Respiratory System:  Nasal Carvity: paranasal sinuses  Pharynx: o Nasopharynx o Oropharynx (larynx and laryngopharynx)  Vocal Chords o Trachea

o Bronchi  Bronchial tree  Alveoli  Pleural cavity (breathing)

Trachea

® Primary Bronchus

(L) Primary Bronchus (L) Lobar Bronchus (10) Segmental Bronchus

® Lobar Bronchus

(10) Segmental Bronchus

Bronchioles

Alveolar Duct

Alveoli

Segmental Bronchus:  10 broncho-pulmonary segments which each have own bronchiole and blood supply

o pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein o are independent entities that can be removed and not affect the next one  can remove one and not affect other 9 Alveoli  gas exchange  O2 brought in and taken into capillaries surrounding alveoli  CO2 is taken back into capillaries to be expelled

Lung
 Thoracic cavity → 12 ribs (on each side) → intercostal muscles

 Elastic o Tend to recoil  Large oblique fissure that separates inferior and superior lobes  Hilum o Where structures enter and exit lung  Breathing o Thoracic cavity > Lung o Pleural Cavity (sac) > Lung

Expand size of thoracic cavity  Natural tendency for lungs to expand  Natural tendency for lungs to recoil Draws parietal pressure outwards  Abdominal Diaphragm → Innervation of phrenic nerve (branch of cervical plexus (C3, C4, C5) Internal Intercostal Muscles: Forced Expiration (Breath out) + Rectus Abdominus External Intercostal Muscles Inhale (Breathe in) Puncture Pleural Sac  Air In = Breaks up surface tension  Changes lower pressure to higher pressure  Results in collapsed lung

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