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GATE/IES/PSU2014
(Formula Sheet for ECE Dept.,)
Published & Marketed by
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore),
D.No.600, Ist floor,
46
th
Cross, Corporation colony,
South End Main, Jayanagar 9
th
Block,
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Formula Sheet
(ECE Department)
Index Page. No.
1. Mathematics   1 to 9
2. EDC & Analog Electronics  10 to 18
3. Digital Electronics   19 to 21
4. Microprocessors   22 to 25
5. Signals & Systems   26 to 31
6. Control Systems   32 to 34
7. Communications   35 to 38
8. ElectroMagnetic Theory  39 to 45
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Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Mathematics Formula Sheet
MatheMatics
Matrix :
• If A =0 → Singular matrix ; A ≠ 0 Non singular matrix
• Scalar Matrix is a Diagonal matrix with all diagonal elements are equal
• Unitary Matrix is a scalar matrix with Diagonal element as ‘1’ (A
Q
=(A
∗
)
T
= A
−1
)
• If the product of 2 matrices are zero matrix then at least one of the matrix has det zero
• Orthogonal Matrix if AA
T
= A
T
.A =I ⇒ A
T
=A
−1
• A =A
T
→ Symmetric
A = A
T
→ Skew symmetric
Properties : (if A & B are symmetrical )
• A +B symmetric
• KA is symmetric
• AB +BA symmetric
• AB is symmetric iff AB =BA
• For any ‘A’ → A +A
T
symmetric ; A  A
T
skew symmetric.
• Diagonal elements of skew symmetric matrix are zero
• If A skew symmetric A
2n
→ symmetric matrix ; A
2n−1
→ skew symmetric
• If ‘A’ is null matrix then Rank of A =0.
Consistency of Equations :
• r(A, B) ≠ r(A) is consistent
• r(A, B) =r(A) consistent &
if r(A) =no. of unknowns then unique solution
r(A) <no. of unknowns then ∞ solutions .
Hermition , Skew Hermition , Unitary & Orthogonal Matrices :
• A
T
=A
∗
→ then Hermition
• A
T
=−A
∗
→ then Hermition
• Diagonal elements of Skew Hermition Matrix must be purely imaginary or zero
• Diagonal elements of Hermition matrix always real .
• A real Hermition matrix is a symmetric matrix.
• KA =K
n
A
Eigen Values & Vectors :
• Char. Equation A – λI =0.
Roots of characteristic equation are called eigen values . Each eigen value corresponds to non zero
solution X such that (A – λI)X =0 . X is called Eigen vector .
• Sum of Eigen values is sum of Diagonal elements (trace)
• Product of Eigen values equal to Determinent of Matrix .
• Eigen values of A
T
& A are same
• λ is Eigen value of A then 1/ λ → A
−1
&
A
λ
is Eigen value of adj A.
• λ
1
, λ
2
…… λ
n
are Eigen values of A then
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Pg.No. 1 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Mathematics Formula Sheet
KA → K λ
1
, K λ
2
……..K λ
n
A
m
→ λ
1
m
, λ
2
m
………….. λ
n
m
.
A +KI → λ
1
+k , λ
2
+k , …….. λ
n
+k
(A −KI)
2
→ (λ
1
−k)
2
, ……… (λ
n
−k)
2
• Eigen values of orthogonal matrix have absolute value of ‘1’ .
• Eigen values of symmetric matrix also purely real .
• Eigen values of skew symmetric matrix are purely imaginary or zero .
• λ
1
, λ
2
, …… λ
n
distinct eigen values of A then corresponding eigen vectors X
1
, X
2
, .. … X
n
for
linearly independent set .
• adj (adj A) = A
n−2
;  adj (adj A)  =A
(n−1)
2
Complex Algebra :
• Cauchy Rieman equations
=
;
= −
=
1
r
= −
1
r
� Neccessary & Sufficient Conditions for f(z) to be analytic
• ∫ f(z)/(Z −a)
n+1
c
dz =
2πi
n!
[ f
n
(a) ] if f(z) is analytic in region ‘C’ & Z =a is single point
• f(z) =f(z
0
) +f
′
(z
0
)
(z−z
0
)
1!
+ f
′′
(z
0
)
(z−z
0
)
2
2!
+…… + f
n
(z
0
)
(z−z
0
)
n
n!
+………. Taylor Series
⇓
if z
0
=0 then it is called Mclauren Series f(z) =∑ a
n
(z − z
0
)
n ∞
0
; when a
n
=
f
n
(z
0
)
n !
• If f(z) analytic in closed curve ‘C’ except @ finite no. of poles then
∫ f(z)dz
c
=2πi (sum of Residues @ singular points within ‘C’ )
Res f(a) =lim
→
( − ()
=Φ(a) / φ
′
(a)
= lim
→
1
(−1)!
−1
−1
((Z −a)
n
f(z) )
Calculus :
Rolle’s theorem :
If f(x) is
(a) Continuous in [a, b]
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Pg.No. 2 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Mathematics Formula Sheet
(b) Differentiable in (a, b)
(c) f(a) =f(b) then there exists at least one value C ϵ (a, b) such that f
′
(c) =0 .
Langrange’s Mean Value Theorem :
If f(x) is continuous in [a, b] and differentiable in (a, b) then there exists atleast one value ‘C’ in (a, b)
such that f
′
(c) =
f(b)−f(a)
b−a
Cauchy’s Mean value theorem :
If f(x) & g(x) are two function such that
(a) f(x) & g(x) continuous in [a, b]
(b) f(x) & g(x) differentiable in (a, b)
(c) g
′
(x) ≠ 0 ∀ x in (a, b)
Then there exist atleast one value C in (a, b) such that
f
′
(c) / g
′
(c) =
f(b)−f(a)
g(b)−g(a)
Properties of Definite integrals :
• a <c <b ∫ f(x). dx
b
a
= ∫ f(x). dx
c
a
+∫ f(x). dx
b
c
• ∫ f(x)dx
a
0
= ∫ f(a −x)dx
a
0
• ∫ f(x). dx
a
−a
=2 ∫ f(x)dx
a
0
f(x) is even
= 0 f(x) is odd
• ∫ f(x). dx
a
0
=2 ∫ f(x)dx
a
0
if f(x) = f(2a x)
• = 0 if f(x) = f(2a – x)
• ∫ f(x). dx
na
0
=n ∫ f(x)dx
a
0
if f(x) = f(x +a)
• ∫ f(x). dx
b
a
= ∫ f(a +b −x). dx
b
a
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Pg.No. 3 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Mathematics Formula Sheet
• ∫ x f(x). dx
a
0
=
a
2
∫ f(x). dx
a
0
if f(a  x) = f(x)
• ∫ sin
n
x
π/2
0
= ∫ cos
n
x
π/2
0
=
(n−1)(n−3)(n−5)………2
n (n−2)(n−4)……….3
if ‘n’ odd
=
(n−1)(n−3)……1
n (n−2)(n−4)……….2
. �
2
� if ‘n’ even
• ∫ sin
m
x
π/2
0
. cos
n
x . dx =
{(m−1)(m−3)….(m−5)……(2 or 1)} {(n−1)(n−3)…….(2 or 1)}.K
(m+n) (m+n−2)(m+n−4)………2 or 1
Where K =π / 2 when both m & n are even otherwise k =1
Maxima & Minima :
A function f(x) has maximum @ x =a if f
′
(a) =0 and f
′′
(a) <0
A function f(x) has minimum @ x =a if f
′
(a) =0 and f
′′
(a) >0
Constrained Maximum or Minimum :
To find maximum or minimum of u =f(x, y, z) where x, y, z are connected by Φ (x, y, z) =0
Working Rule :
(i) Write F(x, y, z) =f(x, y, z) +λ ϕ(x, y, z)
(ii) Obtain F
x
=0, F
y
=0 , F
z
=0
(ii) Solve above equations along with ϕ =0 to get stationary point .
Laplace Transform :
• L �
()� = s
n
f(s)  s
n−1
f(0)  s
n−2
f
′
(0) …… f
n−1
(0)
• L { t
n
f(t) } = (−1)
n
d
n
ds
n
f(s)
•
f(t)
t
⇔ ∫ f(s)
∞
s
ds
• ∫ f(u)
t
0
du ⇔ f(s) / s .
Inverse Transforms :
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Pg.No. 4 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Mathematics Formula Sheet
•
s
(s
2
+a
2
)
2
=
1
2a
t sin at
•
s
2
(s
2
+a
2
)
2
=
1
2a
[ sin at +at cos at]
•
1
(s
2
+a
2
)
2
=
1
2a
3
[ sin at  at cos at]
•
s
s
2
− a
2
=Cos hat
•
a
s
2
− a
2
=Sin hat
Laplace Transform of periodic function : L { f(t) } =
∫ e
−st
f(t)dt
T
0
1−e
−sT
Numerical Methods :
Bisection Method :
(1) Take two values of x
1
& x
2
such that f(x
1
) is +ve & f(x
2
) is –ve then x
3
=
x
1
+x
2
2
find f(x
3
) if f(x
3
)
+ve then root lies between x
3
& x
2
otherwise it lies between x
1
& x
3
.
Regular falsi method :
Same as bisection except x
2
=x
0

