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LAPORAN PRAKTIKUM KIMIA

ORGANIK II
UJI FITOKIMIA TUMBUHAN
Annona squamosa L.
DISUSUN OLEH:
Retno Rahmawati Azizah
140210070059
LABORAORIU! "I!IA OR#ANI"
$URUSAN "I!IA
%A"ULAS !EE!AI"A DAN IL!U &EN#EAHUAN ALA!
UNI'ERSIAS &AD$A$ARAN
2010
ABSTRAK
%ito(imia ata) (a*an+ *i,e-)t .iton)t/ient a*a0ah ,e+a0a 1eni, zat (imia ata) n)t/ien
2an+ *it)/)n(an *a/i ,)m-e/ t)m-)han3 te/ma,)( ,a2)/an *an -)ah4-)ahan5 )1)an
*a/i 6e/7o-aan ini a*a0ah men+etah)i (an*)n+an a0(a0oi* *a/i *a)n t)m-)han
Annona squamosa L. *en+an te, Ha+e/3 8a+ne/3 !a2e/3 *an D/a+en*/o..3 men+)1i
(e-e/a*aan .0a9onoi* *en+an /ea(,i anta/a a,am (0o/i*a *an ma+ne,i)m *a/i *a)n
t)m-)han Annona squamosa L. *an men+)1i (e-e/a*aan t/ite/6enoi*3 ,te/oi*3 *an
,a6onin *a/i *a)n t)m-)han Annona squamosa L. *en+an )1i Lie-e/mann4
B)/7ha/*5 !eto*e 2an+ *i +)na(an a*a0ah 6emi,ahan ata) e(,t/a(,i ,e*e/hana *an
6enam-ahan /ea+en4/ea+en 2an+ ,e,)ai3 ,e6e/ti 6e/ea(,i Ha+e/3 8a+ne/3 !a2e/3
D/a+en*o/..3 *an Lie-e/mann4B)/7ha/*5 Ha,i0 *a/i 6e/7o-aan ini a*a0ah ,am6e03
2ait) *a)n t)m-)han Annona squamosa L. men+an*)n+ a0(a0oi*3 *an t/ite/6enoi*
*en+an 6o,iti. te/ha*a6 )1i 8a+ne/3 !a2e/ *an D/a+en*o/.. ,e/ta )1i Lie-e/mann4
-)/7ha/*5
ABSTRACT
&hoto7hemi7a0 o/ &hoton)t/ient i, a00 o. 7hemi7a0 7om6o)n* o/ n)t/ient whi7h
*e/i9e* ./om 60ant ,o)/7e3 in70)*in+ 9e+eta-0e, an* ./)it,5 he 6)/6o,e o. thi,
e:6e/iment i, to (now the 7ontent o. a0(a0oi*, ./om the 0ea. o. 60ant, Annona
squamosa L5 -2 Ha+e/ te,t3 8a+ne/ te,t3 !a2e/ te,t3 an* D/a+en*/o.. te,t3 te,tin+
the 6/e,en7e o. .0a9onoi*, -2 /ea7tion -etween h2*/o7h0o/i7 a7i* an* ma+ne,i)m
./om 0ea. o. 60ant, Annona squamosa L5 an* te,tin+ the t/ite/6enoi*,3 ,te/oi*,3 an*
,a6onin, in the 0ea. o. 60ant, Annona squamosa L5 -2 Lie-e/mann4B)/7ha/* te,t5
he metho* ),e* wa, a ,im60e e:t/a7tion an* ,e6a/ation o/ the a**ition o.
a66/o6/iate /ea+ent,3 ,)7h a, /ea+ent Ha+e/3 8a+ne/3 !a2e/3 D/a+en*o/..3 an*
Lie-e/mann4B)/7ha/*5 Re,)0t, ./om thi, e:6e/iment i, ,am60e3 0ea. o. 60ant,
Annona squamosa L53 7ontain a0(a0oi*,3 an* t/ite/6enoi*, with a 6o,iti9e im6a7t on
8a+ne/3 !a2e/ an* D/a+en*o/.. te,t an* Lie-e/mann4B)/7ha/* te,t5
UJI FITOKIMIA TUMBUHAN
Annona squamosa L.
A. muricata
I. TUJUAN
15 !en+etah)i (an*)n+an a0(a0oi* *a/i *a)n t)m-)han Annona squamosa L.
*en+an te, Ha+e/3 8a+ne/3 !a2e/3 *an D/a+en*o/. 5
25 !en+)1i (e-e/a*aan .0a9onoi* *en+an /ea(,i anta/a a,am (0o/i*a *an
ma+ne,i)m *a/i *a)n t)m-)han Annona squamosa L.
;5 !en+)1i (e-e/a*aan t/ite/6enoi*3 ,te/oi* *an ,a6onin *a/i *a)n t)m-)han
Annona squamosa L. *en+an )1i Lie-e/mann4B)/7ha/*5
II. PRINSIP
15 E(t/a(,i
&emi,ahan *)a ,en2awa ata) 0e-ih *a0am ,i,tem *)a 0a/)tan 2an+ ti*a(
-e/7am6)/5
a5 H)()m Di,t/i-),i Ne/n,t
$i(a (e *a0am ,i,tem *)a 7am6)/an ,en2awa *ima,)((an zat (eti+a3 zat
te/,e-)t a(an te/*i,t/i-),i ,e*emi(ina /)6a *a0am ,i,tem mem-ent)( teta6an
*i,t/i-),i<"
D
=5
"
D
> (on,ent/a,i zat *a0am ,en2awa I
(on,ent/a,i zat *a0am ,en2awa II
-5 Li(e Di,,o09e* Li(e
S)at) ,en2awa 0e-ih m)*ah 0a/)t *a0am 6e0a/)t 2an+ memi0i(i (e6o0a/an
/e0ati. ,ama *en+an ,en2awa te/,e-)t5
25 U1i A0(a0oi*
Rea(,i 6en+en*a6an (om60e(, a0(a0oi* 2an+ ti*a( 0a/)t *a0am /ea+en 0o+am
-e/at5
;5 U1i Lie-e/mann4B)/7ha/*
Rea(,i 6em-ent)((an wa/na (a/ena a*an2a +)+), (/omo.o/ *a0am ,)at)
,en2awa5
45 U1i Sa6onin
Rea(,i 6em-ent)((an -),a (a/ena 6en+o7o((an *en+an ai/5
55 Hi*/o0i,i,
Rea(,i 6en+)/aian ,)at) ,en2awa *en+an -ant)an ai/5
?5 S)-0ima,i
&/o,e, 6em)/nian ,)at) .a,e 6a*at 2an+ -e/)-ah (e *a0am -ent)( +a, tan6a
me0e0eh te0e-ih *ah)0)5
III. MEKANISME REAKSI
15 A0(a0oi*
a5 Rea(,i 8a+ne/
CH
3
CH
3
N
2
OH
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
N
CH
3
OCH
3
I
2
3 "I
Na
@H
;
@OOH
CH
3
CH
3
N
CH
3
OCH
3
O
CH
3
CH
3
N
CH
3
OCH
3
O
A NH
;
