,r.I r:,,,r. i.,.,,.. r,.... ,,r,,,, .r . ,. . i.. ,-,..-, bord€r s poro$ fiorr ldttnui. y(r Ijiu.i ln.l t"ic\{iorld ha./., rhis j,r co n,r,,r,}.r:i,,,:i unle \var orr rhe s.)e.rciqn nnri,,r srare airii rhrii rn)dc.iline rh. nalior ;,,".. .i.,,..; ,,., i I, ,i,L,r,,,.. ':.,... .\. i..1 : . i.rr ... r-r ....r . t,,, " ,.,,,o,,.,,i ,,r . .,1 .;
conrmunities that slight dcnocracy in favor of rl.lannical prternalisn or consejrsuil tr'1!l:.m \1.\VolJL,..r.e..l ri r,.,.i , I. ro.r. , r. .o,.. rmFr,w.r ,, , ;-;

iJintity, il1.\!,

iind

fr

xticrUl

'":J.,, ..l.'.,.1\i.,t.,r......r .r.:.,.,,,r,t,r,,Jr,,,,t;r..;,,,, r.. rr :1. ... J.l,..t r,.,.:.. .o,,,n. n;r.r ,,,t-,u._.o,,r,.t ,.",i,,..;.,, ,,,,, i;",. ,,
ir

'. an.lcoJ'Jno:3nrdtlntoncci.ightirrvetccrnuruicrlbr,,ttmocrari:crrizrrrrr:s:rnJ : . J,,,,r .i ..r.,,r, r,r,,,,1, qJ.,,i,,ir t ..,, ..r,,....t F.,n r. .. u. .1,, .- ..ll!i,,rljintL.^,rrt,F.., ,rromc,.r rtr"y,,urrr ro L,.J,!,"!!i\ttr ,,r,,v.,".
wh.,r *., . on.
c Lrqd, | ,r^n.t .,s

,,.r..t.u"-rh,r..rr.,u.......r.,it..",,,;

..,, "., ,,r,r;,. .

,

iznr!r 1r.,lirics ot pnrri.uta's1 jdentilics, p.oples .rciund rhc globe rre thr.r,",;J;i;; .D rra!-isri. rcllr.n ro rrredicval politics wtrerc locrl tribes anrj a-f;itio* e,n,".,,.

l..r..lJJ,,gur-'uryr,r,$bF.,'rnBt,r.rrr,retd,rn,n,,ker.,r.nrho,.gt ",i",";",;.,,: ...Jr.r\lutr.,t ,, I.,.lunrlv.u c...J ,h,,e i.., L,,,rr lt,.r\:nrn t,,x.. ,,,tr,. r..rt.. rt," ,," nen'ous a,l.l srecdy lher look for siabitiiv.rnd rrtnsp..c..y, brr l L"t tt,"y.",u,i.,l t. ror .lrv.$ u I preferred tbon oi dcDlo.racv r{ihc t,aaitto n,rt ..ns"_,tr,., i,rr, r'.n'd€xuraric con*ir,rri(,rs ild Bi1ls otRighrs,.thc nerv rurptcs ".,tr,,, to 1b.,,;.,,r:",;;., Srei.er su::gr!rs, $,ill bc \.t(D.,rild's .rnd Kcnrxck, ,, ''1r,.o ..,u...r^,..,.., ..,.\.,.r.hrr,i,,J,.t ,Fricll UhiLk.i .nrr.r .r,rr,,,lr r,r.r,,..rrrrl
( )

prorn lins r\e pub,;.

-,.,.*, .,.i.,

,.

although we

r

:-ld o1 visior, rnd ll ;1 i dirlccric of .,:.li.il d,ftc,{,rces ,nwcrful :rtl ra|r-

r(i one ':ec{l liins oi nic\lorld
rs

lilnd

{.

At.)tatLt

3a

!i!l.i dixl.cii.

ard

)c liiljghlrnnr.ni\

ro!et|.r rLllirJ rir. !v,r'td..r;r., lvonr.'rr)ti 'rc, ''itcil l)e rh. .'Divrrsrl .hs.i.ti.n ola-jrrrsiir|;r, .\.n !s rhi, tnr...t oll1 j!)l.rc.l livcs iD r!,nrJ irr fi.iitu,rs rl.ijn.{J tn, idvoluJ ir). liN:, ipr^,c ) ro.r),s ot jdc, ir,v ihiswrsi lrcrt.tj,,;,ich prn,ces :,r<1 kir,. 1; iitrlt roi p,,wc, rir)ril rhev.or.eivr(] rhe idcotogy ot r:{n,rntism Nrrjor:lisr'n <*rbjishrd,rovorr,u:r on I s,:ale grtarcr thru rt:e rrlil,e r.er l.ss cosrropoliLar thar: rlre unilcis.ri rilr,rJr dnlt ir filn€ gav. bi, rh r,) ttrosc inr{.nr..i;arc, g.r,i.ott" u.u" drnro.r.rii. irstiirrii':, thrt rr(nrJd.d,nc ro.onsrirr:r. th. ratio,r-!rxt,:..I.r,,trr,r ri,. tt,r..,l ol r|is Iis!(,.. ri.:cir inicur o. i! .r.rri!? tL !,ortll ir 1,ii.tr _rf,l.f."ic".

,..,.,..t,,.,,

ai on rh.: \;rL of .. orld $-ill is$€ ir

;srir

ri linD to udrnrre !r' .!d:. !'orl( ll
--ir brrelii:iarv
1n

.{

]]rrg.is},larz, thr irg djstint solace I ihe Daik 1lrit is

s : th. Ladisson,
:an.,ri1i., C,:,k.,

\1or.i diiicctic.l]I
at)lv ur I ithcri.al?

- i!ilirrg iqii.,'.1
1rnrorl:li.rbrrh riilr''sr:!ic's a,erno .-rnr;r .;lizciship.
3dis

je dle.lions. rhe s, rie orri rr-ci.at

iiditr.r!!.e

irrriiir aud hatfedl;.rr:t:t trnscrrslai jiftri)fii, i.a!,nq

rjpir$ i{).crJ..urr rb.,.ivi. !n tuts unde.nriard ir! jrs (t.l1alrJrrtiznlgpfi.li.es; ncjrher corxnurjli.s scrvice ptrbti. g"" . n. pu.i,".q.uitity o"a i,Frnr L rrarrjrl j! di.iarics and del;b$arjyc asse-bri€s;l"y ro,.ir nr rhe,"";,"i;rr". b:rds tJrai spr,rir or i:thrtI ofnclrll liber:rre(l ..i,""pi.,s,i ,o.t, a"nx,cr,rt;. insttt,, rionr irlrc ar Lrcsr orrh rnarln t i'fl.enr. oo rhe flrti ",ra c jDutLi,r;trjr)rrl .orDoraliois ...i r , ,rrh,r.,-rr-.,rt.r. ;. i1,,"," t_,..,,J tir,,....r i.lerln!, Il.,Vo.l.l , l ll)naltess flrnoJri.s olirrrtr. Btlon.qing b; rirrruh,o t. r,t.lt,,,,t.i, ,\'.F,)n.,;s i dr$:,x.r: ri.kjJ)g d reposirori- i.or i.]criir.i, $_crlore bctrn5,:j n, r{ioc. iti,i ro or. i i, .-itizc,,. VvithorL cirizi:rs. ir-"."" ir.". r" 1..**_i;.t "or,r" f.. .j lrr..lis,I ri!n:'rjrc. i sirors t.nl tr1 irs rnilti(,s I f.)rjn, it berckurs n:tisioits s1r.rli.qle ' i ,, ,,. r'' ..r i.t.r ....,i ,r. .,,r ,,rJ..i _ ,,,,, rl rJrc,rs ::,liirir. rr.l\. rrar r,:r behaliot prrrisu i:t.niiif ihal is ri.i.]i}l-a;.i|:, .nri,t,l . ..1 , .., : i. . ..rrJ:,or ,n ihr r,,,.. ortr j.ii:ji,. rtr,,t c"r jis 'roD.rir,,1.l::';::'i,l',::..:iJ;l-?,"'.fi;: :cu,:.rll.1l, i blrrro{ me.rDins i}c,qr rhose aiitilrrrs 1,iro,,:"ke tt." C.ugilti. ot
gk)bal i,lJrk.rs iror blo.)d

., ,. r.,i-.,J...r,.. r.'l ..r,,r.i. ,.r.,,....Jtr L._-.r.:r - , ,' r 'l '. r.:.,,, t..- ,,,r. /j \ i\. ,,,:,. ,,1 , i !]r rtln. .l jii,..ii No(t lhe .orlir)or.i,eal ,]re pln ar risk. Nciiher lih*t n,,, l.,r.rr,,rl.r

rh. 1..(:,ors i.il). (hc triDrrli.llhc .oli.oi!tariorj ftr bdrvc.r ;jlot)al coljDrercl rl,i ornr iriat €(ln,r:

.i

r,.,,r,,t

"...,1.,, rr,.,i,

,,, .,1,

oilrbii. irierest -iii'iiita;ries an.l
ss

irn\'€ jirn{,.c'rt .ri(1uth

.,... .

prnir a!r.l1n,l.ni .Da'i;.ut!risD ol:: kitr(i toor!. lo Christ;nr

i,,',..,.4.r,,.c1,",,I,,.r.\..rJ,.,,,...,,,": ,i ,.....,.,..r^
,. ,,.j.r

,.- tr.,.i...,.,.,,.,.

..1t,..,

rr{) tcsJ

tl

i
3s

it.'ir.ings: nlelrlitl polirics ,r.,i ,r,,,iticr,tt"L"t'.ti-.,,i- _,,
,. iiS...:!., i ..,,...,., (i,\F,;,. \.;,.,.
,4.

Lluslin; ::i.t,,.,..,. !,t1
,r

r,!€lv iixerv€

r.l illeolosr, dc
ing-

x.oriaieit as htiq , :!s lrcl;rR.,hatyn
.,rarkels. Tb€y are
i!4rat they relrard is

,

.atofs cl irr.c.lon
r

lii:rrn,"

George

:i

i

a;rd r reiri5al th.earened with

nrbitious eDrperors

muilicultural 'L r" r'"rr" q , ,,t,^rnr,s,gral..n ,n.,Lr".r.Lt l. I nr tor.:.rc.nrrlrl r..,t.i.,.. .......,^,.o.u,,r .",,., .,,,..,.",,, n-i:,.. ,9..,t,,t bI rh. rn,ljcrl itilh1 Le rir.rl;Dg fa.r rs rtlar t.:js rhan j0 Lrer.rnr iahou, r".,,"i "r ,,,r, horcu:,,r ,.,, .,. ;1. .".. ,f",: " "'"r1. ,rr':. yro"p.t,d .onpn.r,, ,en . .L,dr,e.,r ur jh" pJtirio, \, r, ., rl|.ut.,.,dt..[r r.rh. .rr. lr,rn,,.-,r.rrr r,,e,r,,1,ri"r,. r.".r.,r, l 'l' ,r'.,1 \r r.

alrhougL we roo havc our crirics tike Arthur Sctrtesnlger, lr.,

lilu{i ru),1{,gjn I si,!rpl.: r.ar.h ibr. tocrtntenrirr,solrcserof.oDrnon plrs.rml ",rr:L r-.,o 1,...1 e. ...,,i,.* i,. l..r,hir .,n.t,,..,.,.,.,..,u .., ie., J : u, : .. n..r, , .. ....,,r,tJ ,. .r.,,,,r .,,L.i, rr,.i \l \\u,t.l Arnrii.x is ofien la( r .s ihe nodct lor rhis kin..i ot lnrisn nluiri.ririrritism,

irr

t;r;hon1

I

i

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Dti\t1;?it i;iDbnlj?riintl

aorllt]+.]heIorl,lsr::q.'sir'r]!.irFr Lrr;tl,)ljixijonsrouldgrowtoo"ss;r,.t "".,,,,A , , -rl '.. 'I he lrodcrn nitii!i .i.r. irtjs aclr.lll a.t.d as r c trurrl iDreg.aror afid tr.$ adaprc.i well to piurrlis! id.ais: civ;c id.oll)ities u!r(t .olsrituri.nal bjths.tround ivhj.h rtreir qrrn-v tlans anii tibe. qJl r.dll lr h?r rn)r l).en roo ditj.uL o contrjvc a ciri religioJr tor A$eriirans or Fr€n.| o. Stiifs, r;r.. th.re peopleJ' a.tui ,/ cortajn rndtirud.s of subrtrtionll tr.tions aD(J .ru'ric rrrbes ir.ncrtil se.Hrg common ground. ljut ior Brs.lLies rri.t Nolmnlrs? r1,'har:rc,:.i ;,r.re rhe,, tor anfhing lldt btoo(l and mtur)ryl \Li ,.,..r.,t .lj . r,.\.^\..ti..,. .,. ,",,,,. Qr;Lr..ris, 'lbiJlizi! s, C,itll.rirrrs. L'rjrs, ink.dra Zdus, Kurjie istx der I.lP.n.:se p.oples:!ililriri.(.trntrjcs jnlabiri;r! r.rr:ons rtref.rnnoi.ati thejr or.inl t,eoplcs , \ ,,o .., -..i ,.. : I r^. !j:,hr.led tribLs ri.I il:t,rtJi cr in:r l]nfl .i'ic irith in sear<h of somethrl|,. iro;: !rl--ebl€ id .l..trjiri xit. 11or' ltjjl ir.,)pics ho ,ldlne t!€mselv$ tl, th. slar{irlcr oI '' l- e rr ".l, I '.,...,,1 .,rr;fic,ar t ,h o..... , , iround aiisiri.t .ivi,: dl- o. r.)!)ro:rctai nrrkcis'i Crn idlcrrisillg divcri i{a,riors oihl,r(nl iiom the gcio.iiir reorlircd ty.tLeir acci,:ni griev,uccs? I.. .l i\lclvorl'l is x f!{r(ttr.r of plfirlrr .,di.i: .lriler b,v elprnsjonisr .onnler.c. lrs t..tt)itle js Amcrjc?1r, jLs to$r srvl.. iis qarjds .tre .s nrN.h images ,s m.t;rjet, i,rt iLcs rleiic l! r./.11 .s-,r produci I!.. tr:: .ri:ro..L ,i ut Llr e :s cs:Imcciirl-, apparet * ft(nog,r_ I is \rr)bds .re ,Ll:rlc./ 1)!r i! s.in rioier.r'.li! ilrd Cr.l ijlac mctor.ars ir{ris rcLt tro rn rtr e ro.:C.rats, Lvhcrc rhev onfc repr.!.nr.1l i rrlo(le oi rranlporrnrion, 1lr rhe marqu..s ,ri floi,.i nraricr.afas li(c !i:r't.c ila,ri,iroi 5 linj thc ltard Ro& \lhere thcr beconlc iccns oflitistyl.- Yo! don'r rtri't tlrtrn, pu {cct thejr vil,es.!.t ro.k to the iinlqcs rher.onjnre nr fro,n o1Li rlo\ics nn.l !.i' c.tcb.;ries, whose pcrsdliat app"",,-.". ;,. die kr,v to rh€.rild\, pot,ri:rr ilrclnitr ionr! .:,1i .ir.ir pt.t'et Hojtlaood. Mnsi., !iJ.o, lheatcr, books, lDd rheme pirks the nri' churches of a .ommerciit civjtization in
,r

liLe jal,arr ,115121., 1i,"1 io rh. !),ii:ii!l. r'o.id ru l olt ro bc .tlrar !: "s 'dregrat :irl' flllticNhrril. .{td "fpe.ti c.,?r iIl:rrritrurg,r irioi.. !Lc r)arion's essentiat Irrribute is mid. rirc .i;nditior) i.r sclf:ild r.!i!!rioi, a .1ni|r oi Lhe durnbcr of hn$ragej spokc

Iissill ro.k

a

the Cl1(!'a1kr

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llanril-, ,,nd

'

le.dc.ihrp sct on ]lllri(lrtjng rivil.lairs. kr horh iirvandr.nd 'r.dja ilos ir,.adb hro.{l.isrs whipp.:d list.Ders rito r killinr i.enzv .\s \.1, ldi ?tr(s.oci( .rirr Jon trrct.! ttrs notic(11, r.giorrrijsur n pop rnusi: I).rs 1,.!onit ns trendy es rnicrobrclvery becr rlrd ra..oh,.rsting cxble .hrrrrficts. anrl lirr Lhc srme rcrn'rs " the gtotral .ulrure is wh.r Sivcs rLre k)cal cirltuL. its nrlalinjn. irs lrldicr).e. in.l irs rspirirjons I'isctsr pop ind

whi.h,malls are rhe publ;c \ur.:i and slrburbs thc neighbortcss neighborhoods ar. rll constm.ted :rs iftlse r}lto r ('criirg n.jonnnoJr i,orld raste aroLrnr:t crinrmol log,:,s,la.iv..tisiig slo,sans.:itrrs, :nr'.rs. br:rird nrrles, jnrghs, and rridclnxrks_ Uar(1 to!,'.|r,i.lds to solt. a |j l!. iJcoloqr ;! i..rrsm ie,l jnto a kind of.r eotogy ihal i!o,ls thraugh sould bitis arld llh .1ry!, vrieobsy ;s iLrzzie. and less dogmaiic rhrn rrud; ln,nal poliricJ ideolog,v: it may ns a .onseque cc be lar more su.cesstui iD irstiltins the novel values rcquirrd for glohrl uarkets ro sLrcceed. M.lvorld's vidcohgy re'nnrs jihrd s nnsr lbrmidaLle riul, .]nd h thr loog rull ir may artenlrate the fc,rce of lihad's rccidivrst iribalisrrs yet rhc;fomrrti()L rcrolu d(!r'r jrarrum"-ntajitirs rrc.rlso Jihad's hvorc.t l'capors Hurlr or Rosnian ScrL idcn lin exs leis .r rnil|.r of rcli ]risn,r;..i rxcn)r! rhin of propagrona bv r

'their bodies

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fl:rsjd ro,:li irc lroi oxyn.rjonsj r.rrh.r lheY lrlarritist tlr. ditlle.ti.s of M.Wort.t jr particrlarll tirrnratic ways. ucigraCe's r.dio includcs eariors ttj:r1 br.r(t.isr 1!.\hrrr poD nlosi. rs , rcbukr r{, har.l.lincr i\,tilc,sevi.'s superndir')ati:jt q.Jv. rrre r nnd sriii;o|s r]td broad.a;t nativc fol! rr;r$ laced wirh anriforis' er)d rrtj SaDrilj. slori nr(1rt:i.llverr tbc hternet llrs irs nco.Nazi buileriir hards rnrt l,rrL rr:shiir A, rr.niin

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l
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th.t th. abslrr.tions ofc)'berspa.c too.re iift.red rt r d r:rLid cdtrLrrll 'yitt fcculj.r tenitorialit? all lireir o\en -l !c (l)-r rri.s ottLc iihi,d \.1.w 011.1 ljnkag. rre Lle.ptv diitr.rjrrl. lrp,j, t;rs. to! cxrnrplt, bctome rrorr: cuiir!r:ilf i sisr.Dr olr ir,: ov"'r r.idir;oDs irt ,e.ern r,.:t.s c,.(n
j\lcl rjj i.r ld's. toflor,ert in resuurani rn Jap.n lnessured 1,r volunr. of.uslo.rcrs '!is rie DunrL.r i'o stot Lr.1he ilolcn.l's Kerlu.k)'tiried 1]rickcn. In !r:a!.,r, wh,:re crjt. rural pnnsG conrplnrr bi&'rl-, of a l(rolnirlg Sixifll. liepLrbli(rr. i"ia lG,plbljqn,l Arnari.aiie"). rir.r sov.!11mc!rI.rla.ks "traeglais' even rs iurj(ts hu.oDisn(,,; parlr 'r iust ortsicl. ol P.,is. lir ihr raDe spiriL, the cinerna ir lstr.rrrkcsrvar dn lucrican

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. dre m:rauces oi il|s. lLe,Y bc.ome ':k,o lire jmuscs
ap!.:rirl..s aie j.)od. l"ilsi.,./id.o, i:i ririii;-arior in
.hbo.hcods

SCILPZ ihe seDt. C.!z lll.ctrofli. E\Dori Pro.cssjng Zone . \,jr€re ilindi . ar! l1:1hri(; sperking.omparer proffanr.rrrj l^rjk- solrr,arr ibr Srus-!air., Al&f, nnd r)iher lab1ri-corir conscious Druiri :rti rais tndi. tr ttrrrI ar {}nc. I r.ior c..r, p,'a' ,'rr' rn , hnr r'.. ud. I :ur r. I .h,: :,i r,. ',lr. .r".r.;rjJr ,: ir...rn\crLLr \"r.r./ ,..r ..,1.,. (. t;i cr.,ss;ig aD jrrerDalioiai .,(,rdrr." !.i-.i ilto afuther .oulry, ilii jrio th. riJri;xl
.rs

i a, r,.rro,. hi,,l r 5t,.a,\, \lJ o,, ,r..,, 1, n.. r,, rl-,,,^r thc Chclaiicr dcs rrrs cl lcrires tut1bilalence atso sr.rtks Illdj? JLlsr ([rsir]e o{ S.rnbt!r-, che& bv r<xrl rv-dr r'lliages niu jnm.(sed ;r poverty ar{i noioriorr for rh. infbrrr:l r', ^ rrr, J,n,,l. .rl rr.,,, \. n \.r\, ..', i. ...'... .,... i,,,,,i,-o,
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rd