x
1
−x
0
f(x
1
)−f(x
0
)
f(x
0
)
Newton Raphson Method :
x
n+1
=x
n
–
f(x
n
)
f
′
(x
n
)
Pi cards Method :
y
n+1
=y
0
+∫ f(x, y
n
x
x
0
) ←
dy
dx
=f(x, y)
Taylor Series method :
dy
dx
=f(x, y) y =y
0
+(x x
0
) (y
′
)
0
+
(x− x
0
)
2
2!
(y)
0
′′
+………….
(x− x
0
)
n
n!
(y)
0
n
Euler’s method :
y
1
= y
0
+h f(x
0
, y
0
) ←
dy
dx
=f(x, y
y
1
(1)
= y
0
+
h
2
[f(x
0
, y
0
) + f(x
0
+h, y
1
)
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Pg.No. 5 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Mathematics Formula Sheet
y
1
(2)
= y
0
+
h
2
[f(x
0
, y
0
) + f(x
0+h
, y
1
(1)
) ]
:
:
Calculate till two consecutive value of ‘y’ agree
y
2
= y
1
+h f(x
0
+h, y
1
)
y
2
(1)
= y
0
+
h
2
[f(x
0
+h, y
1
) + f(x
0
+2h, y
2
)
………………
Runge’s Method :
k
1
=h f(x
0
, y
0
)
k
2
=h f( x
0
+
h
2
, y
0
+
k
1
2
) finally compute K =
1
6
(K
1
+4K
2
+K
3
)
k
′
=h f(x
0
+h , y
0
+k
1
)
k
3
=h ( f (x
0
+h , y
0
+k
′
))
Runge Kutta Method :
k
1
=h f(x
0
, y
0
)
k
2
=h f( x
0
+
h
2
, y
0
+
k
1
2
) finally compute K =
1
6
(K
1
+2K
2
+2K
3
+K
4
)
k
3
=h f(x
0
+
h
2
, y
0
+
k
2
2
) ∴ approximation vale y
1
=y
0
+K .
k
3
=h f (x
0
+h , y
0
+k
3
)
Trapezoidal Rule :
∫ f(x). dx
x
0
+nh
x
0
=
h
2
[ ( y
0
+y
n
) +2 (y
1
+y
2
+……. y
n−1
)]
f(x) takes values y
0
, y
1
…..
@ x
0
, x
1
, x
2
……..
Simpson’s one third rule :
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Pg.No. 6 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Mathematics Formula Sheet
∫ f(x). dx
x
0
+nh
x
0
=
h
3
[ ( y
0
+y
n
) +4 (y
1
+y
3
+……. y
n−1
) +2 (y
2
+y
4
+⋯…. + y
n−2
)]
Simpson three eighth rule :
∫ f(x). dx
x
0
+nh
x
0
=
3h
8
[ ( y
0
+y
n
) +3 (y
1
+y
2
+y
4
+y
5
+……. y
n−1
)+2 (y
3
+y
6
+⋯…. + y
n−3
) ]
Differential Equations :
Variable & Seperable :
General form is f(y) dy =ϕ(x) dx
Sol: ∫f(y) dy =∫ϕ(x) dx +C .
Homo generous equations :
General form
dy
dx
=
f(x,y)
ϕ(x,y)
f(x, y) & ϕ(x, y) Homogenous of same degree
Sol : Put y =Vx ⇒
dy
dx
=V +x
dv
dx
& solve
Reducible to Homogeneous :
General form
dy
dx
=
ax+by+c
a
′
x+b
′
y+c
′
(i)
a
a
′
≠
b
b
′
Sol : Put x =X +h y =Y +k
⇒
dy
dx
=
ax+by+(ah+bk+c)
a
′
x+b
′
y+(a
′
h+b
′
k+c
′
)
Choose h, k such that
dy
dx
becomes homogenous then solve by Y =VX
(ii)
a
a
′
=
b
b
′
Sol : Let
a
a
′
=
b
b
′
=
1
m
dy
dx
=
ax+by+c
m(ax+by)+c
Put ax +by =t ⇒
dy
dx
=�
−�/b
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Pg.No. 7 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Mathematics Formula Sheet
Then by variable & seperable solve the equation .
Libnetz Linear equation :
General form
dy
dx
+py =Q where P & Q are functions of “x”
I.F =e
∫p.dx
Sol : y(I.F) = ∫Q. (I. F) dx +C .
Exact Differential Equations :
General form M dx +N dy =0 M → f (x, y)
N → f(x, y)
If
∂M
∂y
=
∂N
∂x
then
Sol : ∫M. dx +∫(terms of N containing x ) dy =C
( y constant )
Rules for finding Particular Integral :
1
f(D)
e
ax
=
1
f(a)
e
ax
= x
1
f
′
(a)
e
ax
if f (a) =0
= x
2
1
f
′′
(a)
e
ax
if f
′
(a) =0
1
f(b
2
)
sin (ax +b) =
1
f(−a
2
)
sin (ax +b) f( a
2
) ≠ 0
= x
1
f
′
(−a
2
)
sin (ax +b) f( a
2
) = 0 Same applicable for cos (ax +b)
=x
2
1
f
′′
(−a
2
)
sin (ax +b)
1
f(D)
x
m
= [f(D)]
y
x
m
1
f(D)
e
ax
f(x) = e
ax
1
f(D+a)
f(x)
Vector Calculus :
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Pg.No. 8 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Mathematics Formula Sheet
Green’s Theorem :
∫ (ϕ dx + φ dy)
C
=∫∫�
∂Ψ
∂x
−
∂ϕ
∂y
� dx dy
This theorem converts a line integral around a closed curve into Double integral which is special case of
Stokes theorem .
Series expansion :
Taylor Series :
f(x) = f(a) +
f
′
(a)
1 !
(xa) +
f
′′
(a)
2 !
(x −a)
2
+…………+
f
n
(a)
n !
(x −a)
n
f(x) = f(0) +
f
′
(0)
1 !
x +
f
′′
(0)
2 !
x
2
+…………+
f
n
(0)
n !
x
n
+……. (mc lower series )
(1 +x)
n
=1+nx +
n(n−1)
2
x
2
+……  nx <1
e
x
= 1 +x +
x
2
2 !
+……..
Sin x =x 
x
3
3 !
+
x
5
5!
 ……..
Cos x = 1 
x
2
2 !
+
x
4
4 !
 ……..
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Pg.No. 9 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) EDC & Analog Electronics Formula Sheet
EDC & Analog
• Energy gap
G/si
=1.21− 3.6 × 10
−4
.T ev
G/Ge
=0.785− 2.23 × 10
−4
.T ev
� Energy gap depending on temperature
• E
F
=E
C
 KT ln�
� =E
v
+KT ln �
�
• No. of electrons n =N
c
e
−(E
c
−E
f
)/RT
(KT in ev)
• No. of holes p =N
v
e
−(E
f
−E
v
)/RT
• Mass action law n
p
=n
i
2
=N
c
N
v
e
−EG/KT
• Drift velocity
d
=μE (for si
d
≤ 10
7
cm/sec)
• Hall voltage
H
=
B.I
w
e
. Hall coefficient R
H
=1/ρ . ρ → charge density =qN
0
=ne …
• Conductivity σ =ρμ ; μ =σR
H
.
• Max value of electric field @ junction E
0
= 
q
ϵ
si
N
d
. n
n0
= 
q
ϵ
si
N
A
. n
p0
.
• Charge storage @ junction Q
+
=  Q
−
= qA x
n0
N
D
= qA x
p0
N
A
EDC
• Diffusion current densities J
p
= q D
p
dp
dx
J
n
= q D
n
dn
dx
• Drift current Densities =q(p μ
p
+nμ
n
)E
• μ
p
, μ
n
decrease with increasing doping concentration .
•
D
n
µ
n
=
D
p
µ
p
=KT/q ≈ 25 mv @ 300 K
• Carrier concentration in Ntype silicon n
n0
=N
D
; p
n0
=n
i
2
/ N
D
• Carrier concentration in Ptype silicon p
p0
=N
A
; n
p0
=n
i
2
/ N
A
• J unction built in voltage V
0
=V
T
ln �
2
�
• Width of Depletion region W
dep
= x
p
+x
n
=�
2ε
s
q
�
1
N
A
+
1
N
D
� (V
0
+V
R
)
* �
2
= 12.93 �
•
x
n
x
p
=
N
A
N
D
• Charge stored in depletion region q
J
=
q.N
A
N
D
N
A
+N
D
. A . W
dep
• Depletion capacitance C
j
=
ε
s
A
W
dep
; C
j0
=
ε
s
A
W
dep
/ V
R
=0
C
j
=C
j0
/�1 +
V
R
V
0
�
m
C
j
=2C
j0
(for forward Bias)
• Forward current I =I
p
+I
n
; I
p
=Aq n
i
2
D
p
L
p
N
D
�
/
−1�
I
n
=Aq n
i
2
D
n
L
n
N
A
�
/
−1�
• Saturation Current I
s
=Aq n
i
2
�
D
p
L
p
N
D
+
D
n
L
n
N
A
�
• Minority carrier life time τ
p
=L
p
2
/ D
p
; τ
n
=L
n
2
/ D
n
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Pg.No. 10 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) EDC & Analog Electronics Formula Sheet
• Minority carrier charge storage Q
p
=τ
p
I
p
, Q
n
=τ
p
I
n
Q =Q
p
+Q
n
=τ
T
I τ
T
=mean transist time
• Diffusion capacitance C
d
= �
� I =τ.g ⇒ C
d
∝ I.
τ→ carrier life time , g =conductance =I /
• I
02
=2
(T
2
−T
1
)/10
I
01
• J unction Barrier Voltage V
j
=V
B
=V
r
(open condition)
=V
r
 V (forward Bias)
= V
r
+V (Reverse Bias)
• Probability of filled states above ‘E’ f(E) =
1
1+e
(E−E
f
)/KT
• Drift velocity of e
−
d
≤ 10
7
cm/sec
• Poisson equation
d
2
V
dx
2
=
−ρ
v
ϵ
=
−nq
ϵ
⇒
dv
dx
=E =
−nqx
ϵ
Transistor :
• I
E
=I
DE
+I
nE
• I
C
=I
Co
– α I
E
→ Active region
• I
C
=– α I
E
+I
Co
(1 e
V
C
/V
T
)
Common Emitter :
• I
C
=(1+β) I
Co
+βI
B
β =
α
1−α
• I
CEO
=
I
Co
1−α
→ Collector current when base open
• I
CBO
→ Collector current when I
E
=0 I
CBO
>I
Co
.
• V
BE,sat
or V
BC,sat
→  2.5 mv /
0
C ; V
CE,sat
→
V
BE,sat
10
= 0.25 mv /
0
C
• Large signal Current gain β =
I
C
− I
CBo
I
B
+ I
CBo
• D.C current gain β
dc
=
I
C
I
B
=h
FE
• (β
dc
=h
FE
) ≈ β when I
B
>I
CBo
• Small signal current gain β
′
=
∂I
C
∂I
R
�
V
CE
= h
fe
=
h
FE
1−(I
CBo
+ I
B
)
∂h
FE
∂I
C
• Over drive factor =
β
active
β
forced
→under saturation
∵ I
C sat
=β
forced
I
B sat
Conversion formula :
CC ↔ CE
• h
ic
=h
ie
; h
rc
=1 ; h
fc
= (1+h
fe
) ; h
oc
=h
oe
CB ↔ CE
• h
ib
=
h
ie
1+h
fe
; h
ib
=
h
ie
h
oe
1+h
fe
 h
re
; h
fb
=
−h
fe
1+h
fe
; h
ob
=
h
oe
1+h
fe
CE parameters in terms of CB can be obtained by interchanging B & E .
Specifications of An amplifier :
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Pg.No. 11 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) EDC & Analog Electronics Formula Sheet
• A
I
=
−h
f
1+h
0
Z
L
Z
i
=h
i
+h
r
A
I
Z
L
A
vs
=
A
v
.Z
i
Z
i
+R
s
=
A
I
.Z
L
Z
i
+R
s
=
A
I
s
.Z
L
R
s
A
V
=
A
I
Z
L
Z
i
Y
0
=h
o

