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The Respiratory

By Josue Mata and Anthony Haynes
What does the Respiratory
System do?
The respiratory system is involved in
the exchange of oxygen as well as the
removal of carbon dioxide from the

Humans and pigs: the introduction of oxygen into the
blood and the removal of carbon dioxide from the

Plants: plants first engage in photosynthesis to
capture CO2 and turn it to oxygen, then use
oxygen in order to convert energy within cells.
What tissues or organs does the
Respiratory system involve?
The most significant
components of respiration
involve: the lungs and
linked blood vessels, the
multiple airways, and
particular muscles for
breathing. (Human and Pig)

Lungs and Blood vessels: The lungs are
composed of multiple subunits: the bronchi split into
bronchioles which in turn end in alveoli. These
alveoli are encased in blood vessels known as
capillaries which are tethered to arteries and veins.

Airways: These airways are passages that allow for
oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange into and out
of the lungs. AIr first enters the body through the
mouth and or nose then travels down the trachea
into the chest cavity ultimately splitting into the

Muscles: Several muscles near the lungs help
engage breathing. The diaphragm is a band-like
muscle below the lungs that expands to allow
oxygen to enter and contracts to force carbon
dioxide out. The intercostal and abdominal muscles
also aid in breathing
Structures and Function
The descending order of parts in the respiratory
system play a key role in the mechanics of the
process of respiration.

Your airways allow for the oxygen to enter your body and then travel
to your lungs.

Upon reaching the lungs the bronchi begin to branch into the tubular
bronchioles which carry the gas to the alveoli; these alveoli,
which contain the new air are then in contact with capillaries that
transfer it to arteries.

The arteries distribute it into the blood which travels through the body,
finally enters the heart, then begins on its way again and therefore
the process.

Structures and Function in
Plants differ slightly from animals in the
way that they perform respiration, but
the main difference is the structures
that are involved.

Instead of lungs and the airways, plants use the stomata in
their leaves and their roots in order to monitor gas

On the cellular level the mitochondria, which consist of
phosphorylating (cytochrome) and non-phosphorylating
respiratory pathways, control the rate of respiration within
the organism.

In addition to performing respiration plants largely perform
photosynthesis. Those structures involved in
photosynthesis are the chloroplast. The chloroplast is
made of disc like thylakoids, which stack and form grana
within, and stroma lie in between.
A plethora of devices have been
invented in order to ease or
subside many issues that may be
associated with the respiratory

Portable Oxygen Tank: These tanks
allow for the transportation of condensed
oxygen to those with breathing difficulty.

Bronchial Thermoplasty: A catheter is
inserted into the lungs and a small degree of
heat is applied in order to reduce the smooth
muscle mass and therefore the pressure;
this aids in asthma relief.

Acoustic Therapy: Low frequency sound
waves are introduced to help dislodge any
blockages in the lungs to the point the victim
may cough them away.

Humans and Pigs

The respiratory system is in charge of
gas exchange, which is very critical to
homeostasis; the oxygen that is taken
enables the reaction that provides
power to the cell, CO2 is a bi-product
that is discarded to avoid problems.

The Ph of the body is also dependant on
respiration; the acidity is determined
by the concentration of carbon dioxide
in the blood, when respiration occurs
this concentration remains under
stable conditions.


The respiratory system plays a similar
role in plants, although it coincides
with photosynthesis; respiration is
used to fuel cellular processes
culminating in ATP for activity.

Photosynthesis operates on parallel
terms, as it absorbs carbon dioxide it
also captures energy from the sun;
these two cycles fuel each other.
Respiration and