.lrnrn.ljr.\'ci tb.ji in lljdi.. is thc srian.sr t)r.!?t..' .iljilrrt -t'.iCi tvj.\^/crta i,.,lr. .rF " ..: :,I .,!.\:..,,JL.,...:1..r.,: irlu I.t. .t . \ ,,.t.., told the brl.itrtigi. lct stori sf Ad,riira ar.rl B.rslo. ih,o mtr!: sr.r-cro.sai ior.ers Lom\.r'J:.rn: .1.,. , ,,,nrt,-. r..ru..,". lr-r,rr.\. ,:,. .,:.,1.,.: :: ri:l',' li '-..1.. r. ...r,i,1".-,,.!i'ol,, irr..., ,tr\,r.r.. "rr.. -1,. ^'I t...- I.u, r,",,'rn-1,,,t rr oj1,.,r,". t...,.q,..,, ,l.i ,t i ', ',,' ,, r ..ll r,l, ,.' turc trorr S ijelcr. lhe,v .oulil crosi.lhe a:_ri.rl lr.order thrr serar?rcs thcir i,rpo\rrishcd ^j.r\o. li,ie lrorn rhr srcrring sandrur o? N4cr,roi kt, iihiil .in,shi ui, ro thetn.
brillos tioor oor:.,rlous sapcrs frrr ,,r inr 'idille.1..,viih ,.t,.r..r,,. t,. ,,r.,..,,l .u,,,. r,rorr ro l.,r lo\.c$. !s b.8is amirris to Mcwa.kl, kerc (torind in jc:rns lnd s.l.rke.s: So rDo, L]lrc inagints, 'd.rr rheir murd.r.rs. lurtier east, tourists seeking a pi€ce ofold Russia that does not rake then roo far fr, ,, lf\. n F1.1,..,1:r,.i ,.r't |l ,.r,1 .,,e\tin,.l^tt l.l..r t ^n-.r\i.trt.,. rt.(. fe.turing thc norrrid;lidraj vis:g$ 'f {t;on} lxrgcsr b rn,.ll-sit tr,,iie Sprir,erLccn, Ifrdo;r]]a. Bor Georgc. t)a1,e Ste$ari. rn{lr\irrie I.nn1}x ln I u ., ,r' L r..'n ..,'J .. t,.,. . ,,. leans both rvals: rorvard tlie rncr.rricious ;lcviiabiti.y oI t!1.\lc,Lld, l)ut riso inr.) Tileir bodi.s hy .riong rhc dv€rbl)k,

in the long .un it

::;

hl',,.. ..1 p.,,,,' \'..r,,1.,

Jefr,lu rv:ir Serb cn a propaganda by a
"-i:)nr]1t;L)n
Li.-

radb broad.ads

lon lareles iras !,,irelren lrecr an.i .b1l cr{tlrr. is 'rl,at , . |is.;sr pop an.l
ic

I

1N

DebatillgGLobaL;zation

frt a;d givins hcart bo$ to dre lJanglossians and ib.landoras, sometimes f(' th. very sar,re r.:rso'rs The i,an-dossi?ns ba* on EuroDis nerard i{icrgroJi, whiic the P!nlloias i,ait Dililism.nd a v.rcrld ir Pandaenlonium Yer Mc\l'orid r;d iihad do llot reallllbrce a choicc brtween suln pol"rized sccnarios. lbgether, they are likely to praducc somc sliflirs anralgahr ofrhc trvo suspended in chaos. A ithetical jn evcrydctail, iibad.r.rd lviclvorld nonetheless conspire to under ,nine our hard rvor (if only half wod) civil libe(ies and the possibility of a global demo.rati€ tuture. I! the sho$ run thejlorces oflihad, no;siei and more obviously nihilstic than ihose of N,lcWorkt, ar! likciy to doninirtc the neir turure, etcbing sm"ll stories of local trlgecly alrd rcgioiral geiiocide orr r}lc [acc ofour innes arld.reating a rr:n dt. or rn't"b,lll' nrJ'hd L. r lr',n" r..v,,\ i.'ri'l.,,gl.ba] rrl,t',r:on B-, rr the long run, thc forc€s ot M.$rorld:u: the forc:s [nderlying L]re slowcelt?in thrust of we:st€rn civilizatio.r and as snah riai; be Lrstoppable lihad's nicro.;vars will hold t]le headlin€s vr'elJ nlto tbe nex! cerhtry, jnakirg pr,rdidions oirhe erd of history look trrniBilly dumb. Eut lvI.h'o'id's hijnble.:zatioJl i5 likely to esiablisil a micropeace riai {3vors tbe rhlnph otcornneree arcJ its marketr nnd to gi\,'e io those who calrtrol L:fcrmation, conmunication, an.] etltarraiflIrert ukni?ie (if inadvertent) .ortrol o,rer huinan desti1lv. Urlcx we ian oi-lii an alternative to thc struggte bebveen Jihad Jnr Ii,\vuld. rn' epo.hor r.no r rl,,c.rd'n..! n.,rJ- Dosr', r,,TJn;., pusr'r'fi,' trinl, postnaiioira], -1'el scctadan, faarh , l)rd bigoied - is lkely also to be termirl:liv
l;had's stiif wind5, healing to aDd

'fhe Clash

the Next Patlert
l/orld politi.s
is

ente.

rte visiorls of what i
between nation states,

tlib3Ism a'd globalit em.rsing reality. Ye politi.s is likelt to be

tt ii my hr?othesis rorbe prim;rihidei
kind and the domin.the Drost ?orcertul zrcl r.liil occur betlve€n

tions

wil domirute'

.

bauie lines ofthe tutr Conflict bee-een the modern rsorld. ' national system with largcly arnong prjn.

attempting to exPa srrength and, most i
nalion states, and b
ive.c betwecn natio ofkirgs ivere over; tl Ldsted u til the cn.l

thc reictjnr agaus

6nt urrng colrmut
Oigrnd fubli..lon dcir ili3, Srnnnc' 1991, !p l:

T-oplc -G16Fa [IzaI rort
Articie:
Lechner, Frank J. ancl John goii- "]ihacl vs t!4.World" The Globolizqtian Reader

i'd

Fclitior. Blackwell Publishing, 2008. Pg32 38 Activity After reading ihe article, students !viil be divided into groups questions:
1)
2J

10 discuss

the following

What are the key features of "Mc\ /orld" and "lihad"?
How does McWorld provoke and support Jihad?

3) What does Barber find threatening about globalization?

willwrile their answers on buicher paper which can be put up in the.ourse of ihe lesson, for a "Gallery walk". Stu{jents t'Jill review, comment and pose questions io ihe other groups work by usin8 "Posi it" notes lvhen examining the clther groups' vro.k.
Students
The G.P tutor will thereafter faciliiate further discussion and responses bv l-ruilding on

the questions, responses ard comments from the "Post it" notes.

"{ctivity

{AQ related praciice)

Students willwork in groups to pick out the main arguments from Benjamiil Barber's essay {as one would when preparing to answer an AQ). Following which, in different
Eroups, students can start to evaluate his arguments2 and write the;r responses on the

provided butcher paper. Students will put up their work so that the other groups can respond by posing comments and questions to these evaluat!ons, durirg a "6allery walk". Teachers may choose to discuss and give feedback to the different groLrps'

attempts to evaluate Ba.ber's arguments.

rIo makeit

more challenBing students can tryto evaluate Eenj:mln Barber's arguments within

a

singaporean

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sir:il.cconicr'chi:lcs'heei"rCyleLrcjr.finn,;lrrrrlrctilcopriorr/.cr rlrodern rerLoLisrs, rvho yalue lrs ano|."mic,i its roten!i:.i Lo irf,i.:t rL:.rr' .;ilc clnrgc, irs;sychological impact, r;li it: media app*Ll L:r1:erl, Lhe
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lrpa.i \je$of.,iiii r f!li.cDepu.Dert,.p.,r.il svscear rher h,. ir.ru,.. ro taclt li0 fiiii3 vc!icles, irclulirg uuarleC r:1, i:r:l ccer rierel,yi 1,. th: ,1ur Shirrfljo cul, dre sane g.LoLr; rhr porad t!: Ibl1 s,lr a r lLr 1tr5, ltilliDg L2 fccpl. r::: ,:,iLri,t! fi,0rlN n,.,.. .r.r ,lli I! !jucir
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ously consicierjng adding cyb€rrcrrorism ro rhejr arscoal. ,,V&ilc bjr Laden nuy irave his fing€r on rhe nigger! his grandchildr.en r:ray have !h€,, 6 .ser. o , he co rp-rrer mou,c. ,ejnar.red Frank Cit.rr0o of rre

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171

Ol'{cc ol Hon -l.no 5e-uriry in lr: emer r rh 1r hr5 bee r *:de.} c;.eC Verton, for exarnple, argues rhat'hl Qae& fhasl shotn itselfco har,e ar incesant apperlre lor modern rechoologl'and pro{jdes nrjr:lerous cilallons fiom bin Laden and ofi€r al Qaeda leaders rhar show their recognirion ofthis new cyberweapon.J, Aller rhe 9/11 arrlacla, bnr Laden stated ro an editor ofan A.rab oewspaper thar ,'huodr"a, otl4,,rti*,"ten( sls \ver. {:r\ hirr / ho wodd . r;hc.- knowledge . . Lrng.ng frorn
computers ro electronics againsr rhe infid€ls."r3 And indeed, U.S. troops searching the caves in Afghanista-o found plans by rl eaeCa to attack computer sysrems ler sending al Qaeda recruhs ro uain jn high"tech sysrems. One oi: chese recruirs was llHoussaine Kherclrtou, a thirv-sixyear-old Moroccan who joined al Qaeda nr l99 t *,a.s s"it roiea,:, "nd n BF.Le.nnr.,hoo'ofs,, rillanceao:Abu Jv'onrnlea--tu.u .{i, ?h.

bining convcnrional srrikes and cyLerrtrachr), is the nost alarning, i'or ins&incr, a terrorist group n'ight sim"lraneousll' erplode a i:omb at r tlain station and laullch a ctberatrack on the communlcations infiasrrucrrre, rhus compolm<iing the clestructive impacr ofdre event. IrcnicCly, success in the rvar or. terror is like1y to rnake terrorists rurn increasingLt ro uiconlenliona1 weapons such as cybeneuorisn, The challcnge before us is to a.ssess vvhar Feeds ro be done to address this !fibiguous bur polenrial thrcat ofcybeire orism, but to do so without inflatlrrg irs real sigtificance and maoipllniing thc leaL it inspires. The tiieat of ryberterrorism may be exaggerated and manipuiated, but we dare not deny or ignore it, T}re Lrse of rhc Inteurer by terrorisrs $ described in fie preceding tluee chapt"rs has led several socieries, and in panicriar the United States, to rpply co unterterrorism measures on the Net,In lhe n€x! ch?pter \\'€

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stadiums. A-fter hjs baslc ftaining, hc joi1led al Qaeda's eleotronic workshop ar Hyarabadin Peshalvar, Pakisran, rh€ c€nrer ofal Qaedat rcsearch de'elopner r for 'org.ng ofele,rronic aoc...nen(. mca.rgc cncod. "rrd
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luture tefroris$ ma)' indeed 6nd more possibiliiies. for cyberre$orrhan do l-: renor- L" orroody. Fu:Lncrmore. rhenexrgeneraLron ol

terrodsrs are nolv grolving up in a digital wodd, one in which hactrirg lools ar€ sur€ io become rnore powerfui, simpler !o use, ard eajie( to access. "Cyber relorism," says Denning, "couldalso becomc moL.e :nric-

tive as rhe real and virtual rvorlds become nore closel,v coupled, whh auromobiles, appliances, and o(her Cevices artached to the Intelner, Unle* r_e,e su.rcm, a e care[ully.e. l"eo, cond,r.rrng an perr-iorr,h.r: onys.c.ul. h"rm" oneonc may be.r , ..v:r, penerrrri,rE a \ eb <.rr l rodr,.' -\e noLior o couuLed I r.,-: o, ,sc ol r,3BIihc,! .o,.,

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L ol 2. scopeof,oplicrLion: 1 p-r'r iplron n crimrnalorgrn.zr',on ,r rn6 1'y Lunderirg. 5. the crimlnal iiabiliry o{ busiless undertahil,rgsl 6. efflciency of judicial proceedings artd sentelces; -. -onli .c.r'ior. S. .r ,nsprler-c ol Lr"n.a" ion".
,

The Convenrion covers def.nitron rrrsnr.ional org"nrzed cr.me':

Responding to Transnational Crime
RAYMOND E, KENDALL
- Trmsnational crime is a majoi challenge facing rhe world communitl in general and rhe global law enforcemen! commtnily in parricular'
r€rollv apparenl that only :r smrll porrion of it is random crime. The vast na,iority is highly strLlctured orgxnized crime At intcrpol we have defined orgaoized crime as 'aoy enterprise or group of peqsons engaged in a conrinuiag illegai acivity which has as irs primary purPose the ge$eratian of profits iu'especrive of nationrrl boundarles', Succinctly, the aim of eacl, and every organized criminal group is rhe realization of laige {inancial prolits through anv neans) as quicLly as possible Frnancial profiL rs der.r eo from every Po;srb e sodrce ol illegrl ;cti"rty' .ncluarrg .raffi-krng ,r .ecurL.ies. a m. deals. smuggling. Lh- theft and fencing of stolen properry, corrupdon, Prostilution, gambling and, in parr rular. Lraffic\ ng i.r and J srr.bur.on ol drug" The Inrernrrionrl Morrer-ry l-und e Lirr.rre rhrr wrLhin 'Le -orld crirnionl Interflily approximately US55C0 billion in iil"gotren gains cbange hands annually. Tel years ago lhal ligure was US$35 bjlljon .Contrary to tbe old adagp, i[ se€ms lhat crim€ does, in iacr, pay Transnatiooal orgaojzed crime is r sophisric:rced, diversi{ied and widespread activiry ftal annually drajns billions of dollars from rhe world's legitimite economy by unlawfulconduct and lhe consisleni use of force, frauci ard corruption. Much of this untaxed weath derived Irom criminal enterprises is being laundered rhrough osrensibly iegiriurate busin6sses, The 'business straregy' ol such groups is rhe colrllPiion oI borh public officials and private cilizens and 'business .orroerition' is eliminrred bt ur melr ' Ve :re all i.'ir-s r''he cos s of th .o,ruption ir. -n.u.rrbly pr*.o on to ,,te oubl ,e ror' causrng ' an additioo:rl burdeo on stare social arrd €conomjc Programmes Or,gariized criminal gangs have become increasingJy sophisrigated in usilg rheir profir, power and influence !o iosulile dnd prot€ct fieir .ier,-cl'y rrom ois o ery rrio pro.e-ur-on
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These subjecrs include money l+undering qd confiscationi The oi legislation od these marte$ cao certainly help to strike at the resouic€s of organlzed crime, so affqqting irs ope-ar.onrl "oil,ties and irs irpac.ty ro enjoy rrs ill.cir profir". Ner.ertheGjs, there is the implession rhat, for the rest, even ii useful to impro"e institutjons for cooperarion that akeady exisr, no decisive e./e" qill b" ,!.hie"ed .n rhe figlr rgarnsr transr."rio:r.rl crime. Slmultaneously a parallel initiative should be taker to proflote the real r-rerra,.orri-i-,or of poLce lorce,. .Jrhoug! tl., i\ r d.Trcu.r .a'l ProbabLy the ciimate is not /er ripe to rea.lize ir. The creatjon of Europol, which is a lirst step in this dire-ction, nrus! be \r,n$ly weicomed and lrs work mr-rst be lollowed and evaluated rvirh great care, having in nind its possible future exrension.
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.sr,Lrli n.c: L.rr iorr:'. rrLlr oi r 2i:,r:l :n::gglL;r: e:r:i :l.r:lLc:itrg str'.rt;1 Lievlse'j by $e C.lorrrLrir:r LLrllicIer: lL ,s "'orth r:entioring h.:r:, rl:r rs r rerLrir oi,:rr ir::rrrriiare r.s;:rr',:r lr ri,r lr.i::lol Cen,::ll Sr:rri.,rixr r.o i,riellig:r.e f:*ivr:i ircr:r ri.c \erire:hrri:, l:re:rcl ll,qoti '.u ;ri:1c ro isolrrr : s,,sprcr siiir,:,rrr ri ;o-ci:lc:i r;i,t:r ;ccrirLe i-.e :eire ir crLrll-lhcer:oorrc,l:v iir irtigirr' lle s!ipn:rr rLrrrr,ired lli erx.rr;1 :rrrt:rigrLicrr t'r Ctlomoi.r :crrir'::1 ir rhree ir: rt ioc;irc ,rr,'esl;. i,rcii',1ing cnc oi rlr riicLr:isrr rrc:rire: fr rhr r:-rliicliilg olgrlizrtir.r. This rs m trtrllerr t:::,n-oie oi:he crolilinrrrrg rclc rire
E;Lsi Lurope:n orgarizeLl r:rille hrs bccn connonl;'. lri i:r:orrecrrl , i.r5cL1;;i LirL,'r,edir rs'1r.1:rsirn,-.rgu,z,':, rlirlr'. I Ie': r,inc g:'ri.:l: 'l', cnrnriir:3 i oLr lhe lor,i-.rr c:rr;:ru:rsr ,:lrlrr ir: c,l r r::r, r l:rropc rrLi :hc rrpulll.-s oi tlrt iorllcr Sovier l-rnior ro:e ,: dc,rriil ri:rerL

:''

.

'..1. .

:.I

:

: :

:

social anc lechnoioli.xl ulliiges dlrt ha'rc crcl.rei n-rt|ir: :he [sL L* o dgcrries ir;Lle rlLo'":d LrLgr:'.ized crieir;ri grc'r,ps r.' blc:'t" incre:rsnglr rctile in the inre.riti.til :''renx These groLrps use rhe ii:ir:.1iil e.rse oI i.i.iirillior.l rr.l!.i, Lib,:nlize.l er::igrarion poLicie;, erpu:sion oi irce lrrie. irigh'LtciL

elncr-i:,

,r';elnr'ircn,ii1-r'

.. li: :

i.i tire nu:ri'cr ol :rint s,nJiclcs

risc

s:eriliiv f
:

ire

op:r':iilg irtllirLrcrrlii,

t..

.

....:

.

:

e:r,:i,:iLing Lirr S,i0r: :o 1i,C0i rpe:rrir,g ln Lhe

.o... r

.

.

corr:r-,:nicr;lons equlpme:t rLrcl sophisticrieri rr:o:'-':i' Lu::c::ln3 recLrrLio":ts to enlrnce rnd Iurr!gr;hcir climine: eijlorts iol ilsLeirce, in li:sL cre :lless,rge re receivr concernirlg rn Erri" :rcp:r'r o:grrizeri crir-,e glcup, dr,:l in"esrigaticl rLriglt irvolve nl!pllcrrlc irlorr.-lirlior lrom S;aiLr,,':d the USA, brnk lecorcs in S'rirze;irt:c' tciLirescs 'I Lesiderces end businesses in Geln*n,'r.rnd ?ohnLi, r'r'j prssporr .:o:. P r' .:.rnd I To quo"e one erantple, the InterpoL Genenl Secrerarl:'r ls crrlrtnLiv assis:ing in arr irte:ntion,rl i;rvcstigatio:r, kto*n rs Operr.rior'BL:rcL Po-ici', "hich incLudes CoioLrrLir' lrn,:n;r, Gcrrr'rn,r' rhe Ncrhe:l:r:rds, Belgium, Albanirr .,nd l.ithrLania The lnlestig;tiort:crlres iinrnced Coiorll'irn organizxiion rvrosc :lcrni:'els ,r;ou.rd : 'r,elf op.fn'Jc ln Bu.}lTrr.rilnga;nd 3:grri, Colcnbi.r, 'i:l:lc L'r':'- lLare i1t'eicpe.l r:e rec!'noLogy or c!cirrslly to nix.ocirNc !'idloctbriii: iliCLi xir: ct!.er subsr;,rce: rurj: s irol i:lirrss rr tl 'r:rrlrte ors::':ur sr',,rs ro:erCer rlt i:irpo.rnd ver, liii:':',ir :rr; .1cr:rr ir .".,'.,,1i,,,.',1 :r.*:,s. ThrcLrgl: :n::rslr rl s,:ilr': :i:r 'rlr:rlr::i:lli ,i^)

,i.
:|'

'' ' :,,, :r .1.. .r :i :;..i
ItrL:sir,

1,alii orerrrbers.