h
f
h
r
h
i
+ R
s
A
Is
=
A
v
.R
s
Z
i
+R
s
=
A
vs
.R
s
Z
L
Choice of Transistor Configuration :
• For intermediate stages CC can’t be used as A
V
<1
• CE can be used as intermediate stage
• CC can be used as o/p stage as it has low o/p impedance
• CC/CB can be used as i/p stage because of i/p considerations.
Stability & Biasing : ( Should be as min as possible)
• For S =
∆I
C
∆I
Co
�
V
B0,β
S
′
=
∆I
C
∆V
BE
�
I
C0,β
S
′′
=
∆I
C
∆β
�
V
BE,I
Co
∆I
C
=S. ∆I
Co
+S
′
∆V
BE
+S
′′
∆β
• For fixed bias S =
1+β
1−β
dI
B
dI
C
=1 +β
• Collector to Base bias S =
1+β
1+β
R
C
R
C
+R
B
0 <s <1+β =
1+β
1+β�
R
C
+ R
E
R
C
+ R
E
+ R
B
�
• Self bias S =
1+β
1+β
R
E
R
E
+R
th
≈ 1+
R
th
R
e
βR
E
> 10 R
2
• R
1
=
V
cc
R
th
V
th
; R
2
=
V
cc
R
th
V
cc
−V
th
• For thermal stability [ V
cc
 2I
c
(R
C
+R
E
)] [ 0.07 I
co
. S] < 1/θ ; V
CE
<
V
CC
2
Hybrid –pi(π) Model :
g
m
=I
C
 / V
T
r
b
′
e
= h
fe
/ g
m
r
b
′
b
=h
ie
 r
b
′
e
r
b
′
c
=r
b
′
e
/ h
re
g
ce
=h
oe
 (1+h
fe
) g
b
′
c
For CE :
• f
β
=
g
b
′
e
2π(C
e
+ C
c
)
=
g
m
h
fe
2π(C
e
+ C
c
)
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Pg.No. 12 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) EDC & Analog Electronics Formula Sheet
• f
T
=h
fe
f
β
; f
H
=
1
2π r
b
′
e
C
=
g
b
′
e
2πC
C =C
e
+C
c
(1 +g
m
R
L
)
f
T
= S.C current gain Bandwidth product
f
H
= Upper cutoff frequency
For CC :
• f
H
=
1+g
m
R
L
2πC
L
R
L
≈
g
m
2πC
L
=
f
T C
e
C
L
=
g
m
+ g
b
′
e
2π(C
L
+ C
e
)
For CB:
• f
α
=
1+ h
fe
2πr
b
′
e
(C
C
+ C
e
)
=(1 + h
fe
) f
β
= (1 + β) f
β
• f
T
=
β
1+β
f
α
f
α
>f
T
>f
β
Ebress moll model :
I
C
= α
N
I
E
+I
Co
(1 e
V/V
T
)
I
E
= α
I
I
C
+I
Eo
(1 e
V/V
T
)
α
I
I
Co
=α
N
I
Eo
Multistage Amplifiers :
• f
H
* =f
H
√2
1/n
−1 ; f
L
∗
=
f
L
�
2
1/n
−1
• Rise time t
r
=
0.35
f
H
=
0.35
B.W
• t
r
∗
=1.1 �t
r1
2
+t
r2
2
+⋯
• f
L
∗
=1.1 �f
L
1
2
+f
L
2
2
+⋯
•
1
f
H
∗
=1.1
�
1
f
H
1
2
+
1
f
H
2
2
+⋯
Differential Amplifier :
• Z
i
=h
ie
+ (1 +h
fe
) 2R
e
=2 h
fe
R
e
≈ 2βR
e
• g
m
=
α
0
I
EE

4V
T
=
I
C
4V
T
=g
m
of BJ T/4 α
0
→ DC value of α
• CMRR =
h
fe
R
e
R
s
+h
ie
; R
e
↑ , → Z
i
↑ , A
d
↑ & CMRR ↑
Darlington Pair :
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Pg.No. 13 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) EDC & Analog Electronics Formula Sheet
• A
I
=(1 +β
1
) (1 +β
2
) ; A
v
≈ 1 ( <1)
• Z
i
=
(1+h
fe
)
2
R
e2
1+h
fe
h
oc
R
e2
Ω [ if Q
1
& Q
2
have same type ] =A
I
R
e2
• R
o
=
R
s
(1+h
fe
)
2
+
2 h
ie
1+h
fe
• g
m
=(1 +β
2
) g
m1
Tuned Amplifiers : (Parallel Resonant ckts used ) :
• f
0
=
1
2π√LC
Q → ‘Q’ factor of resonant ckt which is very high
• B.W =f
0
/Q
• f
L
=f
0

∆BW
2
• f
H
=f
0
+
∆BW
2
• For double tuned amplifier 2 tank circuits with same f
0
used . f
0
=�f
L
f
H
.
MOSFET (Enhancement) [ Channel will be induced by applying voltage]
• NMOSFET formed in psubstrate
• If V
GS
≥ V
t
channel will be induced & i
D
(Drain → source )
• V
t
→ +ve for NMOS
• i
D
∝ (V
GS
 V
t
) for small V
DS
• V
DS
↑ → channel width @ drain reduces .
V
DS
=V
GS
 V
t
channel width ≈ 0 → pinch off further increase no effect
• For every V
GS
>V
t
there will be V
DS,sat
• i
D
=K
n
′
[ (V
GS
 V
t
) V
DS

1
2
V
DS
2
] �
� → triode region ( V
DS
<V
GS
 V
t
)
K
n
′
=μ
n
C
ox
• i
D
=
1
2
K
n
′
�
� [ V
DS
2
] → saturation
• r
DS
=
1
K
n
′
�
�(V
GS
− V
t
)
→ Drain to source resistance in triode region
PMOS :
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Pg.No. 14 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) EDC & Analog Electronics Formula Sheet
• Device operates in similar manner except V
GS
, V
DS
, V
t
are –ve
• i
D
enters @ source terminal & leaves through Drain .
V
GS
≤ V
t
→ induced channel V
DS
≥ V
GS
 V
t
→ Continuous channel
i
D
=K
p
′
�
� [(V
GS
− V
t
)
2

1
2
V
DS
2
] K
p
′
=μ
p
C
ox
V
DS
≤ V
GS
 V
t
→ Pinched off channel .
• NMOS Devices can be made smaller & thus operate faster . Require low power supply .
• Saturation region → Amplifier
• For switching operation Cutoff & triode regions are used
• NMOS PMOS
V
GS
≥ V
t
V
GS
≤ V
t
→ induced channel
V
GS
 V
DS
>V
t
V
GS
 V
DS
<V
t
→ Continuous channel(Triode region)
V
DS
≥ V
GS
 V
t
V
DS
≤ V
GS
 V
t
→ Pinchoff (Saturation)
Depletion Type MOSFET : [ channel is physically implanted . i
0
flows with V
GS
=0 ]
• For nchannel V
GS
→ +ve → enhances channel .
→ ve → depletes channel
• i
D
 V
DS
characteristics are same except that V
t
is –ve for nchannel
• Value of Drain current obtained in saturation when V
GS
=0 ⇒ I
DSS
.
∴ I
DSS
=
1
2
K
n
′
�
� V
t
2
.
MOSFET as Amplifier :
• For saturation V
D
>V
GS
 V
t
• To reduce non linear distortion
gs
<< 2(V
GS
 V
t
)
• i
d
= K
n
′
�
� (V
GS
− V
t
)
gs
⇒ g
m
= K
n
′
�
� (V
GS
− V
t
)
•
d
gs
= g
m
R
D
• Unity gain frequency f
T
=
g
m
2π(C
gs
+C
gd
)
JFET :
• V
GS
≤ V
p
⇒ i
D
=0 → Cut off
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Pg.No. 15 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) EDC & Analog Electronics Formula Sheet
• V
p
≤ V
GS
≤ 0, V
DS
≤ V
GS
 V
p
i
D
= I
DSS
�2�1 −
� �
−
� − �
�
2
� � → Triode
• V
p
≤ V
GS
≤ 0 , V
DS
≥ V
GS
 V
p
i
D
= I
DSS
�1−
�
2
⇒ V
GS
= V
p
�1−�
I
I
DSS
�
g
m
=
2I
DSS
V
p