o0)ena
ROH
-5 Rea(,i !a2e/
H
2
SO
44
75 Rea(,i D/a+en*o/..
25 Rea(,i %0a9onoi*
H
2
SO
44
;5 Rea(,i Lie-e/mann4B)/7ha/*
45 Rea(,i Hi*/o0i,i, Sa6onin *a0am Ai/
O
O
O
H
2
SO
44
+
HO
O
O
H-O
O
+
O
O
-
H
+
+
CH
3
COOH
+
H
2
SO
4
+
CH
3
COOH
<!i/o,0a93 1971=5
IV. TEORI
%ito(imia ata) (a*an+ *i,e-)t .iton)t/ient3 *a0am a/ti 0)a, a*a0ah ,e+a0a
1eni, zat (imia ata) n)t/ien 2an+ *it)/)n(an *a/i ,)m-e/ t)m-)han3 te/ma,)(
,a2)/an *an -)ah4-)ahan5 %ito(imia -ia,an2a *i+)na(an )nt)( me/)1)( 6a*a
,en2awa 2an+ *item)(an 6a*a t)m-)han 2an+ ti*a( *i-)t)h(an )nt)( .)n+,i
no/ma0 t)-)h3 ta6i memi0i(i e.e( 2an+ men+)nt)n+(an -a+i (e,ehatan ata)
memi0i(i 6e/an a(ti. -a+i 6en7e+ahan 6en2a(it<@0a/(3 2010=5
&ena6i,an (imia me/)6a(an taha6 awa0 *a/i 6en+e/1aan ,e7a/a (imia5
!eto*e 2an+ *i+)na(an ha/), -e/,i.at ,e*e/hana3 6en+e/1aann2a 7e6at3
men++)na(an 6e/a0atan 2an+ minim)n3 men++)na(an /ea+en 2an+ ,e0e(ti. te/ha*a6
,)at) +o0on+an ,en2awa te/tent)3 memi0i(i 0imit *ete(,i 2an+ /en*ah *an
mem-e/i(an in.o/ma,i tam-ahan men+enai a*a ata) t)*a(n2a +)+), .)n+,i
te/tent)<Ha/-o/ne3 197;=5
Sat) ha0 2an+ 6entin+ *an 6e/tim-an+an men*a,a/ *a0am men*e,ain
6/o,e*)/ 6a*a .ito(imia a*a0ah ,e0e(,i *a0am 6e0a/)t 2an+ te6at )nt)( e(,t/a(,i5
Se/in+(a0i ,)0it )m)mn2a ata) *iha/a6(an men+i()ti at)/an (e0a/)tan )nt)(
6em-e/ian (e0a, 6a*a .ito(on,tit)en (a/ena me/e(a men2a1i(an ,)-,tan,i *a0am
e(,t/a( t)m-)han (a,a/ 6a*a e.e( (e0a/)tan<8i07o: B 8i07o:3 1995=5
Sen2awa -ahan a0am a*a0ah ha,i0 meta-o0i,me ,)at) o/+ani,me hi*)6
<t)m-)han3 hewan3 ,e0= -e/)6a meta-o0it 6/ime/ *an ,e()n*e/5 Sen2awa meta-o0it
,e()n*e/ me/)6a(an ,)m-e/ -ahan (imia 2an+ ti*a( a(an 6e/nah ha-i,3 ,e-a+ai
,)m-e/ ino9a,i *a0am 6enem)an *an 6en+em-an+an o-at4o-at -a/) ata)6)n )nt)(
men)1an+ -e/-a+ai (e6entin+an in*),t/i5 Se0ain ,e-a+ai -ahan o-at3 ,en2awa
meta-o0it ,e()n*e/ 1)+a *i*a2a+)na(an o0eh man),ia )nt)( men)n1an+
(e6entin+an in*),t/i ,e6e/ti in*),t/i (o,meti( *an in*),t/i 6em-)atan 6e,ti,i*a *an
in,e(ti,i*a<&)t/a3 2005=5
Sen2awa !eta-o0it Se()n*e/ :
15A0(a0oi*
Se7a/a )m)m3 +o0on+an ,en2awa a0(a0oi* -ia,an2a me/)6a(an (/i,ta0 ta( -ewa/na3
-e/,i.at -a,a3 *a6at mem-ent)( en*a6an *en+an 0a/)tan a,am
.o,.owo0./amat3 a,am .o,.omo0i-*at3 a,am 6i(/at3 (a0i)m me/()/iio*i*a *an 0ain
,e-a+ain2a5

25%0a9onoi*
%0a9onoi* a*a0ah ,)at) (e0om6o( 2an+ te/ma,)( (e *a0am ,en2awa .eno0 2an+
te/-an2a( *ia0am3 ,en2awa4,en2awa .0a9onoi* ini -e/tan++)n+ 1awa- te/ha*a6 zat
wa/na )n+)3 me/ah3 -i/) *an ,e-a+ian zat wa/na ()nin+ *a0am t)m-)han5
%0a9onoi* *a0am t)m-)han mem6)n2ai em6at .)n+,i :
a= Se-a+ai 6i+men wa/na
-= %)n+,i 6ato0o+i *an ,ito0o+i
7= A(ti9ita, .a/ma(o0o+i
*= %0a9onoi* *a0am ma(anan
;5/ite/6enoi*
Ban2a( t)m-)han <-)n+a3 *a)n3 -)ah3 -i1i ata) a(a/= 2an+ -e/-a) ha/)m5 Ba)