,\ll ele cr:g:3criil ri':Lcrl.rtir crir,inrl Susil':r;es, olien

;

rr'.:_r'it'
L

l''

.

'
i11 Lhe

ud

mosl

oi tnis norey is

ionrrol ol

:oL L[ese crime

-

].,

Irr l\rsi;r,iseli. tbe ;roiic: rLLtirc,rLtit: ,rr"'e stmggieC ro hcep p;Lce ''iti t1:c raheo.er oi Legitirt::e f,usincs-'ts i:;y crlne s1':r.licrres The ir.res: il,ussi-.rn pollcc ligLrres 5r;rrc !rnlil.lC! .omp:,lr:s r:r lo": run 5v Lhcsc;rime glcups, as teii rr 5t per cc:rr oi:hc b'uirs:,i11 S! ter ccnr oi rirr ioirr venturer t-i',h Iorelgr liri:rl lle'rrll' :': Rrrrsi:rn L-arhers il,rs ireer rrLLrder.ed !n Lhc grst ir,-r rr.rs rlleqillv io: i,rliirrg t ccnrlt wirl ri:e :e11:iremerts ol Lhr llussian '-fhie;:s ir, in' The'Ti:ierts in Lrr'rrt r Lcrselv crg:nizcc g:oup ci rlir: crirrlri Itrtirls' wirose rocts rtc.r r,oL:r 5l:gs h l,rlrr-r Sov::l r''ilsrr: Ti'.c- r:e seLrcrrri !; th,:a prlso,r p:er; ir, u,:mbersiri2;:ld ,-,osrrre:rr:cr rodc' oi :rn,ir:cL ir is 5rj''reii Lh.ri Lr.r'le.'cl lirieles ir: 1 .rr ' irr'": irclL gi trr

,:.rrr.ril,lir

l.r' cLrrrr

ir: r' rrr'::irrg,r;r,':,:r:l: in Lii,:';:,'rr. !Lrrrre
:t l

I

.o",u^r,*l ro"nr.r'rrto"^, .o,nnt'-

]

. i!SIONDiNC

TO II(ANSN,\TIONAL CAI},!F

edtcated and rhe USA :ud Crnada These cliuriLrals are genenLly Lctrer

grrLz:; -..,.-," lo.'.,llv lti,l'" 11 . rne t1p'r: oe_:;: \l r- 'l' i :'"rLe5 I , ,r."r.ro "-t, 'rhe'o'cr: '' Lrecrrgrr'k r" t.f'..1.'"g o.g r':z.t: n'conLrol -i."t.,-l,
snl',ari Airlc,
"od to*inn, ,lrougLou,

l-

not onl)' rhrough dr.;g rrri{icking

cotrtiers or inCivirLuais iro'n .ir,t"t"t**;t"d by Lle Nigerians, cransPort c large poriio! ci cccairre rc "ti"': rhe heroir :rbused in rhe USAs rhel smuggle Sornh'Anerican tLc

op'"*r.

'b Crug distriburion nciworks frorr,l slretegic

*o,ld Nigttian

".rro.,nd ,,."'."1,

,,,-,

"-.o,;. .n we. f,1,,..,. \.g:r:.r. .rrffick:ng orb.n:7lL,or'q are e"L'li n d in trc oo r:' r,' .i-],ns.rn.re.o'aia'rd:rt rLe mrrke solererr\eroin<o:'" m ; r , on. l1.y ir""c lorgeo oL.r,"-ion: rir\ 'oc'r' P oCu €'j rn 50-tlr :t 1m.,.." .n,l cre:ed perm.r.n "Lrbuto- ne wo::': no on); Lfr,.", b* oLro in futoPe' Ens! Asia irnd countries oi tLe former Sovier
Union. rhe East One lrnusual aspect of both the Nigeri'' *af{ickers and :- o FL oo .rn .:.r rnd -rr. l:r :-eelhei "'ii: t '' : ' lr'; -.'.'... . ing"':'., ' ";L Lher org - -en r 'n e P' Lr? . '': ". Co," Xo'"" Colornbiar cartels This al'iiit1" anJ :rilii:rgLr''ss ',ain"negori*e for rerritories lgain deLnclslrares d1e and . a.,l,

p.c :lly (ou AInc ' rrd leu )ito-rfrrru4rr ;n r: se a- LoEur' pe rndoLhe co'---'ie . ufi'",

.

cir tL.ro_oe. ?rL. .icrir:rirral money is suspecred ol being behird a number of laiee property rjerls. This is all parr of rhe process ro make di.q,,non.y;l.gitin,orr, throngjr a ihiee srage processl

..lorcen.:.r r9 r.. .. 5.r o.;.r zeC ,r:'r-e Jn I nd ,, r

l-,ur also orcsrirrriur, erroliion. iliegal lmnigLarion and {muJ opelarior:s. iaunderilg one of rhe hLrge challerges ftcing lrn _Money

x

I -r

", Ll.e.,.,i;

<.

n'e::-.-or,.

'.j

! pL.,lrE- vh,reflorc/. r,no\ed or-r lim.nrl r,;rn.zrLo..o Iegrrim"re bu.ine,. u.| ", b-.rl o. .n-ll Lrm. o rr' i-d - -i,"n i' , mr:re r.rr rre.eei:r. r re uri i. ot r.r:r brnr, o. '
trrmi

a integvtion - athete jt is fioved or to other- leglrmate, xsets such.,rs oci.s rrc ooros. oe-r. :ir.,e-rrr'.r5ep-ooer. I cle.e.op-er.. r-.
tLrus

hidder hom l.,w eniorcemenL

il

c:r' I f ,.-r-,."."fl"**h..e,u, :-.o p rc tL- r' I i'r ':- 'r -i': le {' r rrir' ..gi.. rt. .l..n r-on' o co-rr'':rs F r ;":(l) e )rrL 1 - -'o oupt wor'(.ng -.rl' -h"'olo It ^ i".r;'"* rt .1. if.* nussian n'eePons ro Marrrst guJlilL;rs ir Sour;h"

"f rofrr--i"e p,Lr"rnilitarv groups in Colonbia 'rntlI s"rge o! :nLo R'r''.r' ^r'"t,*lrJ ro. :.rc llcs-ng ---ifrit...a,o it"ifi,"te laundering oper:tions hrs also resrireC in the i - r' o-r '.l " ,ger." ol 'ign.fc,n g: zeo cri'r'e illL:'rc" .r'dor e'oxo:r1r'' ."'-rur , in rhe Crriooer , w h we-ket - onrn:e' .t; nr on,uoolvnefnrnr:rl ,e:-i'e< Are'en: 'r'u ol h- ('1nttr ;',;;, t;;j' ;o 6,nk or he l:nd o'itr :"eL'of 'bo' JSS' l L(St5.n. l,.rto e-rchofrl eur'.on'2 )n(':. id'nr' ",t;;" ",.", o Irn.o[27o 'ho:€cr"ls r:] eu-(rl1 "r,--,;,*,1""^a,rc .. b nri ;d on. uk'-:r.i rr o'r:l ' p':rel ', i i ," n,'.r," .' ::: ", Le"rcr'r'rr" \U'rL p:' i ,1,"" .l

l...r.:e le.".o,n.€r. nl ..- o rr.. c.c .,,_o-,:r: o. .1.-ol t," :-... )L-c i.c....t Lteg.oi-lor::r.or inir;rsrrucnre js:rorv a realiry ,rnC nrrion,rl rc lnrern,rtion:rl borCers rre riie*i.'e!' disappeal:rg. AlrircrLgh aivrrces in ccnmunjcarions and coLrputel rechnolog,* ars creating unpr€ce.j!.ted inrern::ioral busiless .lo-r r r.(.. '\" e r .r : o,.,: r1. .o i..,.rr; r.t .., n .n. "1.ecr."ere. ol lrr.e,lo..erncn. ",ri .",.: r periornr.,E:,. i. o.) The sarne rechnoLogies rhar have lrarslolmeij rhe globe inio the ,globrl r,illage'.iol legitirnatr. coornercial purposes are also beiog useri oy gioups cngaged i:r dmg trrfficiring, terrorism, econcmic crirae, trotfi.liing in werpor-.s rnd rle smuggling and rr.af{lcking oi human beinrs
c Flprocr"e g.o"
,

'\,r,.,

,

INTERI OL

".t" ,o..e-1.: ..-u: v Icr'e r'n * l.runCq:int:n r'' ,, I - r .- .rd oltre. Fgot." . .:1.. tl,. Tl i ,: rr. ':

'

"o2''

r'1 |1r " l. n '.q1"

*.,r..rs - pcrseLo rr<l.i.orrjrr.r:.)I :no c' Ll or.l:.r".po I lr,d. go.re or.-r:'. -1. r.g. .rr n3 ir r. ej .r i bc .g rnrd..o ,lc ,.r:. ..1 , .. t.:e.. r I :... .. r ror.... . n ..c'.,.1.S arr : t:. r'er "'". .-rr;.r.r"dr er.u., i .,. -.ol .-:Lcti... fo.uel., r -cne"l. i,r.r..,r:o..- o.r.r.: ':
.rro:-i"r. .' ..,:rs.

V..I rh.ra; "hanger.r r' . a o.rr.o..rf. v .?reoo., Inierpo ...:r rn.

'

"r"i

y (:.

, ,.

??.,"

COI,JBAT]NG "]'NANSNITTONAL (]RiI\'E

i

llEslONDl^..c ia,r t !.r,r-SN"r\ fio:riJ_ Ctnnt.

1-

.oLr{ries tLe nredjun for cornri|nii:arlon ors Ltlorse cocicl ToiL}. InLer:ol bo;rsrs lr eificien:, sec.rre rncl relhblc relecotrulrnl..rirors sl,sr..t fiar links e:rch of rle Liior;ol l'lational Cenrr.ni ki:.e;,.:s b-, .":::rll -:rc givcs rrc: rec rccess to :r ,:;:::r.rl dat:rbrsr of iri:,r::rrirrl r ,r rnte::ationrl crime ;LrC crlmirris. lh*e rerneins, lr.n"e.:.r, mr.ir r. :e
Fr;sr,

.1.. e. i oll .. Jr s. roL :c ..o go I . i.

i

s Lo

,rsrf.irLls! anci conriluousl;,' LLpLinre
l''''''l'l

I

romp:rle:.rzrd
conLin.roL:s

iiie ol

o

.

iute:natron.rl

rri:iijcirlo.s th;i crgile lr.

;rirrjr,:j

e ro

rross

e

:rri 'ri:r:11 rr rrcr:r'u: r :.oLrnrrrL:; io iriss oo ri1rel€rarr irionxiorr ir.,

cirrci :rri rn.rir.;t :ll Lrl|:,.:r.rrrr,:r or-:
:rr.

o:gr::iue.1 :rirre
i;Lrer, b:rllerins

r'1,,rt :!rcrllrr

dem:cntic :rirciples ol iusril f 1:r,t ::rtr:rs arrrcl::rg r,r'gr:rlzirl rLi,r:l grorLps strongLr' anJ hvlull;'r"-ll:in lhe boLrndrriel ol c;ch;iictiecl co.r:.:r.;'s lur rsCicrion rni dren r,: i:i r:e .rl !-.rop r.i,rrr, slrring iir resrl,rinr

[r

r'e nrsL ur,ierr:ke

.r

enicrcemenr resi]onse th;r1.

r ,:rliryi.le cooliirr:rLj rrri ,:cr;.r, r-j'.i i: ci:nsistenr rvlLi: the iLLriirm:r:irt

: t-o::ln r,r,:,r'il:l,lri
..

L.:.r-is,

ilLcirrir.r:il rLries.

I

...
,:o

;r .J

,Lcirr't .rnl

,rr*r,:l:r :,lir:rr.rr:es, siur,-.cs:r in.l

:

:.

...:..-...1.n ..'rr

acdition ro excranging Lr.:esiits;itlre dat;r. rqe trl:st lriplcr.c i,ni,s l_r r,hrch ro incr'eise the e;;r:hrlee of lrrl erforci:trlerrr.rL:liLcci -rechnology rrrl lorensic Er!rl.lir. I|:erpol ccrri:rrur io exrloic ilirlr,tlves ro srr,ndarciize ho*.h. eriorcerrenr ::g:oc1cs ccile'.:r, rn:lyse, sro:c ard uiilize erlCeDce of crii.-:rDal ,:crs. !i'e conrirue Lo s,;ri r: ro inp: ovc the le.rel, jntensily an:i q,ultr.,' ri lnvesrlg,lrllc coorar,rtil'n enii ilior:n,rrlon.shrrlng itmong liirv .li.rl.em€nr itejlcles rriricl ih.
1;::e:-rol h:s and musr conrirue :.r sn:."e as a !:iege rhrL llLrirs iir,: irr:' enlo:cerntnr .',gencies oi th: r'er[] Onlv lirl rhc tlrir;:rred .cor.iirtlor ol rhc lar,' erfor*r:;Li rgricles oi tle rr:riri rsir3 irr.,-: L:1I ;ne3t !h€ c!rllenge oi dre cr.:rr r'.ll ,:here b:- r rr t.L,rirr;irr .i,:r !:r:r '.rpon rhe clininals and c:irne glo,rp: trrr r:orv crll tlr; eu,lrr: q,.j'.1'rir.ir !onr Crr s c eonr:n;e ro igrl r p:o .tn ru.'esl:iiiiif. ,lr,rli.,iis, rf.tr ,,r ,,rrd::ccrer perctr'ations, elecu,rrlic lTcnlorirg, ccrrrcll:d:reli'r:.r,.:r :1. irior:rant :rrren:enni Tle l,:r'c: is ro. The probien ls e.,,oi..,ri

il

on rLl.oL.. .

coun.r"

l

inr,,,se drt.r iror: i;re rrgirnizrr.rr, s c.:rr,1liz.d ri;t,rbr:e, r nLrlrber' ri oii:ci,rls rr tlir: ger:er',ii sccrerrrirr hrlc r,een Lr,rineil ar cliue xnxirsjs aoC lorc lorir lhc rlLiy,:i:rl crirni;:rrl inrciliqcrce unit (ACiL').';ri|zlng slair.oi"r|.-i:ir rr:rivLicaL scii,.rre, this r-Lr:rt h,rs becr Cesiglel rc ,r:rsure tir;u iull etir',rnrr,te c..r bi rrtel o! tl:t Lllrllir oi lnlolnuricr, ;!r'i is storei :r Inrolpri's cr;rninrL ilir:nr:icn rrsrer!, lioi r:r:rep,:, 5;.er:rrblishing t!c li:rLs !crteer: crires rnd ofie::rlers ud Jisse:rrinalng thl: inrcrm;Lrion lor e:rpi':irrLririn ir), l', ,n.".'r",. co.:r:rres, irrer.coi plo.irLes l:w erior:crr,:nr ;'ilh lai..ntle tii rcti.l:rr.'.-l: crir,inri inrel-iqrrt, Or: on.3oing erolcL:r ri [:Lt: L!r r',r.grnizr:l cr]ars !lr:cI oi r!c {ClL ls !i!e go,rrcsL projecr',h;:r dral,;..r:h coile::,.:g,r::r: r..rlrs|rg :rio:'1rrLIn corcrrni::g !i:. E:,!t [!].oi-.ii!:: irlrNc sl.,Ioicrk,s 1r-,3n!icnBJ rL:,'ro.:ri1' I:-, thrt,,cln irrre:rrl hrr r,,:;r;r *r'cr,,l nel r.:oic:rs ol irrtsLrit;t:ons oi these glor:D,

il

orrlcr

c::,rit,',ri

''':.':'

.-..o.1: : ,.r... . ' 1n th; corrrxr ol rrs geremL,:ifrrrs Lo sLrpplv r::ejrrb:r c.ur!r-ier-yirlr iLlior:r,rrlo:t.ir(nr! various crimrrri cr[erprisr:.Lr:r] ,:rli'i-|rris, Llc

.o

:or,tlin.,ri::! lntcrl;Lri:,:ri rnr:

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..
i

:

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.

or'

.'..n.niL l:

....: o.... r.

.,
)

irv.sti"ati." rLrDl-to tc e,1.ti c:hrr.]r1 rrile: ic con:rt i::rcr:rrrion:j orgiuize,l c:tre. Crrrrrr,s r.or.k ro:eric: , li.; erior.'cliellt r-,1rsl.1o ihe s;Lne.
rl,urrrirg

irc

g:.

LiomcsLic

il.l5!i:r1r:ir: this

..

i.ecLrir:s
.

,.,

studling aLl rspects of t!c crgrrnized crinie issLc lhe L:ng,rcrn ..:.. o. .n- :...... o crerr" ' :. r iu. drr-b- " o ..r:. ( nc r, e.rgr6ed .n :. r .llegrl .i.r..) .: o. I .:rner-,rlc iiLicir rrotl!s In conr:r'cr: ,ams. rhis neans Lh:LL Lt:c i.lrcjt'r
1956. rs

j

1O8

lrllTERRORINCO]ITORATID

'".,)

MrLslim countries? The answer, for rhe tine belng, is !1ol Reaolorizirgthose vhrr regror. snere 1s.ar.r. erol i, oreecrug r. nor re:,rL,le. e en il rj:r, (rrr-, .n i. plec've t rrrerprog ro d.). 'hF BucL ,rorn.n "r,. i\y",.er. colonizarion is gone.'Ihe difficr.ri!ies encounlered jn re.butlding Afgharisler,

I8

f.-

,

G

lobalizati on, Terror's

rhe ^Lrrrrn.eof *o'd.e,rders ob:.krr"U.c. i-v"<.o orl.aq, nr .o:ii cal !nstabiliry ol the ne* Iraq, rhe split betrveen rhe LI.S: arld rew Lulopa rre-,1 rgn' ri rhe or rger ,oo'n.nt "h"rd. rne .'re..:of.... "r.do.dE.rcpe ro! fo rever p resent in lhe minds of Vesterri p o licy-mak€rs, js a co dtc D_1 reninde! dlar maior charges in Weste(n Joreign policy are needed, Wa::,is not rhe besr opdon, ko icallt, any corfliet Nill boost the Nelr.Iconpmy ol 'l;r' .r: whi:rr f"ed, or contl.crr: .o w.'l econom'_ e nbrre^e\ .rnd any conr' mercial srrairjackets lmposed upon couotrics that harbor terlor.groilps,
Closingchannels to the legirimare international econodjc sysiem will only open !rp new ones to ihe illegal one.

Unrviiling A1ly

"lniustice is

ilfli.ted ,

[\Yestern pcople] by

ptt

aa ns anrl

oryot palitj.ieks.'