�1−
� =
2I
DSS
V
p

�
I
I
DSS
� → Saturation
Zener Regulators :
• For satisfactory operation
V
i
− V
z
R
s
≥ I
Z
min
+I
L
max
• R
S
max
=
V
s
min
− V
z
0
− I
Z
min
r
z
I
Z
min
+ I
L
max
• Load regulation = (r
z
 R
s
)
• Line Regulation =
r
z
R
s
+r
z
.
• For finding min R
L
take V
s min
& V
zk
, I
zk
(knee values (min)) calculate according to that .
Operational Amplifier: (VCVS)
• Fabricated with VLSI by using epitaxial method
• High i/p impedance , Low o/p impedance , High gain , Bandwidth , slew rate .
• FET is having high i/p impedance compared to opamp .
• Gain Bandwidth product is constant .
• Closed loop voltage gain A
CL
=
A
OL
1± β A
OL
β → feed back factor
• ⇒ V
0
=
−1
RC
∫V
i
dt → LPF acts as integrator ;
• ⇒ V
0
=
−R
L
∫
i
dt ; V
0
=
−L
R
dv
i
dt
(HPF)
• For Opamp integrator V
0
=
−1
τ
∫
i
dt ; Differentiator V
0
= τ
dv
i
dt
• Slew rate SR =
∆V
0
∆t
=
∆V
0
∆t
.
∆V
i
∆t
=A.
∆V
i
∆t
• Max operating frequency f
max
=
slew rate
2π . ∆V
0
=
slew rate
2π × ∆V
i
×A
.
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Pg.No. 16 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) EDC & Analog Electronics Formula Sheet
• In voltage follower Voltage series feedback
• In non inverting mode voltage series feedback
• In inverting mode voltage shunt feed back
• V
0
=η V
T
ln �
I
0
�
• V
0
= V
BE
=  η V
T
ln �
I
0
�
• Error in differential % error =
1
CMRR
�
�× 100 %
Power Amplifiers :
• Fundamental power delivered to load P
1
=�
B
1
√2
�
2
R
L
=
B
1
2
2
R
L
• Total Harmonic power delivered to load P
T
=�
1
2
2
+
2
2
2
+⋯. . �
= P
1
�1 +�
2
1
�
2
+�
3
1
�
2
+ ……�
= [ 1+D
2
] P
1
Where D = �+D
2
2
+⋯. . +D
n
2
D
n
=
B
n
B
1
D =total harmonic Distortion .
Class A operation :
• o/p I
C
flows for entire 360
0
• ‘Q’ point located @ centre of DC load line i.e., V
ce
=V
cc
/ 2 ; η =25 %
• Min Distortion , min noise interference , eliminates thermal run way
• Lowest power conversion efficiency & introduce power drain
• P
T
=I
C
V
CE
 i
c
V
ce
if i
c
=0, it will consume more power
• P
T
is dissipated in single transistors only (single ended)
Class B:
• I
C
flows for 180
0
; ‘Q’ located @ cutoff ; η =78.5% ; eliminates power drain
• Higher Distortion , more noise interference , introduce cross over distortion
• Double ended . i.e ., 2 transistors . I
C
=0 [ transistors are connected in that way ] P
T
=i
c
V
ce
• P
T
=i
c
V
ce
=0.4 P
0
P
T
→ power dissipated by 2 transistors .
Class AB operation :
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Pg.No. 17 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) EDC & Analog Electronics Formula Sheet
• I
C
flows for more than 180
0
& less than 360
0
• ‘Q’ located in active region but near to cutoff ; η =60%
• Distortion & Noise interference less compared to class ‘B’ but more in compared to class ‘A’
• Eliminates cross over Distortion
Class ‘C’ operation :
• I
C
flows for <180 ; ‘Q’ located just below cutoff ; η =87.5%
• Very rich in Distortion ; noise interference is high .
Oscillators :
• For RCphase shift oscillator f =
1
2πRC √6+4K
h
fe
≥ 4k +23 +
29
k
where k =R
c
/R
f =
1
2πRC√6
μ >29
• For opamp RC oscillator f =
1
2πRC√6
 A
f
 ≥ 29 ⇒ R
f
≥ 29 R
1
Wein Bridge Oscillator :
f =
1
2π√R
′
R
′′
C
′
C
′′
h
fe
≥ 3
μ ≥ 3
A ≥ 3 ⇒ R
f
≥ 2 R
1
Hartley Oscillator :
f =
1
2π�(L
1
+L
2
)C
h
fe
 ≥
L
2
L
1
 μ  ≥
L
2
L
1
A ≥
L
2
L
1
↓
R
f
R
1
Colpits Oscillator :
f =
1
2π�L
C
1
C
2
C
1
+C
2
h
fe
 ≥
C
1
C
2
 μ  ≥
C
1
C
2
 A  ≥
C
1
C
2
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Pg.No. 18 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Digital Electronics Formula Sheet
Digital Electronics
• Fan out of a logic gate =
I
OH
I
IH
or
I
OL
I
IL
• Noise margin : V
OH
 V
IH
or V
OL
 V
IL
• Power Dissipation P
D
=V
cc
I
cc
=V
cc
�
I
+I
2
� I
→ I
c
when o/p low
I
→ I
c
when o/p high .
• TTL , ECL & CMOS are used for MSI or SSI
• Logic swing : V
OH
 V
OL
• RTL , DTL , TTL → saturated logic ECL → Un saturated logic
• Advantages of Active pullup ; increased speed of operation , less power consumption .
• For TTL floating i/p considered as logic “1” & for ECL it is logic “0” .
• “MOS” mainly used for LSI & VLSI . fan out is too high
• ECL is fastest gate & consumes more power .
• CMOS is slowest gate & less power consumption
• NMOS is faster than CMOS .
• Gates with open collector o/p can be used for wired AND operation (TTL)
• Gates with open emitter o/p can be used for wired OR operation (ECL)
• ROM is nothing but combination of encoder & decoder . This is non volatile memory .
• SRAM : stores binary information interms of voltage uses FF.
• DRAM : infor stored in terms of charge on capacitor . Used Transistors & Capacitors .
• SRAM consumes more power & faster than DRAM .
• CCD , RAM are volatile memories .
• 1024 × 8 memory can be obtained by using 1024 × 2 memories
• No. of memory ICs of capacity 1k × 4 required to construct memory of capacity 8k × 8 are “16”
DAC ADC
• FSV = V
R
�1 −
1
2
� * LSB =Voltage range / 2
n
• Resolution =
step size
FSV
=
V
R
/2
n
V
R
�1−
1
2
n
�
=
1
2
n
−1
× 100% * Resolution =
FSV
2
n
−1
• Accuracy =±
1
2
LSB =±
1
2
n+1
* Quantisation error =
V
R
2
n
%
• Analog o/p =K. digital o/p
PROM , PLA & PAL :
AND OR
Fixed Programmable
Programmable fixed
Programmable Programmable
PROM
PAL
PLA
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Pg.No. 19 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Digital Electronics Formula Sheet
• Flash Type ADC : 2
n−1
→ comparators
2
n
→ resistors
2
n
× n → Encoder
Fastest ADC :
• Successive approximation ADC : n clk pulses
• Counter type ADC : 2
n
 1 clk pulses
• Dual slope integrating type : 2
n+1
clock pulses .
Flip Flops :
• a(n+1) =S +R
′
Q
=D
=JQ
′
+K
′
Q
=TQ
′
+T
′
Q
Excitation tables :
• For ring counter total no.of states =n
• For twisted Ring counter =“2n” (J ohnson counter / switch tail Ring counter ) .
• To eliminate race around condition t
pd clock
<<t
pd FF
.
• In Master slave master is level triggered & slave is edge triggered
Combinational Circuits :
Multiplexer :
0
0
0 0
0
1
x
1
1
0
1
R
1 0
1
S
x
0
1
0
0 0 0
1 0
1
0
1
D
0
1
0
1
1 0
1
0
1
1 0
1
0
1
0
J K
0
1
x 1
0 x
x
x
1
0
1
T
0
1
1
0
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Pg.No. 20 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Digital Electronics Formula Sheet
• 2
n
i/ps ; 1 o/p & ‘n’ select lines.
• It can be used to implement Boolean function by selecting select lines as Boolean variables
• For implementing ‘n’ variable Boolean function 2
n
× 1 MUX is enough .
• For implementing “n +1” variable Boolean 2
n
× 1 MUX +NOT gate is required .
• For implementing “n +2” variable Boolean function 2
n
× 1 MUX +Combinational Ckt is
required
• If you want to design 2
m
× 1 MUX using 2
n
× 1 MUX . You need 2
m−n
2
n
× 1 MUXes
Decoder :
• n i/p & 2
n
o/p’s
• used to implement the Boolean function . It will generate required min terms @ o/p & those terms
should be “OR” ed to get the result .
• Suppose it consists of more min terms then connect the max terms to NOR gate then it will give the
same o/p with less no. of gates .
• If you want to Design m × 2
m
Decoder using n × 2
n
Decoder . Then no. of n × 2
n
Decoder
required =
2
m
2
n
.
• In Parallel (“n” bit ) total time delay =2
n
t
pd
.
• For carry look ahead adder delay =2 t
pd
.
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Pg.No. 21 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Microprocessors Formula Sheet
Microprocessors
• Clock frequency =
1
2
crystal frequency
• Hardware interrupts
TRAP (RST 4.5) 0024H both edge level
RST 7.5 → Edge triggered 003CH
RST 6.5 0034 H
RST 5.5 level triggered 002C
INTR Non vectored
• Software interrupts RST 0 0000H
RST 1 0008H
2 0010H Vectored
: 0018H
:
7 0038H
•
• HOLD & HLDA used for Direct Memory Access . Which has highest priority over all interrupts .
Flag Registers :
• Sign flag : After arthematic operation MSB is resolved for sign flag . S =1 → ve result
• If Z =1 ⇒ Result =0
• AC : Carry from one stage to other stage is there then AC =1
• P : P =1 ⇒ even no. of one’s in result .
• CY : if arthematic operation Results in carry then CY =1
• For INX & DCX no flags effected
• In memory mapped I/O ; I/O Devices are treated as memory locations . You can connect max of
65536 devices in this technique .
• In I/O mapped I/O , I/O devices are identified by separate 8bit address . same address can be used
to identify i/p & o/p device .
• Max of 256 i/p & 256 o/p devices can be connected .
1
Halt
write
Read
fetch
S
0 1
S
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
AC S X P CY X Z X
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Pg.No. 22 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Microprocessors Formula Sheet
Programmable Interfacing Devices :
• 8155 → programmable peripheral Interface with 256 bytes RAM & 16bit counter
• 8255 → Programmable Interface adaptor
• 8253 → Programmable Interval timer
• 8251 → programmable Communication interfacing Device (USART)
• 8257 → Programmable DMA controller (4 channel)
• 8259 → Programmable Interrupt controller
• 8272 → Programmable floppy Disk controller
• CRT controller
• Key board & Display interfacing Device
RLC : Each bit shifted to adjacent left position . D
7
becomes D
0
.
CY flag modified according to D
7
RAL : Each bit shifted to adjacent left position . D
7
becomes CY & CY becomes D
0
.
ROC :CY flag modified according D
0
RAR : D
0
becomes CY & CY becomes D
7
CALL & RET Vs PUSH & POP :
CALL & RET PUSH & POP
• When CALL executes , μp automatically stores * Programmer use PUSH to save the contents
16 bit address of instruction next to CALL on the rp on stack
Stack
• CALL executed , SP decremented by 2 * PUSH executes “SP” decremented by “2” .
• RET transfers contents of top 2 of SP to PC * same here but to specific “rp” .
• RET executes “SP” incremented by 2 * same here
Some Instruction Set information :
CALL Instruction
CALL → 18T states SRRWW
CC → Call on carry 9 – 18 states
CM → Call on minus 918
CNC → Call on no carry
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Pg.No. 23 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Microprocessors Formula Sheet
CZ → Call on Zero ; CNZ call on non zero
CP → Call on +ve
CPE → Call on even parity
CPO → Call on odd parity
RET :  10 T
RC :  6/ 12 ‘T’ states
Jump Instructions :
J MP → 10 T
J C → J ump on Carry 7/10 T states
J NC → J ump on no carry
J Z → J ump on zero
J NZ → J ump on non zero
J P → J ump on Positive
J M → J ump on Minus
J PE → J ump on even parity
J PO → J ump on odd parity .
• PCHL : Move HL to PC 6T
• PUSH : 12 T ; POP : 10 T
• SHLD : address : store HL directly to address 16 T
• SPHL : Move HL to SP 6T
• STAX : R
p
store A in memory 7T
• STC : set carry 4T
• XCHG : exchange DE with HL “4T”
XTHL : Exchange stack with HL 16 T
• For “AND “ operation “AY” flag will be set & “CY” Reset
• For “CMP” if A < Reg/mem : CY → 1 & Z → 0 (Nothing but AB)
A > Reg/mem : CY → 0 & Z → 0
A = Reg/mem : Z → 1 & CY → 0 .
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Pg.No. 24 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Microprocessors Formula Sheet
• “DAD” Add HL +RP (10T) → fetching , busidle , busidle
• DCX , INX won’t effect any flags . (6T)
• DCR, INR effects all flags except carry flag . “Cy” wont be modified
• “LHLD” load “HL” pair directly
• “ RST “ → 12T states
• SPHL , RZ, RNZ …., PUSH, PCHL, INX , DCX, CALL → fetching has 6T states
• PUSH – 12 T ; POP – 10T
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Pg.No. 25 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Signals & Systems Formula Sheet
Signals & Systems
→ Energy of a signal ∫ x(t)
2
∞
−∞
dt = ∑ []
2 ∞
=−∞
→ Power of a signal P =lim
→∞
1
2
∫ x(t)
2
T
−T
dt =lim
→∞
1
2+1
∑ x[n]
2 N
n=−N
→ x
1
(t) → P
1
; x
2
(t) → P
2
x
1
(t) +x
2
(t) → P
1
+P
2
iff x
1
(t) & x
2
(t) orthogonal
→ Shifting & Time scaling won’t effect power . Frequency content doesn’t effect power.
→ if power =∞ → neither energy nor power signal
Power =0 ⇒ Energy signal
Power =K ⇒ power signal
→ Energy of power signal =∞ ; Power of energy signal =0
→ Generally Periodic & random signals → Power signals
Aperiodic & deterministic → Energy signals
Precedence rule for scaling & Shifting :
x(at +b) → (1) shift x(t) by ‘b’ → x(t +b)
(2) Scale x(t +b) by ‘a’ → x(at +b)
x( a ( t +b/a)) → (1) scale x(t) by a → x(at)
(2) shift x(at) by b/a → x (a (t+b/a)).
→ x(at +b) =y(t) ⇒ x(t) =y �
−
�
• Step response s(t) =h(t) * u(t) =∫ h(t)dt
t
−∞
S’ (t) =h(t)
S[n] =∑ ℎ[]
=0
h[n] =s[n] – s[n1]
• e
−at
u(t) * e
−bt
u(t) =
1
b−a
[ e
−at
 e
−bt
] u(t) .
• A
1
Rect (t / 2T
1
) * A
2
Rect(t / 2T
2
) =2 A
1
A
2
min (T
1
, T
2
) trapezoid (T
1
, T
2
)
• Rect (t / 2T) * Rect (t / 2T) =2T tri(t / T)
Hilbert Transform Pairs :
∫ e
−x
2
/2σ
2
dx
∞
−∞
=σ √2π ; ∫ x
2
∞
−∞
e
−x
2
/2σ
2
dx = σ
3
√2π σ >0
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Pg.No. 26 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Signals & Systems Formula Sheet
Laplace Transform :
x(t) =
1
2πj
∫ X(s) e
st
σ+j∞
σ−j∞
ds
X(s) = ∫ x(t) e
−st
∞
−∞
ds
Initial & Final value Theorems :
x(t) =0 for t <0 ; x(t) doesn’t contain any impulses /higher order singularities @ t =0 then
x( 0
+
) =lim
→∞
()
x(∞) =lim
→0
()
Properties of ROC :
1. X(s) ROC has strips parallel to jω axis
2. For rational laplace transform ROC has no poles
3. x(t) → finite duration & absolutely integrable then ROC entire splane
4. x(t) → Right sided then ROC right side of right most pole excluding pole s =∞
5. x(t) → left sided ROC left side of left most pole excluding s= ∞
6. x(t) → two sided ROC is a strip