ha/)m it) -e/a,a0 *a/i ,en2awa 2an+ te/*i/i *a/i 10 *an 15 (a/-on 2an+ *i,e-)t
te/6en5
Be/*a,a/(an 1)m0ah )nit i,o6/ena 2an+ *i(an*)n+n2a3 ,en2awa te/6enoi* te/-a+i
ata, :
a5 !onote/6ena <*)a )nit i,o6/ena=
-5 Se,()ite/6ena <ti+a )nit i,o6/ena=
75 Dite/6ena <em6at )nit i,o6/ena=
*5 /ite/6ena <enam )nit i,o6/ena=
e5 et/ate/6ena <*e0a6an )nit i,o6/ena=

45Ste/oi*
Se7a/a ,e*e/hana ,te/oi* *a6at *ioa/t(an ,e-a+ai (e0a, ,en2awa o/+ani( -ahan a0am
2an+ (e/an+(a ,t/)(t)/n2a te/*i/i *a/i an*/o,tan <,i(0o6entano.enant/en=3
mem6)n2ai em6at 7in7in te/6a*)5 Sen2awa ini mem6)n2ai e.e( .i,io0o+i, te/tent)
<Han*a2ani3 2009=5
55Sa6onin
Sa6onin a*a0ah 1eni, +0i(o,i*a 2an+ -an2a( *item)(an *a0am t)m-)han5 Sa6onin
memi0i(i (a/a(te/i,ti( -e/)6a -)ah3 ,ehin++a (eti(a *i/e(,i(an *en+an ai/ *an
*i(o7o( ma(a a(an te/-ent)( -)ih 2an+ *a6at -e/tahan 0ama5 Sa6onin
*i(0a,i.i(a,i(an men1a*i *)a 2ait) ,a6onin ,te/oi* *an ,a6onin t/ite/6enoi*5
Sa6onin ,te/oi* *ihi*/o0i,i, *a6at
men+ha,i0(an ,)at) a+0i(on<%e,,en*en B %e,,en*en3 19C?=5
B)ah ,/i(a2a -e/-ent)( -)0at *en+an ()0it -e/mata -an2a( <,e/)6a ,i/,a(=5
Da+in+ -)ahn2a -e/wa/na 6)tih5 S/i(a2a te/ma,)( ,ema( ,emi4hi1a) a-a*i ata)
6ohon 2an+ me/an++a, men7a6ai C m tin++in2a5
Da)nn2a -e/,e0an+3 ,e*e/hana3 0em-in+ mem-)1)/3 7412 7m 6an1an+n2a3
*an -e/0e-a/ ;44 7m5 B)n+an2a m)n7)0 *a0am tan*an ,e-an2a( ;443 tia6 -)n+a
-e/0e-a/ 24; 7m3 *en+an enam *a)n -)n+aD(e0o6a(3 ()nin+4hi1a) -e/-inti( )n+) *i
*a,a/n2a5 B)ahn2a -ia,an2a -)n*a/ ata) mi/i6 (e/)7)t 7ema/a3 -e/*iamete/ ?410
7m3 *en+an ()0it -e/-en1o0 *an -e/,i,i(5 Da+in+ -)ahn2a 6)tih3 men2e/)6ai *an
memi0i(i /a,a ,e6e/ti 6o*en+5
"0a,i.i(a,i:
"in+*om: &0antae <)m-)han=
S)-(in+*om: /a7heo-ionta <)m-)han -e/6em-)0)h=
S)6e/ Di9i,i: S6e/mato6h2ta <!en+ha,i0(an -i1i=
Di9i,i: !a+no0io6h2ta <)m-)han -e/-)n+a=
"e0a,: !a+no0io6,i*a <-e/(e6in+ *)a D *i(oti0=
S)- "e0a,: !a+no0ii*ae
O/*o: !a+no0ia0e,
%ami0i: Annona7eae
#en),: Annona
S6e,ie,: Annona ,E)amo,a L5
A(a/ /a,an2a 6ahit3 ,i.atn2a *in+in5 Be/(ha,iat anti/a*an+3 anti*e6/e,i5
Da)n /a,an2a 6ahit3 (e0at3 ,i.atn2a ,e*i(it *in+in5 Be/(ha,iat a,t/in+en3 anti/a*an+3
6e0)/)h 7a7in+ ),), <antheiminti(=3 ,e/ta mem6e/7e6at 6ema,a(an -i,)0 *an a-,e,5
Bi1i -e/(ha,iat mema7) enzim 6en7e/naan3 a-o/ti9)m3 anthe0minti(3 *an 6em-)n)h
,e/an++a <in,e(ti,i*a=5 ")0it (a2) -e/(ha,iat a,t/in+en *an toni()m5 B)ah m)*a
*an -i1i 1)+a -e/(ha,iat anti6a/a,it5
A(a/ *an ()0it (a2) men+an*)n+ .0a9onoi*a3 -o/neo03 (am6ho/3 te/6ene3
*an a0(a0oi* anonain5 Di ,am6in+ it)3 a(a/n2a 1)+a men+an*)n+ ,a6onin3 tanin3 *an
6o0i.eno05 Bi1i men+an*)n+ min2a(3 /e,in3 *an -ahan -e/a7)n 2an+ -e/,i.at i/itan5
B)ah men+an*)n+ a,am amino3 +)0a -)ah3 *an m)7i0a+o5 B)ah m)*a men+an*)n+
tanin<&/atama3 2009=5