Osama bin Lader

N z polauni, Lurollz

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ITARcH rr aftecks ln Nladrld, al"Qaeda disrriburdd through rhe Internet a new terror man',ral, "Suikes wirhin ciries are a type o1 r:i,' r dip oclr.y. . rrec tr,e do.urrre. r. [hr- r/pe o' o lck rs ofren.u- t ren rvirh blood. embci..,.r(d ! iLr. o.o/ pr.rs rno oe.lumeo $ rLn g-npos der."i The manual is a chilling reminCer of thc reasons why, since thp rngic evenis of Septenbe, rr, the incidence oi terror anacks in MLLslim ond wescern cities has ilcreased exponentially. "Strikes bear a polirical meaning relnted to the conflict in ldeoLogy. Tirey are considered as messages sent.to mul tiplb partiai, rhus choosiog rhe rargets js done widr extrene precisionr Those foribings-suqh as rhe CIA building bombiug, the lasi Riyadh operarionwere wellexicured and *'ere de spt(ks to awaken the srruggiing lourh,". The lexicon of Islamrst arnred groups is encrypted ln iheir urban terror a*ions; these attacks bea! a doqb)e message: a deadly political wanring {or rhe ene. mies and a porverlul revolurionarl cali for tle lollowers. Among a1-Qaeda's primary ains is the destruction oi the economy o1 Westerr: countries. The aim is "to create a disruprion in the stability required lor moving the econordc sector to$'ards derelopment,"r summarizes lhe !eIror inanual, Ir is in this context tha! one has !o analyze the srborage of oilwells and pipeliirqs in,lraq; they rvere ad hoc measures ro kcep Western economic inierexs ar bay and ro danlxge the ifiterests of Vtstern oil companies kaqi oii'ievenLres are managed Lry the FLrnd for the DeveLopment of iraq, which rs controlled by a conmittee of the lrovisjonal Coa!!tion t uthorir), formerly
ireaded by Piql Brerne4 and cornposed ol seven Americrrs, one British and one AustraLian reprcscntati\,€, in nCcii!;or to the foreigr minister ol Iraq and

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were delivered by an al-Qaeda courier ro the aell lhdr ealried our the the balance was provided by funds w.bjch,were alreadt jn Turkey,I objecrive of the resrructuting was rwofoldr to shjeld the organizariou,si

frogr the counter-terrorisur Lreasures which al.eaeda anriclpared inel,lrably iollow rle Septembel.rr alldcl(s, arlcl lo prolir froril changes gcnerared bl reii economic.consequencas. These chargestaie:rii rpp..rcriro .r. .ll. The irr,rsio.r of Afghan.sr.rn --d -!s s:r ir T;.r:. srones in dle war on ierror, accelerated rhe fall ofrLledolla! z/is-a",ts rhe.tt ;ud the Swiss iranc, tbe othcr llvo widelyrraded currencies. From.thet :o. - r M r-c5,:,oor, -n. mo)r f erlec! coLre.Jrcn exlsL5 -L we-T .r€..,pcrarion of rhe dol a. anc dre roprccrarron ol rlese rwo c.rrrenc,cs. Orcr sam€ period, a simjlat correledorl characftrized the relarion;hip bciweel] price of gold and the value of the doliar, Is ir feaslble ro.eay rhatj rhad irs rernarkable knowledge anrj understanding ofthe s.orld,s financialmar "l Qre lr oredrcred r\c econom. ionseque jccs oi rne BL,sir v .r on 'While this rhought mq' be repulsive ro man]', i! is e djstinct posslbiliry needs to be cotsidered and analtzed. _ve !w ve !w!J!sQ.! a!! d'Ldrt.cu, r 1," LII',J repon alro.arnerr. r r" nao.l ryof rheWewroLr cr plorics o, legrr imare businesses \\,hich are diyerred ro rerro! groups; as well as rhe diiiisul., li€s encountered ln blocking lunds generated bl bugiiess empiles managedby Islamist terror symprlhrzefs, asr for exaxlple, thar of 1'oussef Nadai:.r':
Th€se ditficulties sprang frorn ihe idiosynclaaies otdre globalized iinapcial mar,

rvired fionl one place ro the next, The speed ar whjch offices aLe moved to country is also a by-pfodu* of giobalizarion and deregulizafarl1 globallzation seems to have been mox€ of ar obsracle than an 'iu trackrng terrol money, t lhree )'ears srnce Septefiber rr. the Islanrisr religious colonizarioi i}ili 'in lull swrng and charitable orgrnizatio0s are hs most poweriLrl rool oencr rL.ng ne\v .narker. 1o.h1 Alrica . -l-e qc.r f-orrr.e-: tri .ir".." .r rq ,v spreading in both Easr and Vest Afrjc.:. ln Easr Alrica, Sonalia, , rlldTirnzania are alliong rhe courrrics targetcd L]v SrLrCi terror finani - F. rd.are..,ro,o .ui,c .c r m. \q. ej . .t ,, .da t...{ Wa-t.:o .,
dier .from Tanzania admitted ta T;ne $alazine rh:i SalCi Arabian and icharities regularly send molrey ro his country, "Otficiallv. rlre money jusecl to buy medicine, bur, ]n reaiiq, rire morey is given to us to suppo

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designated as a terrorlinqrcier by rhe UN and subjectecllo sanctions (itclu(li ing a travel ban), rraveled iieelv Europe, whete he hacl li.ess to mos! of ' his Ecakh.rs Nada used rhc flej{ibiliry ofrhi financjal markels ro ljquidatese\L eral companies by appoinring himself as liquidalor and reiocating tie lulds elsewhere and out of leach oI lhe aulhorirjes. The.FinanciaL A{tion Taak Force (FATF), an internaiional organjzarion based in ?ads which is attempt,r

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rh" rlnjor sponsors, Thanks to !hei( money, lslamlst insurgencihas exploded in S€negal, Gambia, Niger, N{auritania and Chad, In Nigeri6, rhe inrroducrion of fte Sharia law is spreaLlhg froni region ro r€gionj bin Laclen has cven decldred rhaf the country is "ready for ljberailon,"." Iu Africa, as in South llsr Asia, rhe colonizarion forces hnle foond r fertlle rerrajntin dre failure of lh€ dom€stic polirical economies.l CorrLrprion, uremployment, siow econcmic gro{th, poverryJ inequrable dis!.iburion of 11'ctlrh*these ar€ all-tooJal!1ili?r econcmic factors boosrirg rhe spread of islamisr insurgeircy. ln Aflica, as in SoLlth E!1st Asia, rhe lslanrst ieligious colonizarion is promoted by Arab economlc forces; Saudi iinanciers ard Yeoreni buslressmen, lor example, lepres€nt the clrrvlng ecoronrc Sackeis of Islarlist teuor inSoulhllst Asia, Centlrjes 3go, traders ard nrerchanrs frorr tlie Sor:thern tlp of the Arabian Peninsula, a region rhat today belongs to Yenen,rbroug.ht Islam io Sout| Easr Asix, Thus religious as lvell as rradirg 2Lcl lorllne cta. .es bcrreen rhs"e..vo r5ior.. go br.l..ere'-r c-nL-r.e.. Tl-i. ero'-.- whn \eme.r b...r',,-ne. n re a " ro.gprr.", c n 50rrt. f "., Asiaand ,,vhy they are amon'g the maior investors in the regiorl; Lrnlo(unarell some of rhem control joint venrlrres rvhich operare as fronts foL al.Qaedc.+ THE ?ATRIOT -{CT

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FATf wirr rhc U\ ri)ar r1rgerrnB tJamjrr ch"rjrics hac a.so proveo "g.ee: tery d.llicu.r. Ohen rnose c.osed ln one coJnrry reapperr rfrer 1 Iew monrhs Lrodbr a new name or move ro another coirniry,Al Haranain, which i!],a.ooz .ad oecn fo'rnd gJii.v oi acrild a, a Ironr ior.r.-QaeC" ,n r. l-,osr;.u, dnJ )omar:rn or.ncn"s.op:ne<tan Iil:mrc.c\ool ruJ"iana,",r Dcce,nber zoor. \ PATI offic€r aam.,(ed tL€' "hrf ies cdn bc relo-.,red r. q-ick I i5 n.one)

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t!e g:oL is that he rvis r"r!inrt ti'ar dgairff lla,.idirn',: r,:;i'rr,:, :r: .rcr;Lr rvirlch r.nxor be consiJrrcil r,,11)!isLrl. This lncide.r lrirl: ig]l!t rl c r..rl ri llrri r proper;iciinitior oi reirorrsr;. ur "rhi,:I r'ril Lr,: rrlr::r,:: r:rr: rlrili

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ioiileci cost ber,:iit rral; si: oi rhe oorlbrni;, ,r; hrs :rrrrgrii irlnr :l:: inics ".lsrrion lnto the Dlli bon]bing. iLrce r:r. i',a.k lirs be,:,r su,.."siiiir lrr! exlcrlcri, tire LlCership ol a!Qrrd:r oliicrel['tncoLsfs jr. i:] ir ,\frii :.or rir)r ol Os'ln)r bin Ladcrr,lvltrr he oilerei,r $rcr:o rirL iirrore::.;, t r|ccrii crlly r!terr to rhe l\{.tri:i,i L-.,.rnrl1lr:; ,r; ::r rL ilrrdi t1r rr,.l( '. Succ Serttnrber r r. lshrrr:i i rrel E'-.1:fs :rcr-oss r|t rr oLlJ lr.rrc lrrrcrs ifll; rr.r.r:lopcc lerrl rcchnir;r:s l. e:ltiL..r.'r nr!r::sil\':5,.rn.i :ro 1,, rscL

ol

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have to rely upon rhe fnnding oi alQaeda. The lvladrid bgmbing entirely sell-Ilnanced. Foltorving the model of aL"Qaeda,thc Islnmisr work is shaping a Life of its own, In lurope rhe.mosqlre nenvork reples slrong backer; another is direct sponsorship from Ardb symparhlzcrs, r,rse r mixrr.ue of legiriinare and *irninal a(liyities, l-, Spain mC in kah, rni bers of Islanist armed groups rl'ork€d as $echarrics and rtaiters to su $emseives and to redLrcc the financial borders of tl:e organizarLon, llowe,r

tl

Conclusions

crin€ L!$ains the mosr irnportart source ol re!cnues, .Farid Beiali Alg.rian inlrrligran! jailecl in England jn rhc sumn:er ol rooi, helperl lJr5o.ooo rhrough an imernalional fraud;retwoit. He adiniucd to.h
cleir:ruded bgrks and credir card companies thougir he cieried knovr! monel was used lor terrorjst purposes,6T Creditcard ira+cirvas co;rdlcted skjnniirg devices, The credh carC numbers were used thr.oughour Eu rop in DLrbaj.ln zoo:. credit card iosses du€ ro fuaud accounred for $414 milli Lxpets are adamanr rha! rbs q'pe offraud balkroil cijrr.:e and The European network also funds irself by smuggling dxugs, as was th

in rhe lvladrld bomblng*bankrolled through the saie of hashisir: l<sra . * rno reve"res lrom I crr\ cr.rre.., Tne lirl. benr e-r :l Z: -q.,-..
Ansd allslam, which
is

a
a

lnvolved in the smuggling ofdrugs from Afghad confirms thar Eurog/ean Islamlst groups benefir fron rhe sale ol illegal corics in Europe. Three years after Seprembel rr, rhe Islamist rerror retwork has evohr ri oughou! !he world, EmLrlaring al-Qaeda's nilitarT icrians, appealingl ilar sponsors and utilizing $e techrllques of self-fjnancing, it is becomj global organis$ $'ith a life c,fits own. Moqtada alSadr h:s been banlcio bl lLaqi rnoney-changers u'ho hope thatwhen hegails controlofrhe holyci of Iraq he will hand rhen the monopoly on currenq exchanges, \X/ith milli oi Shla pilgrims ravellng to rhos€ shrines each.year, lrofiis w;!1 b9.g!enrilll Al Zarqa\vi's European network is susrained by mosqnes and cl{rrldes; , Nor only have Vesrern counter-lerrorisn poljcies been unabk ro sro linancjng of terror, they have failed ro curb rie distribltion of r','eaLth i
rhe r"'*o,1. r ke. -lerrent ;r rhe.pre'lJirrgof T.larrrsrre r..rr. I.rracor lhe n€w generation of lslsmist terrot leaders, those who eventui{ly replace Osama bin Laden, urdersland globalizaliou and are using itp viftual training courses; ATM nrchinest offshore bank accourlrs. Thel.aho

complement lhem wllh ancienr insftumeots, ireri&1ge oltheir cutule alld:telii. gion, such as the laraala ot tbe Zakat. What we lacing loday is a po{nc.;l ^reour worldr ful enemy, one who has an io"depth knowledge of ao enemy n r.div I no

'

FiNsB,Jriy p^t{K rlo5Q!F. in LonCor, ir rvis pcssible until il,v to buy videos oflsiamlst p|opag;rr,da, Among rlre bestsell:rs I'ere lilms rrving the last hours in tbe ln'es ol surcide bombers in a Snsenrent lusr I r blocks rvay iror, the mosque, J€wish a.ra!e1r ictors sragcd pla)is to ise nroney ior Israeii !icrins of suicide bonrbers, This is rhe rvorld ive live pu dail-v life carries ol in rhe shado\!, of political violerice. For t|e Nonh od;on NlusLim anclJewlsh cornmunities, rvho live next ro each other and jre ic,"rre brrtc er,. i,erc r. n. 'ther rerlr,y. (etre.nber rr h . onl' it to d1e rest oi !he l\'orld, Regirdless of what ve call it-rerrorisrn, terror, crmed suLrggle, political ce-!h9 lise ofvjolence for poiiticalaims, rhe targe(iflg ofcivilians ard iltate of sheer fear thaL jr creates have :rll loeen pan of our world lolover )- 15. D.F r ' r, h.! '. eJ,,oL or r'rharB€. hr. pl e on,e on l,.r.l-een atly rnanii.'ulaled. hr Nortl London, !lependlng upon vhich siCe ol the ler you waik, a sLriclde bombqr is a rnrrl)'r ancl a h€ro or a rerrorist and i,r;'s., .$irr,.-r- 1.!-r .r.,d '.n.ch L rer:r,go:..ou.d" b.rl.:1ng a pc,lirical btidge bcr\l,een ihese two i[rerprc!arions a! rhc Dresenr nme is imposslblc. Poiitical rnalysis is lainted bl resentrient aDd skgwed bv haired Ecororaics offbrs a more Cispassiora!e tool ior:n investigation inro rire Iolacs tha! make aod susiain armed organi?ations Econon\ics ma!, in dre ehd, even olfer a viabLe soltrtion. ' 'In this book'l have tried to circurnvenr rhe trap of politics, usirg an eco. nirmic analysis to trace the birrh and elolution ol the New Eco omy of i'erior-a web based on terror! iiime, ccrruption and deceit This is not an isolared network created by the interaction betrveen armed rrd crimlnal oigaujzatlons, i! rs'an rnrcrnstional €corromic sysrcm iinked to both legiri, iia'fe and illegirimate seqors of traditional econonlies Like any econonic siitem, the Nerv Economl, ol Terror has grown through evolurionary stages io talce on a life ofits owo, The principalstages hsve been the lvars by proxy oldre Cold Warera, theloreign sponsorship olarmed groups, rhe privatiza' tjon of terrol ihe bjrrh of stsi!'shells. and lhe Nlodem Jihad.

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This work could not have been done rvithout the gridance, assistauce, and encouragemenr of many indldduals. Fi$.t aDd folemosr, I want to thank Professor Manlied Steger for his condllueus support of the proje L. Prolessor crege" read nranv orah, a..i mro" nr n,".ous..,g_ 8c:..ons He wr( a-wdys rle.c ro help \virn rn idea or.o;usL lisicn ro qy ln s-rarrors Proie..or 5.eger'.- a -..re fnerd cnd a panr scho ar. liis series coeditor. Professor Teneil Carer, rvas aiso patielt and uncler_ .r, )dirg I coJld nol hdve Ljrermt olberr"r sen.s eCi.o.s ro v orl<,rrrn. Jennife! Kneu ol Rowman & Litrleield believed i:r me wher t hacl 10 rbr< n'\ se. . Her. uggesrions rcd her pe-s:srcnr e m"de rhF rro l< pr esent"b.c V. gradudLe Srzj.ne Daddl. ard.nrJlorr.r DiVae"jsijLrn.s.

. .GI.SEALIZATISN
TERRCRISM

AT.dP

go ora. .upprbiobl-eipiugrncour,vi.hrhi.book.Arrho-),uasrdec_

icared assisrant whose persistence condbuted to making this rvork betler His hard worl< and dedication leave me indebted to lim forer.er: rirar. r : u rc ot than* musr bc rJclcd ro nl) wil., Haran, and n v hrl_ dren. 5 rtni :no 6ina. for purr.rg up ru.h me rvhen I rvr. u..rler ."c pre.(ure ro (urf cre _'.e manusi aipr.

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The telroris! attack oi September 11. 100I, and the slrbsequent biorerrodsnr incidents worlchvide oysteilized ihe need lor research and anaiysis rhat deuonstraie thorcughness, c1uality, aud innovation oi ihe issues ol gLoba|.zatiou and terrorism. The world today is verv diflerent from rhe u'orld onr grandparents lir,ed in. h is much more .onnected aid, perhaps, much more dangerous. lL is, iT cwever, srill essentialiv the $ame world wlth sinilai folces of dominance and challenge Those who are domrnaEd challenge those who dodinate Nalurally, when "Rome" is ettackqC, ii responds wifi deadlT iorce This book \vill no! discuss globalizalion ancl rerronsm liom the perspective ol dle dominan! powers onlybut wrll also introducc lhe liews ol lhose who are dominated b). them. Flistory, afrer a1l, is fr-rll ol exampLes where victims Leanted the di:,orrsc of oporess'otr l.on .ho-e uL6 opprs5.sd rnem \.5Ior) har many aranples of_vicrims rvho are portmyed as aggressors and aggres. sors,asviorims. Thls bookplans to challengewesLem dbcourse on both globalizadon and lenodsm by inuoducing the hopes, dreams, and aspirations of those who struggle for liberation from hegemony and
injx.5tice.

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b::llrcl' oi giotrliitior, .r; is tlri lirlt ,i ia.ait! ph3LroneioD The process oi irlleriierandenca ,r',as 3lsa a piccess of - I . .1o1. z..tot. . rt.t n,q .: ,1:- :. :-. oenL:11... :,r aliz;tiorl in tlrepast decade Prior Lo the falL olrle Scviei Uuiori. giolr alizaLloLr .,virs checl(ed by lhe ccn:reliiion beflreen fas! lltl \\iisi j\fier dre cicnrise ci the Soliet Union, rhe lhallenge rvas Lelt to zi lir','r,,clk, hcLpti:ss r,ongolernmenlal otgelrzirriors tha! havr ro charcr rc :irl-. aT c,re:t Jlo'.\' tre momer'rtum CLoi:al:-:etion is rt, e integriitior rl;rrrkels, i-roljiics. r'rlues. :rrll llrL, ronment:rl corlacnt! ecross fie !lnlrt. 1- ht! p!o( cj.r oli]]tat.tiiil:rr t5 ili..',,::., by loLh tle clesrre lcl higher p.oliij :n.i :lspitations t(:.r-,lia,:lrr ,:.orlrnri( pr'ospcil-\. or x beLler lLLture for lirl plaL.-:r rod 1$ inllnlililrs. a!DiIl':lrs cl c.:porate gloiraLlration lear !rc.,..] eaononic riispir]ilrcs b:]1€etl iair iid pooi loss ci clrltutal dis riu i ii"cn css , cr en'iro rr ire::i tai .ie."1l-'rC^ ijo o. Co]-l]ori,te r,lrigefs see globali:eticLl iis a lneait to deveicp ue11'n:ir', kets fo| rhe:i prcducis and seniats. Coy.mmellLs Jltcit s3e g]ob.rltzaticD
mel'l15. Boc,is i,x.] r':lirgazine a! ticifs c;]|..y rhe

ollnion maliers lo l:rbel rhis rrltlrr'r:rl t.rn'gLcbaii:r.ti.-.,r. '\l! crilrrc(l tL. irvenq.Fi.rt:rlir.tr'fhroLrRn illi {,.,irs ,ri tj,)i).:i:lrr. ricl Sin.e rhcr giobrlL:anor lt:ts l::ir':nle a pclvtrilil c.rL.cDi r: rll.,.ii riL rs|ecs olcilr Llves Go.renlrenis:o oiien blat-t'r tiLr:j:: rroui:,i,: L r:c,It. oll']rrs or glcbariisnlicn. Corpr:t.,rion: .it)\!'ns::a il_ o..al.?i ro "i..:tueir" in ih. :r.r'gloiJ:tl niukcr pLir. Scilrlats debare El.bali::xtiolt lrit.i tts r\ejr ,\ il,-lr rc r 'brorder
nT

lor i]orli.,lia ,jiorvll't li s!11r1, glcbili:rtLon is in erll,c1'r1ai' cori.entious !opic Scholors rre iu the nticlst ci lhis cieb?l. on globaij:alioll Sonlc eque!c globalization \\ith inier.ic..ndeilce, otjlers \\1!h iiDcm[zatloni olllers lcr ecLudle it r(ilh ulilersaii:atjon, !l es lerni:e tici. alrd e"en irryeriaiisn. Clcbalizatjo. has lrlso been eqLreied wiih lransiirlionali?x_ rot], bLlt iha rea]iry is lhai rire B','o cor',cepts tlllieL TrallsnatjiJLlaLizaiion trtitauccj Iatloill1l {rnti!ier, .;liLc glolralizaiion sonieiifncs n'a..kens tletn. flr schoirrs dls:rllss li: ,.liili!-,' ol thr .i'rcelri rLtc;,cil.ll Cic!al' r::itir,r, lli:teiore, 1.r,. 1--ccorili' ,:l ci,-ncIpl ciiisi.r! r1i:cnalirg calliic!cis\ ,r:1aj!:,)aiicl:r.-fa iLs .i clc,es ii iir llrrill ar lar:r:,

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1

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arlJ gr'erd plav I rle.:iiir. !o1v6id gLol.rai:2aiior ir3lo! :ole as root crlllles oi glol-,Zluatiorl. b-en tirl arca ni ic.hr,oio!l'is iLr';lrabll !i.r'el Lrl' dre pral'.I xl.lir.r' lLl L-'l ciei ro selioiLslv rLis;.rss gicb_ aljzeaion, xn !.nal)'5i5 cf thc roct causes alrd .ollsccluena.s is neceisaiy Globaiilerlorr is rootccl in L'o',teL aud 1\eahl iiheihtl lc: Llle gior,r' oi God, Lire enpire, ihe llalio.".. ol tfLe .clPora'jDil, ;hr: slrerd c'f:eoris, gooals, llcL iclaas grcv anal clercloPe.l Jn lLe process lcgerirorrl iollrilires ]ilo lhe l11et1r,'ir.i! csll trn ]'u...iili ihe grise of;lcbaL::;rtion Bui rhe j-.rallessicrl oi hegenronl.'lrs ci'.ange.1 oler line ln recent I lcs I.ars. ,:Ji)eiiajlv iftrr If e nellist cl I he -io1',.i i i'1!n, :l_r,l Unileo Slr Lrr.s ilitrcl iLseli':rs lit soh gi,rir:ri lrrriinc::i: lr.'1.: \liiil'l ris ..rlro::lc '.r'!rls lercLlLrg tver',' ir:ll ol illc giocc, ll1e I-lilr'.(j .i!3lrs scl crr I io !rlri."ci. i!s aconomic arid nliitarl rionrir rct ii'lc:1rl llciiils in cc'ir,crlic rnld r),-.iidrai llolx.litalron .rrrdli lLl. arlsl-]i..s .,l ahe 1-nil.d 511lls l'.nte c.rltriiluled ro gferleL.deirli!'rLil.n a11cl ccYc:',:ll ii : rnani iitj.l.ili.e5 -! uitil-)irdonals n]or'e ir.lo a.or.rl!ry', s1r''a!eh.ii:- cltei, rcs!1!, rn.l disliicxtions

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' r-.roir. ..'i ,ourse'o, (. o1...n"n., :,r t. li.'-cr rlc
ir or

as a means ro enhance thef economic posilioDs Lxbor rrniors lear ir Lecxuse it cliverrs jobs $."a! !o dist^iit placcs wilere cir$D iabor- anC s*earshops replace ulion work. Entronner,ialists fear the

oppose

(: ':.r. o)o.ro^\l'l01'.

it the lraaliiional ecoiom) ccaLir \l'hile globalualion conilibutes lo hoLlrogef,urition airong ireoplcs, _ _l:c o:_ nor1t.."te.hnr-oqc...:l. r'r'L_ic r'i i., o rriJ.. 1 ".:
(ll.. c

ct goo,t) l -rtc-L< 1 . . rLucrng clnlolnrartal disasters iiveslors in 6neDaial ar. rl)ck rilarhets

ro...