7. if x(t) causal ROC is right side of right most pole including s =∞
8. if x(t) stable ROC includes jωaxis
Ztransform :
x[n] =
1
2πj
∮x(z) z
n−1
dz
X(z) =∑ x[n]
∞
n=−∞
z
−n
Initial Value theorem :
If x[n] =0 for n <0 then x[0] =lim
→∞
()
Final Value theorem :
lim
→∞
[] =lim
→1
( −1) X(z)
Properties of ROC :
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Pg.No. 27 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Signals & Systems Formula Sheet
1.ROC is a ring or disc centered @ origin
2. DTFT of x[n] converter if and only if ROC includes unit circle
3. ROC cannot contain any poles
4. if x[n] is of finite duration then ROC is enter Zplane except possibly 0 or ∞
5. if x[n] right sided then ROC → outside of outermost pole excluding z =0
6. if x[n] left sided then ROC → inside of innermost pole including z =0
7. if x[n] & sided then ROC is ring
8. ROC must be connected region
9.For causal LTI system ROC is outside of outer most pole including ∞
10.For Anti Causal system ROC is inside of inner most pole including ‘0’
11. System said to be stable if ROC includes unit circle .
12. Stable & Causal if all poles inside unit circle
13. Stable & Anti causal if all poles outside unit circle.
Phase Delay & Group Delay :
When a modulated signal is fixed through a communication channel , there are two different delays to be
considered.
(i) Phase delay:
Signal fixed @ o/p lags the fixed signal by ∅(ω
c
) phase
τ
P
=
∅(ω
c
)
ω
c
where ∅(ω
c
) = K H(jω)
↓
Frequency response of channel
Group delay τ
g
= −
d∅(ω)
dω
�
ω= ω
c
for narrow Band signal
↓
Signal delay / Envelope delay
Probability & Random Process:
→ P (A/B) =
P(A∩B)
P(B)
→ Two events A & B said to be mutually exclusive /Disjoint if P(A ∩ B) =0
→ Two events A & B said to be independent if P (A/B) =P(A) ⇒ P(A ∩ B) =P(A) P(B)
→ P(Ai / B) =
P(Ai ∩B)
P(B)
=
P�
B
Ai
� P(Ai)
∑ P�
B
Ai
� P(Ai)
n
i=1
CDF :
Cumulative Distribution function F
x
(x) =P { X ≤ x }
Properties of CDF :
• F
x
(∞) =P { X ≤ ∞ } =1
• F
x
( ∞) =0
• F
x
(x
1
≤ X ≤ x
2
) =F
x
(x
2
)  F
x
(x
1
)
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Pg.No. 28 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Signals & Systems Formula Sheet
• Its Non decreasing function
• P{ X >x} =1 – P { X ≤ x} =1 F
x
(x)
PDF :
Pdf = f
x
(x) =
d
dx
F
x
(x)
Pmf =f
x
(x) =∑ P{X = x
i
∞
i=−∞
} δ(x =x
i
)
Properties:
• f
x
(x) ≥ 0
• F
x
(x) =f
x
(x) * u(x) =∫ f
x
x
−∞
(x) dx
• F
x
(∞) = ∫ f
x
∞
−∞
(x) dx =1 so, area under PDF =1
• P { x
1
<X ≤ x
2
} =∫ f
x
(x)dx
x
2
x
1
Mean & Variance :
Mean µ
x
=E {x} =∫ x f
x
∞
−∞
(x) dx
Variance σ
2
=E { (X −µ
x
)
2
} =E {x
2
}  µ
x
2
→ E{g(x)} =∫ g(x) f
x
∞
−∞
(x) dx
Uniform Random Variables :
Random variable X ~ u(a, b) if its pdf of form as shown below
f
x
(x) =�
1
−
; < ≤
0 ,
F
x
(x) = �
1 ; >
−
−
; < <
0 ;
Mean =
a+b
2
Variance =(b −a)
2
/ 12 E{ x
2
} =
a
2
+ ab+ b
2
3
Gaussian Random Variable :
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Pg.No. 29 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Signals & Systems Formula Sheet
f
x
(x) =
1
√2πσ
2
e
−(x−µ)
2
/2σ
2
X ~ N (µ
1
σ
2
)
Mean =∫ x
1
√2πσ
2
∞
−∞
e
−(x−µ)
2
/2σ
2
dx =µ
Variance =
1
√2πσ
2
∫ x
2
∞
−∞
e
−(x−µ)
2
/2σ
2
dx =σ
2
Exponential Distribution :
f
x
(x) = λ e
−λx
u(x)
F
x
(x) =( 1 e
−λx
) u(x)
Laplacian Distribution :
f
x
(x) =
λ
2
e
−λ x
Multiple Random Variables :
• F
XY
(x , y) =P { X ≤ x , Y ≤ y }
• F
XY
(x , ∞) =P { X ≤ x } =F
x
(x) ; F
xy
(∞ , y) =P { Y <y } =F
Y
(y)
• F
xy
(∞, y) = F
xy
(x,  ∞) = F
xy
(∞, ∞) =0
• f
x
(x) =∫ f
xy
∞
−∞
(x, y) dy ; f
Y
(y) = ∫ f
xy
∞
−∞
(x, y) dx
• F
Y/X
�
Y
X
≤ x� =
P{Y ≤y, X ≤x}
P{X ≤x}
=
F
XY
(x,y)
F
X
(x)
• f
Y/X
(y/x) =
f
xy
(x,y)
f
x
(x)
Independence :
• X & Y are said to be independent if F
XY
(x , y) =F
X
(x) F
Y
(y)
⇒ f
XY
(x, y) =f
X
(x) . f
X
(y) P { X ≤ x, Y ≤ y} =P { X ≤ x} . P{Y ≤ y}
Correlation:
Corr{ XY} =E {XY} =∫ ∫ f
xy
∞
−∞
∞
−∞
(x, y). xy. dx dy
If E { XY} =0 then X & Y are orthogonal .
Uncorrelated :
Covariance =Cov {XY} =E { (X  µ
x
) (Y µ
y
}
=E {xy} – E {x} E{y}.
If covariance =0 ⇒ E{xy} =E{x} E{y}
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Pg.No. 30 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Signals & Systems Formula Sheet
• Independence → uncorrelated but converse is not true.
Random Process:
Take 2 random process X(t) & Y(t) and sampled @ t
1
, t
2
X(t
1
) , X(t
2
) , Y(t
1
) , Y (t
2
) → random variables
→ Auto correlation R
x
(t
1
, t
2
) =E {X(t
1
) X(t
2
) }
→ Auto covariance C
x
(t
1
, t
2
) =E { X(t
1
)  µ
x
(t
1
)) (X(t
2
)  µ
x
(t
2
) } =R
x
(t
1
, t
2
)  µ
x
(t
1
) µ
x
(t
2
)
→ cross correlation R
xy
(t
1
, t
2
) =E { X(t
1
) Y(t
2
) }
→ cross covariance C
xy
(t
1
, t
2
) =E{ X(t
1
)  µ
x
(t
1
)) (Y(t
2
)  µ
y
(t
2
) } =R
xy
(t
1
, t
2
)  µ
x
(t
1
) µ
y
(t
2
)
→ C
XY
(t
1
, t
2
) =0 ⇒ R
xy
(t
1
, t
2
) = µ
x
(t
1
) µ
y
(t
2
) → Un correlated
→ R
XY
(t
1
, t
2
) =0 ⇒ Orthogonal cross correlation = 0
→ F
XY
(x, y ! t
1
, t
2
) =F
x
(x! t
1
) F
y
(y ! t
2
) → independent
Properties of Auto correlation :
• R
x
(0) =E { x
2
}
• R
x
(τ) =R
x
(τ) → even
•  R
x
(τ)  ≤ R
x
(0)
Cross Correlation
• R
xy
(τ) =R
yx
(τ)
• R
xy
2
(τ) ≤ R
x
(0) . R
y
(0)
• 2  R
xy
(τ) ≤ R
x
(0) +R
y
(0)
Power spectral Density :
• P.S.D S
x
(jω) =∫ R
x
∞
−∞
(τ) e
−jωτ
dτ
R
x
(τ) =
1
2π
∫
(jω)e
jωτ
dω
∞
−∞
• S
y
(jω) =S
x
(jω) H(jω)
2
• Power =R
x
(0) =
1
2π
∫
(jω) dω
∞
−∞
• R
x
(τ) =k δ(τ) → white process
Properties :
• S
x
(jω) even
• S
x
(jω) ≥ 0
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Pg.No. 31 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Control Systems Formula Sheet
Control Systems
Time Response of 2
nd
order system :
Step i/P :
• C(t) = 1
e
− ζω
n
t
�1−ζ
2
(sin ω
n
�1 −ζ
2
t ± tan
−1
�
�1−ζ
2
ζ
� )
• e(t) =
e
− ζω
n
t
�1−ζ
2
�sin
± tan
−1
�
�1−ζ
2
ζ
��
• e
ss
=lim
→∞
e
− ζω
n
t
�1−ζ
2
�sin
± tan
−1
�
�1−ζ
2
ζ
��
→ ζ → Damping ratio ; ζω
n
→ Damping factor
ζ < 1(Under damped ) :
C(t) = 1 =
e
− ζω
n
t
�1−ζ
2
Sin �
± tan
−1
�
�1−ζ
2
ζ
��
ζ = 0 (un damped) :
c(t) =1 cos ω
n
t
ζ = 1 (Critically damped ) :
C(t) = 1  e
−ω
n
t
(1 + ω
n
t)
ζ > 1 (over damped) :
C(t) = 1 
e
−�− �
−�
2 �
− �− �
−�
T =
1
�− �
−�ω
n
T
undamped
> T
overdamped
> T
underdamped
> T
criticaldamp
Time Domain Specifications :
• Rise time t
r
=
π−∅
ω
n
�1−ζ
2
∅ =tan
−1
�
�1−ζ
2
ζ
�
• Peak time t
p
=
nπ
ω
d
• Max over shoot % M
p
=e
−ζω
n
/�1−ζ
2
× 100
• Settling time t
s
=3T 5% tolerance
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Pg.No. 32 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Control Systems Formula Sheet
=4T 2% tolerance
• Delay time t
d
=
1+0.7ζ
ω
n
• Damping factor
2
ζ
2
=
(lnM
p
)
2
π
2
+ (lnM
p
)
2
• Time period of oscillations T =
2π
ω
d
• No of oscillations =
t
s
2π/ω
d
=
t
s
×ω
d
2π
• t
r
≈ 1.5 t
d
t
r
=2.2 T
• Resonant peak M
r
=
1
2ζ�1−ζ
2
; ω
r
=ω
n
�1 −2ζ
2
>
>
� ω
r
<ω
n
<ω
b
• Bandwidth ω
b
=ω
n
(1 −2ζ
2
+ �4
4
−4
2
+2)
1/2
Static error coefficients :
• Step i/p : e
ss
=lim
t→∞
() =lim
→0
() =lim
→0
()
1+
e
ss
=
1
1+K
P
(positional error) K
p
=lim
→0
() ()
• Ramp i/p (t) : e
ss
=
1
K
v
K
v
= lim
→0
()()
• Parabolic i/p (t
2
/2) : e
ss
=1/ K
a
K
a
= lim
→0
s
2
()()
Type <i/p → e
ss
=∞
Type = i/p → e
ss
finite
Type >i/p → e
ss
=0
• Sensitivity S =
∂A/A
∂K/K
sensitivity of A w.r.to K.
• Sensitivity of over all T/F w.r.t forward path T/F G(s) :
Open loop: S =1
Closed loop : S =
1
1+G(s)H(s)
• Minimum ‘S’ value preferable
• Sensitivity of over all T/F w.r.t feedback T/F H(s) : S =
G(s)H(s)
1+G(s)H(s)
Stability
RH Criterion :
• Take characteristic equation 1+G(s) H(s) =0
• All coefficients should have same sign
• There should not be missing ‘s’ term . Term missed means presence of at least one +ve real part root
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Pg.No. 33 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Control Systems Formula Sheet
• If char. Equation contains either only odd/even terms indicates roots have no real part & posses only
imag parts there fore sustained oscillations in response.
• Row of all zeroes occur if
(a) Equation has at least one pair of real roots with equal image but opposite sign
(b) has one or more pair of imaginary roots
(c) has pair of complex conjugate roots forming symmetry about origin.
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Pg.No. 34 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Communications Formula Sheet
Communication Systems
Amplitude Modulation :
DSBSC :
u (t) =A
C
m(t) cos 2πf
c
t
Power P =
A
C
2
2
P
M
Conventioanal AM :
u (t) = A
C
[1 + m(t)] Cos 2πf
c
t . as long as m(t) ≤ 1 demodulation is simple .
Practically m(t) = a m
n
(t) .
Modulation index a =
m(t)
m
n
(t)
, m
n
(t) =
m(t)
maxm(t)
Power =
A
C
2
2
+
A
C
2
a
2
4
SSBAM :
→ Square law Detector SNR =
2
K
a
m(t)
Square law modulator
↓
K
a
= 2a
2
/ a
1
→ amplitude Sensitivity
Envelope Detector R
s
C (i/p) < < 1 / f
c
R
l
C (o/P) >> 1/ f
c
R
l
C << 1/ω
1
R
l
C
≥
ω
m µ
�1−µ
2
Frequency & Phase Modulation : Angle Modulation :
u (t) = A
C
Cos (2πf
c
t + ∅ (t) )
∅ (t) �
() →
2πK
f
∫ m(t)
t
−∞
. dt → FM
K
p
& K
f
phase & frequency deviation constant
→ max phase deviation ∆∅ = K
p
max  m(t) 
→ max frequency deviation ∆f = K
f
max m(t) 
Bandwidth :
Effective Bandwidth B
C
= 2 (β + 1) f
m
→ 98% power
Noise in Analog Modulation :
→ (SNR)
Base Band
= �
S
N
�
0
=
P
m
P
n
=
P
R
N
0
B
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Pg.No. 35 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Communications Formula Sheet
R = m(t) cos 2πf
c
∴ P
R
= P
m
/ 2
→ (SNR)
DSB−SC
=
P
m
/4
P
nI/4
=
2
0
=
2 P
R
2N
0
B
=
P
R
N
0
R
= �
S
N
�
0
= (SNR)
Base band
→ (SNR)
SSB−SC
=
P
m
/4
P
ni/4
=
0
=
P
R
N
0
B
= �
S
N
�
0
= (SNR)
Base band
.
�
S
N
�
com AM
=
µ
2
P
m
1+µ
2
P
m
.
P
R
N
0
B
= η �
S
N
�
Base Band
η =
µ
2
P
m
1+µ
2
P
m
Noise in Angle Modulation :
�
S
N
�
= �
2
P
M
n
�
S
N
�
b
, PM
3
f
2
P
M
n
�
S
N
�
b
, FM
PCM :
→ Min. no of samples required for reconstruction =2ω =f
s
; ω =Bandwidth of msg signal .
→ Total bits required =v f
s
bps . v → bits / sample
→ Bandwidth = R
b
/2 =v f
s
/ 2 =v . ω
→ SNR =1.76 +6.02 v
→ As Number of bits increased SNR increased by 6 dB/bit . Band width also increases.
Delta Modulation :
→ By increasing step size slope over load distortion eliminated [ Signal raised sharply ]
→ By Reducing step size Grannualar distortion eliminated . [ Signal varies slowly ]
Digital Communication
Matched filter:
→ impulse response a(t) = P
∗
( T – t) . P(t) → i/p
→ Matched filter o/p will be max at multiples of ‘T’ . So, sampling @ multiples of ‘T’ will give max SNR
(2
nd
point )
→ matched filter is always causal a(t) =0 for t <0
→ Spectrum of o/p signal of matched filter with the matched signal as i/p ie, except for a delay factor ;
proportional to energy spectral density of i/p.
∅
0
(f) =H
opt
(f) ∅(f) =∅(f) ∅*(f) e
−2πfT
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Pg.No. 36 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Communications Formula Sheet
∅
0
(f) =∅(f)
2
e
−j2πfT
→ o/p signal of matched filter is proportional to shifted version of auto correlation fine of i/p signal
∅
0
(t) =R
∅
(t – T)
At t =T ∅
0
(T) =R
∅
(0) → which proves 2
nd
point
CauchySchwartz in equality :
∫ g
1
∗
(t) g
2
(t) dt
2
∞
−∞
≤ ∫ g
1
2
(t)
∞
−∞
dt ∫ g
2
(t)
2
∞
−∞
dt
If g
1
(t) =c g
2
(t) then equality holds otherwise ‘<’ holds
Raised Cosine pulses :
P(t) =
Sin(
πt
T
)
(
πt
T
)
.
Cos (
παt
T
)
1−4α
2
t T
2
P(f) =
⎩
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎧
T , f ≤
1−α
2T
T cos
2
�
πt
2α
�f −
1−α
2T
�� ;
1−α
2T
≤ f ≤
1+α
2T
0, f >
1+α
2T
• Bamdwidth of Raised cosine filter f
B
=
1+α
2T
⇒ Bit rate
1
T
=
2f
B
1+α
α → roll of factor
T → signal time period
→ For Binary PSK P
e
=Q �
2σ
� =Q ��
2
0
� =
1
2
erfc �
�
0
�.
→ 4 PSK P
e
=2Q ��
2
0
� �1 −
1
2
��
2
0
��
FSK:
For BPSK
P
e
=Q �
2
� =Q �
�
0
�=
1
2
erfc �
�
2
0
�
→ All signals have same energy (Const energy modulation )
→ Energy & min distance both can be kept constant while increasing no. of points . But Bandwidth
Compramised.
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Pg.No. 37 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) Communications Formula Sheet
→ PPM is called as Dual of FSK .
→ For DPSK P
e
=
1
2
e
−ε
b
/N
0
→ Orthogonal signals require factor of ‘2’ more energy to achieve same P
e
as anti podal signals
→ Orthogonal signals are 3 dB poorer than antipodal signals. The 3dB difference is due to distance b/w 2
points.
→ For non coherent FSK P
e
=
1
2
e
−ε
b
/N
0
→ FPSK & 4 QAM both have comparable performance .
→ 32 QAM has 7 dB advantage over 32 PSK.
• Bandwidth of Mary PSK =
2
T
s
=
2
T
blog
2
m
; S =
log
2
m
2
• Bandwidth of Mary FSK =
M
2T
s
=
M
2T
b
log
2
m
; S =
log
2
m
m
• Bandwidth efficiency S =
R
b
B.W
.
• Symbol time T
s
=T
b
log
2
m
• Band rate =
Bit rate
log
2
m
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Pg.No. 38 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) ElectroMagnetic Theory Formula Sheet
Electromagnetic Fields
Vector Calculus:
→ A. (B × C) =C. (A × B) =B. (C × A)
→ A×(B×C) = B(A.C) – C(A.B) → Bac – Cab rule
→ Scalar component of A along B is A
B
=A Cos θ
AB
=A . a
B
=
(A.B)
B
→ Vector component of A along B is A
�
B
=A Cos θ
AB
. a
B
=
(A.B) B
B
2
Laplacian of scalars :
• ∮A. ds =
∫(∇.)
→ Divergence theorem
• L
∮A.dI
=
∫(∇× )
→ Stokes theorem
• ∇
2
A =∇ (∇ .A)  ∇ × ∇ × A
• ∇ .A = 0 → solenoidal / Divergence loss ; ∇ .A > 0 → source ; ∇ .A < 0 ⇒ sink
• ∇ × A = 0 → irrotational / conservative/potential.
• ∇
2
A =0 → Harmonic .
Electrostatics :
• Force on charge ‘Q’ located @ r F =
Q
4πε
0
∑
Q
k
(r−r
k
)
r−r
k