Da)n ,/i(a2a <Annona squamosa L5= *i+)na(an *a0am 6en+o-atan
t/a*i,iona0 ,e-a+ai 6en)/)n (a*a/ +)0a *a/ah5 Sim60i,ia 2an+ -e/a,a0 *a/i *)a 0o(a,i
t)m-)h *i-an*in+a(an (an*)n+an (imian2a5 &ena6i,an .ito(imia (e*)a ,im60i,ia3
(a/a(te/i,ti( ,im60i,ia *an 6o0a (/omato+/am e(,t/a( men)n1)((an ha,i0 2an+
mi/i65 I,o0at me/)6a(an t/ite/6enoi* *en+an +)+), .)n+,i O4H3 @4H *an @>@ ,e/ta
ti*a( memi0i(i i(atan /an+(a6 te/(on1)+a,i<8an*a,a/i3 2007=
&a*a *a)n ,/i(a2a te/*a6at (an*)n+an -ahan a(ti. -e/)6a a0(a0oi* ti6e
a,6o/.in <anonain=3 a7eto+enin3 *an /e,in 2an+ -e(e/1a ,e-a+ai /a7)n 6e/)t *an
/a7)n (onta( te/ha*a6 ,e/an++a5 Se0ain it)3 *a)n ,/i(a2a 1)+a memi0i(i ,i.at
in,e(ti,i*a3 /e6e00ent *an anti.ee*an ,en2awa (imia FannonainF *an F/e,inF 2an+
*a6at mem-)n)h hama *an ,e/an++a 1eni, te/tent)<Sa/wa,t)ti32007=5
E(,t/a(,i a*a0ah ,a0ah ,at) meto*e 6emi,ahan 6/o*)( o/+ani( *a/i ,)at)
7am6)/an /ea(,i a0ami *a/i t)m-)han5 E(,t/a(,i 7ai/47ai/3 (on,ent/a,i
(e,etim-an+an zat te/0a/)t *iteta6(an anta/a *)a 6e0a/)t 2an+ ti*a( ,a0in+
me0a/)t(an5 Bia,an2a ,a0ah ,at) 6e0a/)tn2a a*a0ah ai/ *an 2an+ 0ainn2a a*a0ah 2an+
()/an+ 6o0a/ ata) 6e0a/)t o/+ani(<Da2 B Un*e/woo*3 1999=5
V. ALAT DAN BAHAN
5515A0at
15 A0at 6emana,
25 @awan 6et/i
;5 #)ntin+
45 "a6a,
55 La-e0
?5!o/ti/ *an A0)
75 &en1e6it (a2)
C5 &i6et tete,
95 &0at tete,
105 a-)n+ /ea(,i
5525Bahan
15 A,am (0o/i*a
25 A,am ,)0.at
;5 A,etat anhi*/i*
45 Etano0
55 "0o/o.o/m amonia(
?5 !a+ne,i)m
75 Rea+en */a+en*o/..
C5 Rea+en Ha+e/
95 Rea+en !a2e/
105 Rea+en 8a+ne/
5115Sam6e0
55;5#am-a/ A0at

1 1 1
2
3
4
5 6
7
8
9
1 10
2
3
4
5 6
7
8
9
1 1 0

A0at 6en+)a6 ta-)n+ /ea(,i
VI. PROSEDUR
Sam6e0 *a)n Annona aquamosa L. *i6oton+46oton+ 0a0) *it)m-)( *en+an
,am6ai ha0),5 "em)*ian *itim-an+ 43; +/am3 *ima,)((an *i(0o/ometan4
ammonia(a0 (e ta-)n+ /ea(,i5 La0) *ia*)( *en+an -atan+ 6en+a*)(5 Sete0ah it)
(a6a, *ima,)((an *an e(,t/a(n2a *i(e0)a/(an5 E(,t/a( *i-a+i (e *a0am em6at
ta-)n+ 2an+ te/6i,ah5 "em)*ian ta-)n+ 6e/tama *itam-ah *en+an /ea+en Ha+e/5
Ha,i0 6o,iti. *itan*ai *en+an a*an2a en*a6an ()nin+5 La0) ta-)n+ (e*)a *an
,ete/),n2a *itam-ah *en+an a,am ,)0.at 2 N3 (em)*ian ma,in+4ma,in+ ta-)n+
/ea(,i *itam-ah(an *en+an /ea+en 2an+ -e/-e*a5 a-)n+ /ea(,i (e*)a *ima,)((an
/ea+en !a2e/3 (eti+a /ea+en 8a+ne/3 *an (eem6at /ea+en D/a+en*o/..5 Ha,i0
6o,iti. *it)n1)((an a*an2a en*a6an 6)tih )nt)( !a2e/3 7o(0at )nt)( 8a+ne/3 *an
o/an+e )nt)( D/a+en*o/..5
Sam6e0 2an+ te0ah *iha0),(an3 *itim-an+ ,e-an2a( ;31 +/am5 "em)*ian
*ima,)((an (e *a0am ta-)n+ /ea(,i5 Sete0ah it) *itam-ah(an methano0 ,am6ai
,am6e0 te/en*am5 La0) *ia*)( *en+an -atan+ 6en+a*)(5 Sete0ah it) (a6a,
*ima,)((an *an e(,t/a(n2a *e(e0)a/(an5 E(,t/a( *itam-ah(an *en+an A,am
(0o/i*a 2 N3 (em)*ian *itam-ah(an 0a+i *en+an -)-)( !a+ne,i)m5 Ha,i0 6o,iti.