:,:.DJ.rt<o p.o..J-

or_

lure: d1e cul Ie ol liberali:ation, pnvxti?alioll, irl')o nlarl(cli:aiion Thjs c.nsoLldidor Dloccss ofllegen1on!1aliou is leaclilg lc the ene:l3nae anC oi a srngle b3Eerlo!jPo1\'er

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iit ojr llacc las at: iur.):ril i:., the rest :t t,r: ,,r-t.lii I:ri,ti]].rii.-l has:rlso lolr. global, .,s lrilj.rlL,i]rriotl j,.ii rirr,:r f,:rc:s,u,,", Lu,,,.r,i t:letcr !ontoge:rr:iltioD of .Il rf )ilii. Bur i,itr,t r1c l:rtr :t t,a ,,.,,, '.. :... or

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ri, i:,:r,i ,lloi;.rlur :r:r ir 'l-,i:i 5i ,ilr :1,: li r:.::l;lrlr rr',lr rr '..,r1.,i:: .rl i '. l:r'r:::s liL;cl, li::rd gr-..r;rd qLrrrri rr,rcrdr-,rerlr:r:c .u.:1 rr(:a:isih! i.',. r:liliil i c).:( l.ir_,!c ;rc: o:is vr:1 .ll!r;r_,.i: '::i.hflers !i.r.- lirL: lcri rnrl lire i]3,rr h:r'r i:rr|':ri slir|r aD:r.lrisi.i1: ali!rr. lhi.rli::iioil rxraus il i ;;,,r,1,r,:.r,r'r.,riirrcilL:pnrl.ir,r
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lrrter lossLLil.
ter

fircugir Lhe \\brlcl Banl(. rlt. r,.\o:1rl.ii.ie C,'..Dj,iitorl, a,L.l iili. lt_.t,ltjrr I]oLrel llouei:rry l-urcl hes rrcri.,ccl lllos! afielil:.r1] rlC c:r..rsr,,i s,:tjrL:s lcucen Suil relonls" inclu([ L.j-]r.xtizatio|, :\c disiita|rljnd ol pubiic

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G Obaltzitl :rr,t-. irierdeperr,l) ira -l_ir.rrostcor::u.llusageoiglrfrr|:a:ir,rusu:iil.,.L::i5|lir:lirr:rLl,r|:r:"ii

l'.: acre lil tiYji. l\e \1oricl11',: ILlltrtr hrs becr_.:ll :eetrlr:: ilct ll:ri r,tsl. blc despirr rlr bor.d.rs lhar .lj..liir i(s $ani,si:atrs i:..il.r.ii.iili)t ri.,e .rorLd is s0 iDierr:oanecled rilrL :!,c li.,elihocci oi onr cielcniis ln lhc *oik ;ncl l--lod,rction ol rnm)/ oljr:rli. \\hen r1t rlsji :, l.,ir.Ll rr:alj. :re rcr,.raii, .,isiL.r globai mitiret,pi;,.r rlliile: lhan a :lere i:r:lL shopping c,:r:_ :er \.\ih.irer ef 1re bx) Lo.i'j.lluLr-s rnad. in \.ll:{ic. r,rr.l HorU li'.r1; ict rors ir'-.ur l:l1g1'ldesl), or i\trii:s t:.l1] \.ietl)ir, :,ri(i Itcii,!].sil, r..:,rDis, t:t.,:

lagdisir lirr,trlii ,,fgrrs iiiiir !loir:rli::rti.r !lriliri.l !J i:rrllihsr::; lL siirtcri liiiri a:lil alas.roi ri:.rlr.::a.\r.!l irprn,.r:) aa-.rania ,r,ri:r-il:rti lo r-,r.,r'.r' 5:Li:;r :tlli;r'l r:,: ,ql.,i:rilzrni.r: .ls :i il:,r! ici !,,:,,,', ,lr,ile:irsL:rc:ir,....r':ri:r._i:rr, rr':Lr :ril frrli,ress lorltl :l.t:l:ri, iiti ::,ltatltir I:LL:,g::r,I,r;t i.t.','::r. !i:j,. i,ir-: ll:rr': \r,nfl(l ;:':r--:r.il:;- L) ir]s 'lol,l,. ir,' Li1 'rririj,r r'-'r'a;i1,r .:tiL.irrii::::L:L,r: iri.r._..,1,r,-rl fl,irt!,.. i,-r,r.li1 i::riir;r,: ilt:,r :,..,: .j:t:aaar itl .riIi.,li:rtr ltas fialal lr;,irq sL lirlL:, lr:.-.irt irsir,r.rr tf frr:e l-iror,.ii tliirr ri ;Iir ir",,- hr l:riroirr li lrrs.r,,:o Lrc:::l :-ritr.;ir1r'!r:ir ili!rr iir. i:lr.L.lii rl:si rL.r'. f ifi r.L;r:l iiin,' :,' l,r,. rr ri:ir l" i l':oicsi r'll:.-'ali Lrl "ri.,jr-. .irir,'l.r;r:',:rriuclCriir;rrrrr..l:irrr:i:'..:rIr. lirr rl ,:ir: :rri:rrr,ti.,rrl

lrsr: I S:l:ii'-,r'11t

rrr:.crrc)r(irlltrranlisasLLnir-r'rL:(':l:irir-i.i'is-.eiir.,,liiriior'ltc:b!ri1:rron ",:r,:arlils currr:ri :r:ll iui,.r:c L':r:rr,r'.prior: lrcssilil:r1* 5. e:!r;rr,.iiL:t rlr'-: alriliibllit., oliori:tn loo.ls a
er

onrnir

irlsr-iiL:tiots s.rclr r:s ,.h. l:rt:r:r.rti-.ri:,1
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llorrrlfr
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ilr:uil (l\lF).
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ng Lirl l|occss cl

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A laba li zi1 ii a it

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\lbrLa! Tlleje organizatioDs \\'.lk rogether to Urimiitc cottrcrr,tc lrpetl' slcrl inlo an.l cLoninance of ir1:enrational mlirkels. The lV-l'O r,]lri .'i ireCe CisluLes beFl,een memb?i counuies in an elloft !o re.rL',Lae ll;!(i,3 bariels ol according !o rrarv oDponents ol aotrolate globaiizatior, io clninare barieN ro cor?orare prolits. The Itr{F and \,lbrlcl Banli prorirle lort pachages ro nT any l'ilircl u'oild countnes, :rccornpiLniecl b; rei-.uirr:' ments drer nedons receivrng Loans lorver theu trade'oerriers lrrd iirl{iil oiiler reaL'.lircnents, suc! $ lhc ldl'alization ci state ir'ralusEies fl1d

c l :]Lo .J(.: 6o\arn,i

,

,ce\,

G oballzal

cr

as Uir versa iraton

ilgsiro.,;s LirrorghouL rrosi oi :hc l oilcl ilr l-ili:lx i\icDorl.!'s icslllrL' ):3r1is hev. e\?,rildeci r:rPiailt ircut 1il+ :iior.s li', e -Yeari '119 lo c!.1' 500 to.Lalt C\N InEmatjootl ii nc$ aleLLal--ie d,ro'iglloul rh,r n olli f iil isLe!isi.11:Li.t tlle lntenler. Bc i! l"lcl)rtild s or air"Fl rhe cl;ir'fi's oiclcing things aie lalling by the \?n)'srde arld nxking .oom fo: lhe nlodein" lorLr ciclciLrg thlngs. This nror:ess ol"irtrderrlizailon is i3r,uriourll to 1il -rr_,edcanizltiolr ol rhe glol-.e.l" BenjauiLr Bill'ber aiguas ihat giobal' jznrlon is leedjllg io a homogerrize.l "l'lc\\:orld' i \\fiicr Alreilar pop' !lar'.uia!!re ard i.r:ri',,.ueLisn :s .trtal.li! lira gLol--e Reja.ill_g sljlll .{nerlc;ur ild cons,.lrnefisl (lomifalio1-r, orhtr arl!ufls ale lrcdLrcing rlrcv!rir.u'.i ofresisiriua.. \1')11.1_,llar-!er l.ir::, l,r as "lillli ' (llol) \'ai Il i,1osi r-t., srrnce Lo glctiil::.rLiou. ltoa.vei aan-,Lr: iilll tiro-(c l\'ilc \iel\'

Scholars, dipLomars, and poLrticiarr ofiea tell us ih;rt.ve ljvc
r.iLlage. 1(oliAnuan, secreairJ -gan as lar as to call

ir

a

lllobirl

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clri cfthe LJ,rittd,\:,ri..ns,

er:cn

r.,:rl

aLizadon

i \\'irh fie upid cier,eiop:rent oi inlorirali,)ir ieririroiogits.
ol. a

ioi redefinirt sor'er'elgary bem'.rse ,.f lire

Ie: i:cs oi

!loi:-

obai:eircn as 0a ' :i.l f"

such anallsts foresee thc ad..,i!it

piAnetar)' ]ncrser ofcr:ltulcs, ideas.

aid ecoion,ics rl',rcugh a llllii)csig lhat u.ill {orge pcoplc al1 c.c,- ihc a clcser !!1it. Stelher D. Krasner arglre5 thaL ihl coni.ined onslaught ol morletarl uricr-i. rlle Inteliler. aable news, ard nongcl,elnlnenral organlzalions are ciraiienging th'J notjor ol so1'ereigrt)i elen dlough ther ale not desi|c)ing jt.8 Horreyer-, ,(,,rair ;r nocci ls ,-rD 'Lc dispute, acrlsidelug fia! nurdnrtiornl colporatious .1c stjli riliirrr cu
\rcrld into
nation'srates in order !o exisl :rs oiiclal instituricr:.s ard, r.s gol er.]line:. subsillies arai proteciionism su4ge:t. ir crder-lo.11jLr:. ilieii ..'cr'\'slrr'r4ul aoiForiilions are also at.L.-cr.hn! on statas io hrpleLcrl .axf ldcr'lca) i_ircL: lii\lirr\qi:rlheis:ve rlade ngieeDenls, su.ri a.! rhc iiorth I:lcnr a^\AFTA) and rhe Gen l]r ai Agre rnen! on Tirifs rri liail- (C..1|'il, as ricll:s ro cnlor..ce the age:',das cirntemali;nrl blls',ress insLiirr:]ot:s,

Scme scb,rlars ccntenci d;at g1o-1rali:arion is an ideolcgl- ci narkbL ecouonl)'. j\'Iarired E Steger:tie:: to ;lobalizalici ars a:1 idecLcgi rnd .rlls il

':.0,,1'..r 'Ir.rr crc".er'. rI q' c"..'r')jl.'< lll,l* ri_I.Li oa .] J i .l ,,'1 . , .o< ,rgro:.'-r,p. !..1r \v r[1.:r '.o'r .. _ i:1

r\

scale.ll Pe|hapg dlis vie';'i5 ll'rc ll'icst ploriiirenl oulsiri. tlle Uriied !itaLes Erucpen and Tbircl \Vorlci scholai: oilEi erflail', gi.belizalion ii d'..se cdtical terr1ls illenin iilot io| exarllule, !)_. in acl.lreis iD .he hr.rutloniri I'orur,r :rn Glooa]l:r,Lion ilr \e1( \irrli Cil\" rroclaiFreii, ' CLc,rali:;rLior is \{;ri \\ a iI,] r]'.: T\Lral !'brlri i;rrl lor sLri:trLl cruunies .rlled coi.;lrlzeiior "ll h ji ritii !lcll ci gl1-'i:ali:r.tlcr. iirL is 1-'chird the rlcir\':lircn ui illnse \rho ri'-rgc ihc sl-uggir io .rr,li il. r1.Ex:ive iln|ic! llis !it:,,(gg1e lta-. mact glolrait:aii,tn ;r lo:r.i poiut :ri ilostj I fassLons

irrf

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Globa izalioir as Westerr zar.irn A nu:.,ber' oi sclLoLars srress rha! gloDaiization j5 l,j:.ling io rlle sj:r..id .'i \\'estcnl cujlirre nnd placlices irclud the l.oild. Spclis icor,c such as l(obe lJryani ald Sammy Sosa. 3s lvell as pop starr riLrch as E,rriretr'r el.l ar.c ir erio nn' B i rnr,v Soea:.'s, have gained 1. oi id\,:i.ie no Lo rie r,, t!.! .- .:.r

,\1;!rJ' llcill.irit: a!1d c'ijl.s oi aoLl)oarle paiir"al rr. Dlicr ii;racrLlitlci) lalelc,.i 'r.nrigiobaliza'"ion prot'":toe." 1b s1'e:,h ln ::ucb ieitls ts iai :oo 1?q1r i-ar i ..rer1 1\'o r se, it ls ini'.'r.lraie. \\iilel', iLiscri5iig lLoLr|:ariox

iristlc.esiilr)'Lod:stinguial.}cr'i','enils'1r''iousfoi]r1s l\.lLr'li:r-! fciirir:rrr,, c,:rr,or.,art (cconomic), irllliLarl. r:ilirour'3nitti. lcchtlologlcai. aucl culr,,uri gloralJ:1)n. lake ole specific t'-xarrpli eitlicrnnei".trLists 3r!'

A loba

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or.t tnt.n:tion;ll Lr.,lsiress \lbilcl Banlt prLiiie , ior
.

girbrl rnccnc ol

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rarLr.rllj .j:ri:a
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rhe pooresi

i1un1llon, j.h. nunbei

errr aJMrLrta jncanle conti:l!i:-j tc l.:rL: Thc;i1,. oci.r,cClt-l|,: :.tC\ .l]:.1 rhr pocr,:orlin,,rrs to rvidcr:. ,r,::l tl:r roncerl: ;i ilr. I.lat.r.lrl o l,;;: be:l tllgoiren \\Jhiic rllor:slll:; riie t..".uct,,..1,-,.ii,i.. 1r...,... o;,1',|]1,

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sifnt_:.sr 'r: lrlsl oi iltc rr:l.r::ai er:ri:or:r1,, oilrr. lrrs i;rc: Palist, lilcsiill:Ltiial)'.li11:ji:Ji frr rirc l-.r:llrn arIldi.,f Lr.fiJirrf.;r' rr ll.: bool.: Tjir il,,it r-.ra rti.rlii_i ,ii. ril a;r:i tr\. i,rtl:lst i) ri' linr:s rlrru) .f !ia .i11.]rr,gs r'r'.ri irls rctreai.ir .,,rircritiiii{ il-.r lr.c,i..5 c: tira Il\'lir i'.rLrit iri;e|,.:.ns li]:i]r{:f Irlfi ciil.: ,:cLrior:lL!,r ILrsefl: S:i!:ir:. rriro (iisclLsr,cs rhc.on.litior-q ilte Il,,lf slrs iiI e.lr', coLrr, .i r:ccr.ing

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rs iL.xrsrs r.d.,\,, "rhe glcbal ..i)trrti is r-Llnnirq cLo....r iriii, .ir:l.cir ilt r thc 'r oilcl icr rhe lcl,esr connoi.r rjcrotiri.,ror in ie;,". ,, fr,.,l"",J ..,,..il.Ji

Dtl^.e: s,.ciaL l-.rorectjons.

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l(t!.tj!e.l "c.l|ilijl lr.r'ir.t ii!.irlit.irirri, ficir:1irg tliL: loltnr:g ol' be:ii.rj i.'cstiictiFB t\. ilol',:l c:ilit:tL il artd c,,,r r i i F:r;L r,nii fllll ',r,'irilal s1'rats. CouLtlalej rlltalLra iaoLtr-.:Ii: :t"sis i|.r r:rLrrrtei;,, r1,
I . ,. Cauit;r] I1ig\t, irr turir. hrrl.,u iicaiard! i:coL)cijrr l:llic,rrn. r., ir.:r ir.. lhe case of.;\ril.r11rr,r jlirsrrlerl "nrcr'llet-las ul pricit-,t," ir ol|ef $oids. raiJluq pi.ps.r. r:sserli;rl gooi,s iLnrl serrci'.r l,l lt oi iics. irrjc. :r.i.rersl, 'i:_ :. r..cr..l.-. . .:: 1. -. :: triciLl: end looci i-ogtrtriil; lltis rrnii l..es l,:rl ic incr.::<ec,,slci:L ':rnra5i.'ia as iia l\il una:i|l.gclifrlii' desclil--rs thc t--ro;Let.tl 'i

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ing riois tltroughoul the nlldoit's capjtrrl. 1t rras l6s,r. -.i.rorr.n U,u, lhe ILIF had mairetmirditcl thc piice il]at.erse an.l c.rer! prrr.iiaiecl

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lioi.:l 4 CcntltLiscry jrct trdde, :r1,r,nting require.l redtclLrits il rlt.:lis l.id cihcl tade banie$ flll;rn3 1!rn the Fii.:r \\crll r. iii. lhtr:l \\rcrld The carch, ho,,r.L.,,ei, li ther i:irsi l.,t!.i(i ccritiic! are rllc'nec to coLttinue ..1i iir pt..rea!ioliiil-. :ts is'.::ti. ir:,:i..riljrq lcgall, prorectccl :noncF.it.! rLialet ritc \'\TO Illipj l1rr.anrt;rit.
nrassr!e subsiclies for

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Lie$raen :itii,C,lC luai I ,00"r,{)ilil iri.,icsliLr_,r i r.:lc fer Lo.i!ye.l '-l'.r: :r:ei oi lo,;r r:rcl hireen rvorh iour'.r.:l t:orir's a rlr'., sir dr.rs .r wccir l'el'lr! crirpeis airen, rjre chiLrlren art.:l:rrrrii rr ioonrs iu carpcL lactolcs in i'alistar l_hi:se c.\il:iir:n arlrsr;rllr sr:r,- i-.i iherl l)rr.j1iri rc i\,or k in rhl rarpri Ie.LDries ro help s!rrDori Li1(i ilxiiil Tircl ;:e clicr. ri.::r ;r11 l.rrl' _lher: lurrurrrir,:Ll baclis a|e .rsr:rLi,r, rilr|tclirtcr,Lusl ci Cre ronsirri:cr:il-

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ich corjnties, ror c!,clonc ha_< bcnrlllcci iior.rr iu.lcl.arr .i:r-er:n qlobalzarion Ner'corporate he,:icm: qenteci bt, tiioi,.r li:alic n rLe l,:adilrg ro iircreased hsccuriq. in tLc rvr;riqrlace. Bcrrreen .1973 .rna M7, Lr is estirnatecl rhat the average inccrre of the poofest 20 Deicelt ol_.ineiaerr l? AJ lltanulaclur.ers relocate to reap gteaterpiofirs cl[cireapcr labor in dre giobal Sourh, worliels i the icll l,lorth are lcsing lheir'sotriccs .-.1 Lvelihood. Ilanual labore6 itl uiudc,rlai iire under Ctrear :rs colpo:aiiors shili their prodrLcdon to lo\\L\raqe ..o'lotnies abioad lnLpl: enratioll c,i \.{FTA, lor exarnple, has resultd iri lhc loss of 7jr,r.0C0 U.S. nmrii.rc, iuring iob: to \La{tcar1 maquila.iorrs (lwcarshcps) ti ,r..nerican iaboi

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Lhilled xrth cofpcrslc globalilriia:: ,:trlel Thcl liii:::clccilecl r-,rllr iorr rvages ancl bad worl< e:ti;.,rlrrclts. Streatsllcirs oire::r.qneraLe rreaLih ro corpolate srocl*rolCers rt:cipe.petur.te rov.ury fot litr \,rcdi ers. Sonte ofthe s\'ea$hops enpio.. ciriici laboleil l.'orldng in ur,he;rlrhy

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Trkc. Ior er;lnple, dre slcr! ci Icltal N1asih. lqtal r,r,15 e11r3 6i 15l tlousands oi Pakrsraui childr.r lr'ot.lrg in the O cli: lc:irpel r)1iiis.