3
N
k=1
; F
12
=
Q
1
Q
2
4πε
0
R
3
. R
�
12
• E @ point ‘r’ due to charge located @
′
�
=
1
4πε
0
∑
(r−r
k
)
r−r
k
3
N
K=1
Q
k
• E due to ∞ line charge @ distance ‘ ρ ‘ E =
ρ
L
2πε
0
ρ
. a
ρ
(depends on distance)
• E due to surface charge ρ
s
is E =
ρ
s
2ε
0
a
n
. a
n
→ unit normal to surface (independent of distance)
• For parallel plate capacitor @ point ‘P’ b/w 2 plates of 2 opposite charges is
E =
ρ
s
2ε
0
a
n
 �
ρ
s
2ε
0
� (−
)
• ‘E’ due to volume charge E =
Q
4πε
0
R
2
a
r
.
→ Electric flux density D =ε
0
E D → independent of medium
Flux Ψ = s
∫D .ds
Gauss Law :
→ Total flux coming out of any closed surface is equal to total charge enclosed by surface .
Ψ =Q
enclosed
⇒ ∫D . ds = Q
enclosed
=∫ρ
v
. dv
ρ
v
= ∇. D
→ Electric potential V
AB
=
w
Q
=  ∫ E. dI
B
A
(independent of path)
V
AB
= ∫
Q
4πε
0
r
2
B
A
a
r
. dr a
r
= V
B
 V
A
(for point charge )
• Potential @ any point (distance =r), where Q is located same where , whose position is vector @ r
′
V =
Q
4πε
0
r−r
′