*it)n1)((an *en+an a*an2a wa/na 0a/)tan 2an+ -e/)-ah men1a*i o/an+e5
Sam6e0 2an+ te0ah *iha0),(an5 Ditim-an+ ,e-an2a( 43; +/am5 "em)*ian
*ima,)((an (e *a0am ta-)n+ /ea(,i5 Sete0ah it) *itam-ah(an ethano0 ,am6ai
,am6e0 te/en*am5 La0) *ia*)( *en+an -atan+ 6en+a*)(5 Sete0ah it) (a6a,
*ima,)((an *an e(,t/a(n2a *i(e0)a/(an5 "em)*ian e(,t/a( *itam-ah(an *en+an
ete/5 Sete0ah it) *i)a6(an *i7awan 6en+)a65 E(,t/a( ete/ *itam-ah(an *en+an
/ea+en Lie-e/mann4B)/7ha/*5 Ha,i0 6o,iti. *it)n1)((an *en+an a*an2a wa/na hi1a)
ata) -i/) ata) hi1a) )nt)( ,te/oi* ,e-a0i(n2a 1i(a wana 2an+ *it)n1)((an wa/na
me/ah3 )n+) ata) 7o(0at3 ma(a ,am6e0 6o,iti. men+an*)n+ t/ite/6enoi*5 Re,i*)
2an+ te/tin++a0 *i0a/)t(an *en+an ai/ 6ana,5 "em)*ian *i(o7o(5 Ha,i0 6o,iti. )nt)(
,a6onin *it)n1)((an *en+an a*an2a -),a ,e0ama 15 menit5
VII. DATA PENGAMATAN
7515 Si.at %i,i( *an Si.at "imia Gat
Gat Si.at %i,i( Si.at "imia
Ai/ 7ai/ ta( -e/wa/na ti*a( /ea(ti.3 ,ta-i0
H
2
O
L
>0
o
@ 6e0a/)t 6o0a/

*
>100
o
@ ti*a( -e/a7)n
H > 1 +DmL men+an*)n+ i(atan
h2*/o+en
Etano0
0
> 41173;
o
@ 9o0ati0e
@H
;
@H
2
OH
*
> 7C3 ;
o
@ m)*ah te/-a(a/
!/> 4? +Dmo0
A,am (0o/i*a !/ > ;?35 +5mo0 0a/)t *a0am ai/
H@0
*
> 10C3 5C
o
@ a,am ()at

0
> 470
o
@ ti*a( 6o0a/ *a0am ete/
A,am ,)0.at !/> 9C309 +Dmo0 a,am ()at
H
2
SO
4

0
> 103;?
o
@ (o/o,i.

*
>;;C
o
@ 0a/)t *a0am ai/
!ethano0 !/> ;2 +Dmo0 9o0ati0e
@H
;
OH
0
> 49C
o
@ 0a/)t *a0am ai/

*
> ??35
o
@ 6o0a/
!a+ne,i)m !/>243;05 +Dmo0 *a6at *i+)na(an
!+ 0o+am 6)tih 6e/a( ,e-a+ai a00o2
7525 a-e0 6en+amatan
Sam6e0 a0(a0oi* %0a9onoi* Ste/oi* /ite/6en Sa6onin
Da)n H 8 ! D
Annona <4= <A= <A= <A= <4= <4= <A= <4=
squamosa L.
Gat &e/0a()an Ha,i0
Da)n *i6oton+46oton+3 *an *it)m-)( ,am6ai ha0),
A0(a0oi* *itim-an+ 43; +3 *ie(,t/a(,i *en+an /e,i*) *an e(,t/a(
(0o/o.o/m
E(,t/a( *ima,)((an *a0am 4 ta-)n+ /ea(,i
a-)n+ 1>*i ma,)((an /ea+ean Ha+e/ <4=
a-)n+ 2> *ima,)((an H
2
SO
4
*itam-ah <A=
Rea+en !a2e/ en*a6an 6)tih
a-)n+ ;>*i ma,)((an H
2
SO
4
<A=
*itam-ah Rea+en D/a+en*o/.. en*a6an o/an+e
a-)n+ 4>*i ma,)((an H
2
SO
4
<A=
*itam-ah /ea+en 8a+ne/ en*a6an 7o(0at
%0a9onoi* *itim-an+ ;31 +3 *ie(,ta(,i *en+an /e,i*) *an e(,t/a(
methano0
E(,t/a( *ima,)((an (e ta-)n+ /ea(,i
*itam-ah H@0 2N3 *itam-ah <4=%0a9onoi*
-)-)( !+
Sa6onin3 Ste/oi*3 *itim-an+ 43; +3 *ie(,t/a(,i *en+an e(,t/a( *an /e,i*)
*an /ite/6enoi* etano0
E(,t/a( *itam-ah ete/3 *i)a6(an *i7awan /e,i*) *an e(,t/a(
6en+)a6 (e/in+
E(,t/a( (e/in+ *ie(,t/a(,i *itam-ah *en+an <A= 7o(0at>t/ite/6en
6e/ea(,i LB <4= ,te/oi*
Re,i*) *i (o7o( *en+an ai/ 6ana, <4= ,a6onin
VIII. PEMBAHASAN
Sen2awa meta-o0it ,e()n*e/ 2an+ -an2a( te/(an*)n+ *a0am tanaman
me/)6a(an ,)m-e/ -ahan (imia 2an+ ti*a( a(an 6e/nah ha-i,5 Sen2awa meta-o0it
,e()n*e/ me/)6a(an ,en2awa 2an+ *a6at *i+)na(an *a0am (e6entin+an 6en+o-atan
*an in*),t/i5 O0eh(a/ena it)3 6en+i,o0a,ian *an 6en+em-an+an meta-o0it ,e()n*e/
amat0ah -e/+)na5
&e/7o-aan ini -e/t)1)an )nt)( men+etah)i (an*)n+an a0(a0oi* *a/i *a)n
t)m-)han Annona squamosa L. *en+an te, Ha+e/3 8a+ne/3 !a2e/3 *an
D/a+en*/o..3 men+)1i (e-e/a*aan .0a9onoi* *en+an /ea(,i anta/a a,am (0o/i*a *an
ma+ne,i)m *a/i *a)n t)m-)han Annona squamosa L. *an men+)1i (e-e/a*aan
t/ite/6enoi*3 ,te/oi*3 *an ,a6onin *a/i *a)n t)m-)han Annona squamosa L. *en+an
)1i Lie-e/mann4B)/7ha/*3
Ha0 6e/tama 2an+ ha/), *i0a()(an *a0am 6en+)1ian .ito(imia a*a0ah
6en+)m6)0an -a+ian tanaman5 &en+)1ian *en+an men++)na(an ,am6e0 t)m-)han
2an+ ma,ih ,e+a/ *ima(,)*(an )nt)( men+hin*a/i /),a(n2a 1a/in+an ,e0 t)m-)han5
"e/),a(an 1a/in+an ini *a6at -e/a(i-at 6a*a hi0an+ ata) /),a(n2a ,en2awa a(ti.