Ti.c srorv oilqbal trl1s us tha!..lenanci icf "OriinrxL" ca+er in ri.h coilliibutes to bali irrcaiua'.ion p::i.liaes in poor cr,rs \\'hrle ,.Lt'r cr','+et rrrnuillaci,,rrers becorrc r',i:rlthr', rfrlcl'rn sr"rlier Jnh.; r:oLri,.inli::!s;r. al\':lr'e and rIc icad'r lJ Lijvcol| pr'.cucL-s pro:l,ri,:ci by abrr:isr: rr:,:;$ or ralc lar'i !Lr t}r:rin|!; ciLrnj-.iiliir:s r',or'icrr! agiiLr:rs:,-inhrr (... ,. .l : :: O. ) .1 r):i)loitrlicil is llcL li r-!.d ln P;rlils'-ar] rr r. iiritrr lrlrlillu !ur is 1\'iilcilirii:(l rlra, arn Dt fc:-lxd I :iiL rolllers of l:e rr'rr'lii \'l,r.l' r:r r,'11611-ao|ni ats r-,re orl;oser1 iii .arr'!olt!r glcLr:llz:rticLr lLs I eli. ihc., ieai thl1t thc iirLclircc L'c;r'. ecn rhe reN rerhLr.':Lriaiei. .aon.urr.. ;lobaiizarion, ancl centraiizi:d corD.ir'xte Do.iu:i'r\i:r' lerd to an .lnplecedcltcci rlvironmental rratmr:rt r gicbrl scrle. Er,.'ircrinentrliss arf,,-rt rhar, cr-.ryo1arions are disregarrling rhe elv;o.Ll1cr1t in t'nc starprde ior negaprtrfiis an.l marketplacc suflcmxqi lhc logia behini lrriiJilm.rltalisi i:anpaig:rs lesls.,l Llrr priici])Lc ih:i:n-riic:r:llirirl rl.'trc:ious nusr be prnsutd bt-,'lc c.oloqi.|l ca las ti o irin:s Lei:cnrc inc.:it;r|1e llrd.r
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be[i,.er t\peciations an.] najor contribiLrci !o violence This iiLeoivis lrilor,'ll:rs r.hri\'e delrrir)tion ]_ecl Robett Gurr clefines relative ciePr.ivadon :rs rhc . . ::e bei:.. . e.1 b n., r | .: r" g,r1 , ". Gurr lells us :har ihe lalger rhc gep beLleen the rro, tl:: riotc iri<r:i-J:an indLlidual is to run ro riolel;e :i If liris respecrei Ln,l Foml:rr.thJor," is ;rccumle.,ihel ir is fair !o sl.r'.ihlii the risjng er:pectlti;l; cl 1i",? poor. ln iire Clladiap l,i1la8e or eLse.rixjte couid contrlbuti io j.ici.:nsiNr'\irl"
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'iilt Pe:r:ag.-'rL slilboLi:ed licbai cirlriiilisrn uurier r\LrcricrL_ ilacL:siltr. .{lrrcri.ex po\\cr ancl iLs giobai r.:r,rh .si.ie ficitr !l_,t l]lll,r.t:lll liciinli, r'hirt *as rIr::cl<ccl on Lhat d;1, :rt;rc,;r:r.teci rLc .lotlrirlitrcc ol lLre Uni!(C States rrr a gicbailzecL rlorLd. flri Lhl rtal riclrr:ls ol lb.,t liolence ncic per,plc,rao r!'crc;oins ebo!t litrtl lir'1s, llt.ic irlil'..q lit rrri. r fumih -fLe t.r'cr oi rhar ch\. iin,tarrs ou ].\'hLle Ll'.. larg.t xnal bui (i jL luure liri) ha\j. becrl i)olitic:ri, Lirr riciir* r"'erc lnDr).enl and nonpriilicaL. 1! jraLalirr rleiir ar *,!i alar fi:li e\,a:',.!rl ej'!_;::1s i'ilusl i-re! !ttei(litll 'ii,.\'i.\.i rt Lnrgel! oj iulir'---'.lLiiE.clra !r'icri.e I'rlhni--i no:it ili rir,: jrrr.lurt t.'lclil rl'iir r':ii:;ir.i1 .lrr.1 -l:ir lrrl lic il ircrr;ri ri rl ('rcih r: irstr',i i)iri Liiacn, rul iir,).1 trr'o:rl.ii,r..rL1L,l r:.i ilcilLi i.'.1[:LInn].ii;rli Lr:r llrf ir.rl-. l';!-ri :r|],":r'ra,rr \:Ir(rl:r1:1ri-'i.1l l:r.r1a:l .r lr,l ir:ir rDl.r: ,r,,r:rr,ir.,.ii;)-.l.rs.:lt',cl.lnfi:a:Irii i re l il:a,il:r: l:_,.1 (iilil.lr,i: Tlralaiioi i:'..': ,t, l':r tlill oihlr lrlt.l. ,:, r.', l.:r,r.r rlr.'|li i:( -'.1i'.i Siai!r:

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11 ... . .. 1 !.i1 t . 5t:- rL:. I ' .igr Dollci ronrinucs |o be s.lr, t:..,.Ir iis apLrlj.eitjtr .l l,irr frr.rilifrl, pie. rr'lcr hacl Lnladed (urviiti jr lir.ation oi utl:m::lcn:rl l.r,q thr 1-nitati,\l;itcs fl]shed io ccriar,! ii..ai tr r.Dtg litLt r,it.lL l!r.ati (_.,.cirtIei . :rir': Un:l.d Stdtes Lira4qed irs fee: iltL: cr:rrinues t. ilo jo. l|c .lrrerl.;r1 atlachrtn lriq rDpeerr(lespecisiir typLrL.rl rica I r,: ilctl ..ji1ri.i ci.i rt thi. rie Uliiad Sraies $ ns conclemnccl :r'' thc Ltl:ired Nrtioiu riirltcr llo-r iir crnt act ol,.t1rla.'1' ji aggtession $;ith ilje irn,asion ol p:uerrr, 'Illose oi1 i1c othcf sidc lird i! hard to respecr ritis tllle olselecu\iry .1s !l)e), iall inro clespau sorrr€ ol ahenr mighr cor.,, oLit acts of o-.rlrag;ous vioje!.e ihaL nrant \rill cali teuodsnl. Thjs aralvsis is no! !o condo;e _"uch acts bui to

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nanon-sute is fLrlll' sovereign .Lit ntoia. lndincluals at^cl gilups dtr!_ careri ro ch:rllengirg the global s..sren through uns!asi:cli,tolerte cl a:-,d irale disr:pled nonnal gloilitl ::.tt.t:t.tions. Thc leil h,-ilxm j!.st r.I

POST-READING ACTIVITY: DFBATF

I

DESATE TOPICS Ot\I THE ISSUE OF GLOBALIZATION AND TERROR

-

This house believe that the modern terrorist has done more harm over the internet and the media ihan any bomb ever did.
This house believes that internet has faited the terrorist

-

This house believes homeland security begins on the internet

This house beiieves that the modern criminal fears neither borders nor
governments

This house believes that the hearts and minds
battleground of the tei
r

of the citizen is the true

or r5t

This house believes that Terror is a giotlal weapon This house wants governments to restrict internet access to terrorists

This house wanis pecple to wiliingly give up their rights to lree access to the media in order to fighl terrcr
This house believes that there is

*o room for terror in the rnodern world

r --

This house would require all internet users to identify themselves This house would prevent media broadcasting of all acts of terror This house would arrest people who publicly support terror

I

The Appricati6n Qs'.resi:o$

-

rne

Application Que:tion

test! your abjlity ro:

iclenllfy ond c.jmpr€.h.,:nd lhe semtrai ayErrffieNxfl r,e,evadt afqu;ran*s ol lhc ouihor, " ond lhe supporlina,l re;rsons cnd €vider!ce, €yatliate the ,,vorih/ siren glh oi ihe .Jjguryteriis, ct.ral./or ' ciiscugs lhe reievar|ee sf {he arFi:;fi:er.Nt/s to a €i?e91 coatexi, either lijcol o. globcrl.

A. Understandins

ilS Otfssj!&! Reqglfem€nts

_ -

Ex?mplg 1 According to the author, in some sccieiies otd aqe is a period of indep€,rdence because the elderty have: a) cootrol over mateliat as:ets b) wisdorn and knowledge
ls ihjs sjtuatjon true of ihe elderly jn yoi_jr..]unt.ry? -[]stify your al.]slver by referring to the abqve tyto point: raised in the 1ext- You should support youi- aasv/er wjth VoLI own'/iews and exampLes. (AJC 2C0: _tC 1 Cl-)

Re{juirements: " ldenlify lhe arg{iameilts rnocle b'l tlie.ruiitor {i-^. how conlrol over moierictl.rsse o.,d/ot ,i/isclom on.l krrowledge corriribui-- lo lije self sufiiciency oi ihe elcj.riy).

ls

. Ccnsialer \n/hether f're sal e ca$ be liaic3 .lboul ihe giclerly in your cotrrtry qn.l !,,/heiher in locl ihe el.Jeily cre inclepen.Jeni.

_ -

, Si,gge!i odher iac.'srs
Gged in your socieiy.

{if

cny) thoi couid irove conliibujed io ihe,-unenl:iole ol ihe

'

Provide evidence io supporl your views_

-l-he

Exatnple 2

lvriters of Passage r\ and B differ in thsil 3r,1119des iowarrjs clonin,E resedrch and practice- What policy do you think the government of your country should irrglernent with regard to cloning research and poticies? Justify your answer with retevant ideas from passages as wetl as your own knowtedge and opjnions. (HCJC 2001 JC 2 CT)

Requirements: " G{fer and evaiuate severcl policy oplions {eg. on crbsoluie bon on olL forms of cloning reseorch ond leclnrolcAy; l-\rriio! bqn on reprccluclive clonir'rg bul nol on iheropeulic clonir-rg; no bo| on eilher iepro.Juclive or lheropeuiic clonrng bul tlghien

rL^uoiio,-o.oil .t

, i.

'o

L)

" "i&stity siarrd L,sinll orgunlenis roir;eaj in ihe iext5 you musl ncl rnerely reslole lhe orgumenls; you need lo cxi.lld lhoso suppcrling your siond oncl +xarFtlrie crncl reiule those v./hich cr,^ ogoinsi

" Suggesl further argsnneril ir luppori cf

yoL,r Jlcrncl

lvhich

is

nol in lhe i.'^is

'

Your

should Jcke ilio cor)siderolion the needs ond concerns sociol, morcl eic) ol your co!nln/. {economic,

isstification

ts.

s\ssessment aflr! Gidd;iia,

The Applicolion (iuesli€n,!larl<iJl!! Ciiieri'r:

fl B

Syri.-moiic r-^ic'€i,ce i.J iire iequt€'nenir ol ihe que5lbl] "vilh -aviclerce oi

r.l

ireclrnciJ. lv{riu€ltion is !ery !.-ansiblc. \rell supporlccj ond Ceveloped
b'ciarnceaJ
1o

l.

iis

jogi..rl

it
I

e

G E [J O tl B
For

Explsnolior ;n.-'lu.los ei(bcrcljon cnd reference inierpreioli.rn.
High deqr.,re

person(liri5lqirt! ond

oicoherencr

& orgcnisoii.--n.

l l l l

Covefi bcsic .equiremenl. oi lhe qiresticn bul nci nece5soiily |] bdlcfc--C
Evoluotion is rroi .rlv/c!,! iion'rir1c;ng ond iends lo be sup-.r{icidlvr'ilh i;inijccl clevelclp rncni oi i.l !.as. lxplonalion nol cls lhrough at .r lhoi in nn A' scripi. 's coherence & orllarlisoiic.n ore noi o5 sho!p ot 5y5iefiroiic os ihol ii orr 'A'
5crip1.

g

/A

U
I I

ihe lower encl al ihis boncl: Evicjence oi minol ::ririoleipretolio$ !rul this doe5 nol 5igniJi.ontly inpoir ihe ccr,clidale s overcilr un.l.rsiond:ng of ii.
Foils

a
tr

I

l.
I I

l, ,

lo ocl.lress lh.r ltiver r requjrenrenls oi ihe question Explonolion clemonsiroles limilecl relevonce <rnd developmenl of ideos. o Evqluolion is non exisleni. The onswer is o mere summory or resiolemenl ot the lexl rolher llron on evoluoiion of il o lnconsislency in lhe crgu.nenl is evi.lent. coherence is in quesiion U lligher in.idenc-- ol misinterpretolion oi ihe lexi. Th-^r-^ is evidence cf

ih.-'iJf,c,.,{,- i.ri)le ili::itla,.y'l ilt.,: i:rii.,fr,-j iltatl lcatcher5 u.e jo arci.r.jr!.rfjLl .:r.j.: .: ii\.j .4f)Lli. oii.n a.)t .ti Lrn

llp.

n

(i, c(trai:ir.r

r

!ii:ijir1-r lir.:i r.-.it!r ic.ir,:ir Jr of
1.r

liia .t pplic.rllon q!c5llarn,

sir

J

ti.r]

i1 ..,1 I 1.,.

gr.:Cecl

i:r..r.rljer,.i iri):-.v.:.

.-j.r,:)iij't!]ilciar,ir':.-1-:r,ir (i: -ri ife.iieirrily cn.i{,reYelcr e lc::rj--(;jiiLrrtiire sirr.l=rni.li!p[:.r] ln i.i(!!.,i;.iririi-ra,liJit (rr,cl .rbiiii], io tllovr._jij.j(rti.t .:;tiji jl]l;r: .lrD!r:iil i i! 3r{D[i ](:iL.r,rt i:r :l ,:: r-rtr,rli.!rji.,,t (li-,eslion.
:,-_,

tio;lenr,!!i.J ii, a:.,:Ui.r .i :r,:.,oii ilar/ oi iaieos

i5

equcll./ eJ5L-,tl:cl :r iriii:,

rtl iit!:

'''ri\cr!c:

iln*nJ

i:lc,-,!.. rcir:i j.rihei:;rjli r)-,.t.j,-rfitl ciolrilaa;i !::n cilr€ri ilon:.

irr io irlerrllty ihe r--qu[.:ri]--ir ! !rj'T,,.

.:r'i.,,:::rrl

ACJC PreLm

Uoln GrayLri!

arc

lJ

ideriryafy aapo.ca.rese..lCs.,Lr.rsloqyclr s.--.]€ty,Dr1c reaci10lhenif they rere aciapiea as olirce ir cies n ),cLrr cc!r^l? il8.e)r.rr..sveronlroih3rlce5aro yo!: own deas and €xp€r ence
CJC Pielim
Fror. \,our read nq of b.lh rrassaites, do vo! lrer€ve ih:it11_e nledu s resporsible
W th close reference lo the

peeple to resclvc ili.r iasus

.a.scrlb.r

jir../

dilJcront apprs:L!:hi's aclcpti.lby va|
-

!r conji:ct biivr.cn .ultLrres

o€ri:!

2

aiFrod.res

Fj.w ori sc.et/

vio!id:d:pl

ro ihose

2.icier

inf
be

Exshplc2
{eascns lrhelllrr llr€ mecia s respo.s ol€ fo.
-cDnsid,:rr
10

ar!!menis of botr passages, ciicejiy c!nsider current cansorship practices ir your country and lhe. decide 10 wh:t et1e.t il-rey rre€d to
modified, revsed. or

c ailled

altogeth€r

ln-rar exl.nt ihet

crf,ent censcrs5 p praci ces r.ed tc be moi flad re! sea

2 Reler rc bclr Dassr.es

l-ICJC lMarch Test

inpotling exietn.tnctjels ai hutrer.ililtls trd api:l).nte ltten a er'tty st!1atu 1 'ia rhal -.x!ert.,a )to,t agtua \rillt Ur'.r'ior1,) s tasar/alions aroili iire rip/enelrtalir. o/ hrrtan righls in for cnulntyl Expldh l.ut vtew illtte,.t4t1:e l. ah! l:"\ta af!!,a

Passrge A provroos a/r oveNier.l ho\t hurjtu rights c,,tiie la he tegarded as inponan| btll, h Passago tl, l\4t lar!! Kat Se! g e\t€rr€s sorre ras€n€ lrrr:, .ioui

,atri.ular arcas.l

hunian nllhi3 r!t.tn!or,ed iN Pasra.je A.

JJC Prelin'l

]-j!_v!g!!q!91s994'r9!lit,j3l:pl9gjj!rrri n4rrr ^(-aes lc' supiort:rorl11!!! Soli passages A arlL B r!!l!lest |r:,r iegaiiy€ ,xiiecls of le:o!islon !.1.J 6nc6 on c, ,1.elae JJo )- -F .L t.c r.,a" -..,.:j..,1, 1 ,... ,e:.d.c
u,./hat

L

would b. tlie rmplicailons ar yolr societ 1G rch v.1../s are 3ccepled or 'ejecled? S!bstantiate yo'Lr stand Dy drar/irg aDprcirriale hiorinai on ic..lhe ie s and ynu.o! r

NYJC Prelim

sc!ss ihe posslb tyolaf fials receviro bettertreal.n€ntin irtu.e. Wilh reierence to your scclety fiiscrss ihe pcssjite reactc rs to ireati.s an;ma s in the san€ way !!e wo! d treat t ie yoLrng and i\e h:pess JLrsiLry ".olrr arswerv/th yo.Jr
d

6aiirg hahiis an.l fooil p'eierenc€s. Using releva materialfrom boih passages, cofe derrhe charges in eatig habrts ln yorr society and
Both wrlters exl: ore c ranees in

RJC Comn'ron Tesi

Bayla and r,eetan hava ptesente.lthei igws about lhe eli€clrvsress of to eclucaliDn. l-bw.te thesa'.'ie't's t.liecled in a.lucallan in ) yDU cauntry? Drav,apprapriarc itarft1:ti.ialr lnjfl ll)e i7r'r passagrs, 3ndgtve !elcvant 9xamFles lrctn yolt ..r!nlty, yau shaulC Itllnlse yaut ansv/et in

I tne.surenent ln rchtian

RJC Prelim

Taini

!

stresses ihe dafCels ard prnb ems erislN!

ircr

!,r

oba vr'ann ng which Kaniy

9

SAJC

CommonTest

r I

dgr|fy fro'n the passages iwo lssues relale.l ld glcbal vrtrmin! wilch nright aiiect j,our co!ntry and erpl: lrrlir r.ias.rs wreth-.f vou Irrd them a arninE or f oi Base yo!r answer on BOTFI passales as w.I as )row o\ff relevad lners afd

I

"rp,ur9!!9___-_ b.U, passa!es depl.iiie rela!iol] beiv/€en ihe pro!r€ss ofcivijlsation and the
s{,lr,]!j19[9!!c grryi!9!a!r!111]te-.ls-s!9tEso]!!lei!3qe-4-9i!roji99
!p1 4

1

SRJC Pre im

iirat progress and.noderir cv salion ls destoving the aarlh Lrponwhich its survvai depends By exam f ing each aLrthor s v ews afd arlrurnen ts vrh .h vt€w d o you iend with? J!stifv vour.nswer -rhe \"riler ol Passage Alhirks ihal bes des !iving the incttvldlat rnore controroy€riris lile the lnternot ls advantageous lor socla afd economi. dev€lopnrent. Of the oiher lrafd,lhe writer of Passage B b€ ev€s thatwe wo! d lose'our sense ofwhat it means to b€ a caing human being' in a wor.idorolnated by iire lnt€rnet Byexaninngboir wrters views slate and justify the attitude your counlr), shoutct adopt rowards iho lnternst. Draw app.oprlate nlormaUon from ihe passages. However you musi rey on voLrrown reevaft deas and €xDerence io iustfv voLlr answ€r

rre,r'"o i e., a t;-

rtttt

o,.,aeee

"or''"o,

oc

also

,

IPJC Common Test

TPJC Prelim
re evanca to your

2
TJC Pre lm

ooLrfttr

Suggesl end d scus! ways n whrch yoli rcirfir]/ caf best Ceatwitt lhem. Dravr' appropiete iffonration irom iie texis Ho\reyd,yorsh.udreylargetycnyc!r ow.r rclelant ide.s a rd e,peri.n:e I orCEr to ru

serve the needs ofeveryorr€ have made il inrDoss ble to serye rv6illhe n--eds oi

Wl-alis your pos ion? Base ycur answer on BOTH passaqes

as

lve asvouro!\,n

Souice: A Suggesied Approoch lo ihe ApDilcoiion Quesiion by

l,,trs Eilzo

Gunsogoron

C. ldentifving and tjnderstanding the Relevant ldeas

' , "

ln crder to respond to tlre applicatior ques'Lion, you rnu5t understa[d the key/main arguments and jdeas that are in the text.