→ V(r) =
Q
4πε
0
r
+C . [ if ‘C’ taken as ref potential ]
→ ∇ × E =0, E = ∇V
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Pg.No. 39 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) ElectroMagnetic Theory Formula Sheet
→ For monopole E ∝
1
r
2
; Dipole E ∝
1
r
3
.
V ∝
1
r
; V ∝
1
r
2
• Electric lines of force/ flux /direction of E always normal to equipotential lines .
• Energy Density W
E
=
1
2
∑ Q
k
V
k
N
k=1
=
1
2
∫D. E dv =
1
2
∫ε
0
E
2
dv
• Continuity Equation ∇.J =
∂ρ
v
∂t
.
• ρ
v
=ρ
v
0
e
−t/T
r
where T
r
=Relaxation / regeneration time = ε/σ (less for good conductor )
Boundary Conditions : E
t
1
=E
t
2
• Tangential component of ‘E’ are continuous across dielectricdielectric Boundary .
• Tangential Components of ‘D’ are dis continues across Boundary .
• E
t
1
=E
t
2
;
D
1t
D
2t
=ε
1
/ ε
2
.
• Normal components are of ‘D’ are continues , where as ‘E’ are dis continues.
• D
1n
 D
2n
=ρ
s
; E
1n
=
ε
2
ε
1
E
2n
;
tanθ
1
tanθ
2
=
ε
1
ε
2
=
ε
r1
ε
r2
• H
1t
=H
2t
B
12
=
µ
1
µ
2
B
2
t
B
1n
=B
2n
H
1n
=
µ
2
µ
1
H
2n
Maxwell’s Equations :
→ faraday law V
emf
=∮E. dI =
d
dt
∫B. ds
→ Transformer emf = ∮E. dI =  ∫
∂B
∂t
ds ⇒ ∇ × E =
∂B
∂t
s
→ Motional emf = ∇ × E
m
=∇ × (μ × B).
→ ∇ × H =J +
∂D
∂t
Electromagnetic wave propagation :
• ∇ × H = J +
̇
D =εE ∇
2
E =με
̈
∇ × E = 
̇
B =μH ∇
2
H =με
̈
∇. D = ρ
v
J = σE
∇.B = 0
•
E
y
H
z
=
E
z
H
y
=�μ/ε ; E.H =0 E ⊥ H in UPW
For loss less medium ∇
2
E  ρ
2
E =0 ρ =�jωμ(σ +jωϵ) =α +jβ.
α =ω �
µϵ
2
�
�
1 +�
σ
ωϵ
�
2
−1�
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Pg.No. 40 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) ElectroMagnetic Theory Formula Sheet
β = ω �
µϵ
2
�
�
1 +�
σ
ωϵ
�
2
+1�
• E(z, t) = E
0
e
−αz
cos(ωt – βz) ; H
0
=E
0
/ η .
• η = �
jωµ
σ+jωϵ
η  < θ
η
• η =
�µ/ε
�1+�
σ
ωϵ
�
2
�
1/4
tan 2θ
η
=σ/ωε.
• η=α +jβ α → attenuation constant → Neper /m .  N
p
 =20 log
10
=8.686 dB
• For loss less medium σ =0; α =0.
• β → phase shift/length ; μ =ω / β ; λ =2π/β .
•
J
s
J
d
=�
ωϵE
� =σ / ωϵ =tan θ → loss tanjent θ =2θ
η
• If tan θ is very small (σ <<ωϵ) → good (lossless) dielectric
• If tan θ is very large (σ >>ωϵ) → good conductor
• Complex permittivity ϵ
C
=ϵ �1 −
� =ε
′
 j ε
′′
.
• Tan θ =
ε
′′
ε
′
=
σ
ωϵ
.
Plane wave in loss less dielectric : ( σ ≈ 0)
• α =0 ; β =ω
√
μϵ ; ω =
1
√
µϵ
; λ = 2π/β ; η = �μ
r
/ε
r
∠0.
• E & H are in phase in lossless dielectric
Free space : (σ =0, μ =μ
0
, ε =ε
0
)
• α =0 , β =ω �μ
0
ε
0
; u =1/ �μ
0
ε
0
, λ = 2π/β ; η = �μ
0
/ε
0
< 0 = 120π ∠0
Here also E & H in phase .
Good Conductor :
σ >>ωϵ σ/ωϵ → ∞ ⇒ σ = ∞ ε = ε
0
; μ = μ
0
μ
r
• α =β =�πfμσ ; u =�2ω/μσ ; λ =2π / β ; η =�
Wµ
σ
∠45
0
• Skin depth δ = 1/α
• η =
1
σδ
√2 e
jπ/4
=
1+j
σδ
• Skin resistance R
s
=
1
σδ
= �
πfµ
σ
• R
ac
=
R
s
.l
w
• R
dc
=
l
σs
.
Poynting Vector :
• ∫ (E × H) ds =
∂
dt
∫
1
2
[ εE
2
+ μH
2
] dv – ∫σ E
2
dv
S v
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Pg.No. 41 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) ElectroMagnetic Theory Formula Sheet
• δ
ave
(z) =
1
2
E
0
2
η
e
−2αz
cos θ
η
a
z
• Total time avge power crossing given area P
avge
=∫P
ave
(s) ds
S
Direction of propagation : (
)
a
k
× a
E
=a
H
a
E
× a
H
=a
k
→ Both E & H are normal to direction of propagation
→ Means they form EM wave that has no E or H component along direction of propagation .
Reflection of plane wave :
(a) Normal incidence
Reflection coefficient Γ =
E
r0
E
i0
=
η
2
− η
1
η
2
+ η
1
T
xn
coefficient Τ =
E
t0
E
i0
=
2η
2
η
2
+ η
1
MediumI Dielectric , Medium2 Conductor :
>
:
Γ>0 , there is a standing wave in medium & T
xed
wave in medium ‘2’.
Max values of  E
1
 occurs
Z
max
=  nπ/β
1
=
−nλ
1
2
; n = 0, 1, 2….
Z
min
=
−(2n+1)π
2β
1
=
−(2n+1)λ
1
4
<
: E
1max
occurs @ β
1
Z
max
=
−(2n+1)π
2
⇒ Z
max
=
−(2n+1)π
2β
1
=
−(2n+1)λ
1
4
β
1
Z
min
= nπ ⇒ Z
min
=
−nπ
β
1
=
−nλ
1
2
H
1
min occurs when there is t
1
max
S =
E
1