2an+ *i(an*)n+ tanaman it) a(i-at 6ana, ata) tanaman te/,e-)t te/0a0) 0ama
*i*iam(an ma(a *i(hawati/(an ,en2awa a(ti.n2a a(an /),a( *i,e-a-(an o0eh
enzim ata) ai/ 2an+ te/*a6at 6a*a t)m-)han 2an+ *itan*ai *en+an 6e/)-ahan wa/na
<0a2) ata) (e/in+=5 Da0am 6en+)1ian .ito(imia3 )nt)( men+etah)i (an*)n+an
,en2awa meta-o0it ,e()n*e/n2a <a0(a0oi*3 ,te/oi*3 t/ite/6enoi* *an ,a6onin=3 ,am6e0
*a)n t)m-)han Annona squamosa L. *i6oton+46oton+ ,am6ai han7)/ *an (em)*ian
*it)m-)( ,am6ai ha0),3 ,ehin++a *in*in+ ,e0 t)m-)han te/-)(a ,ehin++a meta-o0it
,e()n*e/ 0e-ih m)*ah (e0)a/ *an 0e-ih m)*ah *ie(,t/a(,i55
Sam6e0 2an+ ,)*ah ha0), *i)1i *en+an )1i a0(a0oi*5 im-an+ ,am6e0
,e-an2a( 43; +/am3 (em)*ian ma,)((an (e *a0am ta-)n+ /ea(,i *an ma,)((an
(0o/o.o/m amonia(a0 ,am6ai te/en*am3 0a0) *ia*)( *en+an -atan+ 6en+a*)(3
(em)*ian *ima,)((an (a6a, )nt)( memi,ah(an e(,t/a( *en+an /e,i*)n2a3
6enam-ahan (0o/o.o/m amonia(a0 -e/.)n+,i )nt)( mem-e-a,(an a0(a0oi* *a/i
-ent)( +a/amn2a5 &a*a )m)mn2a ,en2awa a0(a0oi* *a0am t)m-)han ti*a( -e/a*a
*a0am (ea*aan -e-a,3 me0ain(an te/i(at ,e7a/a i(atan ioni( (om60e(, 6a/,ia0
*en+an a,am o/+ani(5 &enam-ahan (0o/o.o/m amonia(a0 <*en+an (e-a,aan 2an+
0e-ih ()at *a/i6a*a ,en2awa a0(a0oi*=3 a,am o/+ani( a(an te/i(at *en+an (0o/o.o/m
amonia(a0 ,ehin++a ,en2awa a0(a0oi*n2a -e-a,5
E(,t/a( (0o/o.o/m amonia(a0 2an+ te0ah *i6i,ah(an *en+an (a6a,3
*ima,)((an (e*a0am em6at ta-)n+ 2an+ -e/-e*a3 ta-)n+ 6e/tama 0an+,)n+
*itam-ah(an *en+an 6e/ea(,i Ha+e/ <a,am 6i(/at=3 *i(o7o( ,e,aat *an 0ihat
ha,i0n2a5 e/n2ata ti*a( tim-)0 en*a6an -e/wana ()nin+3 menan*a(an ha,i0 ne+ati.5
"em)*ian (eti+a ,i,a ta-)n+ *itam-ah *en+an a,am ,)0.at 2N )nt)( )nt)(
men+i(at (em-a0i a0(a0oi* men1a*i +a/am a0(a0oi* a+a/ *a6at -e/ea(,i *en+an
6e/ea(,i 0o+am -e/at *an mem-ent)( (om60e(, +a/am ano/+ani( 2an+ ti*a( 0a/)t3
,e/ta men+em-a0i(an a0(a0oi* 2an+ te/e(,t/a(,i men1a*i -ent)( +a/amn2a *en+an
,ehin++a a0(a0oi* a(an te/6i,ah *en+an (om6onen4(om6onen 0ain *a/i ,e0
t)m-)han 2an+ i()t te/e(,t/a( *en+an men*i,t/i-),i(ann2a (e .a,a a,am5 Ha0 ini
-e/t)1)an )nt)( men7e+ah i()t men+en*a6n2a (om6onen 0ain ,e0ain a0(a0oi*
,ehin++a a(an men+ha,i0(an 6en+)1ian 2an+ ()/an+ a()/at5 "a/ena 6e/-e*aan
(e6o0a/an *an *en,ita, anta/a (0o/o.o/m amonia(a0 *an a,am ,)0.at ma(a a(an
te/-ent)( *)a .a,a3 .a,a a,am a(an -e/a*a *i ata, ,e*an+(an .a,a (0o/o.o/m
amonia(a0 -e/a*a *i -awah5 %a,e -awah *i6i,ah(an *en+an men++)na(an 6i6et3
*an .a,e a,am 2an+ te/,i,a *itam-ah(an 6e/ea(,i46e/ea(,i 0o+am -e/at5
A*an2a (an*)n+an a0(a0oi* *itan*ai *en+an a*an2a en*a6an5 Ha0 ini
te/1a*i (a/ena ,en2awa a0(a0oi* men+an*)n+ atom nit/o+en 2an+ memi0i(i
6a,an+an e0e(t/on -e-a,5 E0e(t/on -e-a, ini a(an *i,)m-an+(an 6a*a atom 0o+am
-e/at mem-ent)( ,en2awa (om60e(, *en+an +)+), 2an+ men+an*)n+ atom
nit/o+en ,e-a+ai 0i+ann2a5 Sen2awa (om60e(, ini ti*a( 0a/)t <men+en*a6= *an
mem-e/i(an wa/na ,e,)ai *en+an 6e/ea(,i 2an+ *i+)na(an5 Den+an 6e/ea(,i
8a+ne/ a(an te/-ent)( en*a6an 7o(0at3 *en+an 6e/ea(,i D/a+en*o/. a(an te/-ent)(
en*a6an o/an+e *an *en+an 6e/ea(,i !a2e/ a(an te/-ent)( en*a6an 6)tih Da/i
(eem6at 6e/ea(,i 2an+ menim-)0(an ha,i0 6o,iti. 6a*a 6e/ea(,i !a2e/3 8a+ne/
*an D/a+en*o/..5
Rea(,i 2an+ te/1a*i:
&e/ea(,i !a2e/
&e/ea(,i 8a+ne/
CH
3
CH
3
N
2
OH
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
N
CH
3
OCH
3
I
2
3 "I
Na
@H
;
@OOH
CH
3
CH
3
N
CH
3
OCH
3
O
CH
3
CH
3
N
CH
3
OCH
3
O
A NH
;
o0)ena
ROH
&e/ea(,i D/a+en*o/..