I he Applicatjor qluestjon equires thc stu{ient to apply iire iin(ierstanding of the ' main arguments and tl]erefor-- the student nrust be able to spct the key arquments ancj iCeas of the te).t/pa55a!:e.
ir',ain/key arqun'eit: are loun(l il)r.iuqlrout the text bL:t oiteii. tl1ost of the key arguments/ideos :rybe derived from the topic sentences.

PRACTTcE Tr,uE!

ldentiiy the majn arqun'ients/ideas in the texts given beLow.
Passaqe
1

from Buenc5 4iri]s ]o lleri:r', peopia: aror.rri.l ]he'r/orld (]re iooking fircre cnd inolg Amarlcon. lhev ore weoring Levis, \^,clclrin.j Cr'lfl cJr,d iruj-ina coil.je ol inier.trorgeobl!. Siolbu.rkt cull-.ls. l-ooking only ol lhe n)'J.rce, on-- n Liqni .:cll..l!.le ihci lrlilao siokis cL,liurol pro.JuL-is cre cre.iiin.J o h.rnlogenised giobol cofi rituniiy ai ar;riuriea!Bui lhe cullurcl o:p.--ct5 ai rhe olcb..:ili5.riion Slory arre tcrr tnore ccnioic:i. Lvcri lvherr lhe 5ome shiri, scnE, 5od.r oi sioie i1 io.n{l r'r cil iive co.linerls, it le Cs io riecn ciili.rr€'ni lhinlA deperlcling on vrho is doing lhe vre.rrlng !irisir-il-1. clilnlir,.j or rhopping. Considcr. J:rs1 ol .il:, ihe Clrir,e5e meoning ol Big f.4ac5. ln Th-- iexut /.nd Tlr.: Cl;'/e Trer., llew York Times journoiisi ihonros Fri:rdrric. scys he ll.rs eolen i,4cDonolLl5 bwcle'5 i,i rrrrJic c{iL jrlrii:j li,on ne rjcrn coL,ni ond is \{,rll q1r{rliiiE.:l l.] siole il'ioi ihey reolly cio cll ici5i.-- ih.r :orf.:.

\Yhcl he ccluoliy rrjecns. if$ugir, is ll,ey cll icrSl-^ ihe sorne lo hinr. J.leciIly i.lerrlir-:ol gig Mocs moy be 5old in Bosicn on(l SeijinU, Lrlil ihe.x.jeicnces ot e.rlhg lhsm.rn.-l .jve,l lhi; lrreo,.ir'rg of gcing lc) i,.laDonolcls in the5e iwo i:lii.:r $,(r! vely cliiferenl ln ihe 1990s. ln Beijir g bui noi ln Boslon, c Big Moc '+/cs clclssiile.l os o snarcl.:, Lai d |}:c.ri, o|ld uni./crsily sluclerris ihoLr!ll.i.il M.Doncldi.-:rs o gcocl ploce io go for o roino li.r 4i!-rhl Io irilc into a 3ig lloc ihinking you oia oboiri 1o do sofil.:lhinsl pleosonlly f.rmilior o. siromclully plcbion two c.rrnrnon US experiences - is one ilrtrg. Io biie inio one lmogining youre on ihe brink of discovering whol modernily loties like o common Chinese experience is cnoiher lhing ollogeiher
Florh iorlvorcl io 2000, vrhcrc Si.ribucks lir51 opened ir bolh lhe Americon io\,vn where lllve.l {8loominglon, IncilcnoJ arci llr€r (l}:incs.r city whecr I sludie.j lShcrrCiroil, orr(i we se€ irrrihcr eviderrce of the cii./€-{geni l.rc.rl rrl.ioJrirr.rr oi |] ob.illi, Jcrnllior icons. ln llloorringlon, Slerbucks triggerecl rrixed reoclions. Some locols welconred iis o(ivcri. Oihe6 siogeci non violenl prolerJs or sfiioshecl ih windows, comploining lhnl ihe choins record on cnvironmeniol oncJ lobour isluet wos obysmol ond lhoi sTorbucks v/oulcl drive locol coffee rhops oul ol busines5, ln Shonghoi iherc were no demonsirolions. Ihe cho n s orrivol wos seen os conlribuiinq lo, rolher lhon puiling cr check on, lhe prolitel(]lion of new inCependenlly r rrn .of lee houser.

lhe locol ricLrnlnlls oi shorghoi Slorbuckr.jo nol siop lherc. tor .]romDle, 'rhen olJlels open

in

suoerliciol osserlion5 equoiing globolinrJion !viih Amerkroni5olion

Lurope. ilrey ore 5--en lypicolly. for un.lel!londoble reosons. cr5 symbol5 ol creepin.l or 5leorrroLtlllll Americcrnisof;on. ln Shonghoi, ihouqh, guidebooks somelimes clossiiy:lorbuck5 oi o 'ELrrop--cn siyle' {.r5 or--p.)5e(l lo "]opoircse slyie ) loreign coffee houie. There cxonlples oi Anrcricc tjroctucj5 tokin! on..1i:lincly no!., culiurcl meo'rinqs when nrovecl kom the Ll5 lo Chincr cjre usejut jn undcrrrining

0ul ll is irnporkrni noi l. 5i.)p lhere. lhc sofie lhing hos hoppene.l onrl co liJrue5 1.r happen .,vllh ihe glotrol lr,e.rningj cl Arioh jcon5 in ihe US- ijer€-', oc)oin, o Chincsc iitusircli.jn seer j opt jtr.:rt oi f,4oo 1e(lorg, whose lccL. nco y riv.rli Mickey Mouse ! in lerms ol Elobol recogniilcn. One ili.ti.io lio' i o1 ih(, v.rriecl nre.riings of his irnog-- i5 lhoi. rn 2002, fev"s siories r.rporled ii5 cppeornncs in ihree v.r7 ditiercnl conleris. Repres-onlcliont:howed up n lhe hul5 of Nlepclesc auelnilu!. on frosiers c,-rrricrr bv prolesting loiCoff vr'ork(rrs;l norlheosl Chino. cnd ;n o Lon.lon crrJ erhibiiior'l. tn trot-,o|, tljo i,!rs irl'/okeLl be.ieute he endo.sed peoscni revoli. ln nodh eosi Chinq. his link 1c)'r'/hen Chin.se vrork--'s ho.J iron rice bo\.ib ior life wos'l/hoj mallerecl. AnC in Lo..lon, ii wcrr his sioJu: .rs o fovouii. slctecl oi cr pop o'i frioneer ihol counled lhe e)lhibllion ..^/os an ncly Worhol reirospeciive.

in sunr,,rher€, i5 nrore lo keep in rlind oboul glob.rls.rlion ihrrn J\,ir trieclmon s clivi.le tr{-'iv/een lhe \,vo'jds ol moss prcduccd Lexus cors ond in.lividuclle{i olive trees. C)ne reatson is c, Le)(us ccn rn.ron ni'/Ilocl lliings, clepencling on where ii i9. Whelher one ilrsl enco,,ni--rs ;l ii lhe shov/rooin o' '?vorking or1 jhc crsselnL)ly in-- mollers. Ancl ii mclkes n r:lillerence v/helh€r lh-- pcopb who woicir ii se. ;l whit by (l thc"/ woli. ihe jlr€rels ol lcle.jo or see il crcly/l cj5 ihey 5ii on ir lokvo-bourr<t buLl--l toin li ie noi jusi ln physici. cfiur oll, bui ai5o in clrllur(r on.rl,)rsis, ihol ihe cornpiex \.,.orkings oi f,-joilviJy need lo b.rrrepi ii
Jeflrey l!. Wcrs:.:rsircrlr, 'tsig t,.4oc,. rvle,rn Difl.-,'reni Ihirrg5 in 8orio.] cri,J ijl.;ilng.
fl Y-ral PG-lirn

iroiref:

Pri!ctice

1

fi,t:rie arguments

/

ideas J.om the passage

ldeas i.ar) ihe texl:

can.rnets

L,colthg onty 3t ttte sulzce one n,lllht canclutle ihat US cuftutalprcdLcls are crcating a honogenred dabai eanxrut)ily tt ines 3 4)

tl

j'rrufih,crlnJla/rspe.is.ftlElllabalisationstry.retnarecatnple\'|(line5)
it iendsto nean

drtercnltllngs depen(lnry ar

who is darju il)e $:aNng, slnging,

dritkitg or shopping (lineseT)

Rephrased and consolidated answer: The popxlarity ot American cultural products give the impression that consumers all over ihc world hav€ sirn:lar tastes; brt the c$ltural intluence oi globalisation is more cornplicated. Local cultures inflrence ihe way these products are consumed.
ldcas lrom the lerti

nephrase.l aod con.olid.tl-.j nD5r!..:

ld€r: lrom ihe re-<t:

-eirlr.as.t anl cnn5olid;1ea i jiirr-r:

!rieas lrom lhe

t.xt:

Rephrase.l aod consolidated ans.rer:

3

Fassa!lq.?
lhe loble ior McWor {j* ho\ ireen 5el by llollywood- Amcricon iilms .rle r)vervv,'here - on etlobol lelevi5ion even rnor-4 ovenvhelmingly ihon on ihe worl.l's nrovi.r rcrc.ns. lhey hav{i ih-- slohis oi crnr'.rserlenis tnii ihey ore crlso likely io inst.iro o visicll oi iilc cincl io afieci hobiti {rrrl oililu.ie5. llollyvr.rod is McWctlC's sloryleiler aicl ii incr rlcoie. 5c.uiori.,ri i. pojsi'/liy, corrsl]lrerj!rri. vlco ous.,,-ss. impulse buyirrg, on.l or, .:r.c.l--r.rjed iroce ol l;l€:, n()J os o rctull cf iir overi ilremc5 ond .ixplicil sioty lines bui by viriire ()1\\,iro1 Fi-iliy\.,/.od is orrd hcvr' ih proclud .iru (ionsume.i
Mcny people ihlr :.r.oi r_,cj$il'/ in clevelopecj .or,nlri€rs lpef d for i.ic ,r'iu.li .-:l iheir ii re .rcch Lilry in on.: oi lhe corlrri--rciolhobiiolions cf the new !vo. (l bcinlj irc..gl.!,.ercrj in Hollywcoal onC il5 soielliles ln froni oi o TV screef or ci o rnoll crino rnovie theirire c,l che,^,;ng cn losl loo.i. They speriC rnuclr mor-- lime h lh{:ise plLrcer thcn ihey ci.r in 5chocl. church. ihe librory, o .oinmLrnljy service cenire, or o ploying lielcl. Yel only ihese lotier environrnenls elicii oi:live ond eng.rged public behoviour ond (rsii u5 1o clefille cur5eives os oulonomous arernbcrl oJ civic communi,ries morked by cLr]lur-- or teliqion cr clhor p(rb1ic '/alues. Wiih thl- onsjou!h1 ol McWorld. lilerole pri/dle reod--r: clfo (is..erning lrublic cilizens crlike ore marale lo leeJlike enclongered specie5.

l0

t5

' .icrilj on u:; 1o see ourselves os privcie on.i 5clirory, inicio.-iir,g priricrl I rio comrnerciol licns..raiia.n5 \rnere "me" disploces "we'; aao il pa,'rrniis r-.ivaia c rpc :iLo rs whose only inter'eri i: lireir reyenue skecm lo define by .l.tcruli lhe public go.rds ol lhe indivi.Ju3ls crcl comm'Jn;iioi lirey serve. Th-- Norlh Lmericcra iit;r] lrcdg l.grceraeni {l.l^tlA) frcworirl'i tlob.rl eJioicgyiniis t.iorlh Amerlcon gLr;s.. !e've: /rileiic.rn busiress u5 \i/ell os .)oiic llr(iikels. 0ul ii does nol crnd conJrol 5crv-: lin.:ricdr or cri]i-rci a,Jl.lic iiiere5i5 sucJr .i,r ii.rii .:lnpl.Jvrneni, the digniiy of w.jrk, :h. cr.,:!jlivg .rivjc l]se oi io'.ecl eisur.,', --nvironn,enl.i picieciicir, ,(cciol soieiy nei5. .tnC pei',5ion pi!-:lei:liol]. 1,.1cv'.,,orlal's idvocoles'aill oig5r. ii.ri the lncrrket" does 'serve" ilrilivicjuols oy .r.npc.lerino iir.Jrn lo "choosa"- 8u1 ifc clit,-i.iD 15 lrlv/ovs o5oui \r'rhich ilenn lc buy cltal ci-rn5iirne. irever obou.J ,thether i.r bLry cn.-j conlr,rrire cnd nev"r cboul ihe right io e!r.,r .rl irj..rre thcji jrokes consurnpil.rr po5sibki. lJl M.Worl.l's glcb€rl mcrkei, .r rrp.r!^/cr!nen i ll.5 in lhe chc;cc of ioppings on o bcke.l ooiolo:1hr rcsl ir possive consirrnpiion. yiher proiir tre.rorner ihe sole ciilcrion iy r,,hicir v/c nrecsure every goocl, eveq/ ocjir.,li)', tjvely dllu..li- elery cLrllurci pro.lLJci, ihere i5 ro.n rlolhing bui profil. in ihe --rnpi.e oJ ih(--.ririkei, ii_Le mo|ey
/.,.1cf/orl.l i- I r:o,.F r'.' ^ ll !5 i !:
.

').!)

30

Fihns

cre c.irrtarl 1o nra]lkci ic.,ology u/r]iching ihern revccl5 ar sarnanEts pervod;llg

McWotld lhoi seefirs 5ulfoc.iiing- Go inlo o Proiesioni church i,r .; :vrlsr villcroe. cr nr(r\.1, F ,n Donloscus, ihe coihedrol lrl Rcillrs. o Buddhisi temple in Bongkok, crnd ihough in every cose you ore visiiinq o ploce of worship wilh o Comrnon ouro oJ piely, you know irom one pious siic io lh.i n.xi rhoi you orc ir, o disiinclive cuiiufe. lhen sil in o muiiiplex nio..,ie box or, ml]ch lhe some iirir'g, risit o specloicr sporls crenq or o moll or o mocJe l hclel or o Insl ioor:l e5lobliihnre i;n orll ciiy clloul]cl ihe y/odcl, ond jry 1cr ti!jui-- oui \\,h.rre /ou cre. Yc,.r arre no\,^/hcrc. Yor' ore e]lcry\.r'here. Losl in cyberspoae. You crre cholinll pire! on o Ninienclo: lhe world slrflolrnding you vonishes. YoU ore in fronl oi or in or on MTV: universol imoges ossoull lhe eyes ond globol dissononces ossoull ihe eors in o heori pouncling iumuli ihol teJs you everylhing excepl which counlry you ore in. Where ore you? You (te in

irlcvlond is a le(n deri!e!l korn McDonalds .Jnd was coin.d

1o

reler to e.iononric a.C crllltral llloba lsaUon

Go lo o live iheolre and wilhin o feu/ 5econds oi Jhe drrtoin rising you wi know exocity which regron. which ciiy v/hich cullure ycu ore in. Woich television ior doys ol o lime cnd you slill moy noi hove o ciue .]5 lo whol plonet you ore on untess it is plonet Reebok. There ore 5iylistic cliiierences belween fr.lrjtlonold's in Moscow, in Bucjopesi, in poris, ond jn London by which they con be cli5tinguishL-d irom ihe originoi McDonslcl's tronchjse ir Des Ploines, lllirois, bock in 1955. But squinl o lilite.rnd crlt the srnoll diilerences vonish and ihe Golden Arch is oll lhol renloins, o vitucl ghosi hounl;ng our reiinos even on ihe Chomp5 ilysees irr t'oris, lvhere iis oclual .lisploy is no longer permilted. Direcior Atojn Corneou,j proph€lic "worlcJ in which ihere is only one imoge" hos come io pos5.

4l

A.lople.l kon Jiha.l Practice 2
Main ArA!ments /ldeas
rdea5 from the text:

rs

llclvodd by

Benjomin Borber

Rephrnsr:d an.i consolidaied ?nswer:

ldess trcm the

iert:

Rephras€d and.o.solidated ?nsweri

t0

li{.ni i'.rir

r?rF

i

r:r:

ilo.! iii:.r' 1li.

:--r:l:

$ryJh
11.

1t

D. -E!qi!9!I-s-4$,u iilent! " lloving ideI]iifled lhe r.'ie./crni rl(rieiiol, )cLr cre no'/r' lo evcrluoi-- the rn(:lits .rnri wecknesses of ihc oroumenls (lv). "
cre o15o cr(para:l-^cl ic illL.r!ircle yor.r undersionding oi Jhe mai€iriol ifrrough ihe :xplonojicn {txl you i},rvi.lc'in suppori oi yourjuilgemeni.
YcLr

" I4osi of thL- lime, eir.llu.riioi ol orgum!--nJs need! lo be clone in the IigfrJ of llre liiv'rn conlexl

'

E,/crlu.iion mtrsi b'.'l|rkl:al io ihe slcnai yolr hove loken.
thar

" Evoluoiiorr rioons h.rvirCl lo moke cn inisrrned ond logiccl ossessmeni oi orgumeni ol hcncl.
^ Definilion of Evoluciiorr:

yclr €voluolii sol.l]ol11in9 cr gorneone, you conslcjer them in crdql io riicr!o o juCgmeni oboui ihenr. i'ci e)<cr"nple, ho'^ llood cI bo.l lfrey ore. aolir5 acDUllJ Fnori5l r)i.li.nur lat A.:\Qnce.l l.it.tt(:ts
lf

'Therelor{r,.,/ori ccin iiar\'. aiaJrrrilcrisons,5lro.ting opposing'/iews ol even ilarke c febuliql io thr otll!; r,rr j ih.ii yoLr nci\re ii.:nl;fi--d.
!'rirc

iicg,IElj)j

'. !t*i

I iy to evaliJaie il]e argunrents aliver. The {!rst one !s done lor yoll.

l'{&ctice

i
s i jt,

ir,Lrr tne pass..qrl
1:\.'ti1e'.' !''" ''l|'' .
1]

fxtianariion and Evatuation of thg extent i: refiecis the j .r-to.,i -:(f eric.,ce.
:ra:,,1

thal t)S cLtiutal praCucls are cteailro 2

' 'oanoo.t\/

it

1:

hlitotienizecl qlob al conn utlily a{ .onsu/rers glires 3 r,r
'But lre cufturalast'ecls cfinc Alobalis.ttan siDry ae n)ate conptex ltine 5)

o

*!io ls don! thetrearhq. sqgin1 i1lptiirltot shL'pping (thes +7) Th,j tcpElajity ct Amcrican i:,i!t{'.al producis give the impression that consumers all over the world have similar tastesj bnt the cultural intluence of globalisation is more complicated, Local cultures influence the wav these prodlcts

'

il tend. to mean differcnl things 4.)peoding on

ihat on the surface American fast too.i r.stailianis the;mpression ot a homogeneo s globai cullllre, bLli the menu in McDonalds in Singapore is noi typically Ame,-,can. The globatculture is interpreieC and changed in the local coniext. Adapied lo suit iocallastes eg, rei'rdang burge(at Burger King) nasilemak. porlidge(at

I

rr-re

gi',re

" .

[,4cDonalds) l-.,1r-, l> Sporc ! multi-cullural scc;!l/ Also being on the cross-roads of various cullural infllrences, Spore is ready and willing to elnbrace o,versity and a cosmopolilan cullure.

t'2

i,:,.rrnt/rrr)c.s oi c.n/rE illchr .ntd trtL;r;;: t)i b ll.Lalr.tLrs trr l/r.se lw! ./ilrs ',t..xittJ ajatntj
':''4

i

,

in4:'rlctonallrs e;(per,enc. is djnereni ., .-..r,J:!r, in rh.,.rort.l

in

]

r'.:rriltat!
u:l)t\:t

Sl.rhltcli, ..jtnj!:n.r oi lltc ttt.;!en! jtca! nf lt1., atlr l.!niitat nr!i.: itj.t.r:r:il

Eacl.rs lti4tpcnt!.tti:l ttli iti.e

I

Diiicient soc,eties respond d:fierenlly l\r,,rards ferniliar global icoils in iitei. coutrltt. jJ\rhile tbers $rere h'}l!: posiiive arial n€gatiye rei;irorrses 1i)
ih+ oireniir-, {rI StadruckG, ir! ShaE.rhai jr!$pie l'elcorned il rs rD irtpetu5 :o
ctio.r?1i:.