max
E
1

min
=
H
1

max
H
1

min
=
1+Γ
1−Γ
;  Γ  =
s−1
s+1
Since Γ <1 ⇒ 1 ≤ δ ≤ ∞
Transmission Lines :
• Supports only TEM mode
• LC =με ; G/C =σ /ε .
•
d
2
V
s
dz
2
 r
2
V
s
=0 ;
d
2
I
s
dz
2
 r
2
I
s
=0
• Γ = �(R +jωL)(G +jωC) =α +jβ
• V(z, t) = V
0
+
e
−αz
cos (ωt βz) +V
0
−
e
αz
cos (ωt +βz)
• Z
0
=−
V
0
−
I
0
−
=
R+jωL
γ
=
γ
G+jωC
=�
R+jωL
G+jωC
Lossless Line : (R = 0 =G; σ = 0)
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Pg.No. 42 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) ElectroMagnetic Theory Formula Sheet
→ γ = α +jβ =jω√LC ; α = 0, β = w √LC ; λ = 1/ f √LC , u = 1/ √LC
Z
0
= �L/C
Distortion less :(R/L = G/C)
→ α = √RG ; β = ωL�
G
R
= ωC�
R
G
= ω √LC
→ Z
0
= �
R
G
= �
L
C
; λ = 1/f √LC ; u =
1
√LC
= V
p
; uz
0
= 1/C , u /z
0
= 1/L
i/p impedance :
Z
in
=Z
0
�
+ Z
0
tanhl
0
+ Z
L
tanhl
� for lossless line γ =jβ ⇒ tan hjβl =j tan βl
Z
in
=Z
0
�
+ Z
0
tanβl
0
+ Z
L
tanβl
�
• VSWR =Γ
L
=
Z
L
−Z
0
Z
L
+Z
0
• CSWR = Γ
L
• Transmission coefficient S =1 +Γ
• SWR =
V
max
V
min
=
I
max
I
min
=
1+ Γ
L

1−Γ
L

=
Z
L
Z
0
=
Z
0
Z
L
(Z
L
>Z
0
) (Z
L
<Z
0
)
• Z
in

max
=
V
max
I
min
=SZ
0
• Z
in

min
=
V
min
I
max
=Z
0
/S
Shorted line : Γ
L
=1 , S =∞ Z
in
=Z
sc
=jZ
0
tan βl
• Γ
L
=1 , S =∞ Z
in
=Z
sc
=j Z
0
tan βl.
• Z
in
may be inductive or capacitive based on length ‘0’
If l < λ / 4 → inductive (Z
in
+ve)
λ
4
<l <λ/2 → capacitive (Z
in
ve)
Open circuited line :
Z
in
=Z
oc
=jZ
0
cot βl
Γ
l
=1 s =∞ l <λ / 4 capacitive
λ
4
<l < λ/2 inductive
Z
sc
Z
oc
=Z
0
2
Matched line : (Z
L
=Z
0
)
Z
in
=Z
0
Γ =0 ; s =1
No reflection . Total wave T
xed
. So, max power transfer possible .
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Pg.No. 43 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) ElectroMagnetic Theory Formula Sheet
Behaviour of Transmission Line for Different lengths :
l =λ /4 →
=∞
=0
� → impedance inverter @ l =λ /4
l =λ /2 : Z
in
=Z
0
⇒
=0
=∞
� impedance reflector @ l =λ /2
Wave Guides :
TM modes : (H
z
= 0)
E
z
=E
0
sin �
�x sin �
� y e
−nz
h
2
=k
x
2
+k
y
2
∴ γ =
�
�
mπ
a
�
2
+�
nπ
b
�
2
−ω
2
με where k =ω
√
μϵ
m→ no. of half cycle variation in Xdirection
n→ no. of half cycle variation in Y direction .
Cut off frequency ω
C
=
1
√
µϵ
�
�
mπ
a
�
2
+�
nπ
b
�
2
γ =0; α =0 =β
• k
2
< �
mπ
a
�
2
+�
nπ
b
�
2
→ Evanscent mode ; γ =α ; β =0
• k
2
> �
mπ
a
�
2
+�
nπ
b
�
2
→ Propegation mode γ = jβ α = 0
β =
�
k
2
−�
mπ
a
�
2
−�
nπ
b
�
2
• f
c
=
u
p
′
2
�
�
m
a
�
2
+�
n
b
�
2
u
p
′
=phase velocity =
1
√
µϵ
is lossless dielectric medium
• λ
c
=u
′
/f
c
=
2
�(
m
a
)
2
+(
n
b
)
2
• β =β
′
�
1 −�
f
c
f
�
2
β
′
=ω/ W β
′
=phase constant in dielectric medium.
• u
p
=ω/β λ =2π/β =u
p
/f → phase velocity & wave length in side wave guide
• η
TM
=
E
x
H
y
=
E
y
H
x
=
β
ωϵ
=�
µ
ε
�
1 −�
f
c
f
�
2
η
TM
=η
′
�
1 −�
f
c
f
�
2
η
′
→ impedance of UPW in medium
TE Modes : (
= 0)
→ H
z
=H
0
cos �
� cos �
� e
−nz
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Pg.No. 44 of 45
Institute of Engineering Studies (IES,Bangalore) ElectroMagnetic Theory Formula Sheet
→ η
TE
=
wµ
β
= η
′
/
�
1 −�
f
c
f
�
2
→ η
TE
>η
TM
→ TE
10
Dominant mode
Antennas :
Hertzian Dipole : H
Φs
=
jI
0
β dl
4πr
sin θ e
−jβγ
E
θs
=ηH
Φs
Half wave Dipole :
H
ϕs
=
jI
0
e
−jβγ
cos�
π
2
cos θ�
2πγsinθ
; E
θs
=ηH
Φs
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Pg.No. 45 of 45
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