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Name ___________________________ Class ________ Date ___________

TEKS 11C Use thermochemical equations to calculate energy changes that occur in
chemical reactions and classify reactions as exothermic or endothermic.
TEKS Lesson 11C:
Thermochemical Equations
How can you express the enthalpy change for a reaction in
a chemical equation?
As you will learn in TEKS Lesson 11E, the enthalpy (H) o a system accounts or the heat low o the
system at constant pressure! The heat a"sor"ed or released "y a reaction at constant pressure is the same
as the change in enthalpy, sym"oli#ed as $H!
% you mi& calcium o&ide with water, the water in the mi&ture "ecomes warm! This e&othermic reaction
occurs when cement, which contains calcium o&ide, is mi&ed with water to ma'e concrete! (hen 1 mol
o calcium o&ide reacts with 1 mol o water, 1 mol o calcium hydro&ide orms and )*!+ ', o heat is
released! %n a chemical equation, the enthalpy change or the reaction can "e written as either a reactant or
a product! %n the equation descri"ing the e&othermic reaction o calcium o&ide and water, the enthalpy
change can "e considered a product!
-a.(s) / 0+.(l) -a(.0)+(s) / )*!+ ',
This equation is presented 1isually "elow! A chemical equation that includes the enthalpy change is called
a thermochemical equation.
The heat of reaction is the enthalpy change or the chemical equation e&actly as it is written! 2ou will
usually see heats o reaction reported as 3H, which is equal to the heat low at constant pressure! The
physical state o the reactants and products must also "e gi1en! The standard conditions are that the
reaction is carried out at 141!5 '6a (1 atm) and that the reactants and products are in their usual physical
states at +*7-! The heat o reaction, or 3H, in the a"o1e e&ample is 8)*!+ ',! Each mole o calcium o&ide
and water that reacts to orm calcium hydro&ide produces )*!+ ', o heat!
-a.(s) / 0+.(l) -a(.0)+(s) 3 H 9 8)*!+ ',
%n this and other e&othermic processes, the chemical potential energy o the reactants is higher than the
chemical potential energy o the products!
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TEKS
Chemistry
Lesson 11C
Name ___________________________ Class ________ Date ___________
.ther reactions a"sor" heat rom the surroundings! :or e&ample, "a'ing soda (sodium
"icar"onate) decomposes when it is heated! The car"on dio&ide released in the
reaction causes muins to rise while "a'ing! This process is endothermic!
+;a0-.5(s) / <* ', ;a+-.5(s) / 0+.(l) / -.+(g)
=emem"er that 3H is positi1e or endothermic reactions! Thereore, you can write the reaction as
ollows>
+;a0-.5(s) ;a+-.5(s) / 0+.(l) / -.+(g) 3 H 9 <* ',
The igure "elow shows the enthalpy diagram or this reaction! %n this and other endothermic processes,
the chemical potential energy o the products is higher than the chemical potential energy o the reactants!
How can you calculate the enthalpy change for a reaction
using a chemical equation?
-hemistry pro"lems in1ol1ing enthalpy changes are similar to stoichiometry pro"lems! The amount o
heat released or a"sor"ed during a reaction depends on the num"er o moles o the reactants in1ol1ed!
The decomposition o + mol o sodium "icar"onate, or e&ample, requires <* ', o heat! Thereore, the
decomposition o ? mol o the same su"stance would require twice as much heat, or 1@4 ',!
To see why the physical state o the reactants and products in a thermochemical reaction must "e stated,
compare the ollowing two equations or the decomposition o 1 mol 0+.>
0+.(l) 0+(g) /


1
+
.+(g) 3 H 9 +<*!< ',
0+.(g) 0+(g) /


1
+
.+(g) 3 H 9 +?1!< ',
dierence 9 ??!4 ',
Although the two equations are 1ery similar, the dierent physical states o 0+. result in dierent 3H
1alues! %n one case, the reactant is a liquidA in the other case, the reactant is a gas! The 1apori#ation o
1 mol o liquid water to water 1apor at +*7- requires ??!4 ', o heat!
0+.(l) 0+.(g) 3 H 9 ??!4 ',
Sample ro!lem: "sing the Heat of #eaction to Calculate
Enthalpy Change Use the ollowing thermochemical equation to calculate the energy change (in ',)
that occurs when +!+? mol o ;a0-.5(s) decomposes!
$
TEKS
Chemistry
Lesson 11C
Name ___________________________ Class ________ Date ___________
+;a0-.5(s) / <* ', ;a+-.5(s) / 0+.(l) / -.+(g)
1. Analyze List the knowns and the unknown. Use the thermochemical equation a"o1e
to write a con1ersion actor relating 'iloBoules o heat and moles o ;a0-.5(s)! Then
use the con1ersion actor to determine $H or +!+? mol ;a0-.5(s)!
Knowns
C amount o ;a0-.5(s) that decomposes 9 +!+? mol
C $H 9 <* ', or + mol ;a0-.5(s)
Unknown
C $H 9 D ', or +!+? mol ;a0-.5(s)
2. Calculate Solve for the unknown.
(rite the con1ersion actor relating ', o heat and moles o ;a0-.5(s)!

<* ',
+ mol ;a0-.
5
(s)
Using dimensional analysis, sol1e or $H.

H =+!+? mol ;a0-.


5
(s)
<* ',
+ mol ;a0-.
5
(s)
=E* ',
3. Evaluate Does the result make sense? The <* ', in the thermochemical equation reers to the
decomposition o + mol ;a0-.5(s)! Thereore, the decomposition o +!+? mol should a"sor" more heat
than <* ',! The answer o E* ', is consistent with this estimate!
%
TEKS
Chemistry
Lesson 11C
Name ___________________________ Class ________ Date ___________
Lesson Chec&
1' #e(iew How are enthalpy changes expressed in chemical equations?
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$' )escri!e When 2 mol of solid magnesium (g! com"ine with # mol of oxygen gas ($2!% 2 mol of
solid magnesium oxide (g$! are formed and #2&' () of heat is released* Write the thermochemical
equation for this com"ustion reaction*
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%' Classify #eactions +he following thermochemical equation descri"es the com"ustion of methane%
which is found in natural gas*
CH'(g! , 2$2(g! C$2(g! , 2H2$(l! , -.& ()
Classify the a"o/e reaction as exothermic or endothermic*
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+' Calculate Energy Changes 0asohol contains ethanol% C2H1$(l!* When ethanol "urns% it reacts with
$2(g! to produce C$2(g! and H2$(l!* 2se the thermochemical equation to calculate the energy
change that occurs when #2*3 g of ethanol "urns*
C2H1$(l! , 4$2(g! 2C$2(g! , 4H2$(l! 5 H 6 7#41- ()
+
TEKS
Chemistry
Lesson 11C