:

.r :lnLois
Ar n,.r

41{i. acl.ls..pen in t:ttre:re itt.f c sct:ti t:i 'cr,etlng ' .)t sie.ntLlluc
icart s.!ilar' (1il,..; 31,12)

A|nsiic"r cuJtural icons:r.i see,1 as s!r11:lr br{ powe.iu'ihr?3t 1r loc:l

ll

Prcrclice 2
kleas trom the passage 2
'Anerjcan fikns .. arc atso iikety tD )nspre e vitian al ffe and ta afrect hattts and attttrdes (thes 3-4)

I xpianiiion il r^;lccis tlre Si'rq,rpore "nii Euiluai;on of rne eitent .9.\P9Jl9!ci . Y:1Pllj!!Ll: i Exirnoie 1l
lr|ln lhar r.1.\A .rlo r-movcsdibtinctron.' soj'lL..1-v.

Peopie live vic;riously thrsugh
Hollyv,/ood filrns which construcis a world thal is di'Jorced frora th€;r own cnlture and'.{hich influences their habif.s

" "

people avicjly follo$, ihe nev/s of celebrilies, ncwspapers and magazines regulariy repod on the privale deitils ai their personai lives,e.g Britney Spears, Ally Mc8ealstaple diel of IV. Sometines after rnajor blockbusters, even iashion and language geis aitecled.

i

I
I I I

l

I

But ajso true thei thefe is no homogenis'nE elfect bec?use of l,lc]Vorld forms of popular " Olher..J-pcp. YorJngsters cullure are prominent in Singapore,e.g. Kpop, are also interesied in celebrities from Flong Kong and I ai\,1ran. fulany Korean/Japanese movies and ielevision programmes are iranslated inio Chinese & English. ln fashjor.1lrc,lv are also moae interested in emuiatirg iheir Aslan i(lcls than lloliywood stars, probably becarise they can identify !1,iih lhem !n appearance
I

I

ihe an::iaught o lclltond ltetel.) pt)tlle reaoers eio discerning Ft:blir
'\ryllii

ctizens ata tnade tofeel like

e,riJangered specie s.' (lines 1 t- 1 6)

Tt,e po!.rett0l inflnence ot l,lc\tdorid l,as ted to the

declineofq iet and leisu.€ly 2ciivilies like reading and the d€veiopmefit of lhinking citizens.
' Eut thc c;toice is al,xays about vahich iients lo buy and ccnsuna and ltevet

aboul i,hethe( io buy,in.i cansrtrne' (iin.s 2e 27)
d's globaltnatket in Ihe choice af lappingson a baked potato: the rest ts 'ln

ilcwa

enpcwqnentlies

,asslve co sunption. (lines 28'29)

Although the tre€ market ot I'I.Wadd seems to offer ronsume$ f.eedom Dt choice, lhe fact is people are lured into buying mindlessly,
'when p.ofit becDnes the sale criletian ...lhe naney haorgans are ptinccs 'ltutes 29'31)

t4

Jhen profit is the rnrin goal,

mployers rule ier
i
I

1

r.,{r4lgs-!Lq,{pp!rje,!i-W rl!tC!!!on

. ,

Ille oppli.jofioti .lueslicn is o iesponse wrillen in ihe Jorm oi al rniflj esscl),,. il imporl.rnl io dernonslrote coh.rronce by employing on esso),iike slrucil-rre us;ng conneclive5 lc link rJp I't-- v.rlious poilts_
Tirere crre rnqny \/cr-vs in \vhich ycu moy chose io responcl to lhc scmple,roys in \./hich yo! moy chose tc emulole.
Lro

is

on._l

)

/r,

rlere crE

Lr

few

.

noie lhoi slud€nl!

atlle oaivised

lo spend ot,eosl Z5mins on llre AO duii|g

ilri

iSs4el&i1]pl4le$qr glclirrte

T|e

ienrplaie

lo be u-rel .r.riies lrom
lOtl

quesiion

REQLJIREi\rEN IS OF Tl 1r: CLiES-l

to

quest;on. yOU t,1t_tST Ui.]ijERS,.{:!D Ttjt:

1

rr c 2 3.

Question A w.ntr: me io a ll]!K,Si,q!q!..1?Jr9rt!Uisril,al is
rru-e qrlil!i!4:_!

la,!

r..:r . ,. , I . .trl ;.ni ,.;:^ .l

rj_.are

convincinq/suitable/rel€rant t,,asj( -t)
an.J exEtain

&lClcitagt€ alq !.i?a(!llie_i!e ICq!.aU!. a s€ tr!ilj.! -oj-rl9!!ber

,,hv ! srj!p-1.r,

Q.iestion g vr'anis nr-r io a. rdq4{L4ltd €-tv!:l!4!tl!ta,o,a!E!r!t"4!slrleid!/plsblgDs-qlt9-!p!,9a4r pqs!4r:-- Ll?tqll b add!s9qss.!lEi. u]]ngrl-anc9lqlelellslo_lqlljeqiqtr (rask 2)

3. b. c d. e f g. h

ln Questioo

A lmust

gather lhe reievant argurnents then calegarise lhem wrile cornmenis focus on arguments that witl sLrpport my stand bring "oulside" knowledge/examples to strengthen my stand as I Cefend the reievallt arguinenls rcIneri.ber to sho\"/incllde ihe flaws/good points from the other passags yei off4r a .ounier,crgurner't all rn all remerrroer io eva[,aie the arguFreni, notjust repeei 'r]ateriali'crr) the passage

4

a b c

ln Question a, lmusl rernember the

rubric identify tlvo .etevanl arguments, one from each passage evaluate and comment on the quatiiy of the arguments relale the erglnrents to my society and assess the impodance/relevance

t5

of the arouments in ltrc coniexl oJ

nrv.o.iety

rylelhods cf Aflswering Ouesiio,t tbat is asked)

the Applicalion Ouestion (The melhod/approach yo| use derends on the

A)

Iire 3-step Proc€dure

2 :

1

iJvritels concllrsion: lhe wriiar lrelieves lhai Witer s reascr: He sl]lports his vieir by Siudents agreement/disagreenreni U/heiher you agree ,'^riih the }rriier ol. you qlestion his assumption:

!

l
I

I

agree/disagiee !v;th hift

\,\lhelher there

are oiher ways to look at issue: The .;uiter has tailed to

consider

Whelher ihe wriler has lhe expertlse 1(r cornrnent crcdibllr or any vesied interest end vrheth€r he operates under suspicious circLrarslances (in the case of assessing lhe .redibr;ily of passage): I queslion ihe writers credibilii/ bec:use

lvheiher the likely consequences are wcrth ihe r,sk of venlLrr,ns fo^.r'ard: {nr ihe case oi handling recomfiiendations)r ! quesiiol',"/hether tlr€ pcssible harmiulconsequentes are wcth ihe risk because

il)

f.valuat;ng ;,rgltBents th"i .ro rel.'rant 10 ycur societ-v

" " , "

General sialement about tlie loric

Summ",yolvr.. adoo.,4t /rh .'.ti,ororF.ssage/' sLm: rdrv ,; ,,i-r i d-.pi.4 br , .r ., . .cr .c Dr..5..9- B
Your sland

-

upon eval!:iing ihe \r'o views above (depen.lon ihe clueslion)

I he Sinqapore Coriext: " Speciiic characie*sticslfeaiur!-s of SiDgepore ihat are relevant io the disclrssion ci topic in

EerLl!

" . . ' ,

Relate Ihe idea io the relevant context (ie Singapore) by mentionlnq (i) havr' ihe couniry in queslion rreats/perceive,s lhe issue, and {li) r,,/hai the country is cloins or can do to ellevrailr ihe
Srate yaur siand/give 3 concluilirg staienEni lhai mak€s
_v"o

Exiract cne main id€a from either passage lor one view out of lhe many in thai sinsle passage] Explaln briefly: (i) v/hai lhis idea is about; afld ili) the authois ione/vie!1, of ihe issu€ Evaluale the point - to see if you agree with it or not and explain why

r argurrtenl relevanl io lhe quesiion

16

Se!e]!4israp!
I he wriier of Passage A rrenticrs that _.._ _,_ _, I slrong jy agree with his vie.,v and ctearty vlhei he Cescrll,.es in Passele ,.\ is eviatrni in Sinfzpora wh-.re SingaFore al5o bas . Thjs is in ,-'d :o,u. r{r'. ..: ..'(,. I. ..o ! --;-;;i:;.ai o..
CHECKLIST: The AQ rreml:v,,ork

lflr .

e.-ery paragreDhl

ruP | . .rc"ordrns to'*,.',-..
. I

r ,!n i-t t:. Ft..nr 'h.,Ucrni^d il' li/lsscrtr{' iha! {rn,ie rlre , ,.; ,."','io,.,'r''F ,, Anr( i:.,r.;' ';". , rd\ o,r' ,n qLjo:e I
r , P.5: .

J( r/B

,tnFc

,. (.

.

1

no,., . PJ5saqc A/n inl oDi,!ron,My vrerv oo lhis i: rhaul im inclr.€d 'n rlr;nr ro thrt ... . r-le r.h ,he, \rL grF6 1 drsu.cr-p J/r'i.ir' rr,n6r.',rl Io! r,r ro' "g " . ,ts,g L.. rr't,lhp . r ..., ,a j et ten.c !,

I I

, :

(explanaiio:r)

l " -;;i;b;;;,**, '

--

.
"

E idence

I r'. r,;soo tcr th's is ; , ju..:i:icarior l.rr tl!is i- {art ... , j.,,er* t-..,;;;,; r.. r";'.
' f or crr,npl{

]
l
, I I

' " " I" ] " L;ke rhe society *rhich the wfiter of Passage rciers ' l,' S;r:gaFo.e alco l,r. :' Cr.n!,rrcd :o Aflericarr (o' wt'"te!cr th( !r.;ll Y !.
r.fL,s
ro) sacicly.

I,

, ..- br scrr ir S;r,,'. Fr'1 , :.rn. . :.. :x ',j obse,vp,ion a; 3i!''u.:+ r!c;e').... i : = n,i awn e,fe.ier,. e. !... Cr'e evidence ot this is... ore €'ridcrce I can cite;s..-

.

'

,'., c:t cL'rer'..r'de..e nr p-.r ra-tr, :': I r, f rrl r6.tui'en c: lr o|hc I'r- to :r 'h. rr ':,cr, ,iaur-s yo,le !!.q!!t lLC l lrt U.'lr ..are l ''r. ' uIc.: .iualon anrl or+J\ . rom I t" L Fnr sirlllr n. ',hb, ::,Lt h.,r p*r. in .e fulur- Uso r.'c forto\ ina i ' Conside.ing the curreor sduation, d luiure sccnaflo that can be projected is .. I - I'r IiOh! of lhe preselt 5'rurticn. , lrlniyL :
uon^etuence/effeci/scenrrio/situsticn i:... i ttrc tuture --Ylie foresee ih.f Ilo nril dis3gree/agree iolally; i.e. Co coi iake an exlreme stand. Agree to some exteni with the opposite view. Siate
We can hypothesize lhat

Sin!i,pore is a,so...

'

;

I I

F:valualior (Opposing View)

when the opposing view may be riqhVv!rong. . On the other hand, ... . However, some people may agree/disagree wiih the wiier/the vaew mentioned in that they think..

.

Otherwise, a contrastins

l/

I'rssiisqll4e!

" .

The slruclure you eventucrlly

c.lopt lorgely depends on lhe quesiion ond you.

Using fornroi B. iry Gtie mpiing

you ore to employ ihe

skill5

ihe full AQ given below. Do remember lhot ihqt you have okeqdy lecrnl.

frcclice

i
Aa,.JC Frel;m 2oo4

Passage

i

: Jelemt/ Seabrook writes-..--

Globalisation ls a declaiation of war upon all olher cultures And rn cultu.allrers there rs no exenpiion for civiiians; there are no innocent bystanders. Why should it be expecied thai ancient and rooted civilizations are gcing to accept lhis nrarginalisal;on wilhoul a siruggle? 'fhe answer to that is ihal glcbalisalion carries an implicil promise that it will reiieve poverty and otfer security - perhaps lhe most ancieni of human dreams. Because oi the pow€r of global capilalism 1o creaie \^/ealth, ii is assurned lhai ihis prioriiy must sweep aside all other hlman preoccupat;ons, including all exbting instilutions, inierpretations and searches {Dr meoning in ihe wotld

ll is disingenuous lo assume lhat economy, sociely and culture operate in separate spheres. lndeed, the way in which geographical entiiies are now designaled shows the increasing porosity of these notions. An advanced economy, an industrialised naiion, a mature economy are sel againsl a developing country, an emerging markei, a libetalising society fhe lems are almosi in{erchangeabie This suggesis that, once exposed to the globalising imperative. no aspecl ci social i;ie, customarv practice, traditional behaviour.irill remain ihe The.e have been, broadly, two pincipal responses in the world, which we may call the fatalisiic and the resistant. lt is significant that among ihe most falalistic have been the leaders of the G-7 Ex-President Clinion said globalisation is a faci not a policy choice. Tony Alair said it is ineviiable and iffeversible ls iheir helplessness a pretence?

10

15

2A

i8

Th.re are two aspecls to resisianci One is lhe re asseri'on oi lori;l ident,iies , e,,,en if local aclually means spread over very large prrts of the u/ond. The recl:riminq ot ihe local is olter focused in ihe iield ol culiure r.! sic son1l. d:nce, drama, ariilacis anri folk clliure This suggesis an atiefipl lo cLjeiani,fr: ii tom lhe efiecls cf econanric ilte-dralicr: a kind of ccrclon sanrtarle sei Lrp around a d,rinrjli g cirliLfe Sorne people believe it is pos-\iL1e io Cc! ihe besi ot bolh worlr:ls ihe_v accepl ihe eccnomlc acivantag€s ot globirlisatior i:nd s..k :c nl3rni.in so'neihing ci areal vakr-., lan!;Lra!e, tradilion and custom -rhis is the r.teti!rty benign response The olher has br:.cn e only t.Jo ia,niliar: the vroient .cacl'nn. ihe liaired oi both econoriic an{,' cLrllural ltl.rbaiisatlcn vhich nrany not merely perc.ive. bui t..ret rn ihe very core of their behQ. as an ins€parable viclation ol dentity lhe reseninent ct &rn! MusJims (noi onlv extremislsl icr,lard ihe Ll.S end lsrael the dei.nsi,/e posluring .t tlin.ju Iufdarnentaiism, opDcsed bclh 1{] lslaJr and Chrlsiianiiy, are the rrcsi vi\rd clranraiiselr iis

25

35
The appearance of Christian furdam.nialisrn ,n the very hearllands of ih{r globalisirg

loic:s

of the world, suggssts ihat even here there is a sense thal values belieis rr_,.j iaith are being sacrif'ced to global necessit:,,. li is ioo simplisi;c cf the rich and po\rerful io stigmairse the bearers of resislance as being exlemisis or ihosc !,rho hal.j freedorn. lhe.v r,ail io lrnderstand ihe profouid ard conrclex social and re:igious drsrup:ions ihai crne as inseparable specael compan;ons ol econ3mlc glob3lisai;on The leaders ofihe !loiralir g !../orld have sacriiiced i/asi nuFbers ol ihe pcor in pur€uit.f their un.eall-qzrble visi.n oi s whole planet.olonised in thprr olv|t imalla
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l/ihen we think of a globe it is dsurlij a |nrniature rnodel ol the ea{h. vrhich ono tingei.iarl send inlo viol€nl revolulion lf .ie dwcll an itrai aspect, il)e lag "llobnl cultllre'oririn.Jllsly hints at a ierible, d;zzyirg shrlnkcqc, ;r1 the mercy of son1.e exlernal hrinC (a-c lllsn:r)r Murdoch, Coca-Caia) Ihe nore obvicus implication. oi course, is thri "glcb"l cuiilje :.r something vasi, a giairi strucirre.:i{isling beyond any of us no rnalter how co,.firopolltan |!r, personal horizons N.iih€r lray dc€s gloiralcuiture s.'em to belong io medlum sized nunrtrn beiigs wilh a local habiiaiior arrcl e narre 8Li ihe. are v/e really supFosed ia f:el goad aboul il? Perhaps it is ollen meant sarcasiically - as an oxymoron.

Or. if we foilo!1' lhe modern ieniicncy to Lrse ihe il/oril 'culture as a neLriral telm oi anlhropological descnpUon raihs ii:.:n pos:'iive endors--meni. 'global cLllrr. miqhl simpl!
name the aaristic aod oiher rcf.esseniial rtren.rnenir (like iashianl .olnr'ronl,v ccn::!rnea I'r rnost af ths coLrniries ci ihe ,rorld li th;s !re.:rs riroppi,rg in an 3rpL.rt rrall ioi a h:;r.l c.p,v oi

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Siephen King, lndepandence Day on DVD and Nike iool"..r'ear, we are a long way indeeci from lMatihew Arnold's definilion of culiure in 1876 as the acqrJainting ourselves wfh the best that has been known and said in the world' We mlghl be tempted to offer some sourly updaled formula to fii lhe globaJcultlre of lhe 21st cenlury, like the acquiring for ourselves the besladvedised thai is beinq made and sold ln the world'

15

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A decade or tv/c ago. one llsed to thi k ao'errtertainrnent emprre lvas an :ncidenial. ii hlghly profiiable aspe.t of serious poljtical po,"rer and conirol Now big corp.,raircns wield rnore polver than naiional governrnenls, an.i it js in lhe'r jnlerest io make the world safe for shoppnrg by promolinq a pseudo der$cratic 'c liure 'r'/here obedienl ,,lorkels oblaln iheir rewards by conslrining n]lrvies, IV, mus'c. fashions. cigaretles and foo.is, and by nEking alher 'lifeslyl"J expenciilures R€b"rll]on' is pa't oi lhe package oi associ?led values ol{er€d every pur.hare, in lhe iol'r] of lhe rack stals indi,,'rduel bravado rather ihan poiiiic;rl or

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Yet it is Jikely that sooner ar laler lhere will L,e sonre Jorm of rnore organised resisiance to ih€se new kinds of ifip.rialisrn lr iaci sorne of ihe most cofispicuous recent mailrslream Hollywood movies thenselves leeln to smuggle if a measure of ironlc crilicisn of ihe ptocesses by they are nrade and p!rue-ved Ihe Richard G€re thritler Red Corner '.vhich (1998) was abort Vveslern iiedia corporalions moving inio the huge, corrupl nevr ma*..r oi Communisl China, and jts lalvyerherc ends by rejecting his work for a IJS corporalion and ieliing lhe US enrbassy 10'Go to heli The l.urnan Show (1998) and The Matrix {1999), like Paul V€rhoevens Toial Re.all a i€w vears back, are allegori€s of talse consciousness, y/hose hetoes are called io vrali.r up io ihe illusoriness of th-- consklrcte"d lvorld ihey only seem lo inhabit, and. ;omeho',! io ciissolve ii and l,.reak out.

30

35

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Fuflhermore. ihe mein rcEson for Holiyv/oad's return lo the Roman Empire as a srbjecl in Ridley Scoil's Gladialor is thai iire s!i::,,'tling, elhnically diverse Roman v/odd ihe iikD

40

preseilts holds nar), !.aiallels lriih ii.E USi empire oi ioday ln pariiDUlar. iis SerL!!ne lracjiiicns ol repres€nielive ?ovsriineiri lrav+ given vr'ey to c'azed despciisnr and ihe bioody nass enierlairireni irspla,/s .if lie lila.llaiorlal r:ng ihe;ilnr's crowd-pleaslrg spe.ttcle oi violence, ofiers a conscicr,siy,r/ishiulianlasy-endirg rn whi:h the ballered heic rememirsrs the aujheijtic val,ras ,lrhich h3v. bic.Jri,r degradeC. Ile then hercically re eslablishes ih?m in lhe very arena where ihe corLipl regimn rrost polently displays its powe..
The €dge of desperaiion in all ilLese lilms s gEtesis the traunatic ircpped condiiion cl the citizen oi iodays ,rcrlC, wiro has nowheie else io 90 and lor whom ihe glcbe is Uke the L:ubble ihat r€pesiediy anc in.s€p:bly j,laliows hirn up as \./iih Jim Carey in The Truinan Sholv And ii is all ica plau:ible io see the rilms ihenrselves as swailovr'ed up by ihe s)"siem lhey may be trying to criticise, redui;ed to nlere enteriainmeni lhal helps io diskact the people cf the globe irom realising ho,r lhey stand. ls Ame ca baC for us? Fhillip $crne, Ttr!'Guardian- {ilovembar 11, 2000}

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i:r'.)m L..lir f ij\stqrs it.rrs :r-jn.l;si ilir in.rei::iir!l lo:s r,i ccntfiri oi ihc avai;!e ciiizai tn il global ,.ro'lal liuiarfirla io loii! lrirsa:rr;es e)(r:ntiaa if ihis i: irr.re oi ycLrr couniry lijl L:{ill)

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