Ha,i0 6en+)1ian a0(a0oi* te/ha*a6 ,am6e0 *a6at *i(ata(an 6o,iti. (a/ena *a/i
em6at 6e/ea(,i 2an+ *itam-aha(an3 a*a ti+a 2an+ 6o,iti. 2ait) *en+an 6e/ea(,i
!a2e/3 8a+ne/ *an D/a+en*o/.5
Ha0 2an+ *i0a()(an ,e0an1)tn2a a*a0ah 6en+)1ian )nt)( menan*a(an a*a
ti*a(n2a .0a9onoi* 6a*a ,am6e0 *en+an 7a/a3 ,am6e0 2an+ te0ah ha0), *itim-an+
,e-an2a( ;31 +3 (em)*ian *ie(,t/a(,i *en+an metano05 E(,t/a(,i .0a9onoi* *a/i
t)m-)han *a6at *i0a()(an *en+an men++)na(an 6e0a/)t 6o0a/5 %0a9onoi*
me/)6a(an ,en2awa 6o0a/ (a/ena mem6)n2ai ,e1)m0ah +)+), hi*/o(,i05 O0eh
(a/ena it)3 )m)mn2a .0a9onoi* 0a/)t *a0am 6e0a/)t 6o0a/ ,e6e/ti metano05 !etano0
@H
;
4 @H
2
4 OH
#)+), non 6o0a/ #)+), 6o0a/
-e/.)n+,i ,e-a+ai 6em-e-a, .0a9onoi* *a/i -ent)( +a/amn2a3 (em)*ian
*itam-ah(an a,am ,)0.at 2N3 a,am ,)0.at -e/.)n+,i )nt)( 6/otona,i .0a9onoi*
,ehin++a te/-ent)( +a/am .0a9onoi*5 Sete0ah it) *itam-ah(an -)-)( ma+ne,i)m5
Ha,i0 6o,iti. *it)n1)((an *en+an 0a/)tan -e/)-ah wa/na men1a*i o/an+e5 e/n2ata
,am6e0 ti*a( men)n1)((an ha,i0 6o,iti.3 ha0 ini menan*a(an -ahwa ,am6e0 *a)n
ti*a( men+an*e)n+ .0a9onoi*5 Rea(,i 2an+ te/1a*i *a6at *i0ihat *a/i /ea(,i -e/i()t:
Se0an1)tn2a a*a0ah 6en+)1ian ,te/oi*3 t/ite/6enoi* *an ,a6onin3 ,ete0ah
,am6e0 *a)n *itim-an+ 43; +3 *itam-ah(an etano0 6ana,5 &e0a/)t etano0 *i+)na(an
(a/ena etano0 memi0i(i *)a +)+),3 2ait) +)+), 6o0a/ 6a*a -a+ian a0(oho0n2a *an
+)+), non6o0a/ 6a*a -a+ian hi*/o(a/-onn2a5
Ste/oi* *an t/ite/6enoi* -e/,i.at /e0ati. non 6o0a/ ,e*an+(an ,a6onin
7en*e/)n+ -e/,i.a/ 6o0a/5 Den+an men++)na(an etano03 (eti+a ,en2awa te/,e-)t
*a6at te/e(,t/a(5 &en++)naan etano0 6ana, a(an menin+(at(an (e0a/)tan ,)ata)
,en2awa ,ehin++a *iha/a6(an ,e0)/)h ,te/oi*3 t/ite/6enoi* *an ,a6onin 2an+
te/(an*)n+ *a0am t)m-)han a(an te/e(,t/a( (e *a0am etano05
&e0a/)t etano0i( (em)*ian *i)a6(an *an (em)*ian *i0a/)t(an *en+an ete/
)nt)( mena/i( (om6onen non6o0a/ *a0am e(,t/a( (e/in+ ,e,)ai *en+an 6/in,i6 like
dissolve like5 Unt)( 6en+)1ian (an*)n+an t/ite/6enoi* *an ,t/eoi* *a0am ,am6e0
*a)n3 e(,t/a( ete/ *itam-ah(an 6e/ea(,i Lie-e/man4B)7ha/* <L4B=3 2ait) 7am6)/an
a,am a,etat anhi*/i* *en+an a,am ,)0.at 6e(at <2:1=5
In*i(a,i 6o,iti. ,te/oi* *itan*ai *en+an 6e/)-ahan wa/na men1a*i -i/) ata)
hi1a)5 8a/na -i/) ata) hi1a) -)(an me/)6a(an wa/na 2an+ *i,e/a6 me0ain(an wa/na
(om60emente/5 8a/na 2an+ *i,e/a6 a*a0ah wa/na 1in++a ,ehin++a *i(etah)i ,te/oi*
men2e/a6 6a*a 6an1an+ +e0om-an+ 5C54?47 nm5 Se*an+(an 6a*a t/ite/6enoi*
in*i(a,i 6o,iti. *itan*ai *en+an 6e/)-ahan wa/na men1a*i me/ah3 )n+) ata) 7o(0at5
8a/na 2an+ *i,e/a6 o0eh t/ite/6enoi* a*a0ah wa/na hi1a) *en+an 6an1an+
+e0om-an+ 4914570 nm5 #)+), IOH 6a*a t/ite/6enoi* a(an men+a0ami 6e/+e,e/an
6an1an+ +e0om-an+ 2an+ *i,e/a6 ,ehin++a wa/na 2an+ *itim-)0(an -e/-e*a5 $a*i
wa/na me/ah3 )n+) ata) 7o(0at a*a0ah wa/na (om60emente/5 Rea(,i 6em-ent)(an
wa/na ini *a6at te/1a*i (a/ena a*an2a +)+), (/omo.o/ <+)+), ta( 1en)h= 2an+
*i,e-a-(an o0eh a-,o/6,i 6an1an+ +e0om-an+ te/tent) o0eh ,en2awa o/+ani(5
Sen2awa o/+ani( *en+an (on1)+a,i 2an+ e(,ten,i. men2e/a6 6an1an+ +e0om-an+
te/tent) (a/ena a*an2a t/an,i,i e0e(t/on J (e JK *an n (e JK ,ehin++a wa/na 2an+
*i,e/a6 -)(an wa/na 2an+ tam6a( me0ain(an wa/na (om60emente/n2a5 $i(a ,am6e0
men+an*)n+ t/ite/6enoi* *an ,te/oi* ,e(a0i+), ma(a wa/na 2an+ 6e/tama (a0i
tim-)0 a*a0ah wa/na t/ite/6enoi* (em)*ian *i,),)0 wa/na ,te/oi*5 Ha0 ini
*i,e-a-(an (a/ena 6an1an+ +e0om-an+ 2an+ *i,e/a6 o0eh t/ite/6enoi* 0e-ih 6an1an+
a/tin2a ene/+in2a 0e-ih /en*ah ,ehin++a a(an m)n7)0 0e-ih *ah)0)5 Ha,i0n2a
men)n1)((an te-ent)(n2a wa/na 7o(0at menan*a(an -ahwa ,am6e0 6o,iti.
mem6)n2ai t/ite/6enoi*3 teta6i (a/ena wana hi1a) ata) -i/) ti*a( m)n7)0 ini
menan*a(an -ahwa ,am6e0 *a)n ti*a( men+an*)n+ ,te/oi*5
Rea(,i Lie-e/man4B)7ha/*
O
O
O
H
2
SO
4
+
Re,i*) 2an+ ti*a( 0a/)t ,aat 6enam-ahan ete/3 *itam-ah(an *en+an a()a*e,
6ana, )nt)( men+)1i a*an2a ,a6onin5 A*an2a ,a6onin *itan*ai *en+an tim-)0n2a
-),a ,ete0ah 6en+o7o(an *en+an a()a*e, 6ana, *an -),a (on,tan ,e0ama 15 menit5
B),a te/,e-)t te/-ent)( (a/ena a*an2a +e0em-)n+4+e0em-)n+ )*a/a 2an+ te/1e-a(
*a0am 0a/)tan5 Sa6onin me/)6a(an zat 2an+ memi0i(i ,en2awa a(ti. 6e/m)(aan *an
-e/,i.at ,e6e/ti ,a-)n ,ehin++a 6en+ena0ann2a *a6at *i0a()(an *e+an m)*ah5
Be/i()t /ea(,in2a :
Sa6onin me/)6a(an (om6onen 0i6i*a 6o0a/ 2an+ -e/,i.at am6i.i0i(
<memi0i(i +)+), hi*/o.i0i( *an +)+), hi*/o.o-i(=5 Di *a0am ,i,tem 7ai/3 0i6i*a 7ai/
,e7a/a ,6ontan te/*i,6e/,i mem-ent)( mi,e0 *en+an e(o/ .i0i( 2an+ -e/,in++)n+an
*en+an me*i)m 7ai/5 !i,e0 te/,e-)t *a6at men+an*)n+ /i-)an mo0e()0 0i6i*a5
Li6i*a 7ai/ mem-ent)( ,)at) 0a6i,an *en+an (ete-a0an ,at) mo0e()0 2ait) 0a6i,an
HO
O
O
H-O
O
+
O
O
-
H
+
+
CH
3
COOH
+
H
2
SO
4
+ CH
3
COOH
t)n++a05 &a*a ,i,tem te/,e-)t3 e(o/ hi*/o(a/-on te/-)(a ,ehin++a te/hin*a/ *a/i ai/
*an 0a6i,an hi*/o.i0i( meman1an+ (e ai/ 2an+ -e/,i.at 6o0a/3 ,i,tem ini0ah 2an+
*i,e-)t *en+a -),a5 Ha,i0 ti*a( men)n1)((an a*an2a -),a menan*a(an -ahwa
,am6e0 ti*a( men+an*)n+ ,a6onin5
Ha,i0 *a/i 6e/7o-aan ini a*a0ah ,am6e0 *a)n t)m-)han Annona squamosa
L. men+an*)n+ a0(a0oi*3 *an t/ite/6enoi* *en+an 6o,iti. te/ha*a6 )1i 8a+ne/3
!a2e/ *an D/a+en*o/.. ,e/ta )1i Lie-e/mann4-)/7ha/*5
IX. KESIMPULAN
15 "an*)n+an a0(a0oi* *a/i *a)n t)m-)han Annona squamosa L. *i(etah)i *en+an
te, Ha+e/ <4=3 8a+ne/ <A=3 !a2e/ <A=3 *an D/a+en*o/..<A=